[en] BACKGROUND: The assessment of human exposure to fast-elimination endocrine disruptors (ED) such as phthalates, bisphenols or pesticides is usually based on urinary biomarkers. The variability of biomarkers concentration, due to rapid elimination from the body combined with frequent exposure is however pointed out as a major limitation to exposure assessment. Other matrices such as hair, less sensitive to short-term variations in the exposure, have been proposed as possible alternatives. Nevertheless, no study compared the information obtained from hair and urine respectively in a follow-up allowing to assess biomarkers variability over time in these two matrices, and to compare the correlation between them. METHODS: In the present study, hair and urine samples were collected from 16 volunteers over a 6 months follow-up. All in all, 92 hair samples and 805 urines samples were collected and analyzed for the presence of 16 phthalate metabolites, 4 bisphenols and 8 pesticides/metabolites. RESULTS: All the biomarkers analyzed were detected in at least one of the two matrices. 21 biomarkers were more frequently detected in hair, 6 in urine, and 1 was equivalent. Biomarkers intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) ranged from 0.1 to 0.8 (ten above 0.4) in hair, and from 0.09 to 0.51 in urine (two above 0.4). The concentrations of biomarkers in hair and urine were significantly correlated for only one compound. CONCLUSION: This study highlights the complexity of assessing exposure to fast-elimination ED and suggests considering with caution the specificity of the matrix in data interpretation. The results document the respective advantages and limitations of urine and hair, and provide new insight in the understanding of the information provided by these biological matrices and their relevance for the assessment of human exposure to fast elimination contaminants. CAPSULE: 92 hair and 805 urine samples collected from 16 volunteers over 6 months, tested for phthalate metabolites, bisphenols and pesticides. 19 biomarkers (in hair) and 24 (in urine) were detected in >50% of the samples.
Pharmacy, pharmacology & toxicology
Author, co-author :
Hardy, Emilie M.
Haan, Serge ; University of Luxembourg > Faculty of Science, Technology and Medicine (FSTM) > Department of Life Sciences and Medicine (DLSM)
Appenzeller, B.M.R., Tsatsakis, A.M., Hair analysis for biomonitoring of environmental and occupational exposure to organic pollutants: state of the art, critical review and future needs. Toxicol. Lett. 210:2 (2012), 119–140.
Appenzeller, B.M.R., et al. Segmental determination of ethyl glucuronide in hair: a pilot study. Forensic Sci. Int. 173 (2007), 87–92.
Appenzeller, B.M.R., et al. Hair analysis for the biomonitoring of pesticide exposure – comparison with blood and urine in a rat model. Arch. Toxicol. 91:8 (2017), 2813–2825.
Aylward, L.L., et al. Sources of variability in biomarker concentrations. J Toxicol Environ Health B 17 (2014), 45–61.
Beausoleil, C., et al. Low dose effects and non-monotonic dose responses for endocrine active chemicals: science to practice workshop: workshop summary. Chemosphere 93:6 (2013), 847–856.
Beausoleil, C., et al. Regulatory identification of BPA as an endocrine disruptor: context and methodology. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 475 (2018), 4–9.
Beranger, R., et al. Multiple pesticide analysis in hair samples of pregnant French women: results from the Elfe national birth cohort. Environ. Int. 120 (2018), 43–53.
Beranger, R., et al. Multiple pesticide analysis in hair samples of pregnant French women: results from the ELFE national birth cohort. Environ. Int. 120 (2018), 43–53.
Chang, Y.J., Lin, K.L., Chang, Y.Z., Determination of di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) metabolites in human hair using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Clin. Chim. Acta 420 (2013), 155–159.
Chata, C., et al. Influence of pesticide physicochemical properties on the association between plasma and hair concentration. Anal and Bioanal Chem 408 (2016), 3601–3612.
Chemsec SIN LIST. Endocrine disrupting chemicals. [cited 2020 September 29th]; Available from: https://sinlist.chemsec.org/endocrine-disruptors/.
Clewell, R.A., et al. A dose response study to assess effects after dietary administration of diisononyl phthalate (DINP) in gestation and lactation on male rat sexual development. Reprod. Toxicol. 35 (2013), 70–80.
Duca, R.D., et al. Hair decontamination procedure prior to multi-class pesticide analysis. Drug Testing and Analysis 6 (2014), 55–66.
Duca, R.C., et al. Hair decontamination procedure prior to multi-class pesticide analysis. Drug Testing and Analysis 6 (2014), 55–66.
Candidate List of substances of very high concern for Authorisation, European Chemicals Agency, Editor.
Ewence, A., et al. An approach to the identification and regulation of endocrine disrupting pesticides. Food Chem. Toxicol. 78 (2015), 214–220.
Faÿs, F., et al., Is there an optimal sampling time and number of samples for assessing exposure to 1 fast elimination endocrine disruptors with urinary biomarkers? Science of the Total Environment, 2020. 747(141185).
Giovanoulis, G., et al. Multi-pathway human exposure assessment of phthalate esters and DINCH. Environ. Int. 112 (2018), 115–126.
Grova, N., et al. Ultra performance liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometer method applied to the analysis of both thyroid and steroid hormones in human hair. J. Chromatogr. A, 1062, 2020, 12.
Hardy, E.M., et al. Multi-residue analysis of organic pollutants in hair and urine for matrices comparison. Forensic Sci. Int. 249C (2015), 6–19.
Hardy, E.M., et al. Multi-residue analysis of organic pollutants in hair and urine for matrices comparison. Forensic Sci. Int. 249 (2015), 6–19.
Hardy, E.M., et al. Hair Versus Urine for the Biomonitoring of Pesticide Exposure: Results from a Pilot Study on Pregnant Women. 2021 (in press).
Heindel, J.J., et al. Developmental origins of health and disease: integrating environmental influences. Endocrinology 156:10 (2015), 3416–3421.
Hernandez, A.F., et al. Biomonitoring of common organophosphate metabolites in hair and urine of children from an agricultural community. Environ. Int., 131, 2019, 12.
Iglesias-Gonzalez, A., Hardy, E.M., Appenzeller, B.M.R., Cumulative exposure to organic pollutants of French children assessed by hair analysis. Environ. Int., 134, 2020, 16.
Kabir, E.R., Rahman, M.S., Rahman, I., A review on endocrine disruptors and their possible impacts on human health. Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 40:1 (2015), 241–258.
Kahn, L.G., et al. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals: implications for human health. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 8:8 (2020), 703–718.
Karzi, V., et al. Biomonitoring of bisphenol A, triclosan and perfluorooctanoic acid in hair samples of children and adults. J. Appl. Toxicol. 38:8 (2018), 1144–1152.
Kim, D.H., Lee, J.H., Oh, J.E., Perfluoroalkyl acids in paired serum, urine, and hair samples: correlations with demographic factors and dietary habits. Environ. Pollut. 248 (2019), 175–182.
Kintz, P., A. Salomone, and M. Vincenti, Hair analysis in clinical and forensic toxicology. 2015: Academic Press, Elsevier.
Kissel, J.C., et al. Comparison of organophosphorus pesticide metabolite levels in single and multiple daily urine samples collected from preschool children in Washington State. J. Expo. Anal. Environ. Epidemiol. 15:2 (2005), 164–171.
Koch, H.M., Angerer, J., Di-iso-nonylphthalate (DINP) metabolites in human urine after a single oral dose of deuterium-labelled DINP. Int. J. Hyg. Environ. Health 210:1 (2007), 9–19.
Kokkinaki, A., et al. Biomonitoring of dialkylphosphate metabolites (DAPs) in urine and hair samples of sprayers and rural residents of Crete. Greece. Environmental Research 134 (2014), 181–187.
Lorber, M., Angerer, J., Koch, H.M., A simple pharmacokinetic model to characterize exposure of Americans to di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate. Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology 20:1 (2010), 38–53.
Martin, J., et al. Exposure assessment to parabens, bisphenol A and perfluoroalkyl compounds in children, women and men by hair analysis. Sci. Total Environ., 695, 2019, 10.
Mnif, W., et al. Effect of endocrine disruptor pesticides: a review. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 8:6 (2011), 2265–2303.
Nehring, I., Staniszewska, M., Falkowska, L., Human hair, baltic grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) fur and herring gull (Larus argentatus) feathers as accumulators of bisphenol A and alkylphenols. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 72:4 (2017), 552–561.
Palazzi, P., et al. Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in women living in the Chinese cities of BaoDing and Dalian revealed by hair analysis. Environ. Int. 121 (2018), 1341–1354.
Peng, F.J., et al. Exposure to multiclass pesticides among female adult population in two Chinese cities revealed by hair analysis. Environ. Int., 138, 2020, 11.
Peng, F., et al. Human exposure to PCBs, PBDEs and bisphenols revealed by hair analysis: a comparison between two adult female populations in China and France. Environ Pollut, 267, 2020, 115425.
Philippat, C., Calafat, A.M., Comparison of strategies to efficiently combine repeated urine samples in biomarker-based studies. Environ. Res., 192, 2021, 110275.
Pragst, F., Balikova, M.A., State of the art in hair analysis for detection of drug and alcohol abuse. Clin. Chim. Acta 370:1–2 (2006), 17–49.
Reiter, L.W., et al. The U.S. Federal Framework for research on endocrine disruptors and an analysis of research programs supported during fiscal year 1996. Environ Health Perspec 106:3 (1998), 105–113.
Rosner, B., Fundamentals of biostatistics. 2015: Nelson Education.
Society, I.C., Fact Sheets. 2015, International Continence Society.
Staufer, K., Yegles, M., Biomarkers for detection of alcohol consumption in liver transplantation. World J. Gastroenterol. 22:14 (2016), 3725–3734.
TEDX The Endocrine Disruption Exchange. [cited 2020 September 29th]; Available from: https://endocrinedisruption.org/interactive-tools/tedx-list-of-potential-endocrine-disruptors/search-the-tedx-list.
Thieme, D. and P. Anielski, Chapter 10 - Doping, Applications of Hair Analysis, in Hair Analysis in Clinical and Forensic Toxicology, P. Kintz, A. Salomone, and M. Vincenti, Editors. 2015, Academic Press: Boston. p. 275–299.
Tzatzarakis, M.N., et al. Biomonitoring of bisphenol A in hair of Greek population. Chemosphere 118 (2015), 336–341.
Wang, Y.X., et al. Occurrence of perfluoroalkyl substances in matched human serum, urine, hair and nail. J. Environ. Sci. 67 (2018), 191–197.
WHO/IPCS, Global Assessment of the State-of-the-Science of Endocrine Disruptors. World Health Organisation, Geneva., 2002.
Wielgomas, B., Variability of urinary excretion of pyrethroid metabolites in seven persons over seven consecutive days–implications for observational studies. Toxicol. Lett. 221:1 (2013), 15–22.
Xiao, Q., et al. Sources of variability in metabolite measurements from urinary samples. PLoS One, 9(5), 2014, e95749.
Yin, S.S., et al. Hair as an alternative matrix to monitor human exposure to plasticizers - development of a liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry method. Journal of Chromatography B-Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences 1104 (2019), 94–101.