Reference : Optimum structure and equity in a city with local traffic-induced air pollution
Scientific congresses, symposiums and conference proceedings : Unpublished conference
Social & behavioral sciences, psychology : Human geography & demography
Optimum structure and equity in a city with local traffic-induced air pollution
Schindler, Mirjam mailto [University of Luxembourg > Faculty of Language and Literature, Humanities, Arts and Education (FLSHASE) > Identités, Politiques, Sociétés, Espaces (IPSE) >]
62nd Annual North American Meeting for the Regional Science Association International (NARSC 2015)
from 11-11-2015 to 14-11-2015
Portland, Oregon
[en] residential choice ; urban economics ; traffic-induced air pollution ; equity ; urban structure
[en] Traffic-induced air pollution causes environmental and health concerns, which affect households differently depending on where they live within the city and in turn influence residential choices. Contrasting spatial implications of environmental consciousness and valuation of local air quality as residential preferences, raises questions of equity in terms of evaluating responsibility for and exposure to air pollution within the city.

With an analytical urban economics model, we aim at investigating the effects of households' perception of local air quality and different policies on the two-way interactions between the location of households and the distribution of pollution and, thus, on intra-urban equity.

This work contributes to theoretical research by extending the standard urban economics model with endogenous local pollution externalities arising from passing traffic. A closed city equilibrium is solved analytically and comparative statics serve as impact analysis of various policies on intra-urban structure and equity. Further, first-best and second-best optimum city structures are defined and analysed with regard to distance-related equity concerns and their impact on the tension between environmental and health concerns due to air pollution from traffic.

The different regimes are more beneficial in either reducing the generation of emissions or reducing the level of exposure across locations. Optimum structures improve equity across the city due to concentration of density in central and outer locations. Findings suggest that a cordon toll may approximate first-best structures well and be preferable over an urban growth boundary, since the latter fails to concentrate densification on central locations, as advised by the first-best.
Residential preferences as well as regional and urban framework conditions play key roles in seeking optimum densities with respect to environmental, health and equity concerns of air pollution.

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