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Barriers to Inclusion: Special Education in the United States and Germany
Powell, Justin J W
2016Routledge, Abingdon, Unknown/unspecified


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Keywords :
inclusive education; special education; comparative; sociology; education; history; institution; organization; classification
Abstract :
[en] Barriers to Inclusion provides a comparative and historical account of the rise of special and inclusive education over the twentieth century in the United States and Germany. This institutional analysis demonstrates how categorical boundaries, professional groups, social movements, and education and social policies shaped the schooling of children and youth with disabilities. It traces the evolution of special education classification and categories, explores growing special education organizations, and examines students' learning opportunities and educational attainments. Highlighting cross-national differences over time, the author also investigates demographic and geographic variability within the federal democracies, especially in segregation and inclusion rates of disabled and disadvantaged children. Germany's elaborate system of segregated special school types contrasts with diverse American special education classrooms mainly within regular schools. Joining historical case studies with empirical indicators, this book reveals persistent barriers to school integration as well as factors that facilitate inclusive education reform in both societies.
Research center :
Max-Planck-Institut für Bildungsforschung
- Education, Culture, Cognition & Society (ECCS) > Institute of Education & Society (InES)
Disciplines :
Education & instruction
Sociology & social sciences
Author, co-author :
Powell, Justin J W ;  University of Luxembourg > Faculty of Language and Literature, Humanities, Arts and Education (FLSHASE) > Education, Culture, Cognition and Society (ECCS)
External co-authors :
Language :
Title :
Barriers to Inclusion: Special Education in the United States and Germany
Publication date :
Publisher :
Routledge, Abingdon, Unknown/unspecified
Number of pages :
Focus Area :
Educational Sciences
Name of the research project :
Nachwuchsgruppe Ausbildungslosigkeit
Funders :
Max Planck Society for the Advancement of Science


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