Document Types

ORBilu centralises, preserves and disseminates the intellectual production of the University of Luxembourg. It is organised around a two-level typology (or document type), with a set of metadata adapted to the type of document described.

Scientific periodicals


The result of an academic work published in a scientific periodical generally peer-reviewed or at least submitted for proof reading to a committee of experts in the domain.

Short communication

An original scientific article that briefly summarises a more complete or in-process research work. Can also be included in this typology: clarifications or short summaries in relation to a theme which have the characteristics of an article in terms of scientific quality.

Book review

A text whose goal is to present or analyse a work or works by a specialist in the domain.

Letter to the editor

Letter addressed to an editor in reaction to an article he/she has published. This type of document is most commonly found in the STM domain (Scientific/Technical/Medical).

Complete issue

Entire issue/special supplement of a scientific periodical dedicated to a specific subject (theme, event, etc.).

In this case, the ORBilu submitter exercises the function of publication director or scientific editor for the entire issue.


Category reserved for texts published in scientific periodicals that do not fall into one of the categories above. Examples: an editorial, an erratum, an introduction to a special supplement/issue of a periodical, etc. Clarifications on the content can be entered in the "Comments" field of the ORBilu submission form.


Book published as author, translator, etc.

A publication (book) that treats, in a complete, detailed and scientific manner, a theme, person or subject. In most cases, the publication has a unique, international and normalised identification number: an ISBN (International Standard Book Number).

The publication can be in one or multiple volumes with a single publication date or following a publication plan defined in advance for a limited duration.
The evaluation process of works can be variable (review committee, etc.) but generally does not correspond to standard peer review process.

Here, the ORBilu submitter exercises the function of author, co-author, translator, etc. for the entire document, possibly with other co-authors. In this case, the specific responsibility of each of the authors cannot be clearly identified. Therefore, each author assumes the collegial responsibility of the work.

Collective work published as editor or director

Published works having the same characteristics as above ("Book published as author, translator, etc.") but for which the ORBilu submitter is the scientific editor or publication director. In this case, he/she has written only small parts of the work. The authors of the different parts are clearly identified.

Parts of books

Contribution to collective works

Part or chapter of a work corresponding to the author's individual contribution, most often under the coordination of a scientific editor or a publication director.

Contribution to encyclopedias, dictionaries, etc.

Article published in an encyclopedia, dictionary, etc.

Preface, postface, glossary, etc.

Short components to a work including preliminary parts (preface, editorial, etc.) or the contents following the principal text (postface, glossary, etc.) and insofar as they present a certain scientific interest.

Scientific congresses, symposiums and conference proceedings

Unpublished conference/Abstract

Oral paper or presentation given during a symposium or scientific conference.

If the completepaper has since been published, it should ONLY be entered in this category if the published version differs sufficiently from the unpublished version to be considered a distinct work (for example: in certain cases in the social sciences where the published version can be a genuine, in-depth re-writing of the paper including supplementary and/or subsequent elements). If only the abstract has been published, it should be entered in this category.

Paper published in a book

Paper or presentation given during a symposium or scientific conference published as part of a larger work.

Paper published in a journal

Paper or presentation given during a symposium or scientific conference published as an article in a scientific periodical.


Paper or presentation given during a symposium or scientific conference published as a poster.

Paper published on a website
  • Paper or presentation given during a symposium or scientific conference, but only published on a website (not in an ejournal nor an ebook)

Scientific conferences in universities or research centers

Conference papers of a scientific nature written outside of any conferences or symposiums but in the framework of a university or a research centre.

These papers address a specialised audience (researchers, experts, etc.) and not the general public. As a general rule, this type of paper is written by invitation and for a single event (or as a major part of an event), contrary to conferences and symposiums which are characterised by a set of papers given around a particular theme or themes.


Expert report

Document written by an expert or a group of experts coming from a specific branch of activities and at the request of a corporate body or aprivate individual for evaluation, audit or consulting purposes, principally used by both parties.

It is only in certain disciplines that this type of publication is considered to be a scientific publication (engineering, etc.). However, in general, expert's reports written, for example, by doctors or psychologists about individual cases are not taken into account, principally, for ethical reasons but also, because in the sector, they are not considered to be a scientific output as such.

Internal report

Document written for a corporate body or aprivate individual reporting on the results of scientific research.

Its "internal" character signifies that the distribution of the initial document is only the researcher, his/her team and the sponsor.

In certain sectors, researchers consider that this type of report represents an important part of their scientific activity and that it deserves to be more widely known.

External report

Document written for a corporate body or a private individual reporting on the results of scientific research.

Its "external" character signifies that the document was initially foreseen to have a distribution larger than an internal research report.


Dissertation and theses

Specialised master
Bachelor/master dissertation
Doctoral thesis
Post doctoral thesis & other thesis

University research work defended in front of a jury to obtain a diploma or university grade.

Learning materials

Course notes

Support documents written for a course, training, etc.

They could be presentations in various formats (PowerPoint, video, etc.) but also text documents that the author does not consider to be course notes.


No sub-type

A patent corresponds to a protected invention. The patent holder has the legal title permitting him/her to forbid others, during a certain period of time and in a specific territory, to make, use or commercialise his/her invention without his/her authorisation. By definition, this type of document can only be deposited in the institutional repository after the official date of application.

Cartographic materials

Single work

Conventional representation, at any scale and in any format, of abstract or concrete phenomena that can be located in space and time. Here, the cartographic document consists of a single entity.

Examples: map, orthophotoplan, etc.

Part of another publication

Cartographic document responding to the definition above but published as an accompaniment to another document or work.

This distinction is justified only by the fact that the metadata is not the same since, in the case of a cartographic document contained within another publication, the metadata linked to the publication must be indicated.

Computer developments

Textual, factual or bibliographic databases
  • Factual databases: Databases grouping together established and certified raw dataconcerning a domain such as chemistry, physics, medicine, etc.

A factual database can integrate non-factualdata suchas graphics, schemas, etc.

  • Textual databases: Databases in which full or partial texts are stored, most of the time unstructured, but linked in such a manner that a search request is performed on the item as a whole. This type of document often concerns the social sciences.

Examples: An introduction to Hamlet; Projet Ramsès

  • Bibliographic database: database of bibliographic references describing in detail the publications selected according to the fields covered by the database.

Group of programmes designed to perform a particular task on a computer.


E-Prints, Working papers and Research blogs

Scientific or technical working document available only in electronic format and unpublished according to the traditional publishing circuit.

  • In this case, it may not have been subject to a standard form of peer-review.
  • In the case of working papers, such as can be found in economics, they can concern working papers which often evolve and that regularly offer additional value even after publication because they contain more information or a more refined argument from the author.
  • The research blogs are an evolution of the paper notebook of the researcher, a kind of “work in progress”  allowing to report on the evolution of the research and to make visible more private elements such as data collection, the questioning of the researcher… (source:

Diverses speeches and writings

Articles, communications, speeches, etc. which are not part of a scientific goal (for example: academic welcome speech, etc.) or which target a general audience, possibly specialised (for example: professionals of a particular domain) but who are not part of the academic community nor researchers.

Article for a general audience

Example: article in a periodical with a local or professional public. Note: only articles for which the author is the actual research should be taken into consideration. Articles written by journalists, interviews, etc., are not part of the author's publications.

Conference given outside the academic context
Communication in media
Book for a general audience

Popularization book for the general public



Contact ORBilu