Reference : Essays on the Economics of Migration, Inequalities, and Culture
Dissertations and theses : Doctoral thesis
Business & economic sciences : Social economics
http://hdl.handle.net/10993/52351
Essays on the Economics of Migration, Inequalities, and Culture
English
Maleeva, Victoria mailto [University of Luxembourg > Faculty of Law, Economics and Finance (FDEF) > >]
13-Jun-2022
University of Luxembourg, ​​Luxembourg
Docteur en Sciences Economiques
135
Zanaj, Skerdilajda mailto
[en] mass migration ; divorce ; exposure to communism
[en] The present doctoral thesis consists of three chapters of self-contained works about the economics of migration, inequalities, and culture.

In the first chapter, I introduce the outline of the thesis and shortly discuss the research questions of each chapter.

The second chapter explores the effects of mass migration on individual attitudes towards migrants. Using several data sources for the mass migration of Ukrainians in Poland between 2014-2016, this chapter is focused on how a massive exogenous increase in the stock of migrant residents and migrant co-workers affects the perception of migrants. Using both an IV methodology and a difference-in-difference analysis, I test two hypotheses: the labor market competition and contact theory and find some evidence favoring the second. First, difference-in-difference analysis shows that Poles become more welcoming to migrants in regions with more job opportunities for migrants. Second, I find that an increase in the size of the migrant group affects attitudes towards migrants positively inside a group of natives with similar demographic and job skills characteristics.

The third chapter explores how poverty can be explained by marital status and gender using the RLMS-HSE household survey. This research shows that divorced women exhibit lower poverty levels than divorced men by employing longitudinal data from the Russian National Survey (RLMS-HSE) from 2004 to 2019. The result remains qualitatively invariant when considering a theoretical probability to divorce for married couples that take into account the age of the partners, labor force participation, and education. A higher probability to divorce impacts positively only men's poverty level. Investigating an inter-related dynamic model of poverty and labor market participation, we find that divorced women work more than divorced men, which is why divorce hits harder on husbands than on wives.

In the fourth chapter of the thesis, we study the effect of past exposure to communist indoctrination during early age (9-14 years) on a set of crucial attitudes in the communist ideology aiming to create the \emph{new communist man/woman}. We focus on the indoctrination received by children during their pioneering years. School pupils automatically became pioneers when they reached 3rd or 4th grade. The purpose of the pioneer years was to educate soviet children to be loyal to the ideals of communism and the Party. We use a regression discontinuity design exploiting the discontinuity in the exposure to pioneering years due to the fall of the USSR in 1991, implying a strong association that hints to causality. We find robust evidence that has been a pioneer has long-lasting effects on interpersonal trust, life satisfaction, fertility, income, and perception of own economic rank. Overall, these results suggest that past pioneers show a higher level of optimism than non-pioneers. Finally, we look for gender differences because various forms of emulation campaigns were used to promote the desired virtues of the new communist woman. However, we find no evidence of the effect of exposure to communism on women. The indoctrination seems to have left more substantial effects on men.
http://hdl.handle.net/10993/52351

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