Reference : Glacier-fed stream biofilms harbour diverse resistomes and biosynthetic gene clusters...
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Life sciences : Microbiology
Glacier-fed stream biofilms harbour diverse resistomes and biosynthetic gene clusters 2021.11.18.469141
Busi, Susheel Bhanu mailto [University of Luxembourg > Luxembourg Centre for Systems Biomedicine (LCSB) > Systems Ecology]
de Nies, Laura mailto [University of Luxembourg > Luxembourg Centre for Systems Biomedicine (LCSB) > Systems Ecology]
Pramateftaki, Paraskevi [> >]
Bourquin, Massimo [> >]
Ezzat, Le Ila [> >]
Kohler, Tyler J. [> >]
Fodelianakis, Stilianos [> >]
Michoud, Grégoire [> >]
Peter, Hannes [> >]
Styllas, Michail [> >]
Tolosano, Matteo [> >]
De Staercke, Vincent [> >]
Schön, Martina [> >]
Galata, Valentina mailto [University of Luxembourg > Luxembourg Centre for Systems Biomedicine (LCSB) > Systems Ecology]
Wilmes, Paul mailto [University of Luxembourg > Luxembourg Centre for Systems Biomedicine (LCSB) > Systems Ecology]
Battin, Tom [> >]
Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
[en] Background Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a universal phenomenon whose origins lay in natural ecological interactions such as competition within niches, within and between micro- to higher-order organisms. However, the ecological and evolutionary processes shaping AMR need to be better understood in view of better antimicrobial stewardship. Resolving antibiotic biosynthetic pathways, including biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs), and corresponding antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) may therefore help in understanding the inherent mechanisms. However, to study these phenomena, it is crucial to examine the origins of AMR in pristine environments with limited anthropogenic influences. In this context, epilithic biofilms residing in glacier-fed streams (GFSs) are an excellent model system to study diverse, intra- and inter-domain, ecological crosstalk.Results We assessed the resistomes of epilithic biofilms from GFSs across the Southern Alps (New Zealand) and the Caucasus (Russia) and observed that both bacteria and eukaryotes encoded twenty-nine distinct AMR categories. Of these, beta-lactam, aminoglycoside, and multidrug resistance were both abundant and taxonomically distributed in most of the bacterial and eukaryotic phyla. AMR-encoding phyla included Bacteroidota and Proteobacteria among the bacteria, alongside Ochrophyta (algae) among the eukaryotes. Additionally, BGCs involved in the production of antibacterial compounds were identified across all phyla in the epilithic biofilms. Furthermore, we found that several bacterial genera (Flavobacterium, Polaromonas, etc.) including representatives of the superphylum Patescibacteria encode both ARGs and BGCs within close proximity of each other, thereby demonstrating their capacity to simultaneously influence and compete within the microbial community.Conclusions Our findings highlight the presence and abundance of AMR in epilithic biofilms within GFSs. Additionally, we identify their role in the complex intra- and inter-domain competition and the underlying mechanisms influencing microbial survival in GFS epilithic biofilms. We demonstrate that eukaryotes may serve as AMR reservoirs owing to their potential for encoding ARGs. We also find that the taxonomic affiliation of the AMR and the BGCs are congruent. Importantly, our findings allow for understanding how naturally occurring BGCs and AMR contribute to the epilithic biofilms mode of life in GFSs. Importantly, these observations may be generalizable and potentially extended to other environments which may be more or less impacted by human activity.Competing Interest StatementThe authors have declared no competing interest.AMRAntimicrobial resistanceARGsAntimicrobial resistance gene(s)BGCBiosynthetic gene clustersCACaucasusCPRCandidate Phyla radiationGFSsGlacier-fed stream(s)GLGlacierIRS-RSisoleucyl-tRNA synthetase - high resistanceIMPIntegrate Meta-Omics PipelineKEGGKyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and GenomesMAGsMetagenome-assembled genome(s)NRPSNon-ribosomal peptide synthetasesPKSPolyketide synthases (type I and type II)RiPPsPost-translationally modified peptide(s)SASouthern Alps
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