Article (Scientific journals)
Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy.
Klionsky, Daniel J.; Abdalla, Fabio C.; Abeliovich, Hagai et al.
2012In Autophagy, 8 (4), p. 445-544
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Keywords :
Animals; Autophagy/genetics; Biological Assay/methods; Humans; Models, Biological
Abstract :
[en] In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process vs. those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process); thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from stimuli that result in increased autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular autophagy assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.
Research center :
- Luxembourg Centre for Systems Biomedicine (LCSB): Clinical & Experimental Neuroscience (Krüger Group)
Disciplines :
Genetics & genetic processes
Author, co-author :
Klionsky, Daniel J.
Abdalla, Fabio C.
Abeliovich, Hagai
Abraham, Robert T.
Acevedo-Arozena, Abraham
Adeli, Khosrow
Agholme, Lotta
Agnello, Maria
Agostinis, Patrizia
Aguirre-Ghiso, Julio A.
Ahn, Hyung Jun
Ait-Mohamed, Ouardia
Ait-Si-Ali, Slimane
Akematsu, Takahiko
Akira, Shizuo
Al-Younes, Hesham M.
Al-Zeer, Munir A.
Albert, Matthew L.
Albin, Roger L.
Alegre-Abarrategui, Javier
Aleo, Maria Francesca
Alirezaei, Mehrdad
Almasan, Alexandru
Almonte-Becerril, Maylin
Amano, Atsuo
Amaravadi, Ravi
Amarnath, Shoba
Amer, Amal O.
Andrieu-Abadie, Nathalie
Anantharam, Vellareddy
Ann, David K.
Anoopkumar-Dukie, Shailendra
Aoki, Hiroshi
Apostolova, Nadezda
Arancia, Giuseppe
Aris, John P.
Asanuma, Katsuhiko
Asare, Nana Y. O.
Ashida, Hisashi
Askanas, Valerie
Askew, David S.
Auberger, Patrick
Baba, Misuzu
Backues, Steven K.
Baehrecke, Eric H.
Bahr, Ben A.
Bai, Xue-Yuan
Bailly, Yannick
Baiocchi, Robert
Baldini, Giulia
Balduini, Walter
Ballabio, Andrea
Bamber, Bruce A.
Bampton, Edward T. W.
Banhegyi, Gabor
Bartholomew, Clinton R.
Bassham, Diane C.
Bast, Robert C. Jr
Batoko, Henri
Bay, Boon-Huat
Beau, Isabelle
Bechet, Daniel M.
Begley, Thomas J.
Behl, Christian
Behrends, Christian
Bekri, Soumeya
Bellaire, Bryan
Bendall, Linda J.
Benetti, Luca
Berliocchi, Laura
Bernardi, Henri
Bernassola, Francesca
Besteiro, Sebastien
Bhatia-Kissova, Ingrid
Bi, Xiaoning
Biard-Piechaczyk, Martine
Blum, Janice S.
Boise, Lawrence H.
Bonaldo, Paolo
Boone, David L.
Bornhauser, Beat C.
Bortoluci, Karina R.
Bossis, Ioannis
Bost, Frederic
Bourquin, Jean-Pierre
Boya, Patricia
Boyer-Guittaut, Michael
Bozhkov, Peter V.
Brady, Nathan R.
Brancolini, Claudio
Brech, Andreas
Brenman, Jay E.
Brennand, Ana
Bresnick, Emery H.
Brest, Patrick
Bridges, Dave
Bristol, Molly L.
Brookes, Paul S.
Brown, Eric J.
Brumell, John H.
Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola
Brunk, Ulf T.
Bulman, Dennis E.
Bultman, Scott J.
Bultynck, Geert
Burbulla, Lena F.
Bursch, Wilfried
Butchar, Jonathan P.
Buzgariu, Wanda
Bydlowski, Sergio P.
Cadwell, Ken
Cahova, Monika
Cai, Dongsheng
Cai, Jiyang
Cai, Qian
Calabretta, Bruno
Calvo-Garrido, Javier
Camougrand, Nadine
Campanella, Michelangelo
Campos-Salinas, Jenny
Candi, Eleonora
Cao, Lizhi
Caplan, Allan B.
Carding, Simon R.
Cardoso, Sandra M.
Carew, Jennifer S.
Carlin, Cathleen R.
Carmignac, Virginie
Carneiro, Leticia A. M.
Carra, Serena
Caruso, Rosario A.
Casari, Giorgio
Casas, Caty
Castino, Roberta
Cebollero, Eduardo
Cecconi, Francesco
Celli, Jean
Chaachouay, Hassan
Chae, Han-Jung
Chai, Chee-Yin
Chan, David C.
Chan, Edmond Y.
Chang, Raymond Chuen-Chung
Che, Chi-Ming
Chen, Ching-Chow
Chen, Guang-Chao
Chen, Guo-Qiang
Chen, Min
Chen, Quan
Chen, Steve S.-L.
Chen, Wenli
Chen, Xiangmei
Chen, Xiequn
Chen, Ye-Guang
Chen, Yingyu
Chen, Yongqiang
Chen, Yu-Jen
Chen, Zhixiang
Cheng, Alan
Cheng, Christopher H. K.
Cheng, Yan
Cheong, Heesun
Cheong, Jae-Ho
Cherry, Sara
Chess-Williams, Russ
Cheung, Zelda H.
Chevet, Eric
Chiang, Hui-Ling
Chiarelli, Roberto
Chiba, Tomoki
Chin, Lih-Shen
Chiou, Shih-Hwa
Chisari, Francis V.
Cho, Chi Hin
Cho, Dong-Hyung
Choi, Augustine M. K.
Choi, Dooseok
Choi, Kyeong Sook
Choi, Mary E.
Chouaib, Salem
Choubey, Divaker
Choubey, Vinay
Chu, Charleen T.
Chuang, Tsung-Hsien
Chueh, Sheau-Huei
Chun, Taehoon
Chwae, Yong-Joon
Chye, Mee-Len
Ciarcia, Roberto
Ciriolo, Maria R.
Clague, Michael J.
Clark, Robert S. B.
Clarke, Peter G. H.
Clarke, Robert
Codogno, Patrice
Coller, Hilary A.
Colombo, Maria I.
Comincini, Sergio
Condello, Maria
Condorelli, Fabrizio
Cookson, Mark R.
Coombs, Graham H.
Coppens, Isabelle
Corbalan, Ramon
Cossart, Pascale
Costelli, Paola
Costes, Safia
Coto-Montes, Ana
Couve, Eduardo
Coxon, Fraser P.
Cregg, James M.
Crespo, Jose L.
Cronje, Marianne J.
Cuervo, Ana Maria
Cullen, Joseph J.
Czaja, Mark J.
D'Amelio, Marcello
Darfeuille-Michaud, Arlette
Davids, Lester M.
Davies, Faith E.
De Felici, Massimo
de Groot, John F.
de Haan, Cornelis A. M.
De Martino, Luisa
De Milito, Angelo
De Tata, Vincenzo
Debnath, Jayanta
Degterev, Alexei
Dehay, Benjamin
Delbridge, Lea M. D.
Demarchi, Francesca
Deng, Yi Zhen
Dengjel, Jorn
Dent, Paul
Denton, Donna
Deretic, Vojo
Desai, Shyamal D.
Devenish, Rodney J.
Di Gioacchino, Mario
Di Paolo, Gilbert
Di Pietro, Chiara
Diaz-Araya, Guillermo
Diaz-Laviada, Ines
Diaz-Meco, Maria T.
Diaz-Nido, Javier
Dikic, Ivan
Dinesh-Kumar, Savithramma P.
Ding, Wen-Xing
Distelhorst, Clark W.
Diwan, Abhinav
Djavaheri-Mergny, Mojgan
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Dong, Zheng
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Doxsey, Stephen
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Dugail, Isabelle
Durbeej, Madeleine
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Eichinger, Ludwig
Eissa, N. Tony
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Elazar, Zvulun
Elgendy, Mohamed
Ellerby, Lisa M.
Eng, Kai Er
Engelbrecht, Anna-Mart
Engelender, Simone
Erenpreisa, Jekaterina
Escalante, Ricardo
Esclatine, Audrey
Eskelinen, Eeva-Liisa
Espert, Lucile
Espina, Virginia
Fan, Huizhou
Fan, Jia
Fan, Qi-Wen
Fan, Zhen
Fang, Shengyun
Fang, Yongqi
Fanto, Manolis
Fanzani, Alessandro
Farkas, Thomas
Farre, Jean-Claude
Faure, Mathias
Fechheimer, Marcus
Feng, Carl G.
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Figueiredo-Pereira, Maria E.
Fimia, Gian Maria
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Finkbeiner, Steven
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Fisher, Edward A.
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Flajolet, Marc
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Fowler, Daniel H.
Fox, Howard S.
Franco, Rodrigo
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Fransen, Marc
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Fueyo, Juan
Fujii, Jun
Fujisaki, Kozo
Fujita, Eriko
Fukuda, Mitsunori
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Gaestel, Matthias
Gailly, Philippe
Gajewska, Malgorzata
Galliot, Brigitte
Galy, Vincent
Ganesh, Subramaniam
Ganetzky, Barry
Ganley, Ian G.
Gao, Fen-Biao
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Garcia, Lorena
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Garcia-Marcos, Mikel
Garmyn, Marjan
Gartel, Andrei L.
Gatti, Evelina
Gautel, Mathias
Gawriluk, Thomas R.
Gegg, Matthew E.
Geng, Jiefei
Germain, Marc
Gestwicki, Jason E.
Gewirtz, David A.
Ghavami, Saeid
Ghosh, Pradipta
Giammarioli, Anna M.
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Ginger, Michael L.
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Gomez-Manzano, Candelaria
Goncu, Ebru
Gongora, Celine
Gonzalez, Claudio D.
Gonzalez, Ramon
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Gonzalez-Rey, Elena
Gorbunov, Nikolai V.
Gorski, Sharon
Goruppi, Sandro
Gottlieb, Roberta A.
Gozuacik, Devrim
Granato, Giovanna Elvira
Grant, Gary D.
Green, Kim N.
Gregorc, Ales
Gros, Frederic
Grose, Charles
Grunt, Thomas W.
Gual, Philippe
Guan, Jun-Lin
Guan, Kun-Liang
Guichard, Sylvie M.
Gukovskaya, Anna S.
Gukovsky, Ilya
Gunst, Jan
Gustafsson, Asa B.
Halayko, Andrew J.
Hale, Amber N.
Halonen, Sandra K.
Hamasaki, Maho
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Han, Ting
Hancock, Michael K.
Hansen, Malene
Harada, Hisashi
Harada, Masaru
Hardt, Stefan E.
Harper, J. Wade
Harris, Adrian L.
Harris, James
Harris, Steven D.
Hashimoto, Makoto
Haspel, Jeffrey A.
Hayashi, Shin-Ichiro
Hazelhurst, Lori A.
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He, You-Wen
Hebert, Marie-Josee
Heidenreich, Kim A.
Helfrich, Miep H.
Helgason, Gudmundur V.
Henske, Elizabeth P.
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Herman, Paul K.
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Hilfiker, Sabine
Hill, Joseph A.
Hocking, Lynne J.
Hofman, Paul
Hofmann, Thomas G.
Hohfeld, Jorg
Holyoake, Tessa L.
Hong, Ming-Huang
Hood, David A.
Hotamisligil, Gokhan S.
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Hoyer-Hansen, Maria
Hu, Bingren
Hu, Chien-An A.
Hu, Hong-Ming
Hua, Ya
Huang, Canhua
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Huber, Tobias B.
Huh, Won-Ki
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Hupp, Ted R.
Hur, Gang Min
Hurley, James B.
Hussain, Sabah N. A.
Hussey, Patrick J.
Hwang, Jung Jin
Hwang, Seungmin
Ichihara, Atsuhiro
Ilkhanizadeh, Shirin
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Iovane, Valentina
Iovanna, Juan L.
Ip, Nancy Y.
Isaka, Yoshitaka
Ishida, Hiroyuki
Isidoro, Ciro
Isobe, Ken-Ichi
Iwasaki, Akiko
Izquierdo, Marta
Izumi, Yotaro
Jaakkola, Panu M.
Jaattela, Marja
Jackson, George R.
Jackson, William T.
Janji, Bassam
Jendrach, Marina
Jeon, Ju-Hong
Jeung, Eui-Bae
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Jiang, Hongchi
Jiang, Jean X.
Jiang, Ming
Jiang, Qing
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Jimenez, Alberto
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Joe, Cheol O.
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Johnson, Daniel E.
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Jones, Nicola L.
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Joseph, Suresh K.
Joubert, Annie M.
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Juillerat-Jeanneret, Lucienne
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Jung, Yong-Keun
Kaarniranta, Kai
Kaasik, Allen
Kabuta, Tomohiro
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Kagedal, Katarina
Kamada, Yoshiaki
Kaminskyy, Vitaliy O.
Kampinga, Harm H.
Kanamori, Hiromitsu
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Kang, Yoon-A.
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Kanneganti, Thirumala-Devi
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Kawazoe, Yoshinori
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Kelekar, Ameeta
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Kiel, Jan A. K. W.
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Kim, Deok Ryong
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Kim, Peter K.
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Kimchi, Adi
Kimmelman, Alec C.
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Kirkin, Vladimir
Kirshenbaum, Lorrie A.
Kitamoto, Katsuhiko
Kitazato, Kaio
Klein, Ludger
Klimecki, Walter T.
Klucken, Jochen
Knecht, Erwin
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Koch, Jan C.
Koga, Hiroshi
Koh, Jae-Young
Koh, Young Ho
Koike, Masato
Komatsu, Masaaki
Kominami, Eiki
Kong, Hee Jeong
Kong, Wei-Jia
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Kotake, Yaichiro
Koukourakis, Michael I.
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Kovacs, Attila L.
Kraft, Claudine
Krainc, Dimitri
Kramer, Helmut
Kretz-Remy, Carole
Krichevsky, Anna M.
Kroemer, Guido
Krüger, Rejko ;  University of Luxembourg > Faculty of Science, Technology and Communication (FSTC) > Life Science Research Unit
Krut, Oleg
Ktistakis, Nicholas T.
Kuan, Chia-Yi
Kucharczyk, Roza
Kumar, Ashok
Kumar, Raj
Kumar, Sharad
Kundu, Mondira
Kung, Hsing-Jien
Kurz, Tino
Kwon, Ho Jeong
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Lafont, Frank
Lamark, Trond
Landry, Jacques
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Lapaquette, Pierre
Laporte, Jocelyn F.
Laszlo, Lajos
Lavandero, Sergio
Lavoie, Josee N.
Layfield, Robert
Lazo, Pedro A.
Le, Weidong
Le Cam, Laurent
Ledbetter, Daniel J.
Lee, Alvin J. X.
Lee, Byung-Wan
Lee, Gyun Min
Lee, Jongdae
Lee, Ju-Hyun
Lee, Michael
Lee, Myung-Shik
Lee, Sug Hyung
Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan
Legembre, Patrick
Legouis, Renaud
Lehmann, Michael
Lei, Huan-Yao
Lei, Qun-Ying
Leib, David A.
Leiro, Jose
Lemasters, John J.
Lemoine, Antoinette
Lesniak, Maciej S.
Lev, Dina
Levenson, Victor V.
Levine, Beth
Levy, Efrat
Li, Faqiang
Li, Jun-Lin
Li, Lian
Li, Sheng
Li, Weijie
Li, Xue-Jun
Li, Yan-Bo
Li, Yi-Ping
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Liberski, Pawel P.
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Liton, Paloma B.
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Lossi, Laura
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Poirot, Marc
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Prasad, Anil
Prescott, Mark
Priault, Muriel
Produit-Zengaffinen, Nathalie
Progulske-Fox, Ann
Proikas-Cezanne, Tassula
Przedborski, Serge
Przyklenk, Karin
Puertollano, Rosa
Puyal, Julien
Qian, Shu-Bing
Qin, Liang
Qin, Zheng-Hong
Quaggin, Susan E.
Raben, Nina
Rabinowich, Hannah
Rabkin, Simon W.
Rahman, Irfan
Rami, Abdelhaq
Ramm, Georg
Randall, Glenn
Randow, Felix
Rao, V. Ashutosh
Rathmell, Jeffrey C.
Ravikumar, Brinda
Ray, Swapan K.
Reed, Bruce H.
Reed, John C.
Reggiori, Fulvio
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Reichert, Andreas S.
Reiners, John J. Jr
Reiter, Russel J.
Ren, Jun
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Rhodes, Christopher J.
Ritis, Konstantinos
Rizzo, Elizete
Robbins, Jeffrey
Roberge, Michel
Roca, Hernan
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Rocchi, Stephane
Rodemann, H. Peter
Rodriguez de Cordoba, Santiago
Rohrer, Barbel
Roninson, Igor B.
Rosen, Kirill
Rost-Roszkowska, Magdalena M.
Rouis, Mustapha
Rouschop, Kasper M. A.
Rovetta, Francesca
Rubin, Brian P.
Rubinsztein, David C.
Ruckdeschel, Klaus
Rucker, Edmund B. Rd
Rudich, Assaf
Rudolf, Emil
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Russo, Rossella
Rusten, Tor Erik
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Sadoshima, Junichi
Saha, Tapas
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Shidoji, Yoshihiro
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Sidhu, Stan B.
Sikorska, Beata
Silva-Zacarin, Elaine C. M.
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Sinclair, David A.
Singh, Rajat
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Sinicrope, Frank A.
Sirko, Agnieszka
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Skulachev, Vladimir P.
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Srinivasula, Srinivasa M.
Stefanis, Leonidas
Steffan, Joan S.
Stendel, Ruediger
Stenmark, Harald
Stephanou, Anastasis
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Sternberg, Cinthya
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Sui, Xinbing
Sulzer, David
Sun, Jiaren
Sun, Shi-Yong
Sun, Zhi-Jun
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Takemura, Genzou
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Xavier, Ramnik J.
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Xia, Pu
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Xu, Xiaolei
Yamamoto, Ai
Yamamoto, Akitsugu
Yamashina, Shunhei
Yamashita, Michiaki
Yan, Xianghua
Yanagida, Mitsuhiro
Yang, Dun-Sheng
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Yang, Shi Yu
Yang, Wannian
Yang, Wei Yuan
Yang, Zhifen
Yao, Meng-Chao
Yao, Tso-Pang
Yeganeh, Behzad
Yen, Wei-Lien
Yin, Jia-Jing
Yin, Xiao-Ming
Yoo, Ook-Joon
Yoon, Gyesoon
Yoon, Seung-Yong
Yorimitsu, Tomohiro
Yoshikawa, Yuko
Yoshimori, Tamotsu
Yoshimoto, Kohki
You, Ho Jin
Youle, Richard J.
Younes, Anas
Yu, Li
Yu, Long
Yu, Seong-Woon
Yu, Wai Haung
Yuan, Zhi-Min
Yue, Zhenyu
Yun, Cheol-Heui
Yuzaki, Michisuke
Zabirnyk, Olga
Silva-Zacarin, Elaine
Zacks, David
Zacksenhaus, Eldad
Zaffaroni, Nadia
Zakeri, Zahra
Zeh, Herbert J. Rd
Zeitlin, Scott O.
Zhang, Hong
Zhang, Hui-Ling
Zhang, Jianhua
Zhang, Jing-Pu
Zhang, Lin
Zhang, Long
Zhang, Ming-Yong
Zhang, Xu Dong
Zhao, Mantong
Zhao, Yi-Fang
Zhao, Ying
Zhao, Zhizhuang J.
Zheng, Xiaoxiang
Zhivotovsky, Boris
Zhong, Qing
Zhou, Cong-Zhao
Zhu, Changlian
Zhu, Wei-Guo
Zhu, Xiao-Feng
Zhu, Xiongwei
Zhu, Yuangang
Zoladek, Teresa
Zong, Wei-Xing
Zorzano, Antonio
Zschocke, Jurgen
Zuckerbraun, Brian
More authors (1260 more) Less
Language :
English
Title :
Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy.
Publication date :
2012
Journal title :
Autophagy
ISSN :
1554-8635
Publisher :
Landes Bioscience, United States - Texas
Volume :
8
Issue :
4
Pages :
445-544
Peer reviewed :
Peer Reviewed verified by ORBi
Available on ORBilu :
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