[en] Among the predictors of reading, rapid automatized naming (RAN) and phonological awareness (PA) are the best predictors. The predictive effect of these abilities is different, and they predict different aspects of reading, being dependent on the orthographic regularity of the language as well as the student’s level or grade in school. The double deficit theory describes these two components as impaired in people with dyslexia and reading disabilities. Longitudinal studies that analyze cognitive processes supporting the development of reading and literacy are important for understanding processes in good readers as well as will help mitigate the effects of dyslexia and reading disability.
The present thesis pursues two major aims. The first aim is to analyze the structure of RAN and predictive effect of RAN and PA skills on reading and writing tasks in Brazilian Portuguese in two studies. Study 1 sought to investigate the structure of RAN tests for Brazilian Portuguese throughout its development according to age. The results were important in determining the bidimensional model (alphanumeric and non-alphanumeric) throughout development of age and development of literacy. In addition, the results showed that the period between kindergarten and elementary school may show greater development of RAN skills in conjunction with literacy learning. In Study 2, we sought to investigate the predictive effect of PA and RAN on the development of reading and writing ability in Brazilian Portuguese. The results showed that RAN ability was a better predictor than PA of reading and writing skills for Brazilian Portuguese in relation to reading and writing speed. In addition, the type of stimulus of RAN influenced the predictive effect. Alphanumeric RAN better predicts reading, while non-alphanumeric stimuli predict writing.
The second aim of this study is to compare the performance of children and adolescents with and without developmental dyslexia in RAN, PA, and reading tests and to verify the predictive effect of RAN in participants with dyslexia. Study 3 showed that the cognitive profile of dyslexic children was compatible with a single deficit in RAN according to double deficit theory. Impairment has only been found in RAN ability as well as in processes such as visual attention, which is an underlying process of RAN skills. Therefore, despite the importance of PA for the development of reading and writing, both in good readers and in those with reading impairments, RAN ability proved to be a good predictor for both groups in Brazilian Portuguese.
Social & behavioral sciences, psychology: Multidisciplinary, general & others