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See detailLatest development in steel and glass engineering
Odenbreit, Christoph UL

Presentation (2013, November 27)

Detailed reference viewed: 90 (8 UL)
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See detailAN EFFICIENT 3D DEM–FEM COUPLING FOR GRANULAR MATTER APPLICATIONS
Michael, Mark UL; Vogel, Frank; Peters, Bernhard

Presentation (2013, November 26)

Detailed reference viewed: 109 (2 UL)
See detailComment le transfert scientifique mène au parking le plus moderne…l’optimisation d’un projet
Schäfer, Markus UL

Presentation (2013, November 11)

Development of a modern multi-story car park construction in Luxemburg, based on former research results, Presentation in context of "Les Jeudis des Sciences"

Detailed reference viewed: 33 (0 UL)
See detailCommodity taxation and regulatory competition
Picard, Pierre M. UL

Presentation (2013, November)

Detailed reference viewed: 45 (6 UL)
See detailCommodity taxation and regulatory competition
Picard, Pierre M. UL

Presentation (2013, November)

Detailed reference viewed: 41 (5 UL)
See detailInklusion und Integration – wo steht die Schweiz?
Zurbriggen, Carmen UL

Presentation (2013, November)

Detailed reference viewed: 34 (0 UL)
See detailThe space of flaws – on the contradictions of integrated planning in a fragmented environment
Carr, Constance UL; Hesse, Markus UL

Presentation (2013, November)

In this paper, we critically investigate policy strategies that attempt to control spaces (housing) and flows (mobility) through so called integrative approaches, hypothesizing that they are flawed in ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we critically investigate policy strategies that attempt to control spaces (housing) and flows (mobility) through so called integrative approaches, hypothesizing that they are flawed in design and ineffective in implementation. The research looks at processes in the small state of Luxembourg, which has pursued a niche strategy of national sovereignty development through a highly successful transition from an industrial based economy to one that rests on financial services, and a high degree of internationalization. This development trajectory, however, has created a set of deeply fragmented office-archipelagos that squeeze out housing, and generate massive commuter traffic. In response to these pressures, planning officials formulated a set of spatially integrative sustainable development guidelines that postulated sector integration, drawing upon normative orientations (central place theory), and prioritizing international objectives of European consolidation over local integration. Yet, they are flawed. A constructivist method was undertaken including document surveys, conversational interviews, and participant observation. Our results show that this centralist approach fails in meeting its mark, because instead of addressing problems of uncoordinated and conflicting authorities within and beyond the nation, they assume a clean system-wide durable “Russian Doll” architecture of state and institution. The result is further fragmentation through integration. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 207 (34 UL)
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See detailMeshless Methods for the Reissner-Mindlin Plate Problem based on Mixed Variational Forms
Hale, Jack UL

Presentation (2013, October 31)

Meshless numerical methods such as the element free Galerkin (EFG) method and $hp$-clouds method rely on a field of particles to construct a basis for the solution of partial differential equations (PDEs ... [more ▼]

Meshless numerical methods such as the element free Galerkin (EFG) method and $hp$-clouds method rely on a field of particles to construct a basis for the solution of partial differential equations (PDEs). This is in contrast with methods such as the finite element method (FEM) and finite difference method (FDM) which rely upon a mesh or grid. Because of this increased flexibility, meshfree methods have shown themselves to be effective tools for simulating difficult problems such as those with discontinuities, complex geometries and large deformations. The Reissner-Mindlin problem is widely used by engineers to describe the deformation of a plate including the effects of transverse shear. A well-known problem which must be overcome when designing an effective numerical method for the Reissner-Mindlin problem is shear-locking. Shear-locking is the inability of the constructed approximation space (meshless or otherwise) to richly represent the limiting Kirchhoff mode. This inability manifests itself as an entirely incorrect solution as the thickness of the plate approaches zero. We will demonstrate and explain the shear-locking problem and potential solutions to it using a simple one-dimensional example. The most effective, robust and general approaches to the shear-locking problem developed in the FEM literature are based on mixed variational forms, where a combination of displacements, stresses and strains are approximated directly. In our approach we start with a mixed variational form before eliminating the extra stress unknowns using the local patch projection technique of A Ortiz et. al. We will discuss the issues presented by the well-known LBB stability conditions and present a solution based upon the stabilising properties of both the augmented Lagrangian and additional `bubble' type functions. We will then show the good performance of the method and its shear-locking free properties. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 80 (7 UL)
See detailODE-based model for ROS management system
Ignatenko, Andrew UL

Presentation (2013, October 24)

Detailed reference viewed: 52 (2 UL)
See detailThe phonon dispersion of graphene: influence of the environment
Wirtz, Ludger UL

Presentation (2013, October 23)

Detailed reference viewed: 105 (8 UL)
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See detailSimulation of the Tractive Performance of Tire Treads on Granular Terrain by Means of Finite and Discrete Element Coupling
Michael, Mark UL; Peters, Bernhard; Vogel, Frank

Presentation (2013, October 22)

Detailed reference viewed: 109 (3 UL)
See detailFacteurs psychologiques dans le chômage
Houssemand, Claude UL; Pignault, Anne UL; Meyers, Raymond UL

Presentation (2013, October 18)

Detailed reference viewed: 118 (4 UL)
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See detailFestvortrag: Blasmusikforschung – Rückblick – Ausblick
Sagrillo, Damien UL

Presentation (2013, October 11)

Detailed reference viewed: 64 (3 UL)
See detailImages of Galois representations and the inverse Galois problem
Wiese, Gabor UL

Presentation (2013, October 10)

Detailed reference viewed: 42 (3 UL)
See detailKosmopolitanismus und Regionalismus in einem europäischen ‘borderland’. Wohnmigration im deutsch-luxemburgischen Grenzraum
Boesen, Elisabeth UL; Schnuer, Gregor

Presentation (2013, October 03)

„Borderlands“ werden zunehmend als ein distinktes ethnologisches Forschungsfeld wahrgenommen. Ein Phänomen, das in diesem Zusammenhang erst in jüngster Zeit Beachtung findet, ist das grenzüberschreitende ... [more ▼]

„Borderlands“ werden zunehmend als ein distinktes ethnologisches Forschungsfeld wahrgenommen. Ein Phänomen, das in diesem Zusammenhang erst in jüngster Zeit Beachtung findet, ist das grenzüberschreitende Wohnen. Der Beitrag befasst sich mit dieser Erscheinung in der Großregion SaarLorLux, d.h. in einem Gebiet, das einerseits aufgrund der besonderen wirtschaftlichen Anziehungskraft des Großherzogtums Luxemburg durch ein außergewöhnliches Maß an Migration und Transnationalismus, andererseits jedoch durch ausgeprägt rurale Strukturen gekennzeichnet ist. Aufgrund dieser besonderen Verhältnisse stellt der deutsch-luxemburgische Grenzraum einen interessanten Kasus für die Untersuchung der Herausbildung von „borderland“-Gemeinschaften und -Identitäten dar. Auf der Grundlage ethnographischer Fallstudien in deutschen Grenzdörfern, die seit einigen Jahren eine bedeutende und sehr diverse Zuwanderung aus Luxemburg erleben, soll gezeigt werden, dass die Integrations- und Identifikationsprozesse in diesem „borderland“ von sehr heterogenen und vermeintlich widerstreitenden Kräften bestimmt sind und darum nur unzureichend durch die geläufigen Konzepte der sozialwissenschaftlichen Mobilitätsforschung – Globalisierung, Transnationalismus, Kosmopolitismus etc. – erfasst werden können. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 149 (4 UL)
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See detailEndogenous trade restrictions and exporters' pricing behavior
Rovegno Malharin, Laura UL

Presentation (2013, October)

This paper analyses the effect of antidumping (AD) duties on the pricing behaviour of exporters targeted with these measures. Using product and firm-level data for South Korea, the study provides evidence ... [more ▼]

This paper analyses the effect of antidumping (AD) duties on the pricing behaviour of exporters targeted with these measures. Using product and firm-level data for South Korea, the study provides evidence of increased export unit values and firms’ markups following the imposition of AD ad valorem duties. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that, unlike other import tariffs, AD duties are not absorbed by exporters. The results on firms’ average markups also suggest that the price adjustment following the imposition of AD duties occurs mostly through the export price, and not through reductions in the exporter’s home price. The analysis controls for the presence of other trade measures as well as the endogeneity in AD and other contingent protection measures. Keywords: Endogenous trade policy, Import tariffs, Ad valorem duties, Antidumping, Markup, Unit values, Contingent protection. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 36 (0 UL)
See detailSustainable Migration Policies
Picard, Pierre M. UL

Presentation (2013, October)

Detailed reference viewed: 47 (6 UL)
See detailEco-Systems Biology of activated sludge microbial communities
Wilmes, Paul UL

Presentation (2013, October)

Detailed reference viewed: 30 (0 UL)
See detailLänderbericht Luxemburg: Épreuves Standardisées (ÉpStan)
Fischbach, Antoine UL; Martin, Romain UL

Presentation (2013, October)

Detailed reference viewed: 81 (9 UL)
See detailCarbon tax, pollution and firms' location
Exbrayat, Nelly; Riou, Stéphane; Zanaj, Skerdilajda UL

Presentation (2013, October)

Detailed reference viewed: 62 (4 UL)
See detailBenefits of computer-based assessments. A psychological perspective.
Greiff, Samuel UL

Presentation (2013, October)

Detailed reference viewed: 55 (0 UL)
See detailTrade, economic geography and the choice of product quality
Picard, Pierre M. UL

Presentation (2013, October)

Detailed reference viewed: 103 (6 UL)
See detailPotentiale technologiebasierter Kompetenzerfassung. Das Beispiel Komplexes Problemlösen
Greiff, Samuel UL; Funke, Joachim

Presentation (2013, October)

Detailed reference viewed: 89 (2 UL)
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See detailIn defense of strong virtue epistemology: how to explain success by ability
Hofmann, Frank UL

Presentation (2013, September 30)

Detailed reference viewed: 114 (1 UL)
See detailDer Bologna-Prozess und seine Auswirkungen auf die Praxis
Ehrhart, Sabine UL

Presentation (2013, September 27)

Detailed reference viewed: 88 (4 UL)
See detailApplication of Theory/Theories in Development Studies: An Approach
Wayessa, Gutu Olana UL

Presentation (2013, September 16)

Detailed reference viewed: 55 (0 UL)
See detailLanguage Contact and creolization as strategies of implicit language policy
Ehrhart, Sabine UL

Presentation (2013, September 08)

Detailed reference viewed: 91 (3 UL)
See detailThe Future of Design Management Research
Gericke, Kilian UL

Presentation (2013, September 04)

Detailed reference viewed: 66 (0 UL)
See detailFactor complexity of S-adic sequences
Leroy, Julien UL

Presentation (2013, September)

Detailed reference viewed: 33 (1 UL)
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See detailUn inverse à l'application d'antisymétrisation de Cartan et Eilenberg
Riviere, Salim UL

Presentation (2013, September)

We define an explicit inverse to the antisymmetrization isomorphism between the Chevalley-Eilenberg homology of a Lie algebra and the Hochschild homology of its universal enveloping algebra, when the ... [more ▼]

We define an explicit inverse to the antisymmetrization isomorphism between the Chevalley-Eilenberg homology of a Lie algebra and the Hochschild homology of its universal enveloping algebra, when the groud ring contains the rational numbers. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 54 (1 UL)
See detailOrphan Works Best Practices Focus Group
Takats, Sean UL

Presentation (2013, September)

Detailed reference viewed: 14 (0 UL)
See detailReligion and school revisted
Barbu, Ragnhild UL

Presentation (2013, August 30)

Detailed reference viewed: 70 (1 UL)
See detailThe 2nd MYNT
Yoo, Hwajong UL

Presentation (2013, August 28)

We present the multiplicity one theorem for Eisenstein maximal ideals.

Detailed reference viewed: 89 (0 UL)
See detailModular forms and the inverse Galois problem for PSL_2( Z /p^n Z )
Adibhatla, Rajender UL

Presentation (2013, August 28)

Detailed reference viewed: 39 (0 UL)
See detailPure and Applied Number Theory Conference
Yoo, Hwajong UL

Presentation (2013, August 12)

We present the multiplicity one theorem for Eisenstein maximal ideals.

Detailed reference viewed: 51 (0 UL)
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See detailThe Electre like outranking approach to MCDA
Bisdorff, Raymond UL

Presentation (2013, August)

Detailed reference viewed: 40 (0 UL)
See detailIntensive workshop on Fermat's last theorem
Yoo, Hwajong UL

Presentation (2013, August)

We give 9 lectures about Wiles' proof on Fermat's Last Theorem.

Detailed reference viewed: 378 (2 UL)
See detailOhne Glutamat - No MSG: Shelf label design in a Thai supermarket in rural Germany
Serwe, Stefan Karl UL

Presentation (2013, July 11)

Ethnic businesses are physical manifestations of the mobility of humans and goods around the globe. At the same time they constitute spaces for multilingual practices (c.f. Collier, 2010, 2011; Hewitt ... [more ▼]

Ethnic businesses are physical manifestations of the mobility of humans and goods around the globe. At the same time they constitute spaces for multilingual practices (c.f. Collier, 2010, 2011; Hewitt 2008; Leung 2009). One such practice is the design of shelf labels: typically small, rectangular pieces of paper attached to the edge of a product display featuring the price and the product’s name. This paper intends to shed light on the language use on handwritten shelf labels in a small convenience store in rural Germany that offers products from Southeast and East Asia. The analysis shall elucidate the web of factors that leads to the mono- and multilingual materiality of these signs. The data are photographs of shelf labels taken during the on-going ethnographic investigation into the language practices of self-employed business owners with a Thai migration background. Oral accounts by the producer of these signs are also used. The signs will be analysed from a semiotic angle (Scollon and Scollon (2003), Jaworski & Thurlow (2010)), in order to attempt to account for the language use on these labels as part of a workplace practice. The analysis reveals that content and code preference on the shelf labels are the result of an interplay between the product on display, as well as assumptions about the clients’ language and conceptual knowledge. Therefore, the paper concludes that the production of these labels constitutes material evidence for practiced transculturality (Pütz 2003) exercised by many migrant businesspeople [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 71 (1 UL)
See detailAccélération et voyage temporel dans la littérature et la BD
Freyermuth, Sylvie UL

Presentation (2013, July 09)

Detailed reference viewed: 76 (2 UL)
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See detail3D Modellierung von Festbettreaktoren mit Hilfe der XDEM
Hoffmann, Florian UL

Presentation (2013, July 05)

Detailed reference viewed: 100 (2 UL)
See detailManaging language diversity in multilingual workplaces : the specific case of Luxembourg
Langinier, Hélène; Ehrhart, Sabine UL

Presentation (2013, July 04)

Detailed reference viewed: 110 (23 UL)
See detailImpact of Usability on Computer-Based Concept Maps in Educational Assessment
Weinerth, Katja UL; Koenig, Vincent UL; Brunner, Martin et al

Presentation (2013, July 03)

Detailed reference viewed: 87 (7 UL)
See detailFrom integrated omics to Eco-Systems Biology of mixed microbial communities
Wilmes, Paul UL

Presentation (2013, July)

Detailed reference viewed: 42 (1 UL)
See detailCommodity taxation and regulatory competition
Picard, Pierre M. UL; Moriconi, Simone; Zanaj, Skerdilajda UL

Presentation (2013, July)

Detailed reference viewed: 69 (8 UL)
See detailStudy of the Old/New Legal Problems of the Nile Basin
Al Hajjaji, Shams Al Din UL

Presentation (2013, July)

Detailed reference viewed: 36 (0 UL)
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See detailCrystallization Close to the Glass Transition: Dynamic heterogeneities do not precede crystallization
Dorosz, Sven UL

Presentation (2013, July)

We address the question whether a crystallization event can be predicted based on observations of the mobility distribution in a supersaturated melt. We have carried out computer simulations of ... [more ▼]

We address the question whether a crystallization event can be predicted based on observations of the mobility distribution in a supersaturated melt. We have carried out computer simulations of overcompressed suspensions of hard monodisperse ellipsoids and observed their crystallization dynamics. The system was compressed very rapidly in order to reach the regime of slow, glass-like dynamics. We nd that, although particle dynamics become sub-diffusive and the intermediate scattering function clearly develops a shoulder, crystallization proceeds via the usual scenario: nucleation and growth for small supersaturations, spinodal decomposition for large supersaturations. In particular, we compared the mobility of the particles in those regions where crystallization set in with the mobility in the rest of the system. We did not find any signature in the dynamics that pointed towards the imminent crystallization event. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 70 (1 UL)
See detailKonzepte und Indikatoren zur Ermittlung von Exklusionsrisiken (3-tägiger Workshop)
Heinen, Andreas UL; Decieux, Jean Philippe Pierre UL

Presentation (2013, July)

Die Veranstaltung gibt eine Einführung in die Konzepte und Indikatoren zur Ermittlung von Exklusionsrisiken. Als Workshop konzipiert, bietet die Veranstaltung den Studierenden zudem die Gelegenheit, die ... [more ▼]

Die Veranstaltung gibt eine Einführung in die Konzepte und Indikatoren zur Ermittlung von Exklusionsrisiken. Als Workshop konzipiert, bietet die Veranstaltung den Studierenden zudem die Gelegenheit, die vorgestellten Konzepte anhand ausgewählter Themen und Fragestellungen anzuwenden und weiter zu vertiefen. Das erste Modul umfasst eine Einführung in die theoretischen Grundlagen des Konzepts der Exklusion und erläutert die verschiedenen Dimensionen der Exklusion (ökonomisch, politisch-institutionell, kulturell, sozial) Im zweiten Modul bearbeiten die Teilnehmer im Rahmen von Gruppenarbeiten diese verschiedenen Dimensionen der Exklusion auf der Grundlage ausgewählter Literatur. Die Ergebnisse der Gruppenarbeiten werden im Anschluss von den Studierenden in Form von Kurzreferaten vorgestellt und diskutiert. Das dritte Modul beschäftigt sich mit den theoretischen und methodischen Grundlagen der Indikatorenbildung. Im vierten Modul erarbeiten die Studierenden am Beispiel ausgewählter Dimensionen von Exklusion ein Indikatorenkonzept welches im Anschluss vorgestellt wird. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 117 (13 UL)
See detailSocial interactions, social capital and urban structure
Picard, Pierre M. UL

Presentation (2013, July)

Detailed reference viewed: 61 (2 UL)
See detailTrends and Players in tax policy: Greece
Pantazatou, Aikaterini UL

Presentation (2013, July)

Detailed reference viewed: 53 (0 UL)
See detailThe 10th KWMS international conference
Yoo, Hwajong UL

Presentation (2013, June 20)

We discussed level-raising method for residually reducible Galois representations.

Detailed reference viewed: 1068 (4 UL)
See detailWhy RRCHNM? (Pourquoi le RRCHNM ?)
Takats, Sean UL

Presentation (2013, June 13)

Detailed reference viewed: 14 (0 UL)
See detailGetting the job done: Truncated multilingualism among Asian small business owners in Europe
Serwe, Stefan Karl UL

Presentation (2013, June 12)

The traditional concept of individual multilingualism in linguistics as the balanced competence in multiple monolingual norms has received its fair share of criticism throughout the last two decades ... [more ▼]

The traditional concept of individual multilingualism in linguistics as the balanced competence in multiple monolingual norms has received its fair share of criticism throughout the last two decades (Rampton 1995, Blommaert et al. 2005; Pennycook 2012). Multilingual competence is more adequately captured as domain-specific and practice-centred knowledge. This is particularly so for the multilingualism of migrants, which Blommaert (2010:23) describes as “repertoires composed of specialized but partially and unevenly developed resources”, or truncated multilingualism. Such multilingual repertoires comprise various language resources at different degrees of competence. While some resources may be maximally developed to include a range of receptive and productive skills, others may only be partially or minimally developed. Consequently, an individual’s truncated repertoire represents “a patchwork of skills” (Blommaert & Backus 2011). However, there is still little empirical evidence on how such patchworks are constituted. The aim of this paper is to trace how truncated multilingualism develops in relation to professional practice. More specifically, we present an investigation into the construction of linguistic repertoires of self-employed small business owners from Asia in the borderlands of Germany, France and Luxembourg, a population generally overlooked in workplace studies. First, we attempt to clarify the types of communicative competence required at these workplaces. Second, we identify how immigrant entrepreneurs use and develop the resources in their multilingual repertoires to complete work tasks. Our focus here is on two case studies of entrepreneurs from Thailand. Biographical interviews, participant-aided visualisations of professional practices, as well as participant observations of these entrepreneurs at their workplaces constitute the data. We are thus able to investigate and construct each entrepreneur’s multilingual repertoire following Blommaert & Backus (forthcoming). The results show that language resources are applied and developed within the affordances of workplace practices. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 153 (8 UL)
See detailLe projet de clinique de droit de la consommation de l'Université du Luxembourg
Poillot, Elise UL

Presentation (2013, June 08)

Detailed reference viewed: 73 (1 UL)
See detailLes épreuves standardisées (ÉpStan) au Luxembourg
Fischbach, Antoine UL; Dierendonck, Christophe UL

Presentation (2013, June)

Detailed reference viewed: 178 (11 UL)
See detailTrade, economic geography and the choice of product quality”
Picard, Pierre M. UL

Presentation (2013, June)

Detailed reference viewed: 101 (8 UL)
See detailAgglomeration Luxembourg and Zurich North: A research exercise in relational urban comparison
Carr, Constance UL

Presentation (2013, June)

The SUSTAIN_GOV research team aims at investigating sustainable spatial development policies in the context of governance, both with respect to both Luxembourg and, by way of comparison, Switzerland, a ... [more ▼]

The SUSTAIN_GOV research team aims at investigating sustainable spatial development policies in the context of governance, both with respect to both Luxembourg and, by way of comparison, Switzerland, a country: often considered at the cutting edge of innovative approaches in spatial planning policies in Europe; similar to Lux in terms of economic success, a high degree of internationalisation, and patterns of urbanization; with a model of spatial planning grounded in the legal and political context of direct democracy, which may provide insights into modes of participation and horizontal consensus building in Luxembourg. Particular focus is placed on the so called Glattal-Stadt in the area of Zurich Nord. The primary objective is to examine ways obstacles in governance can be overcome to realize programmes of integrated sustainable development. The project builds directly on the foundations established by the “SUSTAINLUX Project” that has thus far shown that the Grand Duchy’s policy, planning practices, and institutions of governance remain underdeveloped. In light of intense urbanization pressures, the strong strains on land resources and infrastructure, and the political dilemmas these issues raise, policy, planning and governance practices in the Grand Duchy fail to implement strategies of development, and are particularly deficient in the domain citizen involvement in public decision-making. Through relational comparative study, SUSTAIN_GOV aims to bring into focus a more nuanced scientific understanding of par-ticipation, governance, and integrated sustainable spatial development, and an in-depth evaluation of existing spatial planning, policy, and governance patterns in the Grand Duchy. The research is informed by set of conceptual approaches that shape current urban and re-gional literatures: 1) the organizing processes of social, institutional, and political arrangements as seen in the works of Krueger and Gibbs 2012); 2) Brenner's (2004) work on state restructuring, scale and re-scaling; and, 3) the ‘comparative turn’ in urban studies as seen in the works of Ward (2010) and Robinson (2011). [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 128 (2 UL)
See detailThe Interplay between Language and Numbers in Bilinguals
Van Rinsveld, Amandine UL

Presentation (2013, June)

Detailed reference viewed: 69 (4 UL)
See detailNicht-heterosexuelle Identitäten in der empirisch-psychologischen Forschung
Niepel, Christoph UL

Presentation (2013, May 21)

Detailed reference viewed: 46 (4 UL)
See detailHigher companion forms via Galois deformation theory
Adibhatla, Rajender UL

Presentation (2013, May 13)

Detailed reference viewed: 49 (0 UL)
See detailKinder lernen Sprachen durch das Erzählen von Geschichten
Kirsch, Claudine UL

Presentation (2013, May 02)

Detailed reference viewed: 202 (9 UL)
See detailIntegration vs. fragmentation: Spatial governance for land and mobility – the case of Luxembourg
Hesse, Markus UL; Carr, Constance UL

Presentation (2013, May)

Introduction We critically explore a set of policies that attempt to control the interplay of spaces (housing) and flows (mobility) through so called integrative approaches. The research looks at ... [more ▼]

Introduction We critically explore a set of policies that attempt to control the interplay of spaces (housing) and flows (mobility) through so called integrative approaches. The research looks at processes in the small state of Luxembourg, which has pursued economic na-tional sovereignty by positioning itself in cross national flows as an attractive niche for economic development. In recent years, this has unfolded as the highly successful transition from an industrial based economy to one that rests on financial services and a high degree of internationalization. This development trajectory, however, has cre-ated a set of deeply fragmented growth poles, most notably the office-archipelagos that have emerged across the country. Development was and still is concentrated at preferred locations such as the office town of Kirchberg, the emerging research city (Cité des Sciences) in Esch-Belval, the office islands at the Southern periphery of the Capital City (such as Cloche d’Or), or in Munsbach, a small town just 15 kilometres East of Luxembourg City. Developments at these poles stand in stark contrast to, and have put pressure on, the rather micro-local oriented infrastructure and built environment seen throughout the rest of the country. In effect, these growth poles have put pressure on the real es-tate market, squeezing out housing due to the profit gap between office, retail and housing rents. Further, they generate massive commuter traffic, the majority of which is still organized around the private automobile. Finally, they also ensure a certain sense of disintegration in terms of urban design. In response to the dynamics named above, planning officials formulated a set of spatially integrative sustainable development guidelines that postulated sector integra-tion, drawing upon normative orientations (central place theory), and prioritizing in-ternational objectives of European consolidation over local integration. Mobility issues, particularly the flow of people (goods are handled as well, but this is a different story), are a most critical component of this development trajectory. Our research interest is to clarify whether the deliberately “integrated” planning strategies are appropriate in the context of an increasingly fragmented spatial pattern, and the related system of institutional fragmentation that polarizes the two hegemonic levels of governance – the national and municipal. Conceptual framework In conceptual terms, our research lends to Stead/Meijers’ (2009) critique of ‘integra-tion’ in spatial regards and also critical review of contemporary planning philosophy by Allmendinger/Haughton (2009). It particularly confronts the good intentions of spatial planning with the ‘hard’ realities of political economic development, which seems to be particularly relevant concerning the case of Luxembourg, with its ex-traordinary success story and business model of providing a safe haven for financial industries and modern services. “The notion of spatial planning is slippery. This malleability is important in allowing these notions to gain rapid and widespread acceptance, in a process which simul-taneously manages to place them within the policy mainstream and marginalize or co-opt dissenting voices. “ (A&H 2009, 2547) Spatial planning as a win-win project that presents “’planning’ as: (i) having ‘moved on’ from its previous incarnations and all the critical baggage that it had picked up, (ii) seeming to provide a progressive alter-native to the ‘ planning retreat’ of early neoliberal experiments , whist (iii) accommo-dating an adapted Third Way neoliberal agenda.” Allmendinger and Haughton encapsulated the problem: “advocates of spatial plan-ning share a naivety about the nature of contested spaces and thee role of spatial plan-ning. The assumption is that spatial planning, if undertaken in an open, transparent, and collaborative way will lead to consensus and , ultimately, better development. But experience shows that intractable tensions may be eased through at the level of pro-ducing strategic documents, only for problems to surface at the level of implementa-tion.” Further, “the realpolitik of planning allows the system to be hijacked and abused, not least, by those intent on preserving the status-quo.” Methodology, research strategy In our paper, a constructivist approach was practiced, including an extensive docu-ment survey, a series of conversational interviews with experts from various fields of engagement, and participant observation. These materials were then carefully and sys-tematically assessed through the application of qualitative research techniques (tran-scription, coding, and interpretation). Our empirical data was drawn from the research project SUSTAINLUX that was conducted between 2010 and 2013, and funded by the Fonds National de la Recher-che (FNR), Luxembourg. The general aim of this project was to critically assess the rationale behind and strategies towards achieving a sustainable spatial development in Luxembourg, with a particular emphasis placed on spatial governance and related strategies and practices. Housing and mobility were two fields where we engaged in a more detailed investigation. Before summarizing the research, our major findings were jointly discussed with, and thus fed back to, a selected number of interviewees, in order to situate our interpretations in the wider realm of possible lines of thought. It turned out that, though our findings can be considered being quite critical, this second round of conversation revealed a high degree of consensus among the participants, concerning our attempt to assess and interpret the findings most appropriately. Major findings - The Integrated Approach doesn’t meet the Mark Our overall finding was that the steps and measures undertaken by the government towards achieving a sustainable spatial development are indeed effectively flawed, and the concept of integration is part of the problem. Such policies, at least, fail to re-solve the critical situation described above. Just as Stead and Meijers (2009, 326) can identify five factors – political, institutional, financial, procedural, behavioural – that inhibit integration, our results show that the “centralist”, density- or integration-based approach fails in meeting its mark, primarily for three reasons: First, an overstated policy of decentralized concentration, which is viewed as being integrative from the state level creates severe spatial imbalances at local levels; as long as office floor space continues to increase (and this indeed represents the current unique selling point of Luxembourg as an ideal business setting and location), decen-tralized concentration deepens the functional and thus spatial mismatch, instead of resolving the issue; Second, these policies are also limited in terms of their objective to optimize com-muter traffic, since concentration is only targeted at one end of the mobility chain (destination wise), whereas the other ends (the origins of the commuter flows) are lo-cated rather remotely and are quite dispersed. It appears difficult to co-ordinate these flows by traditional transit systems. This is first evident in the documents. All the maps show only Luxembourg (In-nenministerium et al. 2004; Ministère de l’Intérieur 2003). Indeed there are concep-tions of the Grand Region, (where Luxembourg is placed at the centre). Transport plans and densities are located solely within the nations boundaries. At a meeting of ESPON in November 2011, one panellist suggested subsidizing neighbouring munic-ipalities across the border in Belgium or France. This was met with widespread scep-ticism in the audience. The reaction reflects the unwillingness or inability, which may be grounded on practical rather than political reasons, to transcend national borders. Third, instead of addressing problems of uncoordinated and conflicting authorities at various spatial scales, the strategies presume a clean system-wide durable “Russian Doll” architecture of how state and municipalities interact and collaborate. Hooghe and Marks (2003; 2004) are often credited with the Russian Doll metaphor of Europe-an governance: General-purpose jurisdictions (Type I) describe governance arrange-ments that include a specified number of governments from the local to the interna-tional, whereby the smaller jurisdictions are contained within wider ones. While their work has been widely questioned (Mahon and Keil, 2009; Brenner et al., 2003; Af-folderbach and Carr in review; Jessop, 2005), the central concept is reflected in Lux-embourg’s spatial planning policies. Reminiscent again of Allmendinger and Haugh-ton (2009), the assumption is that policy can be asserted in an orderly and predictable manner if only the correct actors are gathered at the right time and place. Spatial Planning policies were largely informed by European strategies and initia-tives. As a member state, Luxembourg was to carry forward with its corresponding commitments. In line with these responsibilities, local politicians formulated the spa-tial arrangement of Luxembourg territories. Further, national ministries were net-worked in order to bring their expertise to the table. The final step was to give the Sector Plans legal backing so that they can be instituted with ease. It is clear that Lux-embourg governing officials understand their political structure as a collection of dis-crete jurisdictional units neatly ordered under a national level. These jurisdictions are further general purpose (not task specific) and are organized across two levels of mu-nicipal and federal government. The spatial planning guidelines are explicitly integrative. The features of integrative policies defined by Stead and Meijers (2009) can be observed - comprehensiveness, aggregated topically, encompassing. Integrated policies address issues that “transcend the boundaries of established policy fields, and that do not correspond to the institutional responsibilities of individual departments,” (Stead and Meijers, 2009, 321). This is clearly seen as the Sector Plans were created by representatives from a cross-section of national ministries. But it is not only the actors that are cross-governmental. The topics themselves are cross-disciplinary. Some have called this type of policy “holistic” (ibid.) as they try to attempt to address topics of a broader scope than those bound within the frameworks of isolated functional systems. Ten years after their inception, the Sector Plans still await legal ratification. So long as the Sector Plans are not passed, the national government relies on the so called, Convention Agreements. These are contracts that oblige signing Municipalities to act following a set of agreement requirements (Bentz 2011). Often Municipalities receive said rewards (subsidies, for example) for achieving named goals. Recently, the Convention Agreements have come into play to endorse the three growth poles of the nation: the City of Luxembourg, Esch-sur-Alzette (Sud), and the Nordstad. The Convention Agreement approach has achieved limited success. For this reason, Spatial Planning officials continue to endorse legal ratification of the Sector Plans. As already noted elsewhere (Carr, forthcoming; Affolderbach and Carr, in review), the lethargy is likely a sign of domestic structural mismatches. “The political structure that characterizes Luxembourg land-use planning today is one that was founded on notions of municipal autonomy, relatively horizontal modes of negotiation, and indi-vidual private property rights where land-owners and local politicians are the gate-keepers to land-use,” (Carr, forthcoming). The nation is divided into 106 Municipali-ties, each of which define land-use and zoning, and the majority of which are sparsely populated such that many know Municipal land-use decision-makers personally. Fur-ther, many local politicians fulfil second function as Chamber Deputies in Parliament. The small state government architecture thus reveals a variety of conflicts of interest, and the distribution of power and decision-making is hotly contested, particularly be-tween the state and the municipalities. Further impeding a clean system-wide architecture in which spatial planning can be implemented, are respective relations between gatekeepers to land-use and the private sector. High land prices and low land taxes have endorsed speculation. Moreover, the sometimes not very transparent means of land-use designation, created in part as a result of horizontal closely knit governance networks, have led some to wonder if pro-jects that are likely to be realized are those that promise to be lucrative. The result is further “fragmentation through integration.” Conclusion Although it has to be acknowledged that Luxembourg represents a rather specific case of an emerging medium-sized, cross-border metropolitan area, there are some lessons to be learned in more general terms. These lessons refer particularly to the long-standing debate on integrative spatial planning and the so-called nexus of ‘driving and the built environment’. Our research confirms the literature that has critically dis-cussed the integration of spaces and flows in more analytical, less normative terms. Integration turns out to be more complex than often suggested, and cannot simply be managed by establishing integrated policy concepts. This is even more so given the complex arrangement of horizontal and vertical modes of governance. Also, it is widely acknowledged that the various elements of urbanisation are characterized by obviously different, often competing or contradictory logics of development. The ways that places and flows interact and conflict with one another, how they are changing over time, and also how they are subject to contested debates, leave enough space for further investigation and claims for developing a more adaptive and flexible, less rigid policy model. Additions, maybe to be folded into conclusion..? • Clearly, the goal is clearly to address changing needs that require not only transcending and joining-up otherwise distinct administrative and conceptual boundaries, but also purposefully making the most from the benefits that can be extracted from such synergies. Normatively, integrated policy can address, at least in theory, the need “to overcome artificial organizational boundaries; to tolerate a significant degree of uncertainty and probability in the policy-making process; to interact closely with stakeholders and citizens; and, signif-icantly, to engage in flexible, creative and systemic thinking which is “holistic” rather than linear or partial in character” (Givoni et al. 2013, 2). • Yet, one wonders if the underlying goals have been addressed in the Luxem-bourgish system. Not only is there a clear lethargy of legalizing the set of inte-grative policies, but it appears that they have not succeeded in overcoming the “isolationist” or “piecemeal” (Givoni et al. 2013, 3) approach characteristic of traditional Luxembourg to land use. In the worst case, integrated planning may have been conceived instead, “from above” to be applied “below” and with force if necessary. • Is there a way to strategically advance “joined-up government” and “integrat-ed policy” towards effective policy intervention? This question was raised by Givoni et. al (2013). • Without claiming to have discovered a blue-print for successful policy design, they find that the key lies in a “policy packaging” process that has “deep and holistic appreciation of policy subsystems, together with a structured approach” • It would seem that these are certainly lacking in the present system of inte-grated planning in Luxembourg. References Affolderbach, Julia, and Constance Carr. submitted for review. “Blending Scales of Governance: Land Use Policies and Practices in a Small State.” Regional Studies Special Issue forthcoming Allen, John, and Allen Cochrane. 2007. “Beyond the Territorial Fix: Regional As-semblages, Politics and Power.” Regional Studies 41 (9): 1161–1175. Bentz, Myriam. 2011. “Staatlich-Interkommunale Kooperationsprozesse Im Bereich Der Stadt- Und Regionalentwicklung.” In Raumordnung in Luxemburg/ A-ménagement Du Territoire Au Luxembourg, edited by Tobias Chilla and Christian Schulz, 190–205. Luxembourg: Éditions Guy Binsfeld. Faludi, Andreas. 2012. “Multi-level (territorial) Governance: Three Criticisms.” Planning Theory & Practice 13 (2): 197–211. Givoni, Moshe, James MacMilllan, David Banister, and Eran Feitelson. 2013. “From Policy Measures to Policy Packages.” Transport Reviews 33 (1): 1–20. Hooghe, Lisbet, and Gary Marks. 2003. “Unraveling the Central State, but How? Ty-pes of Multi-level Governance.” American Political Science Review 97 (2): 233–243. Innenministerium, Transportministerium, Ministerium für Öffentliche Bauten, and Umweltministerium. 2004. “An Integrated Transport and Spatial Development Concept for Luxembourg (IVL)”. L.A.U.B. Gesellschaft für Landschaftsana-lyse und Umweltbewertung mbH. http://www.ivl.public.lu/documents/de/IVL_Bericht_Januar_2004_-_integral1.pdf. Jessop, Bob. 2005. “The Political Economy of Scale and European Governance.” Tijdschrift Voor Economische En Sociale Geografie 96 (2): 225–230. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9663.2005.00453.x. Jonas, Andrew E G. 2006. “Pro Scale: Further Reflections on the ‘scale Debate’ in Human Geography.” Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 31 (3): 399–406. doi:10.1111/j.1475-5661.2006.00210.x. Jordan, A. 2001. “The European Union: An Evolving System of Multi-level Govern-ance ... or Government?” Policy & Politics 29 (2): 193–208. Jordan, Andrew. 2008. “The Governance of Sustainable Development: Taking Stock and Looking Forwards.” Environment and Planning C: Government and Poli-cy 26 (1): 17 – 33. doi:10.1068/cav6. Marks, Gary, and Liesbet Hooghe. 2004. “Contrasting Visions of Multi-level Govern-ance.” In Multi-level Governance, edited by Ian Bache and Matthew Flinders, 15–30. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Ministère de l’Intérieur. 2003. “Programme Directeur D’Amenagement du Territoire”. Le Gouvernement du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg. http://www.miat.public.lu/publications/amenagement_territoire/index.html. Stubbs, Paul. 2005. “Stretching Concepts Too Far? Multi-level Governance, Policy Transfer and the Politics of Scale in South East Europe.” Southeast European Politics VI (2): 66–87. [less ▲]

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