Reference : Simulation des Traktionsverhaltens von Reifen auf granularem Untergrund durch eine Ko...
Scientific congresses, symposiums and conference proceedings : Paper published in a book
Engineering, computing & technology : Mechanical engineering
Computational Sciences
Simulation des Traktionsverhaltens von Reifen auf granularem Untergrund durch eine Kopplung zwischen der Finiten (FEM) und der Diskreten Element Methode (DEM)
[en] Simulation of the Tractive Performance of Tire Treads on Granular Terrain by Means of Finite and Discrete Element Coupling
Michael, Mark mailto [University of Luxembourg > Faculty of Science, Technology and Communication (FSTC) > Engineering Research Unit >]
Peters, Bernhard mailto [University of Luxembourg > Faculty of Science, Technology and Communication (FSTC) > Engineering Research Unit >]
Vogel, Frank []
VDI-Berichte "Reifen-Fahrwerk-Fahrbahn"
VDI Verlag GmbH
Band 2211
14. Internationale VDI-Tagung "Reifen-Fahrwerk-Fahrbahn" 2013
from 22-10-2013 to 23-10-2013
[en] Finite Element Methode (FEM), ; Discrete Element Methode (DEM) ; DEM – FEM Coupling Simulations
[en] Kurzfassung
Innerhalb dieses Beitrags wird die numerische Simulationsmethode der Extended Discrete
Element Methode (XDEM) vorgestellt, mit der die Wechselwirkung zwischen Reifen und
steinigem Untergrund detailliert beschrieben werden kann. Dabei wird der Reifen als ein
Kontinuum betrachtet, das mit der Finiten Element Methode (FEM) abgebildet wird. Der
grobkörnige Untergrund, wie beispielsweise Sand oder Kies, wird als granulares Medium
betrachtet. Dieses kann sehr vorteilhaft mit der Diskreten Element Methode (DEM) behandelt
werden, die eine Betrachtung der individuellen Partikel zulässt. Basierend auf den Gesetzen
von Newton werden Position und Orientierung aller Partikel berechnet, wobei Kräfte
zwischen den Partikeln und dem Reifen berücksichtigt werden. Kräfte zwischen Partikeln
und Reifen treten als Randbedingungen in der FEM Struktur des Reifens auf, und führen
damit zur Deformation und somit zu Spannungverteilung in der Reifenstrucktur. Eine
Integration in der Zeit bestimmt sowohl den Zustand des Untergrunds als auch die Reaktion
des Reifens.
Dies wird durch eine innovative Kopplung zwischen der Discrete Particle Method (DPM) zur
Beschreibung des granularen Mediums und dem Finite Element Löser DiffPACK erreicht und
deshalb als Extended Discrete Element Methode bezeichnet wird. Beides sind objekt-
orientierte Software-Werkzeuge, die über eine Schnittstelle die notwendigen Daten
austauschen, so dass der Anwender sein Augenmerk auf die Problemlösung richten kann als
sich mit Datenaustausch und Algorithmen zu befassen. Damit wurde ein vielseitiges und
flexibles Werkzeug zur Lösung vielfältiger Probleme wie auch die Bewegung eines Reifens
im Schnee geschaffen. Das neuartige Konzept ist sowohl auf Windows als auch auf UNIX
basierenden Betriebssystemen verfügbar.
The objective of this contribution is to resolve different length scales in structure analysis by
an interface coupling the Discrete Element Method (DEM) with the Finite Element Method
(FEM) and therefore, is labelled Extended Discrete Element Methode (XDEM). This
approach distinguishes itself from other methods in so far that no overlapping domains
between Finite and Discrete Elements exist. Both domains are separated in physical space
and numerical simulation domain. The proposed approach is relevant to almost all
engineering applications that deal with granular matter such as storage in hoppers, transport
on conveyor belts or displacement of granular material as in mixers or excavation of soil. For
these applications an engineering device such as mixer blades or cutting tools are in contact
with granular matter. Contacts with individual particles generate contact forces that act on
both the engineering device and the granular material. The latter experiences a displacement
of individual particles whereby the engineering structure responds with deformation and
stresses. In order to predict and optimize both the behaviour and motion of granular material
and the structures in contact, numerical simulation tools are increasingly employed [1].
Simulations are popular especially because experiments which are often expensive, time-
consuming and sometimes even dangerous [2]. The continuous increase in computing power
is now enabling researchers to implement numerical methods that do not focus on the
granular assembly as an entity, but rather deduce its global characteristics from observing
the individual behaviour of each grain.
An interaction between granular media and a structure relies on a transfer of forces between
them. Granular media consists of an ensemble of particles of which a number of particles
may be in contact with a surface e.g. walls as surfaces of solid structures. The contact is
resolved similar to inter-particle contacts by a representative overlap. It defines the position
of impact as well as the force acting on the particle at this position. The same force, however,
into the opposite direction defines a mechanical load for the structure. In order to determine
the effect of forces on the solid structure, it is discretised by finite elements. The impact of
the force is transferred to the nodes of the respective surface element and appears as a load
for the finite element system. Hence, integrating particle dynamics and the response of the
solid structure due to particle impacts advances both new position of particles and
corresponding deformation and stress of the solid structure in time.
Developing flexible software which is capable of performing simulation in different
applications will enable the engineers to focus entirely on their specific problem and hence
save them valuable time. This concept is supported by the software tools of the Discrete
Particle Method (DPM) and Diffpack. Hence, the solid structure is analysed by the Finite
Element Method under load due to the impact of individual particles that changes both in
time and space. For this purpose traditional formulations of the Finite Element Method are
employed that are available by the commercial multi-physics software package Diffpack. It
represents object-oriented hierarchy of classes that provide an excellent interface to
introduce external loads from particle impact onto the finite element structure. Diffpack is an
object-oriented development environment, which comes as a rich set of C++ classes, for the
numerical modelling and solution of arbitrary differential equations. User applications cover a
wider range of engineering areas and span from simple educational applications to major
product development projects.
The behaviour of granular material is represented by the advanced software package of the
Discrete Particle Method (DPM), which is based on the Discrete Element Method. It is
designed to relieve users from underlying mathematics and software design and allows them
to focus on physics and their applications. The software uses object oriented techniques that
support objects representing three-dimensional particles of various shapes such as cylinders,
discs or tetrahedrons for example, size and material properties. This makes it a highly
versatile tool dealing with a large variety of different applications of granular matter arising in
the automotive industry, such as road tire interaction. Various force models for the inter-
particle and particle-wall contacts are also available. A minimal user interface easily allows
extending the software further by adding user-defined impact models or material properties
to an already available selection of materials and properties. Thus, the user is relieved of the
underlying mathematics or software design, and therefore, is able to direct his focus entirely
onto the application. The Discrete Particle Method is written in C++ programming language
and works both in Linux and Windows environments.
University of Luxembourg: High Performance Computing - ULHPC
Fonds National de la Recherche - FnR

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