Adult Stem Cells/cytology/metabolism; Animals; Bone Marrow Cells/cytology/metabolism; Callithrix; Gene Expression; Genetic Vectors; Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/cytology/metabolism; Lentivirus; Transcription Factors/biosynthesis/genetics; Transduction, Genetic
[en] Regenerative medicine is in need of solid, large animal models as a link between rodents and humans to evaluate the functionality, immunogenicity, and clinical safety of stem cell-derived cell types. The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is an excellent large animal model, genetically close to humans and readily used worldwide in clinical research. Until now, only two groups showed the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from the common marmoset using integrating retroviral vectors. Therefore, we reprogrammed bone marrow-derived mesenchymal cells (MSCs) of adult marmosets in the presence of TAV, SB431542, PD0325901, and ascorbic acid via a novel, excisable lentiviral spleen focus-forming virus (SFFV)-driven quad-cistronic vector system (OCT3/4, KLF4, SOX2, C-MYC). Endogenous pluripotency markers like OCT3/4, KLF4, SOX2, C-MYC, LIN28, NANOG, and strong alkaline phosphatase signals were detected. Exogenous genes were silenced and additionally the cassette was removed with a retroviral Gag precursor system. The cell line could be cultured in absence of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and could be successfully differentiated into embryoid bodies and teratomas with presence of all three germ layers. Directed differentiation generated neural progenitors, megakaryocytes, adipocytes, chondrocytes, and osteogenic cells. Thus, all criteria for fully reprogrammed bone marrow-MSCs of a nonhuman primate with a genetically sophisticated construct could be demonstrated. These cells will be a promising tool for future autologous transplantations.