Reference : Beyond School Effects: Private Schooling, Segregation and Standardization of School S...
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Beyond School Effects: Private Schooling, Segregation and Standardization of School Systems in Latin America
Ceron, Francisco mailto [University of Luxembourg > Faculty of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences (FHSE) > Department of Social Sciences (DSOC) >]
Tackling Educational Inequalities in Luxembourg and Beyond. Abstract Booklet
Hadjar, Andreas mailto
Tackling Educational Inequalities in Luxembourg and Beyond
[en] The design of educational institutions may face policy trade-offs in the tasks of school systems that are served by them (van de Werfhorst and Mijs, 2010; Pedró et al 2015). Differentiation of school systems may foster efficient sorting of students and then maximize learnings but at the cost of exacerbating social inequalities. A centralized education system may guarantee equality of educational opportunities, but it is not clear if it increases or hinder the overall performance level (e.g. Woessman 2003; Brunello & Checchi 2007; Bol et al., 2014; Bol & van de Werfhorst, 2016; Mijs 2016). Until now, researchers have overlooked the role of private schooling as an important dimension of stratification in national school systems, focusing mainly on its relative effectiveness and assuming implicitly that school sector capacity truly reflects a level of differentiation (e.g. Hanushek & Woessman, 2015; Chmielewski & Reardon 2016). I attempt to address the following research question: to what extend the differentiation induced by private schooling increase achievement inequalities, counteracting the effects of standardization of the school systems in Latin American countries?
Using data from the 2013 UNESCO TERCE regional large-scale assessment, I study how private schooling is related to overall levels of stratification and the extent to which it affects achievement inequality in a context of varying levels of standardization, across countries. I construct a generalized entropy measure of segregation to capture system level differentiation induced by private schooling, a standardization index (Bol & van de Werfhorst, 2016) and by using multilevel models with county fixed effects, I find that private schooling counterbalance the equalizing effect of higher levels of standardization on achievement inequalities, no matter their relative size, on top of individual and school level controls. I conclude by discussing how these findings speak to the potential policy trade-off between equality and efficiency in the region.
AISSR, University of Amsterdam
Programme of Advance Human Capital, National Commission of Scientific and Technological Research of Chile (CONICYT PFCHA), Grant 72140619
Dynamics of inequality of educational opportunity and learning in Chile and Latin America
Researchers ; Professionals
Bol, T., Witschge, J., Van de Werfhorst, H. G., & Dronkers, J. (2014). Curricular tracking and central examinations: Counterbalancing the impact of social background on student achievement in 36 countries. Social Forces, sou003.
Bol, T., & Van de Werfhorst, H. G. (2016). Measuring educational institutional diversity: tracking, vocational orientation and standardisation. In A. Hadjar & C. Gross (Eds.), Education systems and inequalities. International comparisons (pp. 73–94). Bristol: Policy Press.
Brunello, G. & Daniele Checchi, D. 2007. “Does School Tracking Affect Inequality of Opportunity? New International Evidence.” Economic Policy 22(52):781–861.
Chmielewski, A., & Reardon, S. (2016). Patterns of Cross-National Variation in the Association Between Income and Academic Achievement. AERA Open, 2(3), AERA Open, 2016, Vol.2(3).
Hanushek, E. A., & Woessmann, L. (2015). The knowledge capital of nations: Education and the economics of growth. MIT press.
Mijs, J. (2016). Stratified Failure: Educational Stratification and Students’ Attributions of Their Mathematics Performance in 24 Countries. Sociology of Education, 89(2), 137-153.
Pedró, F.; Leroux, G. and Watanabe, M. (2015). The privatization of education in developing countries. Evidence and policy implications, UNESCO Working Papers on Education Policy N° 2, UNESCO, 2015.
Van de Werfhorst, H. G., & Mijs, J. J. (2010). Achievement inequality and the institutional structure of educational systems: A comparative perspective. Annual review of sociology, 36, 407-428.
Wössmann, Ludger. 2003. “Schooling Resources, Educational Institutions, and Student Performance: The International Evidence.” Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics 65(2):117–70.

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