[en] Learning non use-case specific models has been shown to be a challenging task in Deep Learning (DL). Hyperparameter tuning requires long training sessions that have to be restarted any time the network or the dataset changes and are not affordable by most stakeholders in industry and research. Many attempts have been made to justify and understand the source of the use-case specificity that distinguishes DL problems. To this date, second-order optimization methods have been partially shown to be effective in some cases but have not been sufficiently investigated in the context of learning and optimization.
In this work, we present a chain rule for the efficient approximation of the Hessian matrix (i.e., the second-order derivatives) of the weights across the layers of a Deep Neural Network (DNN). We show the application of our approach for weight optimization during DNN training, as we believe that this is a step that particularly suffers from the enormous variety of the optimizers provided by state-of-the-art libraries such as Keras and PyTorch. We demonstrate—both theoretically and empirically—the improved accuracy of our approximation technique and that the Hessian is a useful diagnostic tool which helps to more rigorously optimize training. Our preliminary experiments prove the efficiency as well as the improved convergence of our approach which both are crucial aspects for DNN training.