References of "E-prints/Working papers"      in Complete repository Arts & humanities   Archaeology   Art & art history   Classical & oriental studies   History   Languages & linguistics   Literature   Performing arts   Philosophy & ethics   Religion & theology   Multidisciplinary, general & others Business & economic sciences   Accounting & auditing   Production, distribution & supply chain management   Finance   General management & organizational theory   Human resources management   Management information systems   Marketing   Strategy & innovation   Quantitative methods in economics & management   General economics & history of economic thought   International economics   Macroeconomics & monetary economics   Microeconomics   Economic systems & public economics   Social economics   Special economic topics (health, labor, transportation…)   Multidisciplinary, general & others Engineering, computing & technology   Aerospace & aeronautics engineering   Architecture   Chemical engineering   Civil engineering   Computer science   Electrical & electronics engineering   Energy   Geological, petroleum & mining engineering   Materials science & engineering   Mechanical engineering   Multidisciplinary, general & others Human health sciences   Alternative medicine   Anesthesia & intensive care   Cardiovascular & respiratory systems   Dentistry & oral medicine   Dermatology   Endocrinology, metabolism & nutrition   Forensic medicine   Gastroenterology & hepatology   General & internal medicine   Geriatrics   Hematology   Immunology & infectious disease   Laboratory medicine & medical technology   Neurology   Oncology   Ophthalmology   Orthopedics, rehabilitation & sports medicine   Otolaryngology   Pediatrics   Pharmacy, pharmacology & toxicology   Psychiatry   Public health, health care sciences & services   Radiology, nuclear medicine & imaging   Reproductive medicine (gynecology, andrology, obstetrics)   Rheumatology   Surgery   Urology & nephrology   Multidisciplinary, general & others Law, criminology & political science   Civil law   Criminal law & procedure   Criminology   Economic & commercial law   European & international law   Judicial law   Metalaw, Roman law, history of law & comparative law   Political science, public administration & international relations   Public law   Social law   Tax law   Multidisciplinary, general & others Life sciences   Agriculture & agronomy   Anatomy (cytology, histology, embryology...) & physiology   Animal production & animal husbandry   Aquatic sciences & oceanology   Biochemistry, biophysics & molecular biology   Biotechnology   Entomology & pest control   Environmental sciences & ecology   Food science   Genetics & genetic processes   Microbiology   Phytobiology (plant sciences, forestry, mycology...)   Veterinary medicine & animal health   Zoology   Multidisciplinary, general & others Physical, chemical, mathematical & earth Sciences   Chemistry   Earth sciences & physical geography   Mathematics   Physics   Space science, astronomy & astrophysics   Multidisciplinary, general & others Social & behavioral sciences, psychology   Animal psychology, ethology & psychobiology   Anthropology   Communication & mass media   Education & instruction   Human geography & demography   Library & information sciences   Neurosciences & behavior   Regional & inter-regional studies   Social work & social policy   Sociology & social sciences   Social, industrial & organizational psychology   Theoretical & cognitive psychology   Treatment & clinical psychology   Multidisciplinary, general & others     Showing results 701 to 800 of 1502     3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13     Toward a Democratic, Effective and Accessible Jordanian Constitutional CourtAl Hajjaji, Shams Al Din E-print/Working paper (2017)Detailed reference viewed: 44 (1 UL) Politische, soziale und rechtliche Systeme und der "westkulturelle Pluralismus"Marthaler, Thomas ; Haas, Claude E-print/Working paper (2017)Detailed reference viewed: 167 (18 UL) La grande région SaarLorLux, riche de ses travailleurs frontaliersPigeron-Piroth, Isabelle ; Belkacem, RachidE-print/Working paper (2016)Detailed reference viewed: 105 (7 UL) Fractional charge oscillations in quantum spin Hall quantum dotsTraverso Ziani, Nicolo; Fleckenstein, Christoph; Dolcetto, Giacomo et alE-print/Working paper (2016)We show that correlated two-particle backscattering can induce fractional charge oscillations in a quantum dot built at the edge of a two-dimensional topological insulator by means of magnetic barriers ... [more ▼]We show that correlated two-particle backscattering can induce fractional charge oscillations in a quantum dot built at the edge of a two-dimensional topological insulator by means of magnetic barriers. The result nicely complements recent works where the fractional oscillations were obtained employing of semiclassical treatments. Moreover, since by rotating the magnetization of the barriers a fractional charge can be trapped in the dot via the Jackiw-Rebbi mechanism, the system we analyze offers the opportunity to study the interplay between this noninteracting charge fractionalization and the fractionalization due to two-particle backscattering. In this context, we demonstrate that the number of fractional oscillations of the charge density depends on the magnetization angle. Finally, we address the renormalization induced by two-particle backscattering on the spin density, which is characterized by a dominant oscillation, sensitive to the Jackiw-Rebbi charge, with a wavelength twice as large as the charge density oscillations. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 70 (3 UL) Une minorité de citoyens reste nostalgiqueParavantis, Spero E-print/Working paper (2016)Au cours de l’automne 1991, les républiques constituantes de l’Union soviétique proclamaient, l’une après l’autre, leur indépendance. Il y a 25 ans, avec la création de la Communauté des États ... [more ▼]Au cours de l’automne 1991, les républiques constituantes de l’Union soviétique proclamaient, l’une après l’autre, leur indépendance. Il y a 25 ans, avec la création de la Communauté des États indépendants (CEI), la superpuissance URSS a cessé d’exister d’un jour à l’autre. Dr. Spero S.Z. Paravantis de l’Université du Luxembourg revient sur ce grand chapitre de l’histoire. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 68 (7 UL) Adventskalender, Tag 3: Gedanken und Wünsche für Hochbegabte.Baudson, Tanja Gabriele E-print/Working paper (2016)Detailed reference viewed: 50 (0 UL) Adventskalender, Tag 2: Gedanken und Wünsche für Hochbegabte.Baudson, Tanja Gabriele E-print/Working paper (2016)Detailed reference viewed: 43 (0 UL) Counting curves, and the stable length of currentsErlandsson, Viveka; Parlier, Hugo ; Souto, JuanE-print/Working paper (2016)Let $\gamma_0$ be a curve on a surface $\Sigma$ of genus $g$ and with $r$ boundary components and let $\pi_1(\Sigma)\curvearrowright X$ be a discrete and cocompact action on some metric space. We study ... [more ▼]Let $\gamma_0$ be a curve on a surface $\Sigma$ of genus $g$ and with $r$ boundary components and let $\pi_1(\Sigma)\curvearrowright X$ be a discrete and cocompact action on some metric space. We study the asymptotic behavior of the number of curves $\gamma$ of type $\gamma_0$ with translation length at most $L$ on $X$. For example, as an application, we derive that for any finite generating set $S$ of $\pi_1(\Sigma)$ the limit $$\lim_{L\to\infty}\frac 1{L^{6g-6+2r}}\{\gamma\text{ of type }\gamma_0\text{ with }S\text{-translation length}\le L\}$$ exists and is positive. The main new technical tool is that the function which associates to each curve its stable length with respect to the action on $X$ extends to a (unique) continuous and homogenous function on the space of currents. We prove that this is indeed the case for any action of a torsion free hyperbolic group. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 56 (2 UL) The multi-scale analysis of dynamic transmission volatility of carbon pricesNsouadi, Ange; Terraza, Virginie E-print/Working paper (2016)The implementation of the EU ETS in 2005 led to the establishment of a price that enables manufacturers to realize the impact of their activities on the environment clean. There are no items in this day ... [more ▼]The implementation of the EU ETS in 2005 led to the establishment of a price that enables manufacturers to realize the impact of their activities on the environment clean. There are no items in this day, since the creation of the European carbon market, which has focused on the analysis of volatility transmission between different investment horizons. The purpose of this paper is to fill this gap in the literature. we analyze the volatility of the price of carbon quota (EUA), by studying linear and nonlinear causal relationships of wavelet components between the different volatilities that we captured at different time scales. we initially conducted the decomposition of the EUA price volatility at different time-frequency interval using a wavelet approach. Our study will be to examine whether the volatility is transmitted from the high-frequency structure of the carbon price in the low frequency. Our results show an intra-structural dependance in carbon price volatility. We detect instability in the volatility of carbon and observe the existence of a bidirectional relationship from high frequency traders to low frequency traders. Our study showed that high-frequency shocks yields carbon price can have a significant impact beyond their Fontiers and touch the low frequency structure associated with long-term traders [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 93 (6 UL) Inequality and Incentives: The Quasi-Natural Experiment of Hungary, 1914-2008Mavridis, Dimitrios ; Mosberger, PalmaE-print/Working paper (2016)We construct the first top income share series of a formerly socialist economy before, during, and after socialism in order to exploit the effect of the quasi-natural experiment of the absence of markets ... [more ▼]We construct the first top income share series of a formerly socialist economy before, during, and after socialism in order to exploit the effect of the quasi-natural experiment of the absence of markets on incentives. We investigate top income shares dynamics and the sources of income at the upper tail of the income distribution. Within this setup, we study the effect of capital markets and liberalized wage settings on top income shares. Our estimates show that the introduction of wage-setting decentralization during socialism had a role in increasing the skill premium and income inequality in years prior the transition. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 107 (12 UL) Enterprise credit, household credit and growth: New evidence from 126 countriesLeon, Florian E-print/Working paper (2016)This paper attempts to distinguish the effects of household and enterprise credit on economic growth. To do so, I create a new, hand-collected database covering 143 countries over the period 1995-2014 ... [more ▼]This paper attempts to distinguish the effects of household and enterprise credit on economic growth. To do so, I create a new, hand-collected database covering 143 countries over the period 1995-2014 (126 countries are employed for econometric analysis). Estimation results confirm recent evidence documenting the absence of the effect of total credit to growth. Findings also show that household credit has a negative effect on growth, but I fail to provide robust support for a positive effect of business credit. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 216 (14 UL) Arbeitszeitflexibilität in LuxemburgSischka, Philipp ; Steffgen, Georges E-print/Working paper (2016)Männliche Arbeitnehmer weisen im Vergleich zu weiblichen Arbeitnehmern eine höhere Differenz zwischen vertraglich vereinbarter und faktischer Wochenarbeitszeit auf. Differenziert nach Berufsgruppen zeigt ... [more ▼]Männliche Arbeitnehmer weisen im Vergleich zu weiblichen Arbeitnehmern eine höhere Differenz zwischen vertraglich vereinbarter und faktischer Wochenarbeitszeit auf. Differenziert nach Berufsgruppen zeigt sich, dass inbesondere Manager sowie Führungskräfte deutlich mehr arbeiten, als vertraglich festgelegt. Atypische Arbeitszeiten (nach 19 Uhr, nach 22 Uhr oder am Wochenende) treten dagegen insbesondere bei jüngeren Arbeitnehmern (bis 44 Jahre) häufiger auf. Auch zeigen sich hier große Unterschiede über die Berufsgruppen hinweg. Für die Mehrheit der Arbeitnehmer entspricht die vertraglich vereinbarte Stundenzahl ihren Wünschen. Jedoch ist bei den jüngeren Arbeitnehmern der Anteil der Personen, die sich einen Vertrag mit mehr bezahlten Stunden wünschen deutlich höher. Differenziert nach Berufsgruppen äußern vor allem Hilfsarbeitskräfte sowie Arbeitnehmer in Dienstleistungs- und Handwerksberufen den Wunsch mehr bezahlte Stunden zu arbeiten. Die Arbeitszeitbedingungen der Arbeitnehmer weisen auch Zusammenhänge mit erlebten Work-Life-Konflikten, Zeitdruck, Stress und Arbeitszufriedenheit auf. Die Arbeitszeitbedingungen sind außerdem assoziiert mit nächtlichen Schlafstunden sowie mit der Gefährdung durch Burnout. Arbeitnehmer, die 46 Stunden und mehr arbeiten, die häufig atypische Arbeitszeiten haben, oder deren faktische Arbeitszeit stark von der vertraglich vereinbarten Arbeitszeit abweicht, erleben stärker Work-Life-Konflikte, Zeitdruck sowie Stress, geben jedoch eine geringere Arbeitszufriedenheit an, schlafen weniger und weisen eher Burnout auf. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 80 (12 UL) Interrogating surface length spectra and quantifying isospectralityParlier, Hugo E-print/Working paper (2016)This article is about inverse spectral problems for hyperbolic surfaces and in particular how length spectra relate to the geometry of the underlying surface. A quantitative answer is given to the ... [more ▼]This article is about inverse spectral problems for hyperbolic surfaces and in particular how length spectra relate to the geometry of the underlying surface. A quantitative answer is given to the following: how many questions do you need to ask a length spectrum to determine it completely? In answering this, a quantitative upper bound is given on the number of isospectral but non-isometric surfaces of a given genus. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 95 (2 UL) Beziehungen – Liens Relationnels. Realitäten, Perspektiven, Grenzen – réalités, perspectives et limites. Bericht zu einer Befragung von Mitarbeiterinnen und Jugendlichen bei Solidarité Jeunes 2016Peters, Ulla ; Jäger, Julia E-print/Working paper (2016)Solidarité Jeunes asbl in Luxemburg hat eine Befragung zum Thema Beziehungen bei den Professionellen und Jugendlichen in ihren Einrichtungen durchgeführt. Sie beauftragten die Universität damit, die ... [more ▼]Solidarité Jeunes asbl in Luxemburg hat eine Befragung zum Thema Beziehungen bei den Professionellen und Jugendlichen in ihren Einrichtungen durchgeführt. Sie beauftragten die Universität damit, die Ergebnisse aufzubereiten, zu verschriftlichen und bei einer Fachtagung zum 40-jährigen Bestehen des Trägers (bis 2012 Jongenheem asbl) im September 2016 zu präsentieren. Der Fragebogen enthielt Fragen zu den Themen: was verstehen die Jugendlichen und die Professionellen unter einer guten Beziehung, wie gestalten sie diese, welche Rituale gibt es z. B. beim Abschied von Jugendlichen und wie wird dieser vorbereitet. Eine Frage war auch, ob und welche Art von Kontakte nach dem Verlassen der Einrichtung bestehen und für wichtig gehalten werden. Die Befragung basierte auf der Annahme und der Erfahrung, dass Beziehungen ein Schlüsselfaktor und Fundament jeder erfolgreichen pädagogischen Interven- tion sind und damit auch ein zentrales „Arbeitsmittel“. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 197 (9 UL) Notes on a Lie algebraic relationKorvers, Stéphane E-print/Working paper (2016)We exhibit explicit orthogonal decompositions of every multidimensional restricted root space of a real semi-simple Lie algebra. We then show a link between this result and a radiality property of smooth ... [more ▼]We exhibit explicit orthogonal decompositions of every multidimensional restricted root space of a real semi-simple Lie algebra. We then show a link between this result and a radiality property of smooth functions on G-homogeneous spaces when G is a real semi-simple Lie group. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 58 (0 UL) Understanding unemployment scars: A vignette Experiment of employers' decisions in Bulgaria, Greece, Norway and SwitzerlandHyggen, Christer; Imdorf, Christian; Parsanaglou, Dimitris et alE-print/Working paper (2016)Detailed reference viewed: 101 (8 UL) Boosting Early Language as a Foundation for Literacy – Essential but neither Simple nor EasyFricke, Silke; Engel de Abreu, Pascale E-print/Working paper (2016)Detailed reference viewed: 208 (22 UL) Isogeometric finite element analysis of time-harmonic exterior acoustic scattering problemsKhajah, Tahsin; Antoine, Xavier; Bordas, Stéphane E-print/Working paper (2016)We present an isogeometric analysis of time-harmonic exterior acoustic problems. The infinite space is truncated by a fictitious boundary and (simple) absorbing boundary conditions are applied. The ... [more ▼]We present an isogeometric analysis of time-harmonic exterior acoustic problems. The infinite space is truncated by a fictitious boundary and (simple) absorbing boundary conditions are applied. The truncation error is included in the exact solution so that the reported error is an indicator of the performance of the isogeometric analysis, in particular of the related pollution error. Numerical results performed with high-order basis functions (third or fourth orders) showed no visible pollution error even for very high frequencies. This property combined with exact geometrical representation makes isogeometric analysis a very promising platform to solve high-frequency acoustic problems. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 195 (16 UL) Geometric filling curves on surfacesBasmajian, Ara; Parlier, Hugo ; Souto, JuanE-print/Working paper (2016)This note is about a type of quantitative density of closed geodesics on closed hyperbolic surfaces. The main results are upper bounds on the length of the shortest closed geodesic that $\varepsilon ... [more ▼]This note is about a type of quantitative density of closed geodesics on closed hyperbolic surfaces. The main results are upper bounds on the length of the shortest closed geodesic that$\varepsilon$-fills the surface. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 119 (0 UL) Financial Constraint, Entrepreneurship and Sectoral MigrationsLeon, Florian ; Baraton, PierrickE-print/Working paper (2016)Using an original database of over 3,000 micro and small enterprises (MSEs) that were microfinance institution (MFI) clients in Madagascar over the period of 2008-2014, we observe that around one third of ... [more ▼]Using an original database of over 3,000 micro and small enterprises (MSEs) that were microfinance institution (MFI) clients in Madagascar over the period of 2008-2014, we observe that around one third of these entrepreneurs switched business sectors in the first five years after starting their business. We find that the probability of an entrepreneur’s changing sectors is highly correlated with the size of the first loan obtained from the MFI. This result survives multiple robustness checks, including treatment for endogeneity and attrition. We interpret this finding in terms of financial constraint: a lack of financing prevents an entrepreneur from initially investing in his first choice sector, causing him to change sectors only when he has become financially able to do so. This result challenges the classic distinction made between ”necessity entrepreneurs” and ”opportunity entrepreneurs” and raises important questions concerning entrepreneurial talent allocation. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 122 (6 UL) Intertwining operators of the quantum Teichmüller spaceMazzoli, Filippo E-print/Working paper (2016)Detailed reference viewed: 164 (24 UL) Short closed geodesics with self-intersectionsErlandsson, Viveka; Parlier, Hugo E-print/Working paper (2016)Our main point of focus is the set of closed geodesics on hyperbolic surfaces. For any fixed integer$k$, we are interested in the set of all closed geodesics with at least$k$(but possibly more) self ... [more ▼]Our main point of focus is the set of closed geodesics on hyperbolic surfaces. For any fixed integer$k$, we are interested in the set of all closed geodesics with at least$k$(but possibly more) self-intersections. Among these, we consider those of minimal length and investigate their self-intersection numbers. We prove that their intersection numbers are upper bounded by a universal linear function in$k$(which holds for any hyperbolic surface). Moreover, in the presence of cusps, we get bounds which imply that the self-intersection numbers behave asymptotically like$k$for growing$k$. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 54 (1 UL) Reconciliation over the Graves? or the German-Russian Reconciliation of SologubovkaJanz, Nina in Harry & Helen Gray/AICGS Reconciliation Program Online Essays (2016)“Reconciliation over the graves” is the official slogan of the Volksbund, a non-government organization based in Kassel, in central Germany. The Volksbund builds resting places for German war dead, and ... [more ▼]“Reconciliation over the graves” is the official slogan of the Volksbund, a non-government organization based in Kassel, in central Germany. The Volksbund builds resting places for German war dead, and commemorates and acts in educational youth work toward understanding and harmonization after World War II. This essay uses and follows the definition of reconciliation as intended in the meaning of the Volksbund’s activities in Russia. The idea of this slogan and the purpose of this term will be explained. Based on the German war cemetery in Sologubovka, this essay focus on the cooperation between Russians and Germans—the Volksbund, the local population, and the authorities—on the treatment of the war dead, on the different national historical memories, and on the approach of two countries more than fifty years after World War II. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 286 (18 UL) The effects of Assortative Matching on Job and Marital Satisfaction through University AttendanceJoxhe, Majlinda ; Tampieri, AlessandroE-print/Working paper (2016)This paper examines how the decision to acquire higher education may affect job and marital satisfaction. We propose a theoretical model where individuals decide whether to attend university both for ... [more ▼]This paper examines how the decision to acquire higher education may affect job and marital satisfaction. We propose a theoretical model where individuals decide whether to attend university both for obtaining higher job satisfaction and for meeting potential partners. As the probability of marrying an educated partner increases (due to positive educational assortative matching), the average ability of university students falls, since more (low ability) students are willing to attend university. Two effects can be withdrawn: (i) average job satisfaction decreases, while (ii) marital satisfaction increases. We then test the model using the British Household Panel Survey for years 1996-2008, using a dynamic bivariate model. Consistent with the theoretical predictions, we find that higher education is correlated with lower average job satisfaction. In addition, the higher education of the partner increases marital satisfaction. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 51 (5 UL) Mumford curves covering p-adic Shimura curves and their fundamental domainsAmoros Carafi, Laia ; Milione, PiermarcoE-print/Working paper (2016)We give an explicit description of fundamental domains associated to the p-adic uniformisa- tion of families of Shimura curves of discriminant Dp and level N ≥ 1, for which the one-sided ideal class ... [more ▼]We give an explicit description of fundamental domains associated to the p-adic uniformisa- tion of families of Shimura curves of discriminant Dp and level N ≥ 1, for which the one-sided ideal class number h(D,N) is 1. The obtained results generalise those in [19, Ch. IX] for Shimura curves of discriminant 2p and level N = 1. The method we present here enables us to find Mumford curves covering Shimura curves, together with a free system of generators for the associated Schottky groups, p-adic good fundamental domains and their stable reduction- graphs. This is based on a detailed study of the modular arithmetic of an Eichler order of level N inside the definite quaternion algebra of discriminant D, for which we generalise classical results of Hurwitz [20]. As an application, we prove general formulas for the reduction-graphs with lengths at p of the considered families of Shimura curves. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 99 (2 UL) Distances in domino flip graphsParlier, Hugo ; Zappa, SamuelE-print/Working paper (2016)This article is about measuring and visualizing distances between domino tilings. Given two tilings of a simply connected square tiled surface, we're interested in the minimum number of flips between two ... [more ▼]This article is about measuring and visualizing distances between domino tilings. Given two tilings of a simply connected square tiled surface, we're interested in the minimum number of flips between two tilings. Given a certain shape, we're interested in computing the diameters of the flip graphs, meaning the maximal distance between any two of its tilings. Building on work of Thurston and others, we give geometric interpretations of distances which result in formulas for the diameters of the flip graphs of rectangles or Aztec diamonds. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 50 (5 UL) Remit for what? The Impact of Information Asymmetries in Transnational HouseholdsJoxhe, Majlinda ; De Arcangelis, GiuseppeE-print/Working paper (2016)The main purpose of this paper is to check whether information asymmetry may affect the allocation of a given budget between in-kind consumption-type goods and in-kind investment-type choices. In order to ... [more ▼]The main purpose of this paper is to check whether information asymmetry may affect the allocation of a given budget between in-kind consumption-type goods and in-kind investment-type choices. In order to test the model, we use the results of a lab-in-the-field experiment where migrants engage in a dictator game and are asked to earmark a given budget between consumption and investment goods to be delivered to the most closely connected household (MCCH). Three different scenarios of information sharing with the MCCH on the choices made by the migrant are considered – private information, full information sharing and information sharing with a social excuse for investment goods. Empirical results confirm that under private information investment goods are preferred, whereas under full information sharing we observe a significant bias towards consumption goods (about 70 euros more out of a total budget value of 1000 euros, i.e. 7%). This behavior under different information sharing scenarios may be interpreted as evidence of self-interest motives to remit rather than pure altruism. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 59 (7 UL) Equilibrium and first-best city with endogenous exposure to local air pollution from trafficSchindler, Mirjam ; Caruso, Geoffrey ; Picard, Pierre M E-print/Working paper (2016)Exposure to urban traffic-induced air pollution is a major health concern of cities. This paper analyzes the urban structure when localized pollution exposure arises from commuting traffic and ... [more ▼]Exposure to urban traffic-induced air pollution is a major health concern of cities. This paper analyzes the urban structure when localized pollution exposure arises from commuting traffic and investigates the feedback effect of endogenous pollution on residential choices. The presence of stronger traffic-induced air pollution exposure reduces the geographical extent and the population of cities. Land rents fall with distance from the city center while population densities may be non-monotonic. Cleaner vehicle technologies reduce pollution exposure everywhere, increase population and density everywhere and do not affect the spatial extent of the city. The paper compares the urban equilibrium with the first-best. The first-best structure is a less expanded city with higher densities at the center and lower densities at the fringe. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 251 (18 UL) Where in cities do "rich" and "poor" people live? The urban economics model revisitedLemoy, Rémi ; Raux, Charles; Jensen, PabloE-print/Working paper (2016)In this work, we exploit the power of the Alonso-Mills-Muth (AMM) urban economics model and show that various utility functions and plausible conditions offer alternative explanations of house- holds’ ... [more ▼]In this work, we exploit the power of the Alonso-Mills-Muth (AMM) urban economics model and show that various utility functions and plausible conditions offer alternative explanations of house- holds’ location by income within a city. These include the existence of a “rich” center and more complex socio-spatial urban forms, for instance alternating a rich center, poor suburbs and a rich outer ring, which have not yet been derived from the AMM model to our knowledge. In doing so we combine analytical ideas and illustrations by the means of an agent-based model. The hypothesis of a central or non-central amenity is also studied, leading to different insights on the issue. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 77 (6 UL) Context-based Pseudonym Changing Scheme for Vehicular Adhoc NetworksEmara, Karim Ahmed Awad El-Sayed ; Woerndl, Wolfgang; Schlichter, JohannE-print/Working paper (2016)Vehicular adhoc networks allow vehicles to share their information for safety and traffic efficiency. However, sharing information may threaten the driver privacy because it includes spatiotemporal ... [more ▼]Vehicular adhoc networks allow vehicles to share their information for safety and traffic efficiency. However, sharing information may threaten the driver privacy because it includes spatiotemporal information and is broadcast publicly and periodically. In this paper, we propose a context-adaptive pseudonym changing scheme which lets a vehicle decide autonomously when to change its pseudonym and how long it should remain silent to ensure unlinkability. This scheme adapts dynamically based on the density of the surrounding traffic and the user privacy preferences. We employ a multi-target tracking algorithm to measure privacy in terms of traceability in realistic vehicle traces. We use Monte Carlo analysis to estimate the quality of service (QoS) of a forward collision warning application when vehicles apply this scheme. According to the experimental results, the proposed scheme provides a better compromise between traceability and QoS than a random silent period scheme. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 208 (1 UL) Information sharing, credit booms and financial stabilityLeon, Florian ; Guérineau, SamuelE-print/Working paper (2016)This paper analyzes the impact of credit information sharing on financial stability, drawing special attention to its interactions with credit booms. A probit estimation of financial vulnerability ... [more ▼]This paper analyzes the impact of credit information sharing on financial stability, drawing special attention to its interactions with credit booms. A probit estimation of financial vulnerability episodes – identified by jumps of the ratio of non-performing loans to total loans, is run for a sample of 159 countries dividing in two sub-samples according to their level of development: 80 advanced or emerging economies and 79 less developed countries. The results show that: i) credit information sharing reduces financial fragility for both groups of countries; ii) for less developed countries, the main effect is the direct effect (reduction of NPL ratio once credit boom is controlled), suggesting a portfolio quality effect; iii) for advanced and emerging countries, credit information sharing (IS) also mitigates the detrimental impact of credit boom on financial fragility, iv) the depth of IS has an negative impact on the likelihood of credit booms (but not the coverage of IS). [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 118 (17 UL) Turkey declares state of emergency and derogates from ECHR after failed coup d’étatBaglayan, Basak E-print/Working paper (2016)Detailed reference viewed: 121 (6 UL) Interactions Between Administrative and Criminal Law in the Context of the Enforcement of Bank Prudential RegulationsAllegrezza, Silvia ; Rodopoulos, Ioannis E-print/Working paper (2016)Detailed reference viewed: 250 (12 UL) Social rights and the new EU economic governance: seeking convergenceMuñoz, Susana E-print/Working paper (2016)This working paper aims to provide a critical assessment of the impact of the economic and financial crisis on the protection of fundamental social rights in the euro area. It is based on a comparative ... [more ▼]This working paper aims to provide a critical assessment of the impact of the economic and financial crisis on the protection of fundamental social rights in the euro area. It is based on a comparative analysis of national and European case law in connection with the macroeconomic adjustment programmes in the euro area Member States receiving financial assistance. The austerity measures have been challenged before the relevant authorities at national and European level within the Council of Europe and the EU, with mixed results. It also examines new issues raised by the introduction of the European Stability Mechanism from the angle of fundamental rights. Finally, the initiative for a European Pillar of Social Rights is placed in the broader context of the multilevel protection of social rights in Europe. Converging approaches are needed. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 54 (0 UL) Burnout am Arbeitsplatz in LuxemburgSischka, Philipp ; Steffgen, Georges E-print/Working paper (2016)Die Burnoutprävalenz der luxemburgischen Arbeitnehmer liegt für 2013 bis 2015 zwischen 15,7 und 18,0%. Während Frauen 2013 eine höhere Burnoutprävalenz im Vergleich zu Männern aufweisen, verringert sich ... [more ▼]Die Burnoutprävalenz der luxemburgischen Arbeitnehmer liegt für 2013 bis 2015 zwischen 15,7 und 18,0%. Während Frauen 2013 eine höhere Burnoutprävalenz im Vergleich zu Männern aufweisen, verringert sich diese Differenz 2014 und 2015 etwas. Die 25-34 Jährigen Arbeitnehmer scheinen seltener von Burnout betroffen zu sein. Demgegenüber weisen die 35-44 und 45-54 Jährigen über alle drei Erhebungsjahre überdurchschnittliche Burnoutprävalenzen auf. Differenziert man die Arbeitnehmer nach Voll- und Teilzeitstellen, ergeben sich nur geringfügige Unterschiede. Arbeitnehmer, die 0-5 Jahre in ihrem jetzigen Betrieb arbeiten sind im Vergleich zu Arbeitnehmern mit einer längeren Betriebszugehörigkeitsdauer unterdurchschnittlich von Burnout betroffen. Arbeitnehmer, die eine Reduktion der Belegschaft in ihrem Betrieb konstatieren, sind deutlich stärker von Burnout betroffen, als Personen, die keine Veränderung oder sogar eine Erhöhung der Belegschaft festgestellt haben. Arbeitnehmer, die von Aktionen zur Aufklärung von Gesundheitsproblemen in ihrer Organisation berichten, sind ebenfalls weniger stark von Burnout betroffen im Vergleich zu Arbeitnehmern, die berichten, dass in den letzten drei Jahren keine Aktionen zur Aufklärung von Gesundheitsproblemen stattgefunden haben. Differenziert man die Arbeitnehmer nach ISCO-Berufsklassifikation, ist die Burnoutprävalenz unter Managern bzw. Führungskräften am Geringsten, bei Arbeitnehmern die Anlagen bedienen und Montageberufen als auch bei Technikern dagegen am höchsten. Arbeitnehmer mit deutscher und luxemburgischer Nationalität sind seltener, Arbeitnehmer mit französischer und belgischer Nationalität dagegen öfter von Burnout betroffen. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 290 (13 UL) Participation in a New Regulatory Paradigm: Collaboration and Constraint in TTIP's Regulatory CooperationMendes, Joana E-print/Working paper (2016)Regulatory cooperation is a core aspect of mega-regional agreements in liberalizing trade and investment, as it enables the parties to bridge their regulatory divergences beyond what is defined in the ... [more ▼]Regulatory cooperation is a core aspect of mega-regional agreements in liberalizing trade and investment, as it enables the parties to bridge their regulatory divergences beyond what is defined in the text of the agreements. It relies on institutional and procedural structures that entail both the mutual adjustment of domestic procedures of the parties and new international fora where regulators meet to negotiate and deliberate. In the case of TTIP, regulatory cooperation will be the setting in which decisions will be prepared or made on the differences between EU and US regulation that could be usefully overcome; on the technical requirements that are unnecessarily duplicated; on the standards that should remain in place because they contend with public policy objectives in a way that would not be compatible with domestic standards; on the areas that are too distinct to justify attempts at mutual recognition or other forms of regulatory compatibility; on the standards that both parties will promote globally. This paper focuses on participation, which in addition to information exchanges and regulatory impact assessments, forms part of the trio of “good regulatory practices” that constitute the procedural basis of regulatory cooperation under TTIP. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 142 (6 UL) Gender Gaps in Social Capital: A theoretical interpretation of the Italian evidenceJoxhe, Majlinda ; Addis, ElisabettaE-print/Working paper (2016)In this paper, we show that social capital accumulation along the life cycle is different for men and women. We discuss the concept of social capital and some problems connected to its definition and ... [more ▼]In this paper, we show that social capital accumulation along the life cycle is different for men and women. We discuss the concept of social capital and some problems connected to its definition and measurement. We survey the literature on gender and social capital and use the Italian data of the “Multiscopo” Survey to assess differences in life cycle accumulation of social capital by sex and age. The lifecycle profile of social capital accumulation is gendered, with men accumulating more social capital at all ages, with a different peak and overall profile. We also show that, over 15 years, the gap in social capital by sex narrowed. Finally, we introduce a model of social capital structure compatible with the empirical evidence and with notions of gender as defined in feminist literature [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 100 (3 UL) The Empire Strikes Back: Yukos-Russia, 1-1Fahner, Johannes Hendrik E-print/Working paper (2016)Detailed reference viewed: 91 (3 UL) The Presumption of Innocence (and the Right to be Present at Trial) DirectiveLamberigts, Stijn E-print/Working paper (2016)Detailed reference viewed: 136 (7 UL) Corporate Liability Debate still Alive and Kicking in US CourtsBaglayan, Basak E-print/Working paper (2016)Detailed reference viewed: 77 (5 UL) Regards sur langues au travailHeinz, Andreas ; Fehlen, Fernand E-print/Working paper (2016)Le français se trouve en tête des langues parlées au travail par les résidents, suivi du luxembourgeois. C’est la langue la plus parlée dans tous les secteurs économiques du privé, tandis que le ... [more ▼]Le français se trouve en tête des langues parlées au travail par les résidents, suivi du luxembourgeois. C’est la langue la plus parlée dans tous les secteurs économiques du privé, tandis que le luxembourgeois a ses bastions dans le secteur public et parapublic. Le français connaît une forte présence dans pratiquement tous les grands groupes CITP (Classification Internationale Type des Professions). Le luxembourgeois est la langue la plus utilisée dans l'armée et dans l’agriculture, tandis que le portugais est surreprésenté parmi les artisans et les ouvriers non qualifiés. L’anglais est largement utilisé dans les professions qui exigent une éducation formelle élevée, alors que le portugais est surtout utilisé dans les professions nécessitant seulement une éducation formelle faible. Comme l’implantation des différentes branches économiques n’est pas homogène dans le pays, on peut constater une forte variation géographique pour l’utilisation des langues au travail. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 226 (23 UL) Regards sur l'intégration linguistiqueHeinz, Andreas ; Fehlen, Fernand E-print/Working paper (2016)Les Luxembourgeois nés au Luxembourg se distinguent de manière significative de ceux nés à l'étranger. De même, les proportions des principales langues diffèrent parmi les étrangers, s’ils sont nés au ... [more ▼]Les Luxembourgeois nés au Luxembourg se distinguent de manière significative de ceux nés à l'étranger. De même, les proportions des principales langues diffèrent parmi les étrangers, s’ils sont nés au Luxembourg ou s’ils y sont venus au cours de leur vie. Si les deux parents sont nés au Luxembourg, la langue principale est pratiquement toujours le luxembourgeois. Cependant, si un parent est né à l'étranger, le luxembourgeois est la langue principale dans un peu plus de trois quarts des cas. Pratiquement tous les immigrés allemands ont l’allemand ou le luxembourgeois comme langue principale tandis que les Français indiquent pour des périodes d'immigration comparables moins souvent le luxembourgeois comme langue principale. Une forte proportion des immigrés portugais conserve le portugais comme langue principale. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 188 (17 UL) The helical gap in interacting Rashba wires at low electron densitiesSchmidt, Thomas ; Pedder, Christopher E-print/Working paper (2016)Rashba spin-orbit coupling and a magnetic field perpendicular to the Rashba axis have been predicted to open a partial gap ("helical gap") in the energy spectrum of noninteracting or weakly interacting ... [more ▼]Rashba spin-orbit coupling and a magnetic field perpendicular to the Rashba axis have been predicted to open a partial gap ("helical gap") in the energy spectrum of noninteracting or weakly interacting one-dimensional quantum wires. By comparing kinetic energy and Coulomb energy we show that this gap opening typically occurs at low electron densities where the Coulomb energy dominates. To address this strongly correlated limit, we investigate Rashba wires using Wigner crystal theory. We find that the helical gap exists even in the limit of strong interactions but its dependence on electron density differs significantly from the weakly interacting case. In particular, we find that the critical magnetic field for opening the gap becomes an oscillatory function of electron density. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 101 (8 UL) Alternate modules are subsymplecticGuerin, Clément E-print/Working paper (2016)In this paper, an alternate module$(A,\phi)$is a finite abelian group$A$with a$\mathbb{Z}$-bilinear application$\phi:A\times A\rightarrow \mathbb{Q}/\mathbb{Z}$which is alternate (i.e. zero on the ... [more ▼]In this paper, an alternate module$(A,\phi)$is a finite abelian group$A$with a$\mathbb{Z}$-bilinear application$\phi:A\times A\rightarrow \mathbb{Q}/\mathbb{Z}$which is alternate (i.e. zero on the diagonal). We shall prove that any alternate module is subsymplectic, i.e. if$(A,\phi)$has a Lagrangian of cardinal$n$then there exists an abelian group$B$of order$n$such that$(A,\phi)$is a submodule of the standard symplectic module$B\times B^*\$. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 69 (1 UL) Kingdom of Spain v. Council: another piece in the "Schengen puzzle"Marletta, Angelo E-print/Working paper (2016)Detailed reference viewed: 62 (4 UL) Mobbing am Arbeitsplatz in LuxemburgSischka, Philipp ; Steffgen, Georges E-print/Working paper (2016)Die ausgeprägte Mobbingprävalenz in Luxemburg hat sich von 2013 zu 2014 insgesamt leicht erhöht. 2015 ist wiederum ein geringfügiger Rückgang zu verzeichnen. Am stärksten von Mobbing betroffen sind ... [more ▼]Die ausgeprägte Mobbingprävalenz in Luxemburg hat sich von 2013 zu 2014 insgesamt leicht erhöht. 2015 ist wiederum ein geringfügiger Rückgang zu verzeichnen. Am stärksten von Mobbing betroffen sind Arbeitnehmer in der Altersklasse der 16-24 Jährigen. Arbeitnehmer ab 55 Jahre weisen dagegen die geringste Mobbingprävalenz auf. Differenziert nach Geschlecht, Vollzeit/Teilzeit- und Vorgesetztenstatus ergeben sich über die drei Jahre jeweils nur geringfügige Unterschiede zwischen den Gruppen. Insbesondere Mitarbeiter die schon sehr lange (über 20 Jahre) in dem Betrieb arbeiten, sind seltener von Mobbing betroffen. Kleinere Betriebe (1-4 Mitarbeiter) weisen eine relativ geringe Mobbingprävalenz auf. Dagegen ist die Mobbingprävalenz in Betrieben, die Arbeitsstellen abbauen vergleichsweise hoch. Hilfsarbeitskräfte und Manager weisen eine eher geringe, hingegen Arbeitnehmer in Handwerksberufen die höchste Mobbingprävalenz auf. Betriebe, die häufig Aktionen zur Aufklärung von Gesundheitsproblemen durchführen, weisen geringere Mobbingprävalenzen auf, als Betriebe, die dies nie oder nur unregelmäßig tun. Differenziert nach Nationalität zeigt sich über die drei Erhebungsjahre eine etwas höhere Mobbingprävalenz bei Arbeitnehmern mit luxemburgischer und französischer Nationalität. Arbeitnehmer mit deutscher Nationalität weisen dagegen konstant eine geringere Mobbingprävalenz auf. Die Mobbingprävalenz von Arbeitnehmern mit portugiesischer Nationalität steigt von 2013 zu 2014 an, verringert sich 2015 jedoch wieder etwas. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 231 (17 UL) Case C-25/15 Balogh – The Translation and Interpretation Directive and (questionable) special proceduresLamberigts, Stijn E-print/Working paper (2016)Detailed reference viewed: 108 (5 UL) Determinants over graded-commutative algebras, a categorical viewpointCovolo, Tiffany ; Michel, Jean-PhilippeE-print/Working paper (2016)We generalize linear superalgebra to higher gradings and commutation factors, given by arbitrary abelian groups and bicharacters. Our central tool is an extension, to monoidal categories of modules, of ... [more ▼]We generalize linear superalgebra to higher gradings and commutation factors, given by arbitrary abelian groups and bicharacters. Our central tool is an extension, to monoidal categories of modules, of the Nekludova-Scheunert faithful functor between the categories of graded-commutative and supercommutative algebras. As a result we generalize (super-)trace, determinant and Berezinian to graded matrices over graded-commutative algebras. For instance, on homogeneous quaternionic matrices, we obtain a lift of the Dieudonné determinant to the skew-field of quaternions. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 120 (9 UL) Higher signature Delaunay decompositionsDanciger, Jeffrey; Maloni, Sara; Schlenker, Jean-Marc E-print/Working paper (2016)A Delaunay decomposition is a cell decomposition in R^d for which each cell is inscribed in a Euclidean ball which is empty of all other vertices. This article introduces a generalization of the Delaunay ... [more ▼]A Delaunay decomposition is a cell decomposition in R^d for which each cell is inscribed in a Euclidean ball which is empty of all other vertices. This article introduces a generalization of the Delaunay decomposition in which the Euclidean balls in the empty ball condition are replaced by other families of regions bounded by certain quadratic hypersurfaces. This generalized notion is adaptable to geometric contexts in which the natural space from which the point set is sampled is not Euclidean, but rather some other flat semi-Riemannian geometry, possibly with degenerate directions. We prove the existence and uniqueness of the decomposition and discuss some of its basic properties. In the case of dimension d = 2, we study the extent to which some of the well-known optimality properties of the Euclidean Delaunay triangulation generalize to the higher signature setting. In particular, we describe a higher signature generalization of a well-known description of Delaunay decompositions in terms of the intersection angles between the circumscribed circles. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 52 (2 UL) Once punctured disks, non-convex polygons, and pointihedraParlier, Hugo ; Pournin, LionelE-print/Working paper (2016)We explore several families of flip-graphs, all related to polygons or punctured polygons. In particular, we consider the topological flip-graphs of once-punctured polygons which, in turn, contain all ... [more ▼]We explore several families of flip-graphs, all related to polygons or punctured polygons. In particular, we consider the topological flip-graphs of once-punctured polygons which, in turn, contain all possible geometric flip-graphs of polygons with a marked point as embedded sub-graphs. Our main focus is on the geometric properties of these graphs and how they relate to one another. In particular, we show that the embeddings between them are strongly convex (or, said otherwise, totally geodesic). We also find bounds on the diameters of these graphs, sometimes using the strongly convex embeddings. Finally, we show how these graphs relate to different polytopes, namely type D associahedra and a family of secondary polytopes which we call pointihedra. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 94 (0 UL) The Effect of Survey Design on Extreme Response Style: Rating Job SatisfactionJoxhe, Majlinda ; Corrado, LuisaE-print/Working paper (2016)This paper explores the relationship between survey rating scale and Extreme Response Style (ERS) using experimental data from Understanding Society (Innovation Panel 2008), where a self-assessment ... [more ▼]This paper explores the relationship between survey rating scale and Extreme Response Style (ERS) using experimental data from Understanding Society (Innovation Panel 2008), where a self-assessment questionnaire measuring job satisfaction uses two alternative (7 and 11 points) rating options. Our results suggests that when shifting from a shorter to a longer scale, the survey design generates a tendency to choose response scales at the extreme of the distribution, thus creating a misleading quantification of the variable of interest. The experimental design of the data enables us to test our hypothesis using a non-linear estimation approach where age, gender and education level are shown to affect ERS. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 155 (10 UL) Remarks on contact and Jacobi geometryBruce, Andrew ; Grabowska, Katarzyna; Grabowski, JanuszE-print/Working paper (2016)We present an approach to Jacobi and contact geometry that makes many facts, presented in the literature in an overcomplicated way, much more natural and clear. The key concepts are Kirillov manifolds and ... [more ▼]We present an approach to Jacobi and contact geometry that makes many facts, presented in the literature in an overcomplicated way, much more natural and clear. The key concepts are Kirillov manifolds and Kirillov algebroids, i.e. homogeneous Poisson manifolds and, respectively, homogeneous linear Poisson manifolds. The difference with the existing literature is that the homogeneity of the Poisson structure is related to a principal GL(1, R)-bundle structure on the manifold and not just to a vector field. This allows for working with Jacobi bundle structures on nontrivial line bundles and drastically simplifies the picture of Jacobi and contact geometry. In this sense, the properly understood concept of a Jacobi structure is a specialisation rather than a generalisation of a Poission structure. Our results easily reduce to various basic theorems of Jacobi and contact geometry when the principal bundle structure is trivial, as well as give new insight in the theory. For instance, we describe the structure of Lie groupoids with a compatible principal G-bundle structure and the ‘integrating objects’ for Kirillov algebroids, define canonical contact groupoids, and show that any contact groupoid has a canonical realisation as a contact subgroupoid of the latter. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 132 (5 UL) On different approaches to compute the Chern classes of a tensor product of two vector bundlesIena, Oleksandr E-print/Working paper (2016)We compare four different approaches to compute the Chern classes of a tensor product of two vector bundles in terms of the Chern classes of the factors.Detailed reference viewed: 84 (4 UL) Islamic Banking Development and access to creditLeon, Florian ; Weill, LaurentE-print/Working paper (2016)The recent expansion of Islamic banks raises questions on its economic implications. The aim of this paper is to investigate the impact of Islamic banking development on access to credit. We combine data ... [more ▼]The recent expansion of Islamic banks raises questions on its economic implications. The aim of this paper is to investigate the impact of Islamic banking development on access to credit. We combine data from a unique hand-collected database that covers Islamic banks over the period of 2000 to 2005 with firm-level data covering developing and emerging countries. We find that Islamic banking development has overall no impact on credit constraints, while banking development and conventional banking development alleviate obstacles to financing. However Islamic banking development exerts a positive impact on access to credit when conventional banking development is low. Hence we support the view that Islamic banking does not overall alleviate obstacles to financing, but it can act as substitute to conventional banking. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 381 (13 UL) Adventskalender, Tag 4: Gedanken und Wünsche für Hochbegabte.Baudson, Tanja Gabriele E-print/Working paper (2016)Detailed reference viewed: 39 (0 UL) Die Karte des luxemburgisch-kurtrierischen Grenzverlaufs aus dem Jahr 1776 – Ein Meisterwerk der Kartographie des späten Ancien Régime und eine faszinierende Quelle für die LandesgeschichteUhrmacher, Martin E-print/Working paper (2016)Das Nationalarchiv hat drei außergewöhnliche Dokumente aus dem Jahr 1776 online gestellt. Hierbei handelt es sich um zwei sehr große Karten (7,1m x 2m ; 3,3m x 2,1m), die den Grenzverlauf zwischen ... [more ▼]Das Nationalarchiv hat drei außergewöhnliche Dokumente aus dem Jahr 1776 online gestellt. Hierbei handelt es sich um zwei sehr große Karten (7,1m x 2m ; 3,3m x 2,1m), die den Grenzverlauf zwischen Luxemburg und dem Kurfürstentum Trier zeigen. Sie wurden vom Ingenieur Bergé, Oberleutnant der österreichischen Armee, gezeichnet und mit Hilfe des Fotografen Tom Lucas und des Musée Dräi Eechelen digitalisiert. Hinzu kommt ein historisches Dokument von 325 Seiten in dem die auf den Karten abgebildete Grenze in Frage gestellt wird. Beide Karten sind aufgrund ihrer Größe nur schwer einsehbar, stellen aber eine wichtige Quelle für die Geschichte Luxemburgs dar und sind reich an Informationen, Details und Farben. Martin Uhrmacher, Dozent und Forscher an der Universität Luxemburg und Experte auf dem Gebiet der historischen Kartographie, hat beide Karten in diesem Beitrag ausführlich analysiert. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 237 (7 UL) Multiscale hedge ratio between the spot and future prices of carbon: Wavelet Based ApproachNsouadi, Ange; Terraza, Virginie E-print/Working paper (2016)Detailed reference viewed: 146 (9 UL) Critical exponent and Hausdorff dimension for quasi-Fuchsian AdS manifoldsGlorieux, Olivier ; Monclair, Daniel E-print/Working paper (2016)Detailed reference viewed: 90 (8 UL) Hybrid mesh/particle meshless method for modeling geological flows with discontinuous transport propertiesBourantas, Georgios ; Lavier, Luc; van Dam, Tonie et alE-print/Working paper (2016)In the present paper, we introduce the Finite Difference Method-Meshless Method (FDM-MM) in the context of geodynamical simulations. The proposed numerical scheme relies on the well-established FD method ... [more ▼]In the present paper, we introduce the Finite Difference Method-Meshless Method (FDM-MM) in the context of geodynamical simulations. The proposed numerical scheme relies on the well-established FD method along with the newly developed “meshless” method and, is considered as a hybrid Eulerian/Lagrangian scheme. Mass, momentum, and energy equations are solved using an FDM method, while material properties are distributed over a set of markers (particles), which represent the spatial domain, with the solution interpolated back to the Eulerian grid. The proposed scheme is capable of solving flow equations (Stokes flow) in uniform geometries with particles, “sprinkled” in the spatial domain and is used to solve convection- diffusion problems avoiding the oscillation produced in the Eulerian approach. The resulting algebraic linear systems were solved using direct solvers. Our hybrid approach can capture sharp variations of stresses and thermal gradients in problems with a strongly variable viscosity and thermal conductivity as demonstrated through various benchmarking test cases. The present hybrid approach allows for the accurate calculation of fine thermal structures, offering local type adaptivity through the flexibility of the particle method. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 250 (17 UL) Optimal Income Taxation for the Alleviation of Working-Poverty When Domestic Work is RewardedChen, Xi; Salagean, Ioana; Zou, Benteng E-print/Working paper (2016)The increase in income needed for working households to escape relative poverty may be achieved either by households supplying more hours of paid work on the labor market, or by policy makers adjusting ... [more ▼]The increase in income needed for working households to escape relative poverty may be achieved either by households supplying more hours of paid work on the labor market, or by policy makers adjusting income taxation, minimum wages and social transfers targeted at working households. While past work has given considerable attention to the latter policy instruments, theoretical work on how income taxation could minimize working-poverty is scarce. Our study aims to fill this gap. Unlike the traditional optimal income taxation literature, which considers that households allocate time only between consumption and leisure, we explicitly model households’ decisions as including domestic work, which is a social contribution and should be rewarded. This new framework highlights (i) the importance of emphasizing the difference between domestic work and real leisure and, (ii) the policy implications of non-market time allocation. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 122 (3 UL) Poisson cohomology of holomorphic toric Poisson manifoldsHong, Wei E-print/Working paper (2016)Detailed reference viewed: 69 (0 UL) Possible connection between a generalized Maeda's conjecture and local typesDieulefait, Luis; Tsaknias, Panagiotis E-print/Working paper (2016)Detailed reference viewed: 57 (1 UL) Sites du patrimoine mondial de l'UNESCO dans la Grande Région SaarLorLuxMendgen, Eva; Helfer, Malte ; Pauly, Michel et alE-print/Working paper (2016)In 2017, the Greater Region SaarLorLux has no less than twelve sites on the UNESCO World Heritage List. They date from different periods, from prehistory to the beginning of the 20th century, and belong ... [more ▼]In 2017, the Greater Region SaarLorLux has no less than twelve sites on the UNESCO World Heritage List. They date from different periods, from prehistory to the beginning of the 20th century, and belong to different categories. Architectural and industrial monuments are part of the Greater Region's World Cultural Heritage, as are squares and entire cities, fortifications and cultural landscapes. The World Heritage sites bear witness to the rich European history and are a sign of the Greater Region's exceptional cultural diversity. They are also exceptionally beautiful and picturesque. Each of the World Heritage Sites is related to many other monuments, while providing its own context, history and spatial, cultural and social coordination system. In recent years, global and transnational aspects have gradually led to the listing of ensembles of sites and cultural landscapes. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 30 (0 UL) The EU-Turkey Statement: A Treaty That Violates DemocracyGatti, Mauro E-print/Working paper (2016)Detailed reference viewed: 403 (5 UL) Possessions en prêt au Haut Moyen Âge des Abbayes de Gorze et Wissembourg, de 661 à environ 860Kasten, Brigitte; Schäfer, Jens; Helfer, Malte et alE-print/Working paper (2016)In the medieval world, the abbey had multiple meanings. On the one hand, it was a place of spiritual life where the abbey community lived, prayed and worked according to the strict ideals of the rule. The ... [more ▼]In the medieval world, the abbey had multiple meanings. On the one hand, it was a place of spiritual life where the abbey community lived, prayed and worked according to the strict ideals of the rule. The schools, libraries and scriptoriums in which manuscripts were copied and partially decorated, also made it a centre of learning and the spread of knowledge. On the other hand, the abbeys were one of the largest landowners in the Middle Ages and their abbots were not only the superiors of religious communities but also the directors of large economic centres. The endowments for their foundation and donations from royalty or nobility provided the abbeys with considerable property. These assets were by no means a coherent mass in the vicinity of the abbey, but were rather scattered over long distances. The abbeys of Wissembourg and Gorze, through the cartularies that have come down to us, lend themselves to a more precise examination of the abbeys' economy. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 40 (0 UL) Les Parcs naturels dans la Grande Région SaarLorLuxDeshaies, Michel; Caruso, Geoffrey ; Helfer, Malte et alE-print/Working paper (2016)The nature parks are essentially rural areas, relatively extensive, whose landscapes, shaped mainly by traditional agricultural activities, have characteristics and aesthetic qualities favourable to the ... [more ▼]The nature parks are essentially rural areas, relatively extensive, whose landscapes, shaped mainly by traditional agricultural activities, have characteristics and aesthetic qualities favourable to the reception and development of leisure activities and green tourism. Relatively far from the major urban areas, the landscapes have undergone little transformation under the influence of suburbanisation. The nature parks were set up at different times, within an institutional framework and with objectives that differed significantly depending on the legislation in force in the four countries; the emphasis was initially placed on nature protection, but from the 1990s onwards, sustainable local development became increasingly important. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 18 (0 UL) Frontaliers atypiques dans la Grande-Région SaarLorLuxWille, Christian ; Helfer, Malte ; Caruso, Geoffrey et alE-print/Working paper (2016)The Greater Region is characterised by the singular independence of its labour market between its different sectors. Cross-border commuting across national borders has been facilitated in a tangible way ... [more ▼]The Greater Region is characterised by the singular independence of its labour market between its different sectors. Cross-border commuting across national borders has been facilitated in a tangible way by the process of European unification, as a result of which the status of cross-border commuters has been defined from the point of view of social and fiscal rights. This definition does not distinguish between border workers who migrate from their "home region" to the neighbouring country and those who come from the neighbouring country to the "home region" to join their place of work. The last-mentioned atypical border phenomenon is becoming increasingly important in the Greater Region. It is therefore in the context of residential mobility and atypical mobility of cross-border employees that the motivations of the latter as well as questions relating to the spatial organisation of daily practices are analysed in the context of the change of domicile. Aspects of social life at the place of residence will also be investigated and the subjective evaluation of residential migration will be detailed. The evaluation of each of these elements is based on the comparative study of atypical commuting at the border between Luxembourg and Lorraine/Saarland. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 35 (0 UL) Moduli stacks of algebraic structures and deformation theoryYalin, Sinan E-print/Working paper (2016)Detailed reference viewed: 77 (0 UL) The Colorized Dead. Computerunterstützte Analysen der Farblichkeit von Filmen in den Digital Humanities am Beispiel von Zombiefilmen.Pause, Johannes ; Walkowski, Niels-Oliver E-print/Working paper (2016)Detailed reference viewed: 53 (2 UL) Wavelet Dynamic Conditional Correlation GARCH model : WDCC-GARCHNsaoudi, Ange; Terraza, Virginie E-print/Working paper (2016)Detailed reference viewed: 139 (3 UL) Attractors in spacetimes and time functionsMonclair, Daniel E-print/Working paper (2016)Detailed reference viewed: 30 (0 UL) population Aging and Inventive ActivityIrmen, Andreas ; Litina, Anastasia E-print/Working paper (2016)This research empirically establishes and theoretically motivates the hypothesis that population aging has a hump-shaped effect on inventive activity. We estimate this hump-shaped relationship in a panel ... [more ▼]This research empirically establishes and theoretically motivates the hypothesis that population aging has a hump-shaped effect on inventive activity. We estimate this hump-shaped relationship in a panel of 33 OECD countries over the period 1960-2012. The increasing part of the hump captures the awareness that population aging requires inventive activity to guarantee current and future standards of living. The decreasing part reflects the tendency of aging societies to lose dynamism and the willingness to take risks. Policy-wise our analysis suggests that raising the awareness of individuals about the consequences of population aging may facilitate the adoption of strategies and policies encouraging inventive activity and economic growth. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 116 (3 UL) Endogenous Factor Income Distribution - When Piketty meets Romer -Irmen, Andreas ; Tabakovic, Amer E-print/Working paper (2016)We scrutinize Thomas Piketty’s (2014) theory concerning the relationship between an economy’s long-run growth rate, its capital-income ratio, and its factor income distribution put forth in his recent ... [more ▼]We scrutinize Thomas Piketty’s (2014) theory concerning the relationship between an economy’s long-run growth rate, its capital-income ratio, and its factor income distribution put forth in his recent book Capital in the Twenty-First Century. We find that a smaller long-run growth rate may be associated with a smaller capital-income ratio. Hence, the key implication of Piketty’s Second Fundamental Law of Capitalism does not hold. In line with Piketty’s theory a smaller long-run growth rate may go together with a greater capital share. However, the mechanics behind this result are the opposite of what Piketty suggests. Our findings obtain in variants of Romer’s (1990) seminal model of endogenous technological change. Here, both the economy’s savings rate and its growth rate are endogenous variables whereas in Piketty’s theory they are both exogenous parameters. Including demographic growth in the spirit of Jones (1995) shows that a smaller growth rate of the economy may imply a lower capital share contradicting a central claim in Piketty’s book. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 139 (10 UL) Conceptual Confusion: the case of EpigeneticsOliveira Pisco, Angela; Fouquier d'Hérouël, Aymeric ; Huang, SuiE-print/Working paper (2016)The observations of phenotypic plasticity have stimulated the revival of "epigenetics". Over the past 70 years the term has come in many colors and flavors, depending on the biological discipline and time ... [more ▼]The observations of phenotypic plasticity have stimulated the revival of "epigenetics". Over the past 70 years the term has come in many colors and flavors, depending on the biological discipline and time period. The meanings span from Waddington "epigenotype" and "epigenetic landscape" to the molecular biologists "epigenetic marks" embodied by DNA methylation and histone modifications. Here we seek to quell the ambiguity of the name. First we place "epigenetic" in the various historical contexts. Then, by presenting the formal concepts of dynamical systems theory we show that the "epigenetic landscape" is more than a metaphor: it has specific mathematical foundations. The latter explains how gene regulatory networks produce multiple attractor states, the self-stabilizing patterns of gene activation across the genome that account for "epigenetic memory". This network dynamics approach replaces the reductionist correspondence of molecular epigenetic modifications with concept of the epigenetic landscape, by providing a concrete and crisp correspondence. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 265 (6 UL) How to discretize the differential forms on the intervalBandiera, Ruggero; Schätz, Florian E-print/Working paper (2016)We provide explicit quasi-isomorphisms between the following three algebraic structures associated to the unit interval: i) the commutative dg algebra of differential forms, ii) the non-commutative dg ... [more ▼]We provide explicit quasi-isomorphisms between the following three algebraic structures associated to the unit interval: i) the commutative dg algebra of differential forms, ii) the non-commutative dg algebra of simplicial cochains and iii) the Whitney forms, equipped with a homotopy commutative and homotopy associative, i.e. C-∞, algebra structure. Our main interest lies in a natural `discretization' C-∞ quasi-isomorphism φ from differential forms to Whitney forms. We establish a uniqueness result that implies that φ coincides with the morphism from homotopy transfer, and obtain several explicit formulas for φ, all of which are related to the Magnus expansion. In particular, we recover combinatorial formulas for the Magnus expansion due to Mielnik and Plebanski. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 66 (2 UL) PRESS FREEDOM AND JUMPS IN STOCK PRICESAbed Masror Khah, Sara ; Lehnert, Thorsten E-print/Working paper (2016)Press freedom varies substantially across countries. In a free environment, any news becomes immediately public knowledge through mediums including various electronic media and published materials ... [more ▼]Press freedom varies substantially across countries. In a free environment, any news becomes immediately public knowledge through mediums including various electronic media and published materials. However, in an unfree environment, (economic) agents would have more discretionary power to disclose good news immediately, while hiding bad news or releasing bad news slowly. We argue that this discretion is affecting stock prices and stock markets in countries with a free press should be better processors of economic information. Using an equilibrium asset-pricing model in an economy under jump diffusion, we decompose the moments of the returns of international stock markets into a diffusive risk and jump risk part. Using stock market data for a balanced panel of 50 countries, our results suggest that in countries with a free press, the better processing of bad news leads to more frequent negative jumps in stock prices. As a result, stock markets in those countries are characterized by higher volatility, driven by the higher jump risk, and more negative return asymmetry. Results are robust to the inclusion of various controls for governance and other country- or market-specific characteristics. We interpret this as good stock market characteristics, because a free press improves welfare and increases economic growth. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 663 (82 UL) Adventskalender, Tag 9: Gedanken und Wünsche für Hochbegabte.Baudson, Tanja Gabriele E-print/Working paper (2016)Detailed reference viewed: 36 (0 UL) Europe’s Center of Science: Science Productivity in Belgium, France, Germany, and LuxembourgPowell, Justin J W ; Dusdal, Jennifer E-print/Working paper (2016)European countries have increasingly invested in higher education and science systems, leading to rising numbers of scholars and scientists, considerable infrastructure development, and dense cross ... [more ▼]European countries have increasingly invested in higher education and science systems, leading to rising numbers of scholars and scientists, considerable infrastructure development, and dense cross-cultural networks and collaboration. The result: significant growth in scientific output and productivity in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) fields. For four EU member states in Western Europe of different size and institutionalization pathways of science, we assess the development and current state of universities and research institutes, and the resulting science output. We measure output in peer-reviewed research articles collected in Thomson Reuters’ Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE). Based on a comprehensive historical database, this comparison uncovers both stable and dynamic patterns of productivity from 1975 to 2010 in Germany, France, Belgium, and Luxembourg.[1] This emphasizes different institutionalization pathways that created the conditions necessary for continuous, but varying growth in scientific productivity in the European center of global science. Today, these countries invest considerably in research and development (R&D) and in higher education, the smaller ones doing so through a single national research university (Luxembourg), or a set of strong research universities in different regions (Belgium’s language communities of Flanders and Wallonia). The two larger countries (France and Germany) maintain differentiated systems of universities—of varying size and prestige—and extra-university research institutes that are connected in large umbrella associations or coordinated by government agencies. Rising science productivity reflects considerable state investment, yet the impact of any individual scientific article remains difficult to measure. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 204 (20 UL) Adventskalender, Tag 17: Gedanken und Wünsche für Hochbegabte.Baudson, Tanja Gabriele E-print/Working paper (2016)Detailed reference viewed: 44 (0 UL) Malaise in the Western Middle ClassesChauvel, Louis ; Hartung, Anne E-print/Working paper (2016)Detailed reference viewed: 202 (10 UL) Adventskalender, Tag 5: Gedanken und Wünsche für Hochbegabte.Baudson, Tanja Gabriele E-print/Working paper (2016)Detailed reference viewed: 37 (2 UL) Adventskalender, Tag 6: Gedanken und Wünsche für Hochbegabte.Baudson, Tanja Gabriele E-print/Working paper (2016)Detailed reference viewed: 34 (0 UL) Adventskalender, Tag 11: Gedanken und Wünsche für Hochbegabte.Baudson, Tanja Gabriele E-print/Working paper (2016)Detailed reference viewed: 30 (0 UL) Adventskalender, Tag 8: Gedanken und Wünsche für Hochbegabte.Baudson, Tanja Gabriele E-print/Working paper (2016)Detailed reference viewed: 32 (0 UL) An observation of circular RNAs in bacterial RNA-seq dataInnocenti, Nicolas; Nguyen, Hoang-Son; Fouquier d'Hérouël, Aymeric et alE-print/Working paper (2016)Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a class of RNA with an important role in micro RNA (miRNA) regulation recently discovered in Human and various other eukaryotes as well as in archaea. Here, we have analyzed ... [more ▼]Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a class of RNA with an important role in micro RNA (miRNA) regulation recently discovered in Human and various other eukaryotes as well as in archaea. Here, we have analyzed RNA-seq data obtained from Enterococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli in a way similar to previous studies performed on eukaryotes. We report observations of circRNAs in RNA-seq data that are reproducible across multiple experiments performed with different protocols or growth conditions. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 65 (10 UL) Decolonisation: geopolitical issues and impact on the European integration processMouton, Victoria ; Gabellini, Marco ; et al.E-print/Working paper (2016)The ePublication ‘Decolonisation: geopolitical issues and impact on the European integration process’ explores the key moments in the disintegration of the European colonial empires, with a particular ... [more ▼]The ePublication ‘Decolonisation: geopolitical issues and impact on the European integration process’ explores the key moments in the disintegration of the European colonial empires, with a particular emphasis on French and British decolonisation, and looks at how this process of decolonisation influenced the European integration process. The ePublication begins by outlining the main stages in decolonisation after 1945, illustrated by specific examples. The Cold War and the increasing international condemnation of colonialism provided conditions that were ripe for indigenous peoples to gradually loosen the ties binding them to a Europe that was drained and in ruins following the Second World War. At the same time, the creation of the European Community forced the European powers to reconcile their overseas and European policies. The emergence of Third-World countries in the international arena changed relations between Europe and its (former) colonies and raised the question of a Community development aid policy. This ePublication therefore goes on to examine the debates that led in 1957 to the association of the overseas countries and territories (OCTs) with the European Economic Community (EEC), then to the signing of the Yaoundé Convention in 1963 and the Lomé Convention in 1975. A particular strength of the ePublication is the compilation and analysis of a rich, varied selection of more than 700 resources, including archive documents, press articles, correspondence, extracts from memoirs, photos and cartoons. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 235 (29 UL) Tax havens compliance with international standards: a temporal perspectiveZanaj, Skerdilajda ; Pieretti, Patrice ; pulina, giuseppeE-print/Working paper (2016)Detailed reference viewed: 94 (2 UL) A global description of the fine Simpson moduli space of 1-dimensional sheaves supported on plane quarticsIena, Oleksandr E-print/Working paper (2016)A global description of the fine Simpson moduli spaces of 1-dimensional sheaves supported on plane quartics is given: we describe the gluing of the Brill-Noether loci described by Drézet and Maican and ... [more ▼]A global description of the fine Simpson moduli spaces of 1-dimensional sheaves supported on plane quartics is given: we describe the gluing of the Brill-Noether loci described by Drézet and Maican and show that the Simpson moduli space M=M_{4m±1}(P_2) is a blow-down of a blow-up of a projective bundle over a smooth moduli space of Kronecker modules. An easy computation of the Poincaré polynomial of M is presented. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 86 (18 UL) Green Consumption and relative preferences in an international ologopolyZanaj, Skerdilajda ; Tarola, Ornella; Ceccantoni, GiuliaE-print/Working paper (2016)Detailed reference viewed: 45 (0 UL) Adventskalender, Tag 7: Gedanken und Wünsche für Hochbegabte.Baudson, Tanja Gabriele E-print/Working paper (2016)Detailed reference viewed: 40 (0 UL) Model spaces in sub-Riemannian geometryGrong, Erlend E-print/Working paper (2016)We consider sub-Riemannian spaces admitting an isometry group that is maximal in the sense that any linear isometry of the horizontal tangent spaces is realized by a global isometry. We will show that ... [more ▼]We consider sub-Riemannian spaces admitting an isometry group that is maximal in the sense that any linear isometry of the horizontal tangent spaces is realized by a global isometry. We will show that these spaces have a canonical partial connection defined on their horizontal bundle. However, unlike the Riemannian case, such spaces are not uniquely determined by their curvature and their metric tangent cone. Furthermore, the number of invariants needed to determine model spaces with the same tangent cone is in general greater than one. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 76 (2 UL) Adventskalender, Tag 22: Gedanken und Wünsche für Hochbegabte.Baudson, Tanja Gabriele E-print/Working paper (2016)Detailed reference viewed: 38 (0 UL) Adventskalender, Tag 15: Gedanken und Wünsche für Hochbegabte.Baudson, Tanja Gabriele E-print/Working paper (2016)Detailed reference viewed: 30 (0 UL) Adventskalender, Tag 20: Gedanken und Wünsche für Hochbegabte.Baudson, Tanja Gabriele E-print/Working paper (2016)Detailed reference viewed: 33 (0 UL) Weak poincaré inequality for convolution probability measuresCheng, Li Juan ; Zhang, Shao QinE-print/Working paper (2016)In this article, weak Poincaré inequalities are established for convolution measures by using Lyapunov conditions. As applications, these results are further applied to some explicit cases.Detailed reference viewed: 86 (12 UL) Learning Tuple ProbabilitiesDylla, Maximilian; Theobald, Martin E-print/Working paper (2016)Detailed reference viewed: 110 (22 UL) Distributed Processing of Generalized Graph-Pattern Queries in SPARQL 1.1Gurajada, Sairam; Theobald, Martin E-print/Working paper (2016)Detailed reference viewed: 80 (7 UL) Political Economics of Fiscal Consolidations and External Sovereign AccidentsAchury, Carolina; Koulovatianos, Christos ; Tsoukalas, JohnE-print/Working paper (2016)As the recent chain of EU sovereign crises has demonstrated, after an unexpected massive rise to the debt GDP ratio, several EU countries manage to proceed with fiscal consolidation quickly and ... [more ▼]As the recent chain of EU sovereign crises has demonstrated, after an unexpected massive rise to the debt GDP ratio, several EU countries manage to proceed with fiscal consolidation quickly and effectively, while other countries, notably Greece, proceed slowly, fueling Graccident and Grexit scenarios, even after generous rescue packages, involving debt haircuts and monitoring from official bodies. Here we recursively formulate a game among rent-seeking groups and propose that high debt-GDP ratios lead to predictable miscoordination among rent-seeking groups, unsustainable debt dynamics, and open the path to political accidents that foretell Graccident scenarios. Our analysis and application helps in under- standing the politico-economic sustainability of sovereign rescues, emphasizing the need for fiscal targets and possible debt haircuts. We provide a calibrated example that quantifies the threshold debt-GDP ratio at 137%, remarkably close to the target set for private sector involvement in the case of Greece. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 114 (10 UL) Adventskalender, Tag 10: Gedanken und Wünsche für Hochbegabte.Baudson, Tanja Gabriele E-print/Working paper (2016)Detailed reference viewed: 43 (0 UL) Untraceable VoIP Communication based on DC-netsFranck, Christian ; Sorger, Ulrich E-print/Working paper (2016)Untraceable communication is about hiding the identity of the sender or the recipient of a message. Currently most systems used in practice (e.g., TOR) rely on the principle that a message is routed via ... [more ▼]Untraceable communication is about hiding the identity of the sender or the recipient of a message. Currently most systems used in practice (e.g., TOR) rely on the principle that a message is routed via several relays to obfuscate its path through the network. However, as this increases the end-to-end latency it is not ideal for applications like Voice-over-IP (VoIP) communication, where participants will notice annoying delays if the data does not arrive fast enough. We propose an approach based on the paradigm of Dining Cryptographer networks (DC-nets) that can be used to realize untraceable communication within small groups. The main features of our approach are low latency and resilience to packet-loss and fault packets sent by malicious players. We consider the special case of VoIP communication and propose techniques for a P2P implementation. We expose existing problems and sketch possible future large-scale systems composed of multiple groups. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 151 (7 UL)