Reference : From exclusion and segregation to inclusion? Dis/ability-based inequalities in the ed...
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Social & behavioral sciences, psychology : Sociology & social sciences
Social & behavioral sciences, psychology : Education & instruction
Educational Sciences
From exclusion and segregation to inclusion? Dis/ability-based inequalities in the education systems of Germany and Nigeria
Biermann, Julia [Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin]
Powell, Justin J W mailto [University of Luxembourg > Faculty of Language and Literature, Humanities, Arts and Education (FLSHASE) > Education, Culture, Cognition and Society (ECCS) >]
Education Systems and Inequalities: International Comparisons
Hadjar, Andreas mailto
Gross, Christiane
Policy Press
[en] education ; system ; inequality ; special education ; inclusive education ; Nigeria ; Germany ; institution ; organization
[en] While many groups have historically been marginalised in education systems, few groups have faced the same extent of exclusion and discrimination within formal education systems as the diverse group of pupils with disabilities, learning difficulties or disadvantages. These children and youth have been largely excluded from, segregated or separated within formal education systems, resulting in persistent inequalities in learning opportunities and in (lifelong) disablement and reduced life chances (Powell, 2011). A range of special education settings has been institutionalised, providing additional or specialised support to help these groups of learners to address their ‘special needs’. Most often, such support and services were and continue to be provided in segregated or separated formal settings, such as special schools or classrooms. Special education has provided learning opportunities to groups of children and youth previously excluded outright from schooling, but globally the goal has shifted from special to inclusive education, due to the benefits it brings in fostering individual learning and democracy (for example, Allan, 2008). For all countries, whether in Africa, the Americas, Asia, Australia or Europe, this remains a challenge. Even the most egalitarian education systems, which have done the most to overcome outright exclusion from schooling have yet to succeed fully in schooling all children in diverse classrooms (see Richardson and Powell, 2011 for a global analysis; see also Biermann and Powell, 2014, comparing Germany, Iceland and Norway).
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