Reference : Glucuronate, the precursor of vitamin C, is directly formed from UDP-glucuronate in liver
Scientific journals : Article
Life sciences : Biochemistry, biophysics & molecular biology
Glucuronate, the precursor of vitamin C, is directly formed from UDP-glucuronate in liver
Linster, Carole mailto [University of Luxembourg > Luxembourg Centre for Systems Biomedicine (LCSB) > >]
Van Schaftingen, Emile [> >]
FEBS Journal
Blackwell Publishing
United Kingdom
[en] The conversion of UDP-glucuronate to glucuronate, usually thought to proceed by way of glucuronate 1-phosphate, is a site for short-term regulation of vitamin C synthesis by metyrapone and other xenobiotics in isolated rat hepatocytes. Our purpose was to explore the mechanism of this effect in cell-free systems. Metyrapone and other xenobiotics stimulated, by approximately threefold, the formation of glucuronate from UDP-glucuronate in liver extracts enriched with ATP-Mg, but did not affect the formation of glucuronate 1-phosphate from UDP-glucuronate or the conversion of glucuronate 1-phosphate to glucuronate. This and other data indicated that glucuronate 1-phosphate is not an intermediate in glucuronate formation from UDP-glucuronate, suggesting that this reaction is catalysed by a 'UDP-glucuronidase'. UDP-glucuronidase was present mainly in the microsomal fraction, where its activity was stimulated by UDP-N-acetylglucosamine, known to stimulate UDP-glucuronosyltransferases by enhancing the transport of UDP-glucuronate across the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. UDP-glucuronidase and UDP-glucuronosyltransferases displayed similar sensitivities to various detergents, which stimulated at low concentrations and generally inhibited at higher concentrations. Substrates of glucuronidation inhibited UDP-glucuronidase activity, suggesting that the latter is contributed by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase(s). Inhibitors of beta-glucuronidase and esterases did not affect the formation of glucuronate, arguing against the involvement of a glucuronidation-deglucuronidation cycle. The sensitivity of UDP-glucuronidase to metyrapone and other stimulatory xenobiotics was lost in washed microsomes, even in the presence of ATP-Mg, but it could be restored by adding a heated liver high-speed supernatant or CoASH. In conclusion, glucuronate formation in liver is catalysed by a UDP-glucuronidase which is closely related to UDP-glucuronosyltransferases. Metyrapone and other xenobiotics stimulate UDP-glucuronidase by antagonizing the inhibition exerted, presumably indirectly, by a combination of ATP-Mg and CoASH.

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