Reference : Glutaraldehyde - A Subtle Tool in the Investigation of Healthy and Pathologic Red Blo...
Scientific journals : Article
Physical, chemical, mathematical & earth Sciences : Multidisciplinary, general & others
Glutaraldehyde - A Subtle Tool in the Investigation of Healthy and Pathologic Red Blood Cells
Abay, Asena [Kaestner, L (Reprint Author), Saarland Univ, Dynam Fluids Dept Expt Phys, Saarbrucken, Germany. Kaestner, L (Reprint Author), Saarland Univ, Theoret Med Biosci, Homburg, Germany. Abay, Asena]
Simionato, Greta [Simionato, Greta]
Chachanidze, Revaz [Chachanidze, Revaz]
Anna, Bogdanova [Hertz, Laura]
Hertz, Laura [Wagner, Christian]
Bianchi, Paola [Kaestner, Lars, Saarland Univ, Dynam Fluids Dept Expt Phys, Saarbrucken, Germany. Abay, Asena]
van den Akker, Emile [van den Akker, Emile]
von Lindern, Marieke [von Lindern, Marieke, Sanquin, Landsteiner Lab, Amsterdam, Netherlands. Simionato, Greta]
Leonetti, Marc [Hertz, Laura]
Minetti, Giampaolo [Kaestner, Lars, Saarland Univ, Theoret Med Biosci, Homburg, Germany. Chachanidze, Revaz]
Wagner, Christian mailto [University of Luxembourg > Faculty of Science, Technology and Communication (FSTC) > Physics and Materials Science Research Unit]
Kaestner, Lars [> >]
[en] glutaraldehyde; erythrocytes; hemolytic anemia; fixation; cell shapes stiffness; osmolality; batch variation FIXATION; VOLUME; DEFORMABILITY; ERYTHROCYTES; TEMPERATURE; SEQUENCE STORAGE; SHAPE Physiology Physiology lars\ Wagner ; Christian/A-1307-2009 Wagner ; Christian/0000-0001-7788-4594 European Framework ``Horizon 2020'' [675115]; Volkswagen FoundationVolkswagen [Az: 93839] The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Framework ``Horizon 2020'' under grant agreement number 675115 (RELEVANCE) and from the Volkswagen Foundation (Az: 93839). 49 0 2 3 Front. Physiol. HY2UT ISI:000467979300001
[en] Glutaraldehyde is a well-known substance used in biomedical research to fix cells. Since hemolytic anemias are often associated with red blood cell shape changes deviating from the biconcave disk shape, conservation of these shapes for imaging in general and 3D-imaging in particular like confocal microscopy, scanning electron microscopy or scanning probe microscopy is a common desire. Along with the fixation comes an increase in the stiffness of the cells. In the context of red blood cells this increased rigidity is often used to mimic malaria infected red blood cells because they are also stiffer than healthy red blood cells. However, the use of glutaraldehyde is associated with numerous pitfalls: (i) while the increase in rigidity by an application of increasing concentrations of glutaraldehyde is an analog process, the fixation is a rather digital event (all or none); (ii) addition of glutaraldehyde massively changes osmolality in a concentration dependent manner and hence cell shapes can be distorted; (iii) glutaraldehyde batches differ in their properties especially in the ratio of monomers and polymers (iv) handling pitfalls, like inducing shear artifacts of red blood cell shapes or cell density changes that needs to be considered, e.g., when working with cells in flow; (v) staining glutaraldehyde treated red blood cells need different approaches compared to living cells, for instance, because glutaraldehyde itself induces a strong fluorescence. Within this paper we provide documentation about the subtle use of glutaraldehyde on healthy and pathologic red blood cells and how to deal with or circumvent pitfalls.

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