Reference : Means or outcomes? Goal orientation predicts process and outcome focus
Scientific journals : Article
Social & behavioral sciences, psychology : Neurosciences & behavior
Means or outcomes? Goal orientation predicts process and outcome focus
Mustafic, Maida mailto [University of Luxembourg > Faculty of Language and Literature, Humanities, Arts and Education (FLSHASE) > Education, Culture, Cognition and Society (ECCS) >]
Freund, Alexandra M []
European Journal of Developmental Psychology
Psychology Press (UK)
Yes (verified by ORBilu)
[en] Goal orientation ; Goal focus ; Motivation
[en] Previous research has demonstrated that the representation of goals primarily in terms of means (process focus) compared to outcomes of goal pursuit (outcome focus) increases across the lifespan. Nothing is known, however, about the processes underlying this age-related difference. The current study investigates age-related differences in growth and maintenance orientation as one of the factors contributing to age-related differences in goal focus. A self-report study (N¼123, 18 to 82 years, M¼48.59) presents first evidence that process focus is predicted by maintenance goal orientation, whereas outcome focus is predicted by growth goal orientation. Moreover, maintenance goal orientation mediates the positive association of age and process focus. Results are discussed taking a functional perspective of the role of goal orientation in age-related differences in goal focus.

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