Contribution to collective works (Parts of books)
Industrial Policy: The Softer Side of Differentiated Integration
2010In Dyson, Kenneth; Sepos, Angelos (Eds.) Which Europe: The Politics of Differentiated Integration
Peer reviewed


Full Text
Howarth Differentiation in EU Industrial Policy for Dyson and Sepos 2010.pdf
Author preprint (203.11 kB)

All documents in ORBilu are protected by a user license.

Send to


Abstract :
[en] Differentiated integration in the area of EU industrial policy is the result of one or more of five factors: differences in ideology among Member States, domestic political circumstances, capacity (level of economic development), national economic structures, and technical preferences. There is a considerable degree of ‘capitalist diversity’ in the EU (Wilks, 1996). Even among the ‘Original Six’ Member States there are important differences in approach to economic regulation, even if they all embrace the EU system (Gerber, 2000). Ideological difference may contribute to differentiation in that Member States where economic liberalism holds more sway in government circles will pursue different policies than those pursued by Member States where interventionist solutions to industrial problems are more acceptable. Different levels of economic development have repeatedly been used as a justification for temporary derogations for poorer Member States in the implementation of EU legislation. Justifications stemming from ideology, economic development and structures can result in differentiated participation in EU-led or other European R&D projects. Technical preference has been a cited reason for delays in certain national programmes of sector-based market liberalisation. In several areas these five factors overlap, and assessing their relative importance is difficult. Differentiated integration in industrial policy areas is largely ‘soft’ and unofficial and comes in three forms: varying national participation in EU and other European projects; the discretion permitted in the implementation of EU legislation; and varying levels of compliance with EU legislation. Legally entrenched, multi-speed differentiation is present principally in terms of temporary derogation on a limited range of EU legislation. The explicit legal sanction of more permanent differentiation in industrial policy areas is rare. This chapter presents one recent legislative development that effectively entrenches differentiation in energy markets and potentially undermines market integration in this sector.
Disciplines :
Political science, public administration & international relations
Author, co-author :
HOWARTH, David  ;  University of Luxembourg > Faculty of Language and Literature, Humanities, Arts and Education (FLSHASE) > Identités, Politiques, Sociétés, Espaces (IPSE)
Language :
Title :
Industrial Policy: The Softer Side of Differentiated Integration
Publication date :
Main work title :
Which Europe: The Politics of Differentiated Integration
Editor :
Dyson, Kenneth
Sepos, Angelos
Publisher :
Palgrave, Basingstoke, United Kingdom
Macmillan, Basingstoke, United Kingdom
Pages :
Peer reviewed :
Peer reviewed
Available on ORBilu :
since 16 July 2014


Number of views
130 (1 by Unilu)
Number of downloads
70 (1 by Unilu)


Similar publications

Contact ORBilu