Reference : European fitness landscape for children and adolescents: updated reference values, fi...
Scientific journals : Article
Human health sciences : Multidisciplinary, general & others
European fitness landscape for children and adolescents: updated reference values, fitness maps and country rankings based on nearly 8 million test results from 34 countries gathered by the FitBack network
Ortega, Francisco []
Leskosek, Bojan []
Blagus, Rok []
Gil-Cosano, José []
Mäestu, Jarek []
Tomkinson, Grant []
Ruiz, Jonatan []
Mäestu, Evelin []
Starc, Gregor []
Milanovic, Ivana []
Tammelin, Tuija []
Soric, Maroje []
Scheuer, Claude mailto [University of Luxembourg > Faculty of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences (FHSE) > Department of Education and Social Work (DESW) >]
Carraro, Attilio []
Kaj, Monika []
Csanyi, Tamas []
Sardinha, Luis []
Lenoir, Matthieu []
Emeljanovas, Arunas []
Mieziene, Brigita []
Sidossis, Labros []
Pihu, Maret []
Lovecchio, Nicola []
Konstabel, Kenn []
Tambalis, Konstantinos []
Stefan, Lovro []
Drenowatz, Clemens []
Rubin, Lukas []
Gontarev, Seryozha []
Castro-Pinero, José []
Vanhelst, Jérémy []
O'Keeffe, Brendan []
Veiga, Oscar []
Gisladottir, Thordis []
Sandercock, Gavin []
Misigoj-Durakovic, Marjeta []
Niessner, Claudia []
Riso, Eva-Maria []
Popovic, Stevo []
Kuu, Saima []
Chinapaw, Mai []
Clavel, Ivan []
Labayen, Idoia []
Dobosz, Janusz []
Colella, Dario []
Kriemler, Susi []
Salaj, Sanja []
Noriega, Maria Jose []
Bös, Klaus []
Sanchez-Lopez, Mairena []
Lakka, Timo []
Tabacchi, Garden []
Novak, Dario []
Ahrens, Wolfgang []
Wedderkopp, Niels []
Jurak, Gregor []
FitBack consortium []
HELENA consortium []
IDEFICS consortium []
British Journal of Sports Medicine
BMJ Publishing Group
United Kingdom
[en] Objectives (1) To develop reference values for health-related fitness in European children and adolescents aged 6–18 years that are the foundation for the web-based, open-access and multilanguage fitness platform (FitBack); (2) to provide comparisons across European countries.
Methods This study builds on a previous large fitness reference study in European youth by (1) widening the age demographic, (2) identifying the most recent and representative country-level
data and (3) including national data from existing fitness surveillance and monitoring systems. We used the Assessing Levels of Physical Activity and fitness at population level (ALPHA) test battery as it comprises tests with the highest test–retest reliability, criterion/construct validity
and health-related predictive validity: the 20 m shuttle run (cardiorespiratory fitness); handgrip strength and standing long jump (muscular strength); and body height, body mass, body mass index and waist circumference (anthropometry). Percentile values were obtained using the generalised additive models for location, scale and shape method.
Results A total of 7 966 693 test results from 34 countries (106 datasets) were used to develop sex-specific and age-specific percentile values. In addition, country-level rankings based on mean percentiles are provided for each fitness test, as well as an overall fitness ranking. Finally, an interactive fitness platform, including individual and group reporting and European fitness maps, is provided and freely available online (

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