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We rely on survey data collected in Luxembourg in 2020. The survey asks for the ... [more ▼]We study attitudes towards the introduction of hypothetical new taxes to finance the cost of the COVID-19 pandemic. We rely on survey data collected in Luxembourg in 2020. The survey asks for the agreement of respondents over: a one-time net wealth tax, an inheritance tax, a temporary solidarity income tax, and a temporary increase in VAT. All questions include different and randomly assigned tax attributes (tax rates and exemption amounts). We find a clear divide with relativelyhigh support for new wealth and inheritance taxes on the one hand and a low support for increases in VAT and income taxes on the other hand. While 58% of respondents agree or strongly agree with a one-time tax levied on net worth, only24% are in favor of a small increase in VAT. Support for any tax is however negatively associated with the size of the tax as measured by the predicted revenues. Our results indicate that a one-time wealth tax could raise substantial revenues andstill garner public support. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 19 (1 UL) Zur Entwicklung des TSG unter Berücksichtigung der aktuellen politischen Debattede Silva, Adrian E-print/Working paper (2021)The article deals with developments regarding the Transsexual Act and the current political debate on trans law in the Federal Republic of Germany.Detailed reference viewed: 82 (6 UL) Wenn Sicherheitsinteressen kollidieren – Technische und rechtliche Implikationen einer verpflichtenden Zugriffsmöglichkeit auf verschlüsselte Daten durch BehördenSchmitz, Sandra ; Schiffner, StefanE-print/Working paper (2021)Detailed reference viewed: 44 (2 UL) Auswirkungen der Covid-19-Krise auf die Soziale Arbeit in Luxemburg aus Sicht der Praxis : Ergebnisse einer Online-Befragung im Sommer 2020Flammang, Manou Laure ; Böwen, Petra E-print/Working paper (2021)This publication presents the findings of an online survey on the impact of the Covid-19 crisis on social work in Luxembourg from the perspective of practitioners. It shows what effects the crisis as well ... [more ▼]This publication presents the findings of an online survey on the impact of the Covid-19 crisis on social work in Luxembourg from the perspective of practitioners. It shows what effects the crisis as well as the hygiene and protection measures had on daily social work practice, on the addressees and on the practitioners themselves. The findings are then reflected upon and discussed in relation to international research findings and professional publications on the topic of social work in times of Covid-19. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 1604 (69 UL) At the Edge of a Seamless Cloud ExperienceRac, Samuel ; Brorsson, Mats Hakan E-print/Working paper (2021)There is a growing need for low latency for many devices and users. The traditional cloud computing paradigm can not meet this requirement, legitimizing the need for a new paradigm. Edge computing ... [more ▼]There is a growing need for low latency for many devices and users. The traditional cloud computing paradigm can not meet this requirement, legitimizing the need for a new paradigm. Edge computing proposes to move computing capacities to the edge of the network, closer to where data is produced and consumed. However, edge computing raises new challenges. At the edge, devices are more heterogeneous than in the data centre, where everything is optimized to achieve economies of scale. Edge devices can be mobile, like a car, which complicates architecture with dynamic topologies. IoT devices produce a considerable amount of data that can be processed at the Edge. In this paper, we discuss the main challenges to be met in edge computing and solutions to achieve a seamless cloud experience. We propose to use technologies like containers and WebAssembly to manage applications' execution on heterogeneous devices. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 18 (10 UL) Diversity on the screenZanaj, Skerdilajda E-print/Working paper (2021)Detailed reference viewed: 127 (9 UL) Earthquakes and Mental HealthBertinelli, Luisito ; Mahé, Clotilde; Strobl, EricE-print/Working paper (2021)Earthquakes may seriously deteriorate mental health by generating fear and stress as a result of economic and human losses. However, mental health has also been found to improve as a result of greater ... [more ▼]Earthquakes may seriously deteriorate mental health by generating fear and stress as a result of economic and human losses. However, mental health has also been found to improve as a result of greater social cohesion in affected communities after the event. We examine the short-run effects of earthquakes on a wide set of mental health outcomes in Ecuador. To this end, we combine hospital admissions, death records, and survey data with precise measures of local seismic activity to exploit the plausibly random spatial and temporal nature of earthquake intensity. We find that damaging earthquakes decrease the propensity to be admitted, the number of days of hospitalisation for mental and behavioural disorders, and deaths due to suicide. Estimates from nationally-representative surveys provide suggestive evidence of increased life satisfaction, trust, and religious observance, and thus provide a possible explanation for the fall in admissions and suicides after an earthquake. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 224 (15 UL) Judicial Education and Judicial Independence: Paper given at the 2021 Commonwealth Law ConferenceHappold, Matthew E-print/Working paper (2021)The link between judicial education and an efficient judiciary is, one hopes, obvious. But in order to ensure judicial independence, contemporary wisdom has it, judicial education should also be in the ... [more ▼]The link between judicial education and an efficient judiciary is, one hopes, obvious. But in order to ensure judicial independence, contemporary wisdom has it, judicial education should also be in the hands of the judiciary. Absent such control, there is a risk that judges may be indoctrinated by interested actors and their independence compromised. Some critics, however, have been sceptical about judicial control of judicial education. Judicial control of education often justified on basis of expertise as well as need to protect independence. But judges are not pedagogues (and their view of what judging does, or should, entail are often untheorized). Nor are they particularly representative of society. In addition, a danger unmitigated by judicial control of judicial education is regulatory capture, defined as ‘the result or process by which regulation, in law or application, is consistently or repeatedly directed away from the public interest and toward the interests of the regulated industry, by the intent and action of the industry itself'. Even if other voices are integrated into discussions, the danger exists that they might seek to subvert the process to privilege their interests over the general interest. Such concerns have recently been raised in England and Wales with regard to the Equal Treatment Bench Book. The paper examines the relationship between judicial education and judicial independence through the lens of this controversy. It concludes that when judicial education trespass on the independence of the individual judge is not an easy question to answer (not least because education is always about socialization) but, crucially, it is not one answered by putting judicial education in the hands of the judiciary. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 39 (0 UL) Parental migration and psychological well-being of children. Longitudinal evidence from GhanaRaturi, Radhika; Cebotari, Victor E-print/Working paper (2021)Detailed reference viewed: 38 (0 UL) From SLAM to Situational Awareness: Challenges and SurveyBavle, Hriday ; Sanchez Lopez, Jose Luis ; Schmidt F, Eduardo et alE-print/Working paper (2021)Detailed reference viewed: 61 (1 UL) The role of economic complexity on the formation of gender rolesZanaj, Skerdilajda E-print/Working paper (2021)Detailed reference viewed: 175 (18 UL) Labor Market Effects of Technology Shocks biased Toward the Traded SectorBertinelli, Luisito ; Cardi; RestoutE-print/Working paper (2021)Motivated by recent evidence pointing at an increasing contribution of asymmetric shocks across sectors to economic fluctuations, we explore the labor market effects of technology shocks biased toward the ... [more ▼]Motivated by recent evidence pointing at an increasing contribution of asymmetric shocks across sectors to economic fluctuations, we explore the labor market effects of technology shocks biased toward the traded sector. Our VAR evidence for seventeen OECD countries reveals that the non-traded sector alone drives the increase in total hours worked following a technology shock that increases permanently traded relative to non-traded TFP. The shock generates a reallocation of labor toward the non-traded sector which contributes to 35% on average of the rise in non-traded hours worked. Both labor reallocation and variations in labor income shares are found empirically connected with factor-biased technological change. Our quantitative analysis shows that a two-sector open economy model with flexible prices can reproduce the labor market effects we document empirically once we allow for imperfect mobility of labor, gross substitutability between home- and foreign-produced traded goods, and factor-biased technological change. When calibrating the model to country-specific data, its ability to account for the cross-country reallocation and redistributive effects we estimate increases once we let factor-biased technological change vary between sectors and across countries. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 184 (9 UL) A global carbon tax? Why firm mobility and heterogeneity mattersZanaj, Skerdilajda E-print/Working paper (2021)Detailed reference viewed: 239 (14 UL) Minimax rate of estimation for invariant densities associated to continuous stochastic differential equations over anisotropic Holder classesAmorino, Chiara ; Gloter, ArnaudE-print/Working paper (2021)Detailed reference viewed: 20 (0 UL) Requirements And Threat Models of Adversarial Attacks and Robustness of Chest X-ray classificationGhamizi, Salah ; Cordy, Maxime ; Papadakis, Mike et alE-print/Working paper (2021)Vulnerability to adversarial attacks is a well-known weakness of Deep Neural Networks. While most of the studies focus on natural images with standardized benchmarks like ImageNet and CIFAR, little ... [more ▼]Vulnerability to adversarial attacks is a well-known weakness of Deep Neural Networks. While most of the studies focus on natural images with standardized benchmarks like ImageNet and CIFAR, little research has considered real world applications, in particular in the medical domain. Our research shows that, contrary to previous claims, robustness of chest x-ray classification is much harder to evaluate and leads to very different assessments based on the dataset, the architecture and robustness metric. We argue that previous studies did not take into account the peculiarity of medical diagnosis, like the co-occurrence of diseases, the disagreement of labellers (domain experts), the threat model of the attacks and the risk implications for each successful attack. In this paper, we discuss the methodological foundations, review the pitfalls and best practices, and suggest new methodological considerations for evaluating the robustness of chest xray classification models. Our evaluation on 3 datasets, 7 models, and 18 diseases is the largest evaluation of robustness of chest x-ray classification models. We believe our findings will provide reliable guidelines for realistic evaluation and improvement of the robustness of machine learning models for medical diagnosis. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 128 (19 UL) Active reconfiguration of cytoplasmic lipid droplets governs migration of nutrient-limited phytoplanktonSengupta, Anupam ; Dhar, Jayabrata ; Danza, Francesco et alE-print/Working paper (2021)As open oceans continue to warm, modified currents and enhanced stratification exacerbate nitrogen and phosphorus limitation, constraining primary production. The ability to migrate vertically bestows ... [more ▼]As open oceans continue to warm, modified currents and enhanced stratification exacerbate nitrogen and phosphorus limitation, constraining primary production. The ability to migrate vertically bestows motile phytoplankton a crucial–albeit energetically expensive–advantage toward vertically redistributing for optimal growth, uptake and resource storage in nutrient-limited water columns. However, this traditional view discounts the possibility that the phytoplankton migration strategy may be actively selected by the storage dynamics when nutrients turn limiting. Here we report that storage and migration in phytoplankton are coupled traits, whereby motile species harness energy storing lipid droplets (LDs) to biomechanically regulate migration in nutrient limited settings. LDs grow and translocate–directionally–within the cytoplasm to accumulate below the cell nucleus, tuning the speed, trajectory and stability of swimming cells. Nutrient reincorporation reverses the LD translocation, restoring the homeostatic migratory traits measured in population-scale millifluidic experiments. Combining intracellular LD tracking and quantitative morphological analysis of red-tide forming alga, Heterosigma akashiwo, along with a model of cell mechanics, we discover that the size and spatial localization of growing LDs govern the ballisticity and orientational stability of migration. The strain-specific shifts in migration which we identify here are amenable to a selective emergence of mixotrophy in nutrient-limited phytoplankton. We rationalize these distinct behavioral acclimatization in an ecological context, relying on concomitant tracking of the photophysiology and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, and propose a dissipative energy budget for motile phytoplankton alleviating nutrient limitation. The emergent resource acquisition strategies, enabled by distinct strain-specific migratory acclimatizing mechanisms, highlight the active role of the reconfigurable cytoplasmic LDs in guiding vertical movement. By uncovering the mechanistic coupling between dynamics of intracellular changes to physiologically-governed migration strategies, this work offers a tractable framework to delineate diverse strategies which phytoplankton may harness to maximize fitness and resource pool in nutrient-limited open oceans of the future. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 82 (15 UL) A Formalisation of Abstract Argumentation in Higher-Order LogicSteen, Alexander ; Fuenmayor Pelaez, David E-print/Working paper (2021)We present an approach for representing abstract argumentation frameworks based on an encoding into classical higher-order logic. This provides a uniform framework for computer-assisted assessment of ... [more ▼]We present an approach for representing abstract argumentation frameworks based on an encoding into classical higher-order logic. This provides a uniform framework for computer-assisted assessment of abstract argumentation frameworks using interactive and automated reasoning tools. This enables the formal analysis and verification of meta-theoretical properties as well as the flexible generation of extensions and labellings with respect to well-known argumentation semantics. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 117 (4 UL) Analysis and Probing of Parallel Channels in the Lightning NetworkBiryukov, Alexei ; Naumenko, Gleb; Tikhomirov, Sergei E-print/Working paper (2021)Bitcoin can process only a few transactions per second, which is insufficient for a global payment network. The Lightning Network (LN) aims to address this challenge. The LN allows for low-latency bitcoin ... [more ▼]Bitcoin can process only a few transactions per second, which is insufficient for a global payment network. The Lightning Network (LN) aims to address this challenge. The LN allows for low-latency bitcoin transfers through a network of payment channels. In contrast to regular Bitcoin transactions, payments in the LN are not globally broadcast. Thus it may improve not only Bitcoin's scalability but also privacy. However, the probing attack allows an adversary to discover channel balances, threatening users' privacy. Prior work on probing did not account for the possibility of multiple (parallel) channels between two nodes. Naive probing algorithms yield false results for parallel channels. In this work, we develop a new probing model that accurately accounts for parallel channels. We describe jamming-enhanced probing that allows for full balance information extraction in multi-channel hops, which was impossible with earlier probing methods. We quantify the attacker's information gain and propose an optimized algorithm for choosing probe amounts for N-channel hops. We demonstrate its efficiency based on real-world data using our own probing-focused LN simulator. Finally, we discuss countermeasures such as new forwarding strategies, intra-hop payment split, rebalancing, and unannounced channels. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 80 (7 UL) QKD parameter estimation by two-universal hashing leads to faster convergence to the asymptotic rateOstrev, Dimiter E-print/Working paper (2021)This paper proposes and proves security of a QKD protocol which uses two-universal hashing instead of random sampling to estimate the number of bit flip and phase flip errors. This protocol dramatically ... [more ▼]This paper proposes and proves security of a QKD protocol which uses two-universal hashing instead of random sampling to estimate the number of bit flip and phase flip errors. This protocol dramatically outperforms previous QKD protocols for small block sizes. More generally, for the two-universal hashing QKD protocol, the difference between asymptotic and finite key rate decreases with the number $n$ of qubits as $cn^{-1}$, where $c$ depends on the security parameter. For comparison, the same difference decreases no faster than $c'n^{-1/3}$ for an optimized protocol that uses random sampling and has the same asymptotic rate, where $c'$ depends on the security parameter and the error rate. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 53 (5 UL) Economic development, weather shocks and child marriage in South Asia: A machine learning approachDietrich, Stephan; Meysonnat, Aline; Rosales, Francisco et alE-print/Working paper (2021)Detailed reference viewed: 65 (0 UL) Inwieweit weisen organisationale Schutzmaßnahmen gegen COVID-19 einen Zusammenhang mit dem Wohlbefinden von Arbeitnehmerinnen und Arbeitnehmer auf?Sischka, Philipp ; Steffgen, Georges E-print/Working paper (2021)m Rahmen dieser Newsletter werden ArbeitnehmerInnen in Luxemburg in fünf Gruppen aufgeteilt, die auf ihrer Arbeit in unterschiedlichem Umfang Corona-Schutzmaßnahmen ausgesetzt sind. Neben ... [more ▼]m Rahmen dieser Newsletter werden ArbeitnehmerInnen in Luxemburg in fünf Gruppen aufgeteilt, die auf ihrer Arbeit in unterschiedlichem Umfang Corona-Schutzmaßnahmen ausgesetzt sind. Neben ArbeitnehmerInnen mit 1) „einem geringen Umfang an Schutzmaßnahmen“, 2) „einem mittleren Umfang an Schutzmaßnahmen“, sowie 3) „einem hohen Umfang an Schutzmaßnahmen“, lassen sich auch noch Personen 4) „mit einem hohen Umfang an Schutzmaßnahmen, bei jedoch geringer körperlicher Distanz“, sowie Personen 5) „mit permanentem Homeoffice“ unterscheiden. Die Analysen zeigen, dass Frauen, jüngere ArbeitnehmerInnen und ArbeitnehmerInnen in Teilzeit häufiger in der Gruppe „Hohes Maß an Schutzmaßnahmen, geringe Distanz“ zu finden sind. Darüber hinaus sind Männer, ArbeitnehmerInnen mit Wohnsitz in Luxemburg und ArbeitnehmerInnen in einer Vorgesetztenposition häufiger in der Gruppe derjenigen zu finden, die permanent im Homeoffice arbeiten. ArbeitnehmerInnen der Gruppe „Geringes Maß an Schutzmaßnahmen“ oder „Hohes Maß an Schutzmaßnahmen, geringe Distanz“ weisen insgesamt schlechtere Arbeitsbedingungen auf und haben die höchste Angst vor einer Ansteckung durch COVID-19. Im Gegensatz dazu weisen ArbeitnehmerInnen der Gruppe „Hohes Maß an Schutzmaßnahmen“ und der Gruppe „permanentes Homeoffice“, bessere Arbeitsbedingungen auf. Es zeigt sich, dass Arbeitnehmer, die in einem Umfeld mit einem geringen Maß an Schutzmaßnahmen arbeiten müssen, ein deutlich geringeres Wohlbefinden haben. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 15 (0 UL) The discrepancy between min-max statistics of Gaussian and Gaussian-subordinated matricesPeccati, Giovanni ; Turchi, Nicola E-print/Working paper (2021)Detailed reference viewed: 42 (1 UL) Impact of mining boom on the quality of public goods in Sub-Saharan AfricaBertinelli, Luisito ; Bourgain, Arnaud E-print/Working paper (2021)In this paper, we investigate the impact of public mining revenues on perception indicators of public goods quality in five mining countries that have recently experienced a boom in their government ... [more ▼]In this paper, we investigate the impact of public mining revenues on perception indicators of public goods quality in five mining countries that have recently experienced a boom in their government revenues: Burkina Faso, Ghana, D.R. Congo, Tanzania, and Zambia. The effect of the tax revenue boom is identified using a difference-in-differences estimation strategy. Our estimations indicate that people living in mining regions as having a sense of structural disadvantage in terms of the provision of public goods; however, this perception is pro-cyclical in the presence of resource booms/busts. Our results hold even after taking account of the possible endogeneity of our measure of resource revenue. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 175 (11 UL) Evaluation of TPMS Signal Propagation in a Heavy Commercial Vehicle EnvironementRida, Ahmad ; Ridha, Soua; Engel, Thomas E-print/Working paper (2021)Detailed reference viewed: 80 (7 UL) Hessian heat kernel estimates and Calderón-Zygmund inequalities on complete Riemannian manifoldsCao, Jun; Cheng, Li-Juan; Thalmaier, Anton E-print/Working paper (2021)We address some fundamental questions about geometric analysis on Riemannian manifolds. The L^p-Calderón-Zygmund inequality is one of the cornerstones in the regularity theory of elliptic equations, and ... [more ▼]We address some fundamental questions about geometric analysis on Riemannian manifolds. The L^p-Calderón-Zygmund inequality is one of the cornerstones in the regularity theory of elliptic equations, and it has been asked under which geometric conditions it holds for a reasonable class of non-compact Riemannian manifolds, and to what extent assumptions on the derivative of curvature and on the injectivity radius of the manifold are necessary. In the present paper, for 12. In this case we complement the study of Güneysu-Pigola (2015) and derive sufficient geometric criteria for the validity of the Calderón-Zygmund inequality under additional Kato class bounds on the Riemann curvature tensor and the covariant derivative of Ricci curvature. Bounds in the Kato class are integral conditions and much weaker than pointwise bounds. Throughout the proofs, probabilistic tools, like Hessian formulas and Bismut type representations for heat semigroups, play a significant role. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 136 (15 UL) Some inequalities on Riemannian manifolds linking Entropy, Fisher information, Stein discrepancy and Wasserstein distanceCheng, Li-Juan; Thalmaier, Anton ; Wang, Feng-YuE-print/Working paper (2021)For a complete connected Riemannian manifold M let V∊ C^2(M) be such that µ(dx)=exp(-V(x))vol(dx) is a probability measure on M. Taking µ as reference measure, we derive inequalities for probability ... [more ▼]For a complete connected Riemannian manifold M let V∊ C^2(M) be such that µ(dx)=exp(-V(x))vol(dx) is a probability measure on M. Taking µ as reference measure, we derive inequalities for probability measures on M linking relative entropy, Fisher information, Stein discrepancy and Wasserstein distance. These inequalities strengthen in particular the famous log-Sobolev and transportation-cost inequality and extend the so-called Entropy/Stein-discrepancy/Information (HSI) inequality established by Ledoux, Nourdin and Peccati (2015) for the standard Gaussian measure on Euclidean space to the setting of Riemannian manifolds. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 68 (10 UL) Gravity prop and moduli spaces Mg,nMerkoulov (merkulov), Serguei E-print/Working paper (2021)Let Mg,n be the moduli space of algebraic curves of genus g with m+n marked points decomposed into the disjoint union of two sets of cardinalities m and n, and H∙c(Mm+n) its compactly supported cohomology ... [more ▼]Let Mg,n be the moduli space of algebraic curves of genus g with m+n marked points decomposed into the disjoint union of two sets of cardinalities m and n, and H∙c(Mm+n) its compactly supported cohomology group. We prove that the collection of S-bimodules {H∙−mc(Mg,m+n)} has the structure of a properad (called the gravity properad) such that it contains the (degree shifted) E. Getzler's gravity operad as the sub-collection {H∙−1c(M0,1+n)}n≥2. Moreover, we prove that the generators of the 1-dimensional cohomology groups H∙−1c(M0,1+2), H∙−2c(M0,2+1) and H∙−3c(M0,3+0) satisfy with respect to this properadic structure the relations of the (degree shifted) quasi-Lie bialgebra, a fact making the totality of cohomology groups ∏g,m,nH∙c(Mg,m+n)⊗Sopm×Sn(sgnm⊗Idn) into a complex with the differential fully determined by the just mentioned three cohomology classes . It is proven that this complex contains infinitely many cohomology classes, all coming from M. Kontsevich's odd graph complex. The gravity prop structure is established with the help of T. Willwacher's twisting endofunctor (in the category of properads under the operad of Lie algebras) and K. Costello's theory of moduli spaces of nodal disks with marked boundaries and internal marked points (such that each disk contains at most one internal marked point). [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 67 (0 UL) From robust tests to Bayes-like posterior distributionsBaraud, Yannick E-print/Working paper (2021)In the Bayes paradigm and for a given loss function, we propose the construction of a new type of posterior distributions, that extends the classical Bayes one, for estimating the law of an $n$-sample ... [more ▼]In the Bayes paradigm and for a given loss function, we propose the construction of a new type of posterior distributions, that extends the classical Bayes one, for estimating the law of an $n$-sample. The loss functions we have in mind are based on the total variation and Hellinger distances as well as some L_j-ones. We prove that, with a probability close to one, this new posterior distribution concentrates its mass in a neighbourhood of the law of the data, for the chosen loss function, provided that this law belongs to the support of the prior or, at least, lies close enough to it. We therefore establish that the new posterior distribution enjoys some robustness properties with respect to a possible misspecification of the prior, or more precisely, its support. For the total variation and squared Hellinger losses, we also show that the posterior distribution keeps its concentration properties when the data are only independent, hence not necessarily i.i.d., provided that most of their marginals or the average of these are close enough to some probability distribution around which the prior puts enough mass. The posterior distribution is therefore also stable with respect to the equidistribution assumption. We illustrate these results by several applications. We consider the problems of estimating a location parameter or both the location and the scale of a density in a nonparametric framework. Finally, we also tackle the problem of estimating a density, with the squared Hellinger loss, in a high-dimensional parametric model under some sparsity conditions. The results established in this paper are non-asymptotic and provide, as much as possible, explicit constants. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 111 (14 UL) No more Piecemeal TacticsKafteranis, Dimitrios ; Robert, BrochhausE-print/Working paper (2021)Detailed reference viewed: 41 (0 UL) Holonomic approximation through convex integrationMassot, Patrick; Theilliere, Mélanie E-print/Working paper (2021)Convex integration and the holonomic approximation theorem are two well-known pillars of flexibility in differential topology and geometry. They may each seem to have their own flavor and scope. The goal ... [more ▼]Convex integration and the holonomic approximation theorem are two well-known pillars of flexibility in differential topology and geometry. They may each seem to have their own flavor and scope. The goal of this paper is to bring some new perspective on this topic. We explain how to prove the holonomic approximation theorem for first order jets using convex integration. More precisely we first prove that this theorem can easily be reduced to proving flexibility of some specific relation. Then we prove this relation is open and ample, hence its flexibility follows from off-the-shelf convex integration. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 48 (1 UL) Covid-Kids II. Survey for children aged 6 to 16 about their experiences during the Covid-19 pandemicKirsch, Claudine ; Peluso, Eugenio; Andreoli, Francesco et alE-print/Working paper (2021)Detailed reference viewed: 77 (6 UL) Assessing the role of polygenic background on the penetrance of monogenic forms in Parkinson\textquoterights disease. 2021.06.06.21253270Hassanin, Emadeldin; May, Patrick ; Aldisi, Rana et alE-print/Working paper (2021)Background: Several rare and common variants are associated with Parkinson's disease. However, there is still an incomplete penetrance in the carriers of rare variants associated with Parkinson's disease ... [more ▼]Background: Several rare and common variants are associated with Parkinson's disease. However, there is still an incomplete penetrance in the carriers of rare variants associated with Parkinson's disease. To address this issue, we investigated whether a PRS calculated from significant GWAS SNPs affects the penetrance of Parkinson's disease among carriers of rare monogenic variants in known Parkinson's disease genes and those with a family history. Methods: We calculated the PRS based on common variants and selected the carriers of rare monogenic variants by using the exome data from UK Biobank. Individuals were divided into three risk categories based on PRS: low (<10%), intermediate (10%-90%), and high (>90%) risk groups. We then compared how PRS affects Parkinson\textquoterights disease risk among carriers of rare monogenic variants and those with family-history. Results: We observed a two-fold higher odds ratio for a carrier of a monogenic variant that had a high PRS (OR 4.07,95\% CI, 1.72-8.08) compared to carriers with a low PRS (OR 1.91, 95\% CI, 0.31-6.05). In the same line, carriers with a first-degree family history and with \>90\% PRS have even a higher risk of developing PD (OR 23.53, 95\%CI 5.39-71.54) compared to those with \<90\% PRS (OR 9.54, 95\% CI 3.32-21.65). Conclusions: Our results show that PRS, carrier status, and family history contribute independently and additively to the Parkinson's disease risk. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 127 (3 UL) Breast and prostate cancer risk: the interplay of polygenic risk, high-impact monogenic variants, and family history 2021.06.04.21258277Hassanin, Emadeldin; May, Patrick ; Aldisi, Rana et alE-print/Working paper (2021)Purpose: Investigate to which extent polygenic risk scores (PRS), high-impact monogenic variants, and family history affect breast and prostate cancer risk by assessing cancer prevalence and cancer ... [more ▼]Purpose: Investigate to which extent polygenic risk scores (PRS), high-impact monogenic variants, and family history affect breast and prostate cancer risk by assessing cancer prevalence and cancer cumulative lifetime incidence. Methods 200,643 individuals from the UK Biobank were stratified as follows: 1. carriers or non-carriers of high impact constitutive, monogenic variants in cancer susceptibility genes, 2. high or non-high PRS (90th percentile threshold), 3. with or without a family history of cancer. Multivariable logistic regression was used to compare the odds ratio (OR) across the different groups while Cox proportional hazards models were used to compute the cumulative incidence through life. Results Breast and prostate cancer cumulative incidence by age 70 is 7 and 5 for non-carriers with non-high PRS and reaches 37 and 32 among carriers of high-impact variants in cancer susceptibility genes with high PRS. The additional presence of family history is associated with a further increase of the risk of developing cancer reaching an OR of 14 and 21 for breast and prostate cancer, respectively. Conclusion: High PRS confers a cancer risk comparable to high-impact monogenic variants. Family history, monogenic variants, and PRS contribute additively to breast and prostate cancer risk. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 85 (2 UL) The formal moment map geometry of the space of symplectic connectionsLa Fuente-Gravy, Laurent E-print/Working paper (2021)We deform the moment map picture on the space of symplectic connections on a symplectic manifold. To do that, we study a vector bundle of Fedosov star product algebras on the space of symplectic ... [more ▼]We deform the moment map picture on the space of symplectic connections on a symplectic manifold. To do that, we study a vector bundle of Fedosov star product algebras on the space of symplectic connections. We describe a natural formal connection on this bundle adapted to the star product algebras on the fibers. We study its curvature and show the star product trace of the curvature is a formal symplectic form on the space of symplectic connections. The action of Hamiltonian diffeomorphisms on symplectic connections preserves the formal symplectic structure and we show the star product trace can be interpreted as a formal moment map for this action. Finally, we apply this picture to study automorphisms of star products and Hamiltonian diffeomorphisms. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 64 (0 UL) The good, the bad, and the asymmetric: Evidence from a new conditional density modelKostyrka, Andreï ; Malakhov, DmitryE-print/Working paper (2021)We propose a novel univariate conditional density model and decompose asset returns into a sum of copula-connected unobserved ‘good’ and ‘bad’ shocks. The novelty of this approach comes from two factors ... [more ▼]We propose a novel univariate conditional density model and decompose asset returns into a sum of copula-connected unobserved ‘good’ and ‘bad’ shocks. The novelty of this approach comes from two factors: we explicitly model correlation between unobserved shocks and allow for the presence of copula-connected discrete jumps. The proposed framework is very flexible and subsumes other models, such as ‘bad environments, good environments’. Our model shows certain hidden characteristics of returns, explains investors’ behaviour in greater detail, and yields better forecasts of risk measures. The in-sample and out-of-sample performance of our model is better than that of 40 popular GARCH variants. A Monte-Carlo simulation shows that the proposed model recovers the structural parameters of the unobserved dynamics. We estimate the model on S&P 500 data and find that time-dependent non-negative covariance between ‘good’ and ‘bad’ shocks with a leverage-like effect is an important component of total variance. Asymmetric reaction to shocks is present almost in all characteristics of returns. Conditional distribution of seems to be very time-dependent with skewness both in the centre and tails. We conclude that continuous shocks are more important than discrete jumps at least at daily frequency. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 232 (21 UL) Insider’s problem in the trinomial model: a discrete jump process point of viewHalconruy, Hélène E-print/Working paper (2021)In an incomplete market underpinned by the trinomial model, we consider two investors: an ordinary agent whose decisions are driven by public information and an insider who possesses from the beginning a ... [more ▼]In an incomplete market underpinned by the trinomial model, we consider two investors: an ordinary agent whose decisions are driven by public information and an insider who possesses from the beginning a surplus of information encoded through a random variable for which he or she knows the outcome. Through the definition of an auxiliary model based on a marked binomial process, we handle the trinomial model as a volatility one, and use the stochastic analysis and Malliavin calculus toolboxes available in that context. In particular, we connect the information drift, i.e. the drift to eliminate in order to preserve the martingale property within an initial enlargement of filtration in terms of Malliavin’s derivative. We solve explicitly the agent and the insider expected logarithmic utility maximization problems and provide a Ocone-Karatzas type formula for replicable claims. We identify insider’s expected additional utility with the Shannon entropy of the extra information, and examine then the existence of arbitrage opportunities for the insider. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 79 (5 UL) Heterozygous variants in KCNC2 cause a broad spectrum of epilepsy phenotypes associated with characteristic functional alterations 2021.05.21.21257099Schwarz, Niklas; Seiffert, Simone; Pendziwiat, Manuela et alE-print/Working paper (2021)Background KCNC2 encodes a member of the shaw-related voltage-gated potassium channel family (KV3.2), which are important for sustained high-frequency firing and optimized energy efficiency of action ... [more ▼]Background KCNC2 encodes a member of the shaw-related voltage-gated potassium channel family (KV3.2), which are important for sustained high-frequency firing and optimized energy efficiency of action potentials in the brain.Methods Individuals with KCNC2 variants detected by exome sequencing were selected for clinical, further genetic and functional analysis. The cases were referred through clinical and research collaborations in our study. Four de novo variants were examined electrophysiologically in Xenopus laevis oocytes.Results We identified novel KCNC2 variants in 27 patients with various forms of epilepsy. Functional analysis demonstrated gain-of-function in severe and loss-of-function in milder phenotypes as the underlying pathomechanisms with specific response to valproic acid.Conclusion These findings implicate KCNC2 as a novel causative gene for epilepsy emphasizing the critical role of KV3.2 in the regulation of brain excitability with an interesting genotype-phenotype correlation and a potential concept for precision medicine. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 89 (2 UL) Wie belastend erleben (Alleinerziehende) Eltern ihre Arbeit?Sischka, Philipp ; Steffgen, Georges E-print/Working paper (2021)Im Rahmen dieser Newsletter wird analysiert, wie sich verschiedene Arbeitnehmergruppen hinsichtlich ihrer familiären Situation unterscheiden, und in welchem Maße die familiäre Situation der Arbeitnehmer ... [more ▼]Im Rahmen dieser Newsletter wird analysiert, wie sich verschiedene Arbeitnehmergruppen hinsichtlich ihrer familiären Situation unterscheiden, und in welchem Maße die familiäre Situation der Arbeitnehmer mit verschiedenen Quality of Work, Quality of Employment und Well-Being Dimensionen zusammenhängt. Die familiäre Situation wird dabei überwiegend vom Alter der Arbeitnehmer bestimmt. Alleinerziehende Eltern, d.h. Arbeitnehmer ohne Partner und mit minderjährigen Kindern, weisen zwischen 2016 und 2020 den höchsten Anstieg bei mentalen und emotionalen Anforderungen auf. Gleichzeitig zeigt sich für diese Gruppe ein Rückgang der Arbeitszufriedenheit und des generellen Well-Being, sowie ein Anstieg des Burnoutniveaus und der Gesundheitsprobleme. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 18 (0 UL) Trade-offs in phenotypic noise synchronize emergent topology to actively enhance transport in microbial environmentsDhar, Jayabrata ; Thai, Le Phuong Anh ; Ghoshal, Arkajyoti et alE-print/Working paper (2021)Phenotypic noise underpins homeostasis and fitness of individual cells. Yet, the extent to which noise shapes cell-to-population properties in microbial active matter remains poorly understood. By ... [more ▼]Phenotypic noise underpins homeostasis and fitness of individual cells. Yet, the extent to which noise shapes cell-to-population properties in microbial active matter remains poorly understood. By quantifying variability in confluent \textit{E.coli} strains, we catalogue noise across different phenotypic traits. The noise, measured over different temperatures serving as proxy for cellular activity, spanned more than two orders of magnitude. The maximum noise was associated with the cell geometry and the critical colony area at the onset of mono-to-multilayer transition (MTMT), while the lower bound was set by the critical time of the MTMT. Our results, supported by a hydrodynamic model, suggest that a trade-off between the noise in the cell geometry and the growth rate can lead to the self-regulation of the MTMT timing. The MTMT cascades synchronous emergence of hydrodynamic fields, actively enhancing the micro-environmental transport. Our results highlight how interplay of phenotypic noise triggers emergent deterministic properties, and reveal the role of multifield topology--of the colony structure and hydrodynamics--to insulate confluent systems from the inherent noise associated with natural cell-environment settings. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 36 (3 UL) Loss of function variants in the KCNQ5 gene are associated with genetic generalized epilepsiesKrueger, Johanna; Schubert, Julian; Kegele, Josua et alE-print/Working paper (2021)Objective: De novo missense variants in KCNQ5, encoding the voltage gated K+ channel KV7.5, have been described as a cause of developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE) or intellectual disability ... [more ▼]Objective: De novo missense variants in KCNQ5, encoding the voltage gated K+ channel KV7.5, have been described as a cause of developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE) or intellectual disability (ID). We set out to identify disease-related KCNQ5 variants in genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE) and their underlying mechanisms. Methods: 1292 families with GGE were studied by next-generation sequencing. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings, biotinylation and phospholipid overlay assays were performed in mammalian cells combined with docking and homology modeling. Results: We identified three deleterious heterozygous missense variants, one truncation and one splice site alteration in five independent families with GGE with predominant absence seizures, two variants were also associated with mild to moderate ID. All three missense variants displayed a strongly decreased current density indicating a loss-of-function (LOF). When mutant channels were co-expressed with wild-type (WT) KV7.5 or KV7.5 and KV7.3 channels, three variants also revealed a significant dominant-negative effect on WT channels. Other gating parameters were unchanged. Biotinylation assays indicated a normal surface expression of the variants. The p.Arg359Cys variant altered PI(4,5)P2-interaction, presumably in the non-conducting preopen-closed state. Interpretation: Our study indicates that specific deleterious KCNQ5 variants are associated with GGE, partially combined with mild to moderate ID. The disease mechanism is a LOF partially with dominant-negative effects through functional, rather than trafficking deficits. LOF of KV7.5 channels will reduce the M-current, likely resulting in increased excitability of KV7.5-expressing neurons. Further studies on a network level are necessary to understand which circuits are affected and how the variants induce generalized seizures. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 68 (0 UL) Ultra-rare constrained missense variants in the epilepsies: Shared and specific enrichment patterns in neuronal gene-sets 2021.04.18.440264Koko, Mahmoud; Krause, Roland ; Sander, Thomas et alE-print/Working paper (2021)Background: Burden analysis in epilepsy has shown an excess of deleterious ultra-rare variants (URVs) in few gene-sets, such as known epilepsy genes, constrained genes, ion channel or GABAA receptor genes ... [more ▼]Background: Burden analysis in epilepsy has shown an excess of deleterious ultra-rare variants (URVs) in few gene-sets, such as known epilepsy genes, constrained genes, ion channel or GABAA receptor genes. We set out to investigate the burden of URVs in a comprehensive range of gene-sets presumed to be implicated in epileptogenesis. Methods: We investigated several constraint and conservation-based strategies to study whole exome sequencing data from European individuals with developmental and epileptic encephalopathies (DEE, n = 1,003), genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE, n = 3,064), and non-acquired focal epilepsy (NAFE, n = 3,522), collected by the Epi25 Collaborative, compared to 3,962 ancestry-matched controls. The burden of 12 URVs types in 92 gene-sets was compared between epilepsy cases (DDE, GGE, NAFE) and controls using logistic regression analysis. Results: Burden analysis of brain-expressed genes revealed an excess of different URVs types in all three epilepsy categories which was largest for constrained missense variants. The URVs burden was prominent in neuron-specific, synaptic and developmental genes as well as genes encoding ion channels and receptors, and it was generally higher for DEE and GGE compared to NAFE. The patterns of URVs burden in gene-sets expressed in inhibitory vs. excitatory neurons or receptors suggested a high burden in both in DEE but a differential involvement of inhibitory genes in GGE, while excitatory genes were predominantly affected in NAFE. Top ranking susceptibility genes from a recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) of generalized and focal epilepsies displayed a higher URVs burden in constrained coding regions in GGE and NAFE, respectively. Conclusions: Using exome-based gene-set burden analysis, we demonstrate that missense URVs affecting mainly constrained sites are enriched in neuronal genes in both common and rare severe epilepsy syndromes. Our results indicate a differential impact of these URVs in genes expressed in inhibitory vs. excitatory neurons and receptors in generalized vs. focal epilepsies. The excess of URVs in top-ranking GWAS risk-genes suggests a convergence of rare deleterious and common risk-variants in the pathogenesis of generalized and focal epilepsies. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 77 (5 UL) The United States of America, Racism and Sanctions Meet at the International Criminal CourtOwiso, Owiso E-print/Working paper (2021)Detailed reference viewed: 69 (3 UL) Symposium on the ‘Legacy’ of the USA Sanctions against International Criminal Court Prosecutor Ms Fatou Bensouda and Mr Phakiso MochochokoOwiso, Owiso ; Sharon, NakandhaE-print/Working paper (2021)Detailed reference viewed: 64 (2 UL) Les langues dans les offres d'emploi au Luxembourg (1984-2019)Pigeron-Piroth, Isabelle ; Fehlen, Fernand E-print/Working paper (2021)À partir d’un échantillon d’offres d’emploi publiées dans le Luxemburger Wort, portant sur la période 1984-2019, cette étude décrit l’évolution des compétences linguistiques exigées ou souhaitées sur le ... [more ▼]À partir d’un échantillon d’offres d’emploi publiées dans le Luxemburger Wort, portant sur la période 1984-2019, cette étude décrit l’évolution des compétences linguistiques exigées ou souhaitées sur le marché du travail du Luxembourg. Après une présentation contextuelle de la situation linguistique et de l’emploi au Luxembourg, l’analyse empirique des quelques 8 340 offres d’emploi de notre échantillon constitue le cœur de cette publication. Aux divers tableaux et graphiques illustrant notre propos s’ajoutent des décryptages de la sémantique utilisée dans les offres d’emploi publiées, utiles à la compréhension des besoins linguistiques dans un marché du travail plurilingue et international. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 522 (40 UL) Malliavin calculus for marked binomial processes: portfolio optimisation in the trinomial model and compound Poisson approximationHalconruy, Hélène E-print/Working paper (2021)In this paper we develop a stochastic analysis for marked binomial processes, that can be viewed as the discrete analogues of marked Poisson processes. The starting point is the statement of a chaotic ... [more ▼]In this paper we develop a stochastic analysis for marked binomial processes, that can be viewed as the discrete analogues of marked Poisson processes. The starting point is the statement of a chaotic expansion for square-integrable (marked binomial) functionals, prior to the elaboration of a Markov-Malliavin structure within this framework. We take advantage of the new formalism to deal with two main applications. First, we revisit the Chen-Stein method for the (compound) Poisson approximation which we perform in the paradigm of the built Markov-Malliavin structure, before studying in the second one the problem of portfolio optimisation in the trinomial model. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 59 (2 UL) Genotype-phenotype correlations in SCN8A-related disorders reveal prognostic and therapeutic implicationsJohannesen, Katrine M.; Liu, Yuanyuan; Gjerulfsen, Cathrine E. et alE-print/Working paper (2021)We report detailed functional analyses and genotype-phenotype correlations in 433 individuals carrying disease-causing variants in SCN8A, encoding the voltage-gated Na+ channel NaV1.6. Five different ... [more ▼]We report detailed functional analyses and genotype-phenotype correlations in 433 individuals carrying disease-causing variants in SCN8A, encoding the voltage-gated Na+ channel NaV1.6. Five different clinical subgroups could be identified: 1) Benign familial infantile epilepsy (BFIE) (n=17, normal cognition, treatable seizures), 2) intermediate epilepsy (n=36, mild ID, partially pharmacoresponsive), 3) developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE, n=191, severe ID, majority pharmacoresistant), 4) generalized epilepsy (n=21, mild to moderate ID, frequently with absence seizures), and 5) affected individuals without epilepsy (n=25, mild to moderate ID). Groups 1-3 presented with early-onset (median: four months) focal or multifocal seizures and epileptic discharges, whereas the onset of seizures in group 4 was later (median: 39 months) with generalized epileptic discharges. The epilepsy was not classifiable in 143 individuals. We performed functional studies expressing missense variants in ND7/23 neuroblastoma cells and primary neuronal cultures using recombinant tetrodotoxin insensitive human NaV1.6 channels and whole-cell patch clamping. Two variants causing DEE showed a strong gain-of-function (GOF, hyperpolarising shift of steady-state activation, strongly increased neuronal firing rate), and one variant causing BFIE or intermediate epilepsy showed a mild GOF (defective fast inactivation, less increased firing). In contrast, all three variants causing generalized epilepsy induced a loss-of-function (LOF, reduced current amplitudes, depolarising shift of steady-state activation, reduced neuronal firing). Including previous studies, functional effects were known for 165 individuals. All 133 individuals carrying GOF variants had either focal (76, groups 1-3), or unclassifiable epilepsy (37), whereas 32 with LOF variants had either generalized (14), no (11) or unclassifiable (5) epilepsy; only two had DEE. Computational modeling in the GOF group revealed a significant correlation between the severity of the electrophysiological and clinical phenotypes. GOF variant carriers responded significantly better to sodium channel blockers (SCBs) than to other anti-seizure medications, and the same applied for all individuals of groups 1-3.In conclusion, our data reveal clear genotype-phenotype correlations between age at seizure onset, type of epilepsy and gain- or loss-of-function effects of SCN8A variants. Generalized epilepsy with absence seizures is the main epilepsy phenotype of LOF variant carriers and the extent of the electrophysiological dysfunction of the GOF variants is a main determinant of the severity of the clinical phenotype in focal epilepsies. Our pharmacological data indicate that SCBs present a therapeutic treatment option in early onset SCN8A-related focal epilepsy. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 251 (0 UL) Sustainable Finance Law: The EU Paradigm and the Way ForwardAlexandraki, Chrysa E-print/Working paper (2021)Detailed reference viewed: 106 (2 UL) Embedding Intelligence in Materials for Responsive Built Environment using Liquid Crystal Elastomer Actuators and SensorsSchwartz, Mathew; Lagerwall, Jan E-print/Working paper (2021)Liquid Crystal Elastomers (LCEs) are an exciting category of material that has tremendous application potential across a variety of fields, owing to their unique properties that enable both sensing and ... [more ▼]Liquid Crystal Elastomers (LCEs) are an exciting category of material that has tremendous application potential across a variety of fields, owing to their unique properties that enable both sensing and actuation. To some, LCEs are simply another type of Shape Memory Polymer, while to others they are an interesting on-going scientific experiment. In this visionary article, we bring an interdisciplinary discussion around creative and impactful ways that LCEs can be applied in the Built Environment to support kinematic and kinetic buildings and situational awareness. We focus particularly on the autonomy made possible by using LCEs, potentially removing needs for motors, wiring and tubing, and even enabling fully independent operation in response to natural environment variations, requiring no power sources. To illustrate the potential, we propose a number of concrete application scenarios where LCEs could offer innovative solutions to problems of great societal importance, such as autonomous active ventilation, heliotropic solar panels systems which can also remove snow or sand autonomously, and invisible coatings with strain mapping functionality, alerting residents in case of dangerous (static or dynamic) loads on roofs or windows, as well as assisting building safety inspection teams after earthquakes. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 81 (0 UL) Aus dem Arbeitsalltag einer Sozialforscherin: Unterwegs mit „Chercheurs à l’école“Höpner, Moritz E-print/Working paper (2021)In mid-March, our team member Caroline Residori visited a senior class of the Lycée Technique in Lallange. As part of the Chercheurs à l’école initiative, she told the young people between the ages of 17 ... [more ▼]In mid-March, our team member Caroline Residori visited a senior class of the Lycée Technique in Lallange. As part of the Chercheurs à l’école initiative, she told the young people between the ages of 17 and 21 many new things about the everyday work of a social researcher. Just like her colleague Céline Dujardin, who visited the Athénée de Luxembourg, she created an interesting orientation afternoon as part of this FNR projects. “The everyday life of researchers is much more than hours of reading and concentrated pipetting in the lab,” Caroline emphasizes. “In every research discipline, it pays off to have a closer look,” Céline adds. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 29 (9 UL) Adaptively Secure Laconic Function Evaluation for NC1Agrawal, Shweta; Rosie, Razvan E-print/Working paper (2021)Detailed reference viewed: 164 (31 UL) Democratic Legitimacy of the Single Resolution Board: Is Legality the Right Question?Mendes, Joana E-print/Working paper (2021)The choice to entrust EU banking resolution to an independent body opened the familiar democratic legitimacy conundrum that besets independent institutions in national and in EU law. This paper examines ... [more ▼]The choice to entrust EU banking resolution to an independent body opened the familiar democratic legitimacy conundrum that besets independent institutions in national and in EU law. This paper examines both the conventional view on the relationship between legality control and democratic legitimacy, that the German Federal Constitutional Court endorsed in its SSM/SRM judgment, and the limits of such conception. Conceived as a “compensatory measure”, legal protection through judicial review and internal administrative review enables the Court to bring independent institutions within the (national) constitutional framework that they strain. Law’s binding character becomes a matter of ensuring not only the rule of law but also democracy. Yet, even detailed legal mandates cannot preclude administrative bodies to define the way law is completed and concretised. While the Court does not adhere to a ‘transmission-belt model’ of administrations, not surprisingly – as a court deciding on democratic legitimacy – it falls short of recognising that legality can do very little to ground the democratic legitimacy of fundamental political choices, such as those entrusted to the Single Resolution Board. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 135 (5 UL) Digitalisierung von Schule und Digitalisierung im UnterrichtHarion, Dominic ; Pause, Johannes E-print/Working paper (2021)Detailed reference viewed: 141 (10 UL) The very long arm of wealth: Effects of intergenerational wealth resources on health in the U.S. over the last three decadesChauvel, Louis ; Ceron, Francisco ; Murphy, Emily et alE-print/Working paper (2021)Health inequalities result from multidimensional socioeconomic inequalities (income, education, wealth, etc.). Given the specific size and greater stability through time of wealth than income, wealth ... [more ▼]Health inequalities result from multidimensional socioeconomic inequalities (income, education, wealth, etc.). Given the specific size and greater stability through time of wealth than income, wealth might affect health beyond other socioeconomic indicators. An important question is how far the reach of wealth is on one’s health: Does wealth promote health even over generations? Using the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID), we consider the effects of intergenerational and intragenerational wealth on age-adjusted self-assessed health (ASAH) across the life course. We find that both parental and personal household wealth strongly affect ASAH net of other socioeconomic measures. Just as social disadvantages have been shown to be inherited between generations, so too are wealth-induced health advantages. Furthermore, the inter- and intra- generational wealth effects on health increase over the life course. This study thus encourages social scientists to pay greater attention to wealth inequalities, despite difficulties in their accurate measurement. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 57 (5 UL) Assange’s Extradition: Status PendingKafteranis, Dimitrios ; Andreadakis, SteliosE-print/Working paper (2021)Detailed reference viewed: 29 (1 UL) Public Covid-19 Collections and the Second Wave: History and Challenges 26.11.2020Gabellini, Marco ; Zumthurm, Tizian E-print/Working paper (2021)Detailed reference viewed: 28 (0 UL) Panic? Probing Angst over Immigration and CrimeMahe, Clotilde ; Parra-Cely, SergioE-print/Working paper (2021)We examine empirically whether immigration affects crime in an emerging country, Ecuador. We exploit the fact that immigration flows of Venezuelans suddenly evolved from voluntary to forced, and occurred ... [more ▼]We examine empirically whether immigration affects crime in an emerging country, Ecuador. We exploit the fact that immigration flows of Venezuelans suddenly evolved from voluntary to forced, and occurred disproportionately along land borders. We use nationally representative administrative and survey data to precisely estimate an economically null effect of Venezuelan immigration on property and violent crime. We also show that natives are more likely to believe that immigration worsens the economy, despite clear evidence of negative labour market impact due to recent Venezuelan inflows. Results confirm that fears over immigration and crime are not necessarily supported by facts. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 214 (20 UL) Introducing the COVID-19 crisis Special Education Needs Coping SurveyDukes, Daniel; Van Herwegen, Jo; Alessandri, Michael et alE-print/Working paper (2021)Individuals with special education needs have been particularly affected by the COVID-19 pandemic as they have been shown to be at high risk of losing medical and institutional support at a time when ... [more ▼]Individuals with special education needs have been particularly affected by the COVID-19 pandemic as they have been shown to be at high risk of losing medical and institutional support at a time when people are being asked to stay isolated, suffering increased anxiety and depression as a consequence. Their families have often found themselves under tremendous pressure to provide support, engendering financial hardship, and physical and emotional strains. In such times, it is vital that international collaborations assess the impact on the individuals and their families, affording the opportunity to make national and international comparisons of how people have coped and what needs to be done to optimize the measures taken by families, associations and governments. This paper introduces one such collaboration. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 132 (8 UL) Which Factors Play a Role in Coco Issuance? Evidence from European Banks.Wolff, Christian E-print/Working paper (2021)Detailed reference viewed: 88 (7 UL) Addressing Hate Speech with Data Science: An Overview from Computer Science PerspectiveLenzini, Gabriele ; Srba; Pikuliak, Matus et alE-print/Working paper (2021)From a computer science perspective, addressing on-line hate speech is a challenging task that is attracting the attention of both industry (mainly social media platform owners) and academia. In this ... [more ▼]From a computer science perspective, addressing on-line hate speech is a challenging task that is attracting the attention of both industry (mainly social media platform owners) and academia. In this chapter, we provide an overview of state-of-the-art data-science approaches - how they define hate speech, which tasks they solve to mitigate the phenomenon, and how they address these tasks. We limit our investigation mostly to (semi-)automatic detection of hate speech, which is the task that the majority of existing computer science works focus on. Finally, we summarize the challenges and the open problems in the current data-science research and the future directions in this field. Our aim is to prepare an easily understandable report, capable to promote the multidisciplinary character of hate speech research. Researchers from other domains (e.g., psychology and sociology) can thus take advantage of the knowledge achieved in the computer science domain but also contribute back and help improve how computer science is addressing that urgent an d socially relevant issue which is the prevalence of hate speech in social media. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 95 (5 UL) Cloturing DeliberationAnesi, Vincent ; Safronov, MikhailE-print/Working paper (2021)We study how the institutional arrangements for ending deliberation --- the "cloture rules" --- interact with collective learning to affect the outcomes of decision making in committees. In contrast to ... [more ▼]We study how the institutional arrangements for ending deliberation --- the "cloture rules" --- interact with collective learning to affect the outcomes of decision making in committees. In contrast to much of the previous literature on deliberative commit tees, this paper makes a distinction between the final votes over policy proposals and the cloture votes that bring them about. Using this approach, we explore how cloture rules influence the course of deliberation, the likelihood of inefficient deliberative outcomes, the circumstances surrounding failures to bring proposals to a final vote, and the distribution of power among committee members in the deliberative process. We also use our simple model to examine the issue of the stability of cloture rules, characterizing the rules that no coalition of committee members is able or willing to overturn. We show in particular that all cloture rules are dynamically stable. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 295 (26 UL) Looking for the Best and Brightest': Hiring difficulties and high-skilled foreign workersRaux, Morgan E-print/Working paper (2021)This paper studies the complementarity between domestic and foreign skilled workers. It develops a simple model where employers seek to recruit a foreign worker when finding domestic workers takes more ... [more ▼]This paper studies the complementarity between domestic and foreign skilled workers. It develops a simple model where employers seek to recruit a foreign worker when finding domestic workers takes more time. This paper confirms the predictions of the model. I rely on a within-firm within-occupation identification strategy to compare recruitment decisions made by a given employer for similar positions that differ in job posting duration. To identify this relationship, I have collected and assembled a new and original dataset at the job level. I match online job postings to administrative data on labor condition applications (LCAs) submitted as the first step in applying for H-1B temporary skilled worker visas. I find that employers are 28 percent more likely to submit an LCA when the job posting duration is one standard deviation longer. I provide evidence suggesting that this phenomenon is due to insufficient domestic labor supply in these occupations. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 235 (27 UL) Cultural differences and immigrants' wagesRaux, Morgan E-print/Working paper (2021)In this paper, I investigate how cultural differences affect the labor-market performance of immigrant workers in Germany. I document a negative relationship between hourly wages and the cultural distance ... [more ▼]In this paper, I investigate how cultural differences affect the labor-market performance of immigrant workers in Germany. I document a negative relationship between hourly wages and the cultural distance between immigrants' countries of origin and Germany. This result is robust across the three main indicators used in the gravity literature: linguistic, religious, and genetic distances. This cultural wage penalty disappears after five to ten years spent in Germany. Controlling for language proficiency as well as for selective in- and out-migration, these results highlight the cultural integration of immigrant workers. I finally provide evidence suggesting that lower wage progression may be explained by fewer job-to-job transitions. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 264 (26 UL) A Robustness Check to Multiple Overlapping Deprivation Analysis (MODA) Methodology: The Case of NigeriaFagbeja, Teju; Cebotari, Victor E-print/Working paper (2021)Detailed reference viewed: 27 (0 UL) School-Related Violence in Latin America and the Caribbean: Building an Evidence Base for Stronger SchoolsChávez, Cirenia; Cebotari, Victor ; José Benítez, Maria et alE-print/Working paper (2021)Detailed reference viewed: 26 (0 UL) https://arxiv.org/abs/2101.07083El Emam, Christian ; Seppi, AndreaE-print/Working paper (2021)We prove that any minimal Lagrangian diffeomorphism between two closed spherical surfaces with cone singularities is an isometry, without any assumption on the multiangles of the two surfaces. As an ... [more ▼]We prove that any minimal Lagrangian diffeomorphism between two closed spherical surfaces with cone singularities is an isometry, without any assumption on the multiangles of the two surfaces. As an application, we show that every branched immersion of a closed surface of constant positive Gaussian curvature in Euclidean three-space is a branched covering onto a round sphere, thus generalizing the classical rigidity theorem of Liebmann to branched immersions. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 80 (1 UL) Pestepidemien in LuxemburgPauly, Michel E-print/Working paper (2021)Detailed reference viewed: 98 (0 UL) On the Weyl problem for complete surfaces in the hyperbolic and anti-de Sitter spacesSchlenker, Jean-Marc E-print/Working paper (2021)The classical Weyl problem (solved by Lewy, Alexandrov, Pogorelov, and others) asks whether any metric of curvature K≥0 on the sphere is induced on the boundary of a unique convex body in $\R^3$. The ... [more ▼]The classical Weyl problem (solved by Lewy, Alexandrov, Pogorelov, and others) asks whether any metric of curvature K≥0 on the sphere is induced on the boundary of a unique convex body in $\R^3$. The answer was extended to surfaces in hyperbolic space by Alexandrov in the 1950s, and a dual'' statement, describing convex bodies in terms of the third fundamental form of their boundary (e.g. their dihedral angles, for an ideal polyhedron) was later proved. We describe three conjectural generalizations of the Weyl problem in $\HH^3$ and its dual to unbounded convex subsets and convex surfaces, in ways that are relevant to contemporary geometry since a number of recent results and well-known open problems can be considered as special cases. One focus is on convex domain having a thin'' asymptotic boundary, for instance a quasicircle -- this part of the problem is strongly related to the theory of Kleinian groups. A second direction is towards convex subsets with a `thick'' ideal boundary, for instance a disjoint union of disks -- here one find connections to problems in complex analysis, such as the Koebe circle domain conjecture. A third direction is towards complete, convex disks of infinite area in $\HH^3$ and surfaces in hyperbolic ends -- with connections to questions on circle packings or grafting on the hyperbolic disk. Similar statements are proposed in anti-de Sitter geometry, a Lorentzian cousin of hyperbolic geometry where interesting new phenomena can occur, and in Minkowski and Half-pipe geometry. We also collect some partial new results mostly based on recent works. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 49 (0 UL) Optimal convergence rates for the invariant density estimation of jump-diffusion processesAmorino, Chiara ; Nualart, EulaliaE-print/Working paper (2021)We aim at estimating the invariant density associated to a stochastic differential equation with jumps in low dimension, which is for d = 1 and d = 2. We consider a class of jump diffusion processes whose ... [more ▼]We aim at estimating the invariant density associated to a stochastic differential equation with jumps in low dimension, which is for d = 1 and d = 2. We consider a class of jump diffusion processes whose invariant density belongs to some Hölder space. Firstly, in dimension one, we show that the kernel density estimator achieves the convergence rate 1/T, which is the optimal rate in the absence of jumps. This improves the convergence rate obtained in [Amorino, Gloter (2021)], which depends on the Blumenthal-Getoor index for d = 1 and is equal to log T/T for d = 2. Secondly, we show that is not possible to find an estimator with faster rates of estimation. Indeed, we get some lower bounds with the same rates { 1/T , log T/T } in the mono and bi-dimensional cases, respectively. Finally, we obtain the asymptotic normality of the estimator in the one-dimensional case. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 56 (6 UL) Digital hermeneutics and the European Historic Towns Atlas project: The digital and interactive historical town atlas of Luxembourg City as a “trading zone”Uhrmacher, Martin E-print/Working paper (2021)Detailed reference viewed: 56 (8 UL) All in one stroke? Intervention Spaces for Dark PatternsRossi, Arianna ; Bongard, Kerstin E-print/Working paper (2021)This position paper draws from the complexity of dark patterns to develop arguments for differentiated interventions. We propose a matrix of interventions with a \textit{measure axis} (from user-directed ... [more ▼]This position paper draws from the complexity of dark patterns to develop arguments for differentiated interventions. We propose a matrix of interventions with a \textit{measure axis} (from user-directed to environment-directed) and a \textit{scope axis} (from general to specific). We furthermore discuss a set of interventions situated in different fields of the intervention spaces. The discussions at the 2021 CHI workshop "What can CHI do about dark patterns?" should help hone the matrix structure and fill its fields with specific intervention proposals. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 127 (10 UL) Traces and memories of an ongoing pandemic – Yes We CareMajerus, Benoît in HumaMed@Larca (2021)Detailed reference viewed: 59 (10 UL) Analysis: “A new perspective on the protection of whistleblowers under the ECHR: Halet v. Luxembourg”Kafteranis, Dimitrios E-print/Working paper (2021)Detailed reference viewed: 76 (0 UL) Robust Estimation in Finite Mixture ModelsLecestre, Alexandre E-print/Working paper (2021)Detailed reference viewed: 206 (44 UL) Discovering Pesticides and their Transformation Products in Luxembourg Waters using Open Cheminformatics ApproachesKrier, Jessy ; Singh, Randolph ; Kondic, Todor et alE-print/Working paper (2021)Abstract The diversity of hundreds of thousands of potential organic pollutants and the lack of (publicly available) information about many of them is a huge challenge for environmental sciences ... [more ▼]Abstract The diversity of hundreds of thousands of potential organic pollutants and the lack of (publicly available) information about many of them is a huge challenge for environmental sciences, engineering, and regulation. Suspect screening based on high-resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) has enormous potential to help characterize the presence of these chemicals in our environment, enabling the detection of known and newly emerging pollutants, as well as their potential transformation products (TPs). Here, suspect list creation (focusing on pesticides relevant for Luxembourg, incorporating data sources in 4 languages) was coupled to an automated retrieval of related TPs from PubChem based on high confidence suspect hits, to screen for pesticides and their TPs in Luxembourgish river samples. A computational workflow was established to combine LC-HRMS analysis and pre-screening of the suspects (including automated quality control steps), with spectral annotation to determine which pesticides and, in a second step, their related TPs may be present in the samples. The data analysis with Shinyscreen (https://git-r3lab.uni.lu/eci/shinyscreen/), an open source software developed in house, coupled with custom-made scripts, revealed the presence of 162 potential pesticide masses and 135 potential TP masses in the samples. Further identification of these mass matches was performed using the open source MetFrag (https://msbi.ipb-halle.de/MetFrag/). Eventual target analysis of 36 suspects resulted in 31 pesticides and TPs confirmed at Level-1 (highest confidence), and five pesticides and TPs not confirmed due to different retention times. Spatio-temporal analysis of the results showed that TPs and pesticides followed similar trends, with a maximum number of potential detections in July. The highest detections were in the rivers Alzette and Mess and the lowest in the Sûre and Eisch. This study (a) added pesticides, classification information and related TPs into the open domain, (b) developed automated open source retrieval methods - both enhancing FAIRness (Findability, Accessibility, Interoperability and Reusability) of the data and methods; and (c) will directly support “L’Administration de la Gestion de l’Eau” on further monitoring steps in Luxembourg. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 64 (3 UL) Redefining resilience: Integrative review and development of an assessment toolMantin, Benny E-print/Working paper (2021)Detailed reference viewed: 140 (18 UL) Strategic Behavior in a Serial Newsvendor SettingPerez Becker, Nicole ; Mantin, Benny ; Arts, Joachim E-print/Working paper (2021)Detailed reference viewed: 157 (14 UL) Genetic Diversity and Performance: Evidence From Football DataZanaj, Skerdilajda ; Beine, Michel ; Peracchi, Silvia E-print/Working paper (2021)Detailed reference viewed: 212 (23 UL) Research Frameworks in Comparative Public Law: Law as Category, as Source and as VariableHofmann, Herwig E-print/Working paper (2021)This chapter outlines some basic approaches to identifying frameworks of comparative research. It first argues that establishing comparative frameworks is a task ubiquitous to legal methodology. The ... [more ▼]This chapter outlines some basic approaches to identifying frameworks of comparative research. It first argues that establishing comparative frameworks is a task ubiquitous to legal methodology. The framework is the decisive factor identifying the comparators and allowing assessment of similarities and differences. The framework allows identification of what to compare, how many commonalities the comparators have to start with, and how ‘foreign’ the two elements subject to comparison may be, so as to facilitate meaningful comparison. The chapter thus shows how comparative frameworks are flexible in serving the objectives defined by comparative scholars. This fluid feature of the framework of comparison and the relatively ubiquitous nature of the comparative method is the backdrop to the discussions in this chapter, critically reviewing three major frameworks identified by the objectives of the comparative approach: law as ‘category’, as ‘source’, and as ‘variable’. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 83 (1 UL) On generalized Iwasawa main conjectures and p-adic Stark conjectures for Artin motivesMaksoud, Alexandre E-print/Working paper (2021)We continue the study of Selmer groups associated with an Artin representation endowed with a p-stabilization which was initiated in arXiv:1811.05368. We formulate a main conjecture and an extra zeros ... [more ▼]We continue the study of Selmer groups associated with an Artin representation endowed with a p-stabilization which was initiated in arXiv:1811.05368. We formulate a main conjecture and an extra zeros conjecture at all unramified odd primes p, which are shown to imply the p-part of the Tamagawa number conjecture for Artin motives at s=0. We also relate our new conjectures with various cyclotomic Iwasawa main conjectures and p-adic Stark conjectures that appear in the literature. In particular, they provide a natural interpretation for recent conjectures on p-adic L-functions attached to (the adjoint of) a weight one modular form. In the case of monomial representations, we prove that our conjectures are essentially equivalent to some newly introduced Iwasawa-theoretic conjectures for Rubin-Stark elements. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 79 (0 UL) Diversity, National Identity, and Political Participation among Young People in LuxembourgProcopio, Alessandro ; Schomaker, Léa ; Samuel, Robin E-print/Working paper (2021)Luxembourg is known for its cultural and national diversity. Approximately 48 of the population is foreigners live in Luxembourg. For 15-29-year-olds, this share was approximately 42 in 2019 and 2020 ... [more ▼]Luxembourg is known for its cultural and national diversity. Approximately 48 of the population is foreigners live in Luxembourg. For 15-29-year-olds, this share was approximately 42 in 2019 and 2020. Furthermore, approximately 185,000 foreign workers commute to Luxembourg daily. Considering this, Luxembourg is an interesting case for investigating national identity and political participation of a diverse society (STATEC 2020a, STATEC 2020b, STATEC 2021). Especially, as the biographies of young people in Luxembourg are becoming increasingly complex (e.g., mixed national parents; highly skilled expatriates), it is worth looking into different aspects and valuations of national identity and political participation of youth in Luxembourg (Amtépé and Hartmann-Hirsch, 2011). In this policy report, we look into the aspects of national identity and how young people living in Luxembourg define a ‘real Luxembourger’ using the Youth Survey Luxembourg (2019) data (Sozio et al., 2020). This will give us the opportunity to investigate what aspects of identity (e.g. Luxembourgish ancestry; the time spent living in Luxembourg) matter for young people to feel part of Luxembourgish society and how these change across different social backgrounds and demographics. The discourse about the interrelations of political participation and youth brings forward the dominant narrative of a disengaging and passive youth. Here, we also investigate these statements in the Luxembourgish context. We analyse the level of interest in politics across young people in Luxembourg and their means of political participation. Finally, we especially investigated the relationship between aspects of national identity, and political interest and engagement of young people in Luxembourg. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 141 (28 UL) De la guerre civile du 16e siècle à la "guerre idéologique" du 19e siècle. La réception de la Révolte des Pays-Bas en BelgiqueWeis, Monique ; Houssiau, JeanE-print/Working paper (2021)Detailed reference viewed: 31 (4 UL) Les reliques des "martyrs de Gorcum" à BruxellesWeis, Monique ; Houssiau, JeanE-print/Working paper (2021)Detailed reference viewed: 27 (2 UL) Gaussian fluctuation for Gaussian Wishart matrices of overall correlationNourdin, Ivan ; Pu, FeiE-print/Working paper (2021)Detailed reference viewed: 83 (2 UL) The Long-Term Effect of Research Grants on the Scientific Output of University ProfessorsHussinger, Katrin ; Carvalho, J.N.E-print/Working paper (2021)Detailed reference viewed: 129 (9 UL) From Centralized to Decentralized Finance: The Issue of “Fake-DeFi”Zetzsche, Dirk Andreas ; Anker-Sorensen, LinnE-print/Working paper (2021)Detailed reference viewed: 59 (3 UL) Efficient and Transferable Adversarial Examples from Bayesian Neural NetworksGubri, Martin ; Cordy, Maxime ; Papadakis, Mike et alE-print/Working paper (2021)An established way to improve the transferability of black-box evasion attacks is to craft the adversarial examples on a surrogate ensemble model to increase diversity. We argue that transferability is ... [more ▼]An established way to improve the transferability of black-box evasion attacks is to craft the adversarial examples on a surrogate ensemble model to increase diversity. We argue that transferability is fundamentally related to epistemic uncertainty. Based on a state-of-the-art Bayesian Deep Learning technique, we propose a new method to efficiently build a surrogate by sampling approximately from the posterior distribution of neural network weights, which represents the belief about the value of each parameter. Our extensive experiments on ImageNet and CIFAR-10 show that our approach improves the transfer rates of four state-of-the-art attacks significantly (up to 62.1 percentage points), in both intra-architecture and inter-architecture cases. On ImageNet, our approach can reach 94% of transfer rate while reducing training computations from 11.6 to 2.4 exaflops, compared to an ensemble of independently trained DNNs. Our vanilla surrogate achieves 87.5% of the time higher transferability than 3 test-time techniques designed for this purpose. Our work demonstrates that the way to train a surrogate has been overlooked although it is an important element of transfer-based attacks. We are, therefore, the first to review the effectiveness of several training methods in increasing transferability. We provide new directions to better understand the transferability phenomenon and offer a simple but strong baseline for future work. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 33 (1 UL) Phase transitions and noise sensitivity on the Poisson space via stopping sets and decision treesLast, Guenter; Peccati, Giovanni ; Yogeshwaran, DhandapaniE-print/Working paper (2021)Detailed reference viewed: 59 (5 UL) Exploring the Possibility of Interplay between Different Types of Control: Connecting Political and Judicial Accountability in the Case of EASAMustert, Lisette ; Scholten, MiroslavaE-print/Working paper (2021)Detailed reference viewed: 10 (0 UL) Rapid Artificial Intelligence Solutions in a Pandemic - The COVID-19-20 Lung CT Lesion Segmentation Challenge.Roth, Holger; Xu, Ziyue; Diez, Carlos Tor et alE-print/Working paper (2021)Artificial intelligence (AI) methods for the automatic detection and quantification of COVID-19 lesions in chest computed tomography (CT) might play an important role in the monitoring and management of ... [more ▼]Artificial intelligence (AI) methods for the automatic detection and quantification of COVID-19 lesions in chest computed tomography (CT) might play an important role in the monitoring and management of the disease. We organized an international challenge and competition for the development and comparison of AI algorithms for this task, which we supported with public data and state-of-the-art benchmark methods. Board Certified Radiologists annotated 295 public images from two sources (A and B) for algorithms training (n=199, source A), validation (n=50, source A) and testing (n=23, source A; n=23, source B). There were 1,096 registered teams of which 225 and 98 completed the validation and testing phases, respectively. The challenge showed that AI models could be rapidly designed by diverse teams with the potential to measure disease or facilitate timely and patient-specific interventions. This paper provides an overview and the major outcomes of the COVID-19 Lung CT Lesion Segmentation Challenge - 2020. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 44 (0 UL) Dynamic Hedging for the Real Option Management of Hydropower Storage Operations with Exchange Rate RisksLöhndorf, Nils E-print/Working paper (2021)Detailed reference viewed: 66 (4 UL) Automated Truncation of Differential Trails and Trail Clustering in ARXBiryukov, Alexei ; Cardoso Dos Santos, Luan ; Feher, Daniel et alE-print/Working paper (2021)We propose a tool for automated truncation of differential trails in ciphers using modular addition, bitwise rotation, and XOR (ARX). The tool takes as input a differential trail and produces as output a ... [more ▼]We propose a tool for automated truncation of differential trails in ciphers using modular addition, bitwise rotation, and XOR (ARX). The tool takes as input a differential trail and produces as output a set of truncated differential trails. The set represents all possible truncations of the input trail according to certain predefined rules. A linear-time algorithm for the exact computation of the differential probability of a truncated trail that follows the truncation rules is proposed. We further describe a method to merge the set of truncated trails into a compact set of non-overlapping truncated trails with associated probability and we demonstrate the application of the tool on block cipher Speck64. We have also investigated the effect of clustering of differential trails around a fixed input trail. The best cluster that we have found for 15 rounds has probability 2^−55.03 (consisting of 389 unique output differences) which allows us to build a distinguisher using 128 times less data than the one based on just the single best trail, which has probability 2^−62. Moreover, we show examples for Speck64 where a cluster of trails around a suboptimal (in terms of probability) input trail results in higher overall probability compared to a cluster obtained around the best differential trail. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 50 (6 UL) MILP modeling of Boolean functions by minimum number of inequalitiesUdovenko, Aleksei E-print/Working paper (2021)Detailed reference viewed: 37 (0 UL) Post-Quantum Secure LFE for L/poly with Smaller ParametersNaccache, David; Rosie, Razvan ; Spignoli, Lorenzo E-print/Working paper (2021)Detailed reference viewed: 171 (7 UL) Uncertainty-driven symmetry-breaking and stochastic stability in a generic differential game of lobbyingBoucekkine, Raouf; Prieur, Fabien; Ruan, Weihua et alE-print/Working paper (2021)We study a 2-players stochastic differential game of lobbying. Players have opposite interests; at any date, each player invests in lobbying activities to alter the legislation, the continuous state ... [more ▼]We study a 2-players stochastic differential game of lobbying. Players have opposite interests; at any date, each player invests in lobbying activities to alter the legislation, the continuous state variable of the game, in her own benefit. The payoffs are quadratic and uncertainty is driven by a Wiener process. We prove that while a symmetric Markov Perfect Equilibrium (MPE) always exists, (two) asymmetric MPE only emerge when uncertainty is large enough. In the latter case, the legislative state converges to a stationary invariant distribution. We fully characterize existence and stochastic stability of the legislative state for both types of MPE. We finally study the implications for rent dissipation asymptotically. We show in particular that while the average rent dissipation is lower with asymmetric equilibria relative to the symmetric, the former yield larger losses at the most likely asymptotic states for large enough but moderate uncertainty. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 165 (18 UL) Batch Learning in Stochastic Dual Dynamic ProgrammingAvila, Daniel; Papavasiliou, Anthona; Löhndorf, Nils E-print/Working paper (2021)Detailed reference viewed: 33 (1 UL) A Principles-based Approach to the Governance of BigFintechsZetzsche, Dirk Andreas ; Arner, Douglas; Buckley, Ross et alE-print/Working paper (2021)Detailed reference viewed: 39 (1 UL) Observing Many Researchers Using the Same Data and Hypothesis Reveals a Hidden Universe of UncertaintyBreznau, Nate; Rinke, Eike Mark; Wuttke, Alexander et alE-print/Working paper (2021)How does noise generated by researcher decisions undermine the credibility of science? We test this by observing all decisions made among 73 research teams as they independently conduct studies on the ... [more ▼]How does noise generated by researcher decisions undermine the credibility of science? We test this by observing all decisions made among 73 research teams as they independently conduct studies on the same hypothesis with identical starting data. We find excessive variation of outcomes. When combined, the 107 observed research decisions taken across teams explained at most 2.6 of the total variance in effect sizes and 10 of the deviance in subjective conclusions. Expertise, prior beliefs and attitudes of the researchers explain even less. Each model deployed to test the hypothesis was unique, which highlights a vast universe of research design variability that is normally hidden from view and suggests humility when presenting and interpreting scientific findings. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 114 (11 UL) Projected Inventory Level Policies for Lost Sales Inventory Systems: Asymptotic Optimality in Two Regimesvan Jaarsveld, Willem; Arts, Joachim E-print/Working paper (2021)Detailed reference viewed: 73 (7 UL) Constitutional engineering of State of exception regimes within the European UnionGerkrath, Jörg E-print/Working paper (2021)Detailed reference viewed: 40 (1 UL) COVID Stress Test for the Rule of Law: States of Emergency under International Human Rights LawBaglayan, Basak E-print/Working paper (2021)Detailed reference viewed: 58 (3 UL)