Reference : Testing Is More Desirable When It Is Adaptive and Still Desirable When Compared to No...
Scientific journals : Article
Social & behavioral sciences, psychology : Education & instruction
Educational Sciences
http://hdl.handle.net/10993/43071
Testing Is More Desirable When It Is Adaptive and Still Desirable When Compared to Note-Taking
English
Heitmann, Svenja [Ruhr Univ Bochum, Dept Educ Sci, Bochum, Germany.]
Grund, Axel mailto [University of Luxembourg > Faculty of Language and Literature, Humanities, Arts and Education (FLSHASE) > Luxembourg Centre for Educational Testing (LUCET)]
Berthold, Kirsten [Bielefeld Univ, Dept Psychol, Bielefeld, Germany.]
Fries, Stefan [Bielefeld Univ, Dept Psychol, Bielefeld, Germany.]
Roelle, Julian [Ruhr Univ Bochum, Dept Educ Sci, Bochum, Germany.]
2018
FRONTIERS IN PSYCHOLOGY
Frontiers Media Sa
9
2596-13
Yes (verified by ORBilu)
1664-1078
Lausanne
[en] testing ; test-based learning ; desirable difficulties ; adaptivity ; note-taking ; focusing
[en] Testing is a well-established desirable difficulty. Yet there are still some open issues regarding the benefits of testing that need to be addressed. First, the possibility to increase its benefits by adapting the sequence of test questions to the learners' level of knowledge has scarcely been explored. In view of theories that emphasize the benefits of adapting learning tasks to learner knowledge, it is reasonable to assume that the common practice of providing all learners with the same test questions is not optimal. Second, it is an open question as to whether the testing effect prevails if stronger control conditions than the typical restudy condition are used. We addressed these issues in an experiment with N = 200 university students who were randomly assigned to (a) adaptive testing, (b) non-adaptive testing, or note-taking (c) without or (d) with focus guidance. In an initial study phase, all participants watched an e-lecture. Afterward, they processed its content according to their assigned conditions. One week later, all learners took a posttest. As main results, we found that adaptive testing yielded higher learning outcomes than non-adaptive testing. These benefits were mediated by the adaptive learners' higher testing performance and lower perceived cognitive demand during testing. Furthermore, we found that both testing groups outperformed the note-taking groups. Jointly, our results show that the benefits of testing can be enhanced by adapting the sequence of test questions to learners' knowledge and that testing can be more effective than note-taking.
Bundesministerium fur Bildung und Forschung [(German) Federal Ministry of Education and Science ; BMBF]Federal Ministry of Education & Research (BMBF) [FKZ 16DHL1004] ; Deutsche ForschungsgemeinschaftGerman Research Foundation (DFG) ; Open Access Publication Funds of Ruhr-Universitat Bochum Library
http://hdl.handle.net/10993/43071
10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02596
This research was funded by the Bundesministerium fur Bildung und Forschung [(German) Federal Ministry of Education and Science; BMBF, FKZ 16DHL1004]. The authors acknowledge support for the Article Processing Charge by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft and the Open Access Publication Funds of Ruhr-Universitat Bochum Library. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

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