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Article (Scientific journals)
Interdependency of Subsurface Carbon Distribution and Graphene− Catalyst Interaction
Weatherup, Robert S.; Amara, Hakim; Blume, Raoul et al.
2014In Journal of the American Chemical Society, 136 (39), p. 3698-13708
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Keywords :
CHEMICAL-VAPOR-DEPOSITION; RAY PHOTOELECTRON-SPECTROSCOPY; HIGH-QUALITY GRAPHENE; IN-SITU OBSERVATIONS; NANOTUBE GROWTH; LAYER GRAPHENE; NICKEL; COPPER; MECHANISMS; DYNAMICS
Abstract :
[en] The dynamics of the graphene-catalyst interaction during chemical vapor deposition are investigated using in situ, time- and depth-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and complementary grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations coupled to a tight-binding model. We thereby reveal the interdependency of the distribution of carbon close to the catalyst surface and the strength of the graphene-catalyst interaction. The strong interaction of epitaxial graphene with Ni(111) causes a depletion of dissolved carbon close to the catalyst surface, which prevents additional layer formation leading to a self-limiting graphene growth behavior for low exposure pressures (10(-6)-10(-3) mbar). A further hydrocarbon pressure increase (to similar to 10(-1) mbar) leads to weakening of the graphene-Ni(111) interaction accompanied by additional graphene layer formation, mediated by an increased concentration of near-surface dissolved carbon. We show that growth of more weakly adhered, rotated graphene on Ni(111) is linked to an initially higher level of near-surface carbon compared to the case of epitaxial graphene growth. The key implications of these results for graphene growth control and their relevance to carbon nanotube growth are highlighted in the context of existing literature.
Disciplines :
Physics
Author, co-author :
Weatherup, Robert S.;  University of Cambridge > Department of Engineering
Amara, Hakim;  ONERA-CNRS, Chatillon > Laboratoire d'Etude des Microstructures
Blume, Raoul;  Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialen und Energie
Dlubak, Bruno;  Unité Mixte de Physique CNRS/Thales ; University of Paris-Sud
Bayer, Bernhard C.;  University of Cambridge > Department of Engineering
Diarra, Mamadou ;  University of Luxembourg > Faculty of Science, Technology and Communication (FSTC) > Physics and Materials Science Research Unit ; Aix-Marseille Université CNRS, CINaM UMR
Bahri, Mounib;  ONERA-CNRS, Chatillon > Laboratoire d'étude des Microstructures
Cabrero-Vilatela, Andrea;  University of Cambridge > Department of Engineering
Caneva, Sabina;  University of Cambridge > Department of Engineering
Kidambi, Piran R.;  University of Cambridge > Department of Engineering
Martin, Marie-Blandine;  Unité Mixte de recherche CNRS / Thales ; University of Paris-Sud
Deranlot, Cyrile;  Unité Mixte de Physique CNRS / Thales ; University of Paris-Sud
Seneor, Pierre;  Unité mixte de Physique CNRS / Thales ; University of Paris-Sud
Schloegl, Robert;  Fritz Haber Institute
Ducastelle, François;  ONERA-CNRS > Laboratoire d'étude des Microstructures
Bichara, Christophe;  Aix-Marseille Université CNRS, CINaM UMR 7325
Hofmann, Stephan;  University of Cambridge > Department of Engineering
More authors (7 more) Less
Language :
English
Title :
Interdependency of Subsurface Carbon Distribution and Graphene− Catalyst Interaction
Publication date :
04 September 2014
Journal title :
Journal of the American Chemical Society
ISSN :
1520-5126
Publisher :
American Chemical Society, Washington, United States - District of Columbia
Volume :
136
Issue :
39
Pages :
3698-13708
Peer reviewed :
Peer Reviewed verified by ORBi

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