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See detailGrenzüberschreitende Identitäten in der Großregion?
Wille, Christian UL

Scientific Conference (2021, November)

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See detailThe Zoom City: Working From Home and Urban Land Structure
Picard, Pierre M UL; Kyirakopoulou, Efthymia

Scientific Conference (2021, November)

How would cities change if working from home (WFH) persisted in the post-pandemic era? This paper investigates the impact of WFH in the internal structure of monocentric cities, where production is ... [more ▼]

How would cities change if working from home (WFH) persisted in the post-pandemic era? This paper investigates the impact of WFH in the internal structure of monocentric cities, where production is characterized by management and employee spillovers. We find that business land rents decrease, while residential land rents fall close to the business center and increase in the suburbs. WFH raises urban productivity and average wages only in large cities. The paper also studies the optimal fraction of WFH from a residents and welfare point of view. Our results suggest that workers-residents have incentives to adopt an inefficiently high WFH scheme. We finally discuss the implementation of remote work in the short run. We show that WFH implies higher benefits for long distance commuters and lower benefits or even losses for firms and short distance commuters. [less ▲]

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See detailThermo-mechanical modelling for metal additive manufacturing
Mashhood, Muhammad UL; Baroli, Davide; Wyart, Eric et al

Scientific Conference (2021, October 27)

[1] Alnaes, M. S. Blechta, J. Hake, J. Johansson, A. Kehlet, B. Logg, A. Richardson, C. Ring, J.Rognes, M. E. and Wells, G. N. The FEniCS Project Version 1.5. Archive of Numerical Software(2015), Vol. 3 ... [more ▼]

[1] Alnaes, M. S. Blechta, J. Hake, J. Johansson, A. Kehlet, B. Logg, A. Richardson, C. Ring, J.Rognes, M. E. and Wells, G. N. The FEniCS Project Version 1.5. Archive of Numerical Software(2015), Vol. 3., 100:9–23. [2] Carraturo, M. and Kollmannsberger, S. and Reali, A. and Auricchio, F. and Rank, E. An immersed boundary approach for residual stress evaluation in SLM processes. [less ▲]

Peer Reviewed
See detailDevelopment of a large-scale screener for functional vision impairments in early childhood
Monteiro, Sara UL; Esch, Pascale UL; Hipp, Géraldine et al

Scientific Conference (2021, October 21)

Cerebral Visual Impairment (CVI) is a term used to designate a neurological disorder of the visual pathways impacting visual processes at any given level (Lueck et al., 2019). Due to the advances in ... [more ▼]

Cerebral Visual Impairment (CVI) is a term used to designate a neurological disorder of the visual pathways impacting visual processes at any given level (Lueck et al., 2019). Due to the advances in perinatal and medicinal care, CVI’s occurrence has increased significantly over the last years (Chokron & Dutton, 2016). The condition almost always entails aggregated functional vision impairments, i.e., limitations on the use of binocular vision during everyday tasks (Dutton, 2015). CVI can have effects on school achievements if undetected. Early detection is thus key to offer appropriate aids to avoid a negative impact on learning processes. The aim of this project is to develop a large-scale screener at the beginning of formal schooling, to identify functional vision impairments early on. For this reason, a set of items assessing different visual functions will be incorporated into the Luxembourgish school monitoring program. Based on a theoretical model of visual perceptual processing (Humphreys and Riddoch, 1987), we developed timed and non-timed items that can be administered in a large-scale classroom setting which target different stages of visual perceptual processing. Furthermore, we included visual functions connected with both dorsal and ventral streams, visual spatial processing, visual exploration and visual memory. We will present the design of the large-scale screener in relation to the theoretical model, as well as the rationale used to include or exclude various perceptual visual functions in the final test. Furthermore, we will explain the planned data collection and tool validation processes. [less ▲]

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See detailChemical contamination of the sea – (management of the knowns and) Research on the unknowns
Schymanski, Emma UL

Scientific Conference (2021, October 20)

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See detailThe Past Web as Heritage: Practices, Challenges and Uses of Web Archives
Schafer, Valerie UL

Scientific Conference (2021, October 20)

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See detailTwo centuries of music education in Luxembourg. 'Learning to teach' in the focus of two traditions
Sagrillo, Damien François UL

Scientific Conference (2021, October 15)

Mit der Teilung Luxemburgs zu Beginn des 19. Jahrhunderts wird das Land einsprachig. Es verbleibt der luxemburgischsprachige (moselfränkische) Teil. Zum besseren Verständnis der kulturellen Entwicklung ... [more ▼]

Mit der Teilung Luxemburgs zu Beginn des 19. Jahrhunderts wird das Land einsprachig. Es verbleibt der luxemburgischsprachige (moselfränkische) Teil. Zum besseren Verständnis der kulturellen Entwicklung Luxemburgs – sie setzt für die musikalische Bildung um die Mitte des 19. Jahrhunderts ein – ist das Wissen um den historischen Kontext unerlässlich. Publikationen erster musikpädagogischer Werke, in der Mehrzahl Liederbücher, werden mit didaktischen Anweisungen eingeleitet, stehen nicht selten unter der Einflussnahme der katholischen Kirche und werden in einschlägigen Publikationsorganen behandelt. Dabei spielt die Bewegung des Cäcilianismus eine herausgehobene Rolle. Der erste spezialisierte Musikunterricht (Instrumentalunterricht und Gesangsunterricht) erfolgt in Privatinitiative, bis im Jahr 1844 der Gemeinderat der Stadt Luxemburg der Gründung der ersten öffentlichen Musikschule im Großherzogtum zustimmt. Die Besetzung von Direktorenposten und Lehrern abwechselnd mit deutsch- und mit französischsprachigen Persönlichkeiten führt zu einem Sonderweg musikpädagogischen Wirkens. Seit dem Jahrhundertwechsel sind die Grundsteine des spezialisierten Musikunterrichts gelegt. Die geographische Nähe zum Pariser bzw. zum Brüsseler Konservatorium führen jedoch überwiegend zur Übernahme der dort vorherrschenden Traditionen. Das Thema des Symposiums 'Das Lehren lernen' bewahrheitet sich hier in der Negation. Angehende Lehrer sind zuerst Musiker, dann Lehrer. Das Erwerben von Expertise erfolgt vielfach durch Lernen in der Praxis. Diese Tendenz setzt sich z.T. bis heute fort. Studiengänge für musikpädagogische Praxis werden in französischsprachigen Ländern sehr spät angeboten und existieren in Luxemburg bis heute nicht. Auf der anderen Seite folgt der Musikunterricht (Gesangunterricht) in Grund- und Sekundarschulen eher der Vorgehensweise in deutschsprachigen Ländern. Die gegenseitige Beeinflussung im Fokus der beiden Traditionen ist in diesem Bereich weniger ausgeprägt. Für meinen Vortrag schlage ich einen historischen Überblick über die Entwicklung der Musikpädagogik in Luxemburg anhand von der Organisation des spezialisierten Musikunterrichts vor. Die Ausbildung der Lehrenden im Bereich der Kirchenmusik gehört als integrativer Bestandteil in den Vortrag mit einbezogen. [less ▲]

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See detailLes soldats de la Wehrmacht d'Eupen-Malmedy
Brüll, Christoph UL

Scientific Conference (2021, October 14)

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See detailEphemeriShield - Defence Against Cyber-Antisatellite Weapons
Graczyk, Rafal UL; Volp, Marcus UL

Scientific Conference (2021, October 14)

Mitigating the risks associated with space system operations, especially in Low Earth Orbit, requires a holistic approach, which addresses, in particular, cybersecurity challenges, in addition to meeting ... [more ▼]

Mitigating the risks associated with space system operations, especially in Low Earth Orbit, requires a holistic approach, which addresses, in particular, cybersecurity challenges, in addition to meeting the data acquisition requirements the mission needs. Space traffic management systems form no exception to this rule, but are further constrained by backward compatibility requirements that sometimes are based on decades old foundations. As a result, some space situational awareness systems continue to operate with object catalogues and data dissemination architectures that are prone to failures, not to mention adversarial actions. Proof-of-Concept papers, demonstrating this vulnerability in example attacks on space object ephemerides distribution channels have already been published and show the urgency in rethinking the way we build such high-critical infrastructure. Leveraging recent developments of distributed systems theory and concepts from multi-party consensus in limited-trust environments and in the presence of malicious actors, we designed a more secure system for orbital object ephemerides distribution, ultimately targeting at increasing the safety of satellite operations. This paper presents EphemeriShield, a distributed ephemerides storage and distribution system, aiming at maintaining safety and security guarantees in presence of active attacker or unfortunate fault. Using our EphemeriShield prototype setup, we were able to prove its ability to mask attacks and local faults that otherwise would lead to unnecessary maneuvers. Wide adoption of EphemeriShield may help satellite system operations to become safer and less vulnerable to intentionally adversarial activities, which improves the overall sustainability of space. [less ▲]

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See detailRecension d' European Drama and Performance Studies n° 16 : « Percevoir et transmettre le spectacle vivant »
Deregnoncourt, Marine UL

Scientific Conference (2021, October 11)

Cette recension, divisée en trois temps, va suivre les différents points de vue adoptés par les participants au seizième numéro de la revue European Drama and Performance Studies, consacré à la perception ... [more ▼]

Cette recension, divisée en trois temps, va suivre les différents points de vue adoptés par les participants au seizième numéro de la revue European Drama and Performance Studies, consacré à la perception et à la transmission du spectacle vivant et dirigé par Françoise Gomez et Daniel Loayza : 1. Le regard du chercheur (Florence Naugrette, Julia Gros de Gasquet et Patrice Pavis) ; 2. Le regard du praticien de la scène (Emmanuel Demarcy-Mota et Don Kent) ; 3. L’archivage mémoriel (Sandrine Siméon et Daniel Loayza). [less ▲]

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See detailExploring the Past in Public: Recent Public History Exchanges in Southern Luxembourg
Harnoncourt, Julia UL; van de Maele, Jens UL

Scientific Conference (2021, October 07)

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See detailSix provocations for 6G
Schafer, Valerie UL

Scientific Conference (2021, October 06)

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See detailL’UEBL et les relations belgo-luxembourgeoises au XXème siècle
Brüll, Christoph UL

Scientific Conference (2021, October 06)

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See detailCareer journeys of skilled migrants in Luxembourg: a qualitative exploration
Usanova, Ksenia UL

Scientific Conference (2021, October 05)

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See detailSPON: Enabling Resilient Inter-Ledgers Payments with an Intrusion-Tolerant Overlay
Trestioreanu, Lucian Andrei UL; Nita-Rotaru, Cristina; Malhotra, Aanchal et al

Scientific Conference (2021, October 04)

Payment systems are a critical component of everyday life in our society. While in many situations payments are still slow, opaque, siloed, expensive or even fail, users expect them to be fast ... [more ▼]

Payment systems are a critical component of everyday life in our society. While in many situations payments are still slow, opaque, siloed, expensive or even fail, users expect them to be fast, transparent, cheap, reliable and global. Recent technologies such as distributed ledgers create opportunities for near-real-time, cheaper and more transparent payments. However, in order to achieve a global payment system, payments should be possible not only within one ledger, but also across different ledgers and geographies.In this paper we propose Secure Payments with Overlay Networks (SPON), a service that enables global payments across multiple ledgers by combining the transaction exchange provided by the Interledger protocol with an intrusion-tolerant overlay of relay nodes to achieve (1) improved payment latency, (2) fault-tolerance to benign failures such as node failures and network partitions, and (3) resilience to BGP hijacking attacks. We discuss the design goals and present an implementation based on the Interledger protocol and Spines overlay network. We analyze the resilience of SPON and demonstrate through experimental evaluation that it is able to improve payment latency, recover from path outages, withstand network partition attacks, and disseminate payments fairly across multiple ledgers. We also show how SPON can be deployed to make the communication between different ledgers resilient to BGP hijacking attacks. [less ▲]

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See detailKeynote lecture: Exploring Jewish History in the Digital Age
Zaagsma, Gerben UL

Scientific Conference (2021, October 04)

This lecture will explore the intersection of Jewish Studies and Digital Humanities in general, and the myriad ways in which new technologies affect the field of Jewish History in particular. Importantly ... [more ▼]

This lecture will explore the intersection of Jewish Studies and Digital Humanities in general, and the myriad ways in which new technologies affect the field of Jewish History in particular. Importantly, the digital turn in Jewish Studies needs to be historicised; as is the case for the humanities in general, applications of computing in Jewish Studies go back at least 60 years. And as is true for the humanities in general, we should be careful to differentiate engagements with technology in the various (sub-)disciplines that Jewish Studies incorporates, while remaining attentive to common methodological and epistemological questions. In my lecture I will address these broader issues and ask what specific characteristics, if any, Jewish Studies scholars face, before delving into the specific challenges for Jewish historical research. I will then discuss how digital approaches have been, are, and could be harnassed to address these. As digitisation opens up new avenues for research, and can help overcome the classic problem of dispersal of sources, a crucial question to ask is what (Jewish) heritage is being digitised and which stories about the (Jewish) past can (and cannot) be told using them. What are the politics of digitisation in the context of Jewish history and how can we ensure that the offline Jewish historical record remains as relevant as its online counterpart in an age where more and more scholars move to using online resources? In short, how does the digital turn affect Jewish historical research and how can we bring about the full potential of the digital turn for research into Jewish history? [less ▲]

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See detailExcess Control Rights, Multiple Large Shareholders, and Corporate Cash Holding Behavior
Benkraiem, Ramzi; Boubaker, Sabri; Derouiche, Imen UL et al

Scientific Conference (2021, October 01)

This article examines the effects of excess control rights of the controlling shareholder and the presence of multiple large shareholders on the propensity of firms to save cash out of cash flow, i.e. the ... [more ▼]

This article examines the effects of excess control rights of the controlling shareholder and the presence of multiple large shareholders on the propensity of firms to save cash out of cash flow, i.e. the sensitivity of cash to cash flow. Using a data set covering 6,430 firm–year observations of 634 French listed firms, the evidence shows that firms have high cash flow sensitivity of cash when the controlling shareholder‘s control rights exceed its cash-flow ownership. However, this sensitivity decreases with the contestability of the controlling owner‘s power. Taken together, these findings provide empirical support to the argument that firms experiencing excess control rights save more cash out of cash flow due to their considerable financial constraints that are lowered in the presence of high control contestability. [less ▲]

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See detailA life-course perspective on cognitive ageing: Explaining gendered trajectories in memory functioning
Bertogg, Ariane; Leist, Anja UL

Scientific Conference (2021, October)

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See detailFlight to Safety and Retail Investor Behavior
Lehnert, Thorsten UL

Scientific Conference (2021, October)

Detailed reference viewed: 42 (3 UL)
See detailQuality and Trade with Many Countries and Industries
Picard, Pierre M UL; Tampieri, Alessandro

Scientific Conference (2021, October)

This paper investigates a trade model with many countries, many goods produced in multiple quality versions and non-homothetic preferences. It studies the impact of productivity, population changes and ... [more ▼]

This paper investigates a trade model with many countries, many goods produced in multiple quality versions and non-homothetic preferences. It studies the impact of productivity, population changes and trade costs on the quality composition of exports. The analysis embeds within the same model a series of empirical results about high-income countries specialization and trade in higher quality goods. Product di¤erentiation matters at explaining the volumes of trade quality. High-quality goods exhibiting a high degree of di¤erentiation are traded only by high-income countries. [less ▲]

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See detailEnablers for Matching Demand in GEO Multi-Beam Satellites: Dynamic Beamforming, Precoding, or Both?
Chaker, Haythem UL; Maturo, Nicola UL; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL et al

Scientific Conference (2021, September 30)

In trending satellite communication applications, the traffic demand is not only rapidly increasing, it is also spatiotemporally evolving. This motivates the deployment of high throughput satellite ... [more ▼]

In trending satellite communication applications, the traffic demand is not only rapidly increasing, it is also spatiotemporally evolving. This motivates the deployment of high throughput satellite systems with flexible radio resource management and transmission techniques. In contrast to regular beam layout plans (RBLP) currently used in GEO payloads, future flexible payloads are capable of dynamic beamforming (DBF) in order to illuminate the coverage area using highly-directive and traffic-adaptive beampatterns. The beampatterns in an adaptive beam layout plan (ABLP) can have irregular shapes and mutual overlaps, potentially causing excessive inter-beam interferences (IBI) compared to the RBLP case. In this work, we evaluate the combination of DBF and precoding as the latter promises high throughputs in interference-limited conditions and is supported by the recent DVB-S2X norm. Under realistic non-uniform traffic patterns, we compare a typical RBLP against an ABLP in terms of their traffic matching performances with and without precoding. Through the comparisons, we show that DBF enables to significantly reduce the capacity mismatches using an ABLP that uniformly balances the demand distribution across beams. Noting that the ABLP is IBI agnostic, an unpredictable interference environment is built. In such conditions, precoding enables to reliably provide high throughputs through full frequency reuse. [less ▲]

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See detailHousing Exclusion and Social Work Strategies in Luxembourg
Dujardin, Céline UL

Scientific Conference (2021, September 24)

In the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg, the demand for affordable housing is significantly higher than the existing offer (Reuter, 2017). For financially disadvantaged households, the housing costs around 40 ... [more ▼]

In the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg, the demand for affordable housing is significantly higher than the existing offer (Reuter, 2017). For financially disadvantaged households, the housing costs around 40% of the available budget represent a very high expenditure. Ametepe (2019) observed an exacerbation of the risk of poverty in relation to housing costs. The SOHOME (SOcial housing and HOMElessness) project pursues research questions related to individuals who are experiencing housing difficulties in Luxembourg, thereby drawing the current state-of-affairs as well as exploring potential solutions. Main questions are: (1) “What characterizes the concerned population in Luxembourg?”, (2) “How do social policies and social work respond to the identified issues?” and (3) “What are the main challenges of the social work in the field of homelessness and housing exclusion?” Through the qualitative design, several focus groups and interviews with social workers provide important insights to answer the research questions. Probably the largest proportion of homelessness services across Europe consists of low-threshold services that provide basic support outside of the housing sector or emergency/temporary accommodation. In contrast, services that immediately provide homeless people with a permanent home are only present to a certain extent in most countries (Pleace, Baptista, Benjaminsen & Busch-Geertsema, 2018). The SOHOME project targets various social services, from the emergency accommodation to the municipal social welfare office. The results from the discussions with social workers acting in the municipal social welfare offices show how great the demand for social and affordable living room is and how present forms of housing exclusion as well as solution-focused strategies are. [less ▲]

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See detailMetascience: Disrupting the status quo or perpetuating inequities
Kozlowski, Diego UL

Scientific Conference (2021, September 23)

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See detailIntertwining distant reading of web archives and oral histories of the COVID crisis
Schafer, Valerie UL

Scientific Conference (2021, September 22)

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See detailLE PROJET RECTEC+, l’intérêt pour les compétences transversales par les partenaires stratégiques - Partie présentation du Luxembourg
Lejot, Eve UL

Scientific Conference (2021, September 21)

La matrice de compétences transversales du référentiel RECTEC+ devient donc un objet que nous devons nous approprier pour créer des niveaux 4-5-6-7 et pourquoi pas 8. Notre public d’étudiants en mobilité ... [more ▼]

La matrice de compétences transversales du référentiel RECTEC+ devient donc un objet que nous devons nous approprier pour créer des niveaux 4-5-6-7 et pourquoi pas 8. Notre public d’étudiants en mobilité et son besoin d’identifier les prérequis et les « à acquérir » nous engage(nt) à interroger l’existant en termes de matrice. Une fois ce travail réalisé au cours de la première rencontre avec les étudiants en désir de mobilité. Nous pourrons alors valider ou non les compétences désignées au vu des réactions du public cible. La valeur ajoutée de ce système est de reconnaître les compétences avant et après la mobilité à l’Université du Luxembourg et aussi dans les universités de France, de Belgique et d’Allemagne. [less ▲]

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See detailExploring the History of Digital History
Zaagsma, Gerben UL

Scientific Conference (2021, September 20)

As long as new preservation technologies and computing machines have been developed, the question of their utility and uptake in historical research practices has been debated. Yet, the very fact that ... [more ▼]

As long as new preservation technologies and computing machines have been developed, the question of their utility and uptake in historical research practices has been debated. Yet, the very fact that historical knowledge production has always been affected by new and emerging technologies is often forgotten. Similarly, the fact that key epistemological and methodological questions in what we now call ‘digital history’ were already debated decades ago by earlier generations of computing historians (analog and digital) is often overlooked. There is a lack of transmission of accumulated knowledge from the past and it sometimes seems as if every new generation of historians rediscovers the promise of ‘digital history’, with all of its attending hopes, visions and ambitions for reinventing and reshaping historical research. To fill this gap, this paper will explore what a history of digital history might look like. It will do so by focusing on hybridity as a key characteristic of historical research. Hybridity, seen as some form of integrating newly emerging tools, technologies, materials, and/or practices in historical research, has a long history that predates the advent of computers. In my paper I will map and qualify that history according to the main phases of historical research. The paper will conclude by outlining what groundwork is necessary to explore digital history’s forgotten roots: a basic overview of the field’s different spatio-temporal and ideological trajectories and recreation of the networks of computing historians in the pre-PC and early PC period. [less ▲]

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See detailDas Ersatzteil zwischen Technik, Wirtschaft und Politik
Hoppenheit, Thomas UL

Scientific Conference (2021, September 17)

Das Ersatzteil zwischen Technik, Wirtschaft und Politik Während es in der technikhistorischen Forschung lange Zeit um das Nachvollziehen von Innovationsprozessen ging, blickt das Feld seit einiger Zeit ... [more ▼]

Das Ersatzteil zwischen Technik, Wirtschaft und Politik Während es in der technikhistorischen Forschung lange Zeit um das Nachvollziehen von Innovationsprozessen ging, blickt das Feld seit einiger Zeit auch auf die weiteren temporalen Phasen der Dinge selbst. Ausgehend von einer Kritik an dem Innovationsfokus vieler Fachstudien geht es mir, wie anderen, darum zu verstehen, was passiert nach dem ein Produkt entwickelt, vermarktet und verkauft wurde. Aus dieser prozessualen Perspektive ist ein Gerät weitgehend unproblematisch zu verstehen, so lange es funktioniert wie gedacht. Spannend wird es, dem Blackbox-Gedanken folgend, wenn es nicht mehr so funktioniert wie es soll. Dies kann viele Gründe haben. Die zwei bedeutendsten sind, dass einerseits eine oder mehrere Komponenten des Systems defekt sind, oder dass sich andererseits die Erwartungen oder Fähigkeiten der Nutzer*innen verändert haben. Beiden Problemfeldern gilt es in meiner eigenen Forschung zum vermeintlichen Verschwinden des Reparierens im Zeitalter des Massenkonsums nachzugehen. Neben den wissenstheoretischen Aspekten des Reparierens ist es das Ersatzteil, welches oftmals über eine gelungene Reparatur entscheidet. Spätestens mit der voranschreitenden Rationalisierung und Massenproduktion hat sich das Reparieren vieler Gegenstände fundamental verändert. Was zuvor noch mit je individuellem Einsatz von Wissen und Können zerlegt, repariert und zusammengefügt werden musste, wurde nun nach und nach durch den Austausch kompletter (und komplexer) Ersatzteile abgelöst. Während der Versuch der Rationalisierung mit seinen eigenen, besonders ökonomischen Vorteilen daherkommt, bricht dieses System schnell zusammen, sobald der Zugang zu ebensolchen Ersatzteilen stockt oder gar komplett zusammenbricht. Im Rahmen des Vortrags werde ich die Verfügbarkeit von Ersatzteilen während und nach dem zweiten Weltkrieg aus Luxemburger Perspektive untersuchen. Ausgehend von einer Bestandsaufnahme des internationalen Handels und Konsums in der Zwischenkriegszeit soll insbesondere aufgezeigt werden, welche Auswirkungen die jahrelange Ausrichtung der Industrie auf Rüstung sowie der Wegfall ehemaliger Handelspartner auf den Alltag des Luxemburger Handwerks hatten. Welche Waren durften wann von wem bezogen werden? Was geschah als man feststellen musste, dass der ehemalige Besatzer der Einzige war, der bestimmte Ersatzteile liefern konnte? Ohne die Antworten vorwegzunehmen, bedurfte es eines schwierigen Aushandlungsprozesses innerhalb der Belgisch-Luxemburgischen Wirtschaftsunion (UEBL), um den Nuancen der Problematik Rechnung zu tragen. Wie ich zeigen werde, konnte das Problem zudem nicht einfach von oben herab wegdekliniert werden, vielmehr ist es wichtig zu betrachten, wie das luxemburgische Handwerk selbst reagierte und wie sich die (versprochene) Verfügbarkeit von Ersatzteilen, Serviceleistungen oder der zunehmenden Wartungsarmut von Neugeräten auf den Konsum und das Reparieren in den kommenden Jahren auswirken sollten. [less ▲]

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See detailFacets of conscientiousness and their relation to academic achievement: a person-centered approach
Franzen, Patrick UL; Niepel, Christoph UL; Arens, A Katrin et al

Scientific Conference (2021, September 16)

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See detailUpdate on NORMAN-SusDat NORMAN-SLE (Suspect List Exchange)
Schymanski, Emma UL

Scientific Conference (2021, September 14)

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See detailHarnessing the Exposome, Cheminformatics and Mass Spectrometry for Clinical Metabolomics
Schymanski, Emma UL

Scientific Conference (2021, September 14)

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See detailIdentifying Exposome Chemicals: Measured Data Metadata, Metabolism and More …
Schymanski, Emma UL

Scientific Conference (2021, September 10)

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See detailAssessing Luxembourg‘s inclusive STEM materials
Andersen, Katja Natalie UL

Scientific Conference (2021, September 10)

In the country of Luxembourg with its three official languages Luxembourgish, German and French, multilingualism is of special importance. The education system is based on a trilingual approach, starting ... [more ▼]

In the country of Luxembourg with its three official languages Luxembourgish, German and French, multilingualism is of special importance. The education system is based on a trilingual approach, starting with Luxembourgish as the language of instruction in Cycle 1, which corresponds to pre-school classes. In Cycle 2 (6- to 7-year-olds), German is the language of alphabetization and instruction, supplemented by French lessons in the oral use (7-year-olds) and in written language (8-year-olds). In addition, the schoolchildren speak multiple family languages as the country of Luxembourg has the highest percentage of schoolchildren with migration background within the EU (STATEC, 2020). Considering this special situation in the Luxembourgish school system, language has a high impact on the children’s participation and competence development in all subjects, but especially in MINT learning (Andersen, 2020). The results of the PISA studies show that Luxembourgish pupils with a migrant background have particular difficulties in acquiring sufficient competences in mathematics and science if none of the three school languages is their mother tongue (SCRIPT & EMACS, 2014; Ugen & Fischbach, 2017). This impedes their access to educational options and higher levels of schooling. Proceeding from these considerations, we see inclusion in a very wide conception that is not limited to those pupils with special needs or disabilities, for example, those with visual and hearing impairments, restricted movement and/or learning difficulties. Inclusion, however, also applies to all those children who are at risk of marginalisation or underachievement because of their language competences. This presentation focuses on materials in the subject mathematics that are used in inclusive settings at primary school in Luxembourg. Along the material “Einstern”, we show what challenges the multilingual children are facing in the use of this material and what kind of tasks the schoolchildren are working on when using the “Einstern” material. This presentation critically analyses selected tasks, including exemplary tasks that show potential for the support of the children’s inclusion, but also reflecting on tasks that may hinder inclusion for language reasons. [less ▲]

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See detailLong-Term Effects of Retention in Grade 8 in Luxembourg
Klapproth, Florian; Keller, Ulrich UL; Fischbach, Antoine UL

Scientific Conference (2021, September 10)

Meta-analyses (Hattie, 2009; Jimerson, 2001) have suggested that grade retention rarely has positive effects and more often negative effects on students’ performance and psycho-emotional well-being. The ... [more ▼]

Meta-analyses (Hattie, 2009; Jimerson, 2001) have suggested that grade retention rarely has positive effects and more often negative effects on students’ performance and psycho-emotional well-being. The occurrence of negative effects may be due to the absence of new learning experiences (Pagani, Tremblay, Vitaro, Boulerice & McDuff, 2001). However, in the short term, positive effects of grade retention are quite likely to occur (Klapproth, Schaltz, Brunner, Keller, Fischbach, Ugen & Martin, 2016). In Luxembourg, more than half of the students repeat at least one grade within their entire school career (Klapproth & Schaltz, 2015). Since grade retention is applied so frequently, the aim of the current study was to examine long-term effects of grade retention, and particularly retention in grade 8. The data used in this study were drawn from 2,835 Luxembourgish students who completed primary education (grade 6) and began secondary education (grade 7) in the 2008-2009 school year. We conducted propensity-score matching to select retained and promoted students with comparable characteristics. We used the “same age-cohort, same grade, different times of measurement” approach for comparisons (Klapproth et al., 2016). The dependent variables were the school marks in the main subjects (German, French, and mathematics) in grades 10, 11, and 12, which can vary between 0 and 60 (with higher values indicating better achievement, and values below 30 indicating insufficient achievement). Our results showed that grade 8 repeaters obtain significantly lower school marks in grades 10 to 12 as compared to matched non-repeaters, with most negative effects appearing for mathematics and French (as opposed to German) and with negative effects strengthening significantly with time. These results seem to confirm results of previous meta-analyses on longer-term effects of grade retention, seemingly suggesting that grade retention is no effective means to tackle low student achievement. [less ▲]

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See detailThe cross-country validation of the WHO 5 well-being index with item response theory and the alignment procedure
Sischka, Philipp UL

Scientific Conference (2021, September 08)

The five-item World Health Organization Well-Being Index (WHO-5) is a frequently used brief stan- dard measure in large-scale cross-cultural clinical studies. Despite its frequent use, some psychometric ... [more ▼]

The five-item World Health Organization Well-Being Index (WHO-5) is a frequently used brief stan- dard measure in large-scale cross-cultural clinical studies. Despite its frequent use, some psychometric questions remain that concern the choice of an adequate item response theory (IRT) model, the evaluation of reliability at important cutoffpoints, and most importantly the assessment of measurement invariance across countries. Data from the 6 th European Working Condition survey (2015) were used that collected nationally representative samples of employed and self-employed individuals ( N = 43,469) via computer-aided personal interviews across 35 European countries. An in-depth IRT analysis was conducted for each country, testing dif- ferent IRT assumptions (e.g., unidimensionality), comparing different IRT-models, and calculating reliabilities. Furthermore, measurement invariance analysis was conducted with the recently proposed alignment procedure. The graded response model fitted the data best for all countries. Furthermore, IRT assumptions were mostly fulfilled. The WHO-5 showed overall and at critical points high reliability. Measurement invariance anal- ysis revealed metric invariance but discarded scalar invariance across countries. Analysis of the test characteristic curves of the aligned graded response model indicated low levels of differential test functioning at medium levels of the WHO-5, but differential test functioning increased at more extreme levels. The current study has no external criterion (e.g., structured clinical interviews) to assess sensitivity and specificity of the WHO-5 as a depression screening-tool. The WHO-5 is a psychometrically sound measure. However, large-scale cross-cultural studies should employ a latent variable modeling approach that accounts for non-invariant parameters across countries (e.g., alignment). [less ▲]

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See detailNational Justice vs. Occupiers’ Justice? A conflict of competence in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg during World War I
Wingerter, Elisabeth UL

Scientific Conference (2021, September 08)

From the standpoint of international law, the entry of German troops on the territory of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg in August 1914 violated the small state’s neutrality. While the occupying German ... [more ▼]

From the standpoint of international law, the entry of German troops on the territory of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg in August 1914 violated the small state’s neutrality. While the occupying German authorities saw this act as an occupatio pacifica and the violation of its neutrality as a necessity in order to respond to a state of emergency, the Luxembourgish government and its justice administration had to cope with a new set of problems. The government, led by state minister Paul Eyschen, and the country’s monarchical leader Marie-Adélaïde pursued a strategy of appeasement towards the occupier, but also attempted to guard the sovereignty of their state as well as of their justice system. With the establishment of German military justice and a central police office in Luxembourg, the sovereignty of Luxembourg’s French-inspired justice was curtailed. However, German authorities made clear that they do not intend to challenge the spheres of local justice, unless cases of military relevance would arise. After all, Luxembourg was a country with close links to the Kaiserreich and an important industrial partner and therefore had to receive a privileged treatment compared to other occupied territories. However, with Luxembourgers being arrested by the German military and German soldiers committing crimes on Luxembourgish ground, the two justice systems, military and local, clashed. Since the status of the “friendly occupation” created legal misunderstandings, local judges, magistrates of the high court (cour supérieure) and German authorities stood in constant correspondence regarding a large amount of court cases and competence disputes. Consequently, in 1915, members of the high magistrate made their way to Frankfurt and Berlin to discuss the status of Luxembourgish justice. These discussions would eventually lead back to the question whether the country was truly to be considered a theater of war (Kriegsschauplatz). Overall, the discussion about the spheres of national and occupier justice became part of a much larger question: What is the legal nature of German occupation in Luxemburg? This paper explores how the two justice systems interacted and highlights court cases where their competences intertwined. These observations show how the local administration had to apply a mix of compromise and pertinacity in order to avoid open conflict but at the same time tried to keep Luxembourgish civilians out of the reach of German military justice. In doing so, several interesting observations can be made regarding the legal discussions between lawyers and prosecutors of both sides. Additionally, the paper offers an insight into a variety of local cases ranging from German soldiers marauding drunkenly on Luxemburgish streets to the arrest of a Luxembourgish judge and amateur historian. Overall, the presented paper attempts to show that while the local justice system was not altered by the occupier, it suffered a cut in its competence in certain spheres of civil justice. However, in comparison to the later Nazi occupation of Luxembourg, local justice administration and its personnel were kept in their place, but had to constantly negotiate certain aspects of civil and international law with the German authorities – often to their own disadvantage. [less ▲]

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See detailFirst steps into developing multilingual practices in ECEC in Luxembourg: Insights from the projects MuLiPEC and COMPARE
Kirsch, Claudine UL

Scientific Conference (2021, September 07)

Translanguaging pedagogies promise to take account of students’ language and socio-cultural backgrounds and contribute to their academic achievements (García, Johnson, and Seltzer, 2017). Researchers who ... [more ▼]

Translanguaging pedagogies promise to take account of students’ language and socio-cultural backgrounds and contribute to their academic achievements (García, Johnson, and Seltzer, 2017). Researchers who have investigated translanguaging practices in monolingual, bilingual and multilingual contexts, have shown that translanguaging promotes learning, well-being, and identity-building (Lewis, Jones, and Baker, 2012; García & Sylvan, 2011; Young & Mary, 2016; Vaish 2019a). Studies in early childhood education and care (ECEC) remain scarce, particularly those that focus on the use of institutional languages and home languages. Furthermore, little is known about the implementation of translanguaging pedagogies and the challenges faced by professionals. One exception comes from Vaish (2019 a, b) who investigated the practices of primary teachers in Singapore who taught in English, Chinese and Malay. She identified three main challenges: superdiversity, negative attitudes towards home language, and teacher-centred pedagogies. Studies on professional development (PD) in ECEC have shown that PD can help practitioners change beliefs, knowledge and practices to some extent (Egert et al. 2018). This presentation comes from multilingual Luxembourg, where 63.7% of the 4-year-olds do not speak Luxembourgish as their home language. Since 2017, educators in ECEC are required to develop children’s skills in Luxembourgish, familiarise them with French and value their home languages. Professional development courses help practitioners move away from monolingual policies and practices that existed prior to 2017, and implement multilingual pedagogies. This paper examines the challenges teachers and educators faced during this process. It is based on seven group interviews carried out during two research projects; the first aimed to develop multilingual pedagogies (MuLiPEC), the second collaboration with parents and multiliteracies (COMPARE). The findings, based on thematic analysis, indicate, firstly, that the educators faced multiple challenges when trying to change their practices such as their uncertainty of how to deal with multiliteracy, their behaviourist views on education, their inexperience of planning literacy activities in multiple languages, and, secondly, the ways in which they overcame them. The PD courses helped them reflect on their beliefs, challenge monolingual ideologies, and develop knowledge about language learning and new multilingual practices (Kirsch 2020). The findings shed light on the complexities of the implementation process and the support needed for professional learning. [less ▲]

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See detailA professional development course in translanguaging: Teachers, parents and children working together.
Aleksic, Gabrijela UL

Scientific Conference (2021, September 04)

Translanguaging pedagogy promotes deeper understanding of school subjects, increases metalinguistic awareness, affirms multilingual identities, and encourages home-school collaboration (García, 2017 ... [more ▼]

Translanguaging pedagogy promotes deeper understanding of school subjects, increases metalinguistic awareness, affirms multilingual identities, and encourages home-school collaboration (García, 2017). Given that multilingual education is mandatory In Luxembourg, our project aims to (1) offer a professional development (PD) course in translanguaging to preschool teachers, (2) involve children’s families to reinforce home-school collaboration, and (3) foster children’s cognitive, linguistic, and socio-emotional engagement in the classroom. We used a mixed-method approach: language portraits, questionnaires, and focus groups with teachers, questionnaires and interviews with parents, and a test in early literacy and numeracy in school and home language and video observations with children. During the period of six months, we delivered a 22-hour PD course that focused on the development of teachers’ multilingual classroom, home-school collaboration, information about the multilingual brain and cross-linguistic transfer, oracy and multiliteracies. We worked with 40 teachers, children in their preschools, and the children’s parents. In the final focus groups, the teachers shared that they felt more relieved that children’s home languages do not confuse them and do not hinder the learning of Luxembourgish. They saw children’s emergent multilingualism as beneficial for their learning and let them express themselves freely. In addition, they understood that translanguaging is about communication, which invited them to start using languages they did not know to better relate to the children in their class. The effect of the PD course on parents and children was also positive. Some children were more involved in learning activities when their languages were used and some parents were enthusiastic to share their language through storytelling in the classroom. García, O. (2017). Translanguaging in schools: Subiendo y Bajando, Bajando y Subiendo as afterword. Journal of Language, Identity & Education, 16(4), 256-263. doi:10.1080/15348458.2017.1329657 [less ▲]

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See detailPerspectives on multilingualism and multilingual literacies from early childhood educators in Luxembourg
Kirsch, Claudine UL; Aleksic, Gabrijela UL; Bebić, Džoen Dominique UL et al

Scientific Conference (2021, September 04)

The pedagogies of multiliteracies and translanguaging (García et al., 2017) call for multiliteracies, but early childhood educators are often ensure of how to develop practices in one, let alone multiple ... [more ▼]

The pedagogies of multiliteracies and translanguaging (García et al., 2017) call for multiliteracies, but early childhood educators are often ensure of how to develop practices in one, let alone multiple languages. The development of literacy skills is often reduced to the isolated training of phonological awareness or the letters of the alphabet. By contrast, storytelling is a holistic approach which contributes to the development of language and literacy skills (Sénéchal & Lefevre, 2001). It can promote multilingualism if multilingual speakers are involved (Kirsch, 2018). This presentation reports on the perspectives on multiliteracies of educators in crèches in multilingual Luxembourg, where 63.7% of the 4-year-olds do not speak Luxembourgish at home. Multilingual education became mandatory in 2017, requesting educators to develop Luxembourgish, promote French and value home languages. The mix-method project Collaboration with parents and Multiliteracy in early Childhood Education aims to develop literacy practices in multiple languages and with multiple actors (parents, educators) through professional development in crèches. In this paper we report the findings of interviews and a survey sent to 700 educators in May 2020. The latter were asked to identify literacy practices (e.g. storytelling), language-promoting strategies, and translanguaging practices. The data are analysed with thematic analysis and descriptive statistical analysis. The findings will contribute to our understanding of current ideologies, pedagogies, and practices, and help identify issues and possible ways forward. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Decline of Repair Businesses? Luxembourg’s Repair Sector, 1971–1985
Krebs, Stefan UL; Hoppenheit, Thomas UL

Scientific Conference (2021, September 03)

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See detailLuxembourg Perspectives on Pre-Service Teacher Motivation: What Factors Influence the Choice of Becoming a Teacher, Perseverance and Success?
Rivas, Salvador UL; Poncelet, Débora UL; Reeff, Alain et al

Scientific Conference (2021, September 02)

In 2016, UNESCO estimated that 24.4 million primary school teachers and another 44.4 million secondary school teachers were needed to provide every child in the world access to education. Widespread ... [more ▼]

In 2016, UNESCO estimated that 24.4 million primary school teachers and another 44.4 million secondary school teachers were needed to provide every child in the world access to education. Widespread teacher shortages have led researchers to investigate what motivates candidates to become teachers and to remain in the profession (see for example Watt et al., 2012). Luxembourg is no exception, in 2019 for example, the government wanted to hire 320 new teachers at the fundamental school level; however, only 63 graduates from the country’s main teacher training programme at the University of Luxembourg took the required state exam to join the teaching ranks. The country needs 300 to 400 new fundamental schoolteachers per year to keep up with population growth. To help address this need, we draw on 10 years of admissions data (exam performance and noncognitive indicators) collected from candidates seeking entry to the University of Luxembourg’s teacher training programme. Our study investigates the major correlates, similarities and differences, between candidates that never-registered, i.e., candidates that after being admitted never start the programme; drop-outs, i.e., students that start but never finish; and of course, those that persist until completion. While circumstances may differ between these types of candidates, the first two nevertheless took-up the place that someone else who could have finished and possibly become a teacher. In light of the pressing need for more teachers, this study identifies important factors associated with showing up and staying in the programme until the end. Policy implications are described and discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailValues-Based Territorial Food Networks (VTFN): conceptual framework spanning Local Food Systems (LFS), Short Food Supply Chains (SFSC), Civic Food Networks (CFN) and Alternative Food Networks (AFN)
Reckinger, Rachel UL

Scientific Conference (2021, September 02)

Localized food growing and livestock rearing initiatives with more direct transformation and commercialization structures, often at comparably small scales, gained ground worldwide. They represent various ... [more ▼]

Localized food growing and livestock rearing initiatives with more direct transformation and commercialization structures, often at comparably small scales, gained ground worldwide. They represent various types of ‘alternatives’ to industrialised agri-food processes and to standard producers/consumers divides characterizing the global food system. While these alternatives are not always new, they have sparked growing scholarly interest. Over time, the literature has addressed them via four main conceptual denominations: Local Food Systems (LFS), Short Food Supply Chains (SFSCs), Civic Food Networks (CFS), Alternative Food Networks (AFN). These concepts have distinct foci, partial overlaps, and they seek to capture an immense heterogeneity of empirical phenomena. Yet this conceptual plurality risks to conceal that these empirical initiatives, despite their differences, have structural commonalities at food system level, relevant for understanding pathways to a sustainable food system transformation. Therefore, I argue for an overarching concept subsuming the existing ones. Values-based Territorial Food Networks (VTFN) would take into account the diverse perspectives from the four main concepts in this field, classify their specificities and address their shortcomings. The social critique at their core, leading to transitions, is constructed around values of ’doing things differently’, at the level of specific territories. The more robust and authentic these sustainability values in VTFN are – in terms of environmental integrity, social well-being, economic resilience and ethical governance – the more likely they are to be incorporated into practices, to become more and more legitimate and gain a voice at negotiation tables, in order to help reorient the current corporate agrifood regime. [less ▲]

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See detailCheminformatics and Mass Spectrometry meets Clinical Metabolomics
Schymanski, Emma UL

Scientific Conference (2021, September 01)

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See detailStability of Value-Added Models: Comparing Classical and Machine Learning Approaches
Emslander, Valentin UL; Levy, Jessica UL; Scherer, Ronny et al

Scientific Conference (2021, September)

Background: What is the value that teachers or schools add to the evolution of students’ performance? Value-added (VA) modeling aims to answer this question by quantifying the effect of pedagogical ... [more ▼]

Background: What is the value that teachers or schools add to the evolution of students’ performance? Value-added (VA) modeling aims to answer this question by quantifying the effect of pedagogical actions on students’ achievement, independent of students’ backgrounds (e.g., Braun, 2005). A plethora of VA models exist, and several outcome measures are in use to estimate VA scores, yet without consensus on the model specification (Everson, 2017; Levy et al., 2019). Furthermore, it is unclear whether the most frequently used VA models (i.e., multi-level, linear regression, and random forest models) and outcome measures (i.e., language and mathematics achievement) indicate a similar stability of VA scores over time. Objectives: Drawing from the data of a highly diverse and multilingual school setting, where leveling out the influence of students’ backgrounds is of special interest, we aim to (a) clarify the stability of school VA scores over time; (b) shed light on the sensitivity toward different statistical models and outcome variables; and (c) evaluate the practical implications of (in)stable VA scores for individual schools. Method: Utilizing the representative, longitudinal data from the Luxembourg School Monitoring Programme (LUCET, 2021), we examined the stability of school VA scores. We drew on two longitudinal data sets of students who participated in the standardized achievement tests in Grade 1 in 2014 or 2016 and then again in Grade 3 two years later (i.e., 2016 and 2018, respectively), with a total of 5875 students in 146 schools. School VA scores were calculated using classical approaches (i.e., linear regression and multilevel models) and one of the most commonly used machine learning approaches in educational research (i.e., random forests). Results and Discussion: The overall stability over time across the VA models was moderate, with multilevel models showing greater stability than linear regression models and random forests. Stability differed across outcome measures and was higher for VA models with language achievement as an outcome variable as compared to those with mathematics achievement. Practical implications for schools and teachers will be discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailActionable knowledge and social learning for sustainability: Roles of professional knowledge and narratives
Hondrila, Kristina UL; König, Ariane UL

Scientific Conference (2021, September)

The contribution discusses why TD sustainability research would benefit from devoting more attention to professional knowledge and narratives. It presents concepts, empirical insights and methods on how ... [more ▼]

The contribution discusses why TD sustainability research would benefit from devoting more attention to professional knowledge and narratives. It presents concepts, empirical insights and methods on how this could be done. They are based on case studies on governance and social learning processes in two river basins in Luxembourg (post-2000) that have concerned challenges at the nexus of water, environment and agriculture and involved farmers, environmentalists and public water managers. [less ▲]

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See detailClimate Risk and Price Jumps
Lehnert, Thorsten UL

Scientific Conference (2021, September)

Detailed reference viewed: 58 (3 UL)
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See detailTechnostress during COVID-19: Action regulation hindrances and the mediating roles of basic human needs among psychology students.
Schauffel, Nathalie; Kaufmann, Lena Maria UL; Ellwart, Thomas et al

Scientific Conference (2021, September)

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See detailCharacterizing the Impact of Network Delay on Bitcoin Mining
Cao, Tong UL; Decouchant, Jérémie UL; Yu, Jiangshan et al

Scientific Conference (2021, September)

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See detailMeta-Analytic Structural Equation Models of Executive Functions and Math Intelligence in Preschool Children
Emslander, Valentin UL; Scherer, Ronny

Scientific Conference (2021, September)

BACKGROUND: Response inhibition, attention shifting, and working memory updating are the three core executive functions (EFs; Miyake et al., 2000) underlying other cognitive skills that are relevant for ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Response inhibition, attention shifting, and working memory updating are the three core executive functions (EFs; Miyake et al., 2000) underlying other cognitive skills that are relevant for learning and everyday life. For example, they have shown to be differentially related to the mathematical component of intelligence (i.e., math intelligence) in school students and adults. While researchers suppose these three EFs to become more differentiated from early childhood to adulthood, neither the link of these constructs nor their structure has been conclusively established in preschool children yet. Primary studies on path models connecting EFs and math intelligence diverge in the exact relation of EFs and math intelligence. It remains unclear whether inhibition, shifting, and updating exhibit distinct but correlated constructs with respect to their relation to math intelligence. OBJECTIVES: With our meta-analysis, we aimed to (a) synthesize the relation between the three EFs and math intelligence in preschool children; and (b) compare plausible models of the effects of EFs on math intelligence. METHODS/RESULTS: Synthesizing data from 47 studies (363 effect sizes, 30,481 participants) from the last two decades via novel multilevel and multivariate meta-analytic models (Pustejovsky & Tipton, 2020), we found the three core EFs to be significantly related to math intelligence: Inhibition ("r" ̅ = .30, 95 % CI [.25, .35]), shifting ("r" ̅ = .32, 95 % CI [.25, .38]), and updating ("r" ̅ = .36, 95 % CI [.31, .40]). Looking at the three core EFs as one construct, the correlation was "r" ̅ = .34, 95 % CI [.31, .37]. Utilizing correlation-based, meta-analytic structural equation modeling (Jak & Cheung, 2020), our results exhibited significant relations of all EFs to math intelligence. These relations did not differ between the three core EFs. DISCUSSION: Our findings corroborate the positive link between EFs and math intelligence in preschool children and are similar to other age groups. From the model testing, we learned that representing EFs by a latent variable, thus capturing the covariance among the three core EFs, explained substantially more variation in math intelligence than representing them as distinct constructs. [less ▲]

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See detailHead, shoulders, Knie et pés – singing one’s way into multilingual practices. Language policies and practices in ECE
Kemp, Valérie; Colucci, Laura; Bebić, Džoen Dominique UL et al

Scientific Conference (2021, September)

While the European Commission (2011) has called for multilingual approaches in preschools and primary schools, their implementation is difficult and has rarely been studied (Kirsch et al. 2020 ... [more ▼]

While the European Commission (2011) has called for multilingual approaches in preschools and primary schools, their implementation is difficult and has rarely been studied (Kirsch et al. 2020). Multilingual language policies are likely to challenge traditional monolingual language ideologies and language hierarchies (Bergroth & Palviainen 2016, Ellis et al. 2011). The present paper looks at the non-formal early childhood education and care sector (ECEC) in multilingual Luxembourg, where a new plurilingual education programme has been implemented in 2017 (MENJE & SNJ 2018). It aims to develop skills in Luxembourgish (or French), familiarize children with French (or Luxembourgish) and value home languages. Furthermore, it encourages collaboration with parents and networking with social institutions (Kirsch & Seele 2020). The project COMPARE examines collaborative language and literacy practices with three-to-four-year-olds in crèches (day care centres in Luxembourg). This paper investigates the ways in which the educators in one crèche, helped by children’s parents, and the children themselves developed literacy activities in multiple languages and began to overcome monolingual ideologies. The data stem from seven video recordings totalling 29 minutes and fieldnotes written on four days over a period of three months. The data have been analysed with thematic analysis (Braun & Clarke 2006). Our preliminary results show that the educators included six of the children’s home languages by engaging the children and their parents in a range of activities. They developed an inclusive stance to language diversity and, like the children, learned words in different languages. Thanks to the good collaboration with parents, they received home-recorded videos which they integrated into their daily practices. Finally, they considered children’s, at times, reluctant attitudes towards languages other than the majority languages and found ways of opening up their minds to language diversity. Children became the driving motor for the new multilingual practices (Boyd & Huss 2017). The findings are relevant for policy-makers, researchers and professionals because they show means to develop collaborative and inclusive multilingual practices and overcome possible challenges. [less ▲]

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See detailDeveloping Multilingual Literacies – Views from four countries
Little, Sabine; Günther-van der Meij, Mirjam; Kirsch, Claudine UL et al

Scientific Conference (2021, September)

This paper reports on progress from an EERA-funded Network Grant (Network 31) at a European level across the EERA Network, which compares and contrasts policy contexts and ongoing research around ... [more ▼]

This paper reports on progress from an EERA-funded Network Grant (Network 31) at a European level across the EERA Network, which compares and contrasts policy contexts and ongoing research around multilingualism and literacy across four nations, specifically Germany, England, Luxembourg and the Netherlands. Children with ethnic minority background and low socio-economic status are more likely to have poor literacy skills and poorer academic outcomes (Farver et al., 2013). It is therefore essential to develop their preliteracy skills early because they are strong predictors of both their literacy development (e.g. Skibbe et al., 2011) and general educational attainment (Bialystok, 2013; Gogolin, 2014). Being biliterate has also been found to be a good predictor of successful additional language learning (Sanz, 2000). In multilingual contexts, students develop (multi)literacy skills in complex, ever changing contexts and through rich and heterogeneous experiences (Hammer et al., 2014). However, the linguistic resources of students with migrant background and lower socioeconomic status are often neglected throughout their school years, even though the languages in their repertoires provide valuable and mutually enriching resources. For example, bilinguals may strategically apply the acquired literacy skills in one language to write in another (Cenoz & Gorter, 2011). The omission to draw on the entire repertoire of multilinguals leads to inequality, which results in lower literacy outcomes and in discrepancies in competences in the various languages of bilinguals (Dworin, 2003). The quality of the home environment and institutions (e.g. early childhood and care) influences children’s language and literacy outcomes and predicts school success (NICHHD, 1998). Books remain the most favoured resource of multilingual families to engage children in literacy activities both in societal and the heritage languages, especially in the early years and early stages of education (Little, 2019). Studies in the field of home literacies have shown that parents, grandparents and children who engaged in book reading and in related activities such as telling and retelling stories, drew on their cultural funds of knowledge, made connections between the knowledge and skills gained in different learning contexts (e.g. home, school, community school), and blended the diverse literacy practices (Gregory, 2001). Engaging children in multilingual literacies does not only further their development of cognitive skills related to language and literacy but it also contributes to identity development. Projects where teachers and parents engage together with children in multilingual literacy activities, including multimodal digital ones, have shown that children are more motivated, engage deeper in their own learning and develop cognitive, language, and social skills, that teachers can work in more culturally and linguistically and inclusive way, and that parents feel more included in the school (Kirsch, 2018). [less ▲]

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See detailMoral Judgment in Video Games: Effects of Medium, Moral Intuitions and Media-Based Empathy
Grohmann, Lara; Holl, Elisabeth UL; Melzer, André UL

Scientific Conference (2021, September)

Detailed reference viewed: 60 (3 UL)
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See detailThreat Adaptive Byzantine Fault Tolerant State-Machine Replication
Simoes Silva, Douglas UL; Graczyk, Rafal UL; Decouchant, Jérémie et al

Scientific Conference (2021, September)

Critical infrastructures have to withstand advanced and persistent threats, which can be addressed using Byzantine fault tolerant state-machine replication (BFT-SMR). In practice, unattended cyberdefense ... [more ▼]

Critical infrastructures have to withstand advanced and persistent threats, which can be addressed using Byzantine fault tolerant state-machine replication (BFT-SMR). In practice, unattended cyberdefense systems rely on threat level detectors that synchronously inform them of changing threat levels. How- ever, to have a BFT-SMR protocol operate unattended, the state- of-the-art is still to configure them to withstand the highest possible number of faulty replicas f they might encounter, which limits their performance, or to make the strong assumption that a trusted external reconfiguration service is available, which introduces a single point of failure. In this work, we present ThreatAdaptive the first BFT-SMR protocol that is automatically strengthened or optimized by its replicas in reaction to threat level changes. We first determine under which conditions replicas can safely reconfigure a BFT-SMR system, i.e., adapt the number of replicas n and the fault threshold f, so as to outpace an adversary. Since replicas typically communicate with each other using an asynchronous network they cannot rely on consensus to decide how the system should be reconfigured. ThreatAdaptive avoids this pitfall by proactively preparing the reconfiguration that may be triggered by an increasing threat when it optimizes its performance. Our evaluation shows that ThreatAdaptive can meet the latency and throughput of BFT baselines configured statically for a particular level of threat, and adapt 30% faster than previous methods, which make stronger assumptions to provide safety. [less ▲]

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See detailAn Integrative Model of Moral Processing for the Video Game Medium
Melzer, André UL; Holl, Elisabeth UL

Scientific Conference (2021, September)

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See detailEffects of the COVID-pandemic:The role of family culture and effects on well-being
Minelli, Anne; Murdock, Elke UL; Albert, Isabelle UL

Scientific Conference (2021, August 27)

During the COVID pandemic governments across the globe put restrictions in place to curb the spread of the virus. During the strict lock-down phase, people were only permitted to leave the house for ... [more ▼]

During the COVID pandemic governments across the globe put restrictions in place to curb the spread of the virus. During the strict lock-down phase, people were only permitted to leave the house for essential reasons, and visiting of family members living in a different household was not allowed. The aim of the present study was to investigate possible effects of these COVID restrictions on well-being according to different family models. Extending Kağitçibasi’s (2007, 2013) postulated family model by Manzi et al.’s (2006) aspects of family cultures (enmeshment, cohesion, autonomy and social support) we first explored, if these family models can be replicated in Luxembourg. We then tested, if lock-down restrictions affected family models differently in terms of well-being. A total of N = 244 (Mage = 35 years, SD = 12.2; 73% female) completed our online questionnaire at the time of the strict lockdown in April-Mai 2020 in Luxembourg. To capture the impact of the pandemic, the questionnaire was divided into two parts. First, participants answered questions about their well-being, family culture and closeness to their parents in general. Participants were then reminded of COVID lockdown restrictions and asked to answer under these restrictions. Using cluster analysis we identified three family models, namely psychologically interdependent families (focus on cohesion and social support), independent families (focus on autonomy), and interdependent families (focus: enmeshment, cohesion and social support). The independent family cluster showed lower well-being before and during the pandemic compared to psychologically interdependent families. Our findings suggest that different family models as postulated by Kağitçibasi are indeed affected differently by the pandemic. Furthermore, there appears to be a particular association between cohesion and well-being. Implications of these findings will be discussed also in the family model framework. [less ▲]

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See detailBeyond the pandemic: Shaping of futures in (even more?) diverse educational settings - Critical discussion of contributions of invited symposium SIG 21
Max, Charles UL

Scientific Conference (2021, August 27)

Looking at SIG 21’s mission statement, the diversity of learning and education (which is / was ?) a granted element in educational research, seems to hail from a post/past century, where not everyone was ... [more ▼]

Looking at SIG 21’s mission statement, the diversity of learning and education (which is / was ?) a granted element in educational research, seems to hail from a post/past century, where not everyone was doing learningonline, remotely via the same tools and devices (i.e. zoom, etc.) Therefore, we wonder ifthe diversity still can be looked at in similar ways, and if so, which other ways of looking at the « new normal » should be developed, both from a practical, empirical research point of view, but also from a theoretical and epistemic perspective, underlying new research (or research into the new normal).Following this first line of thought, which questions could determine future research into education, educational settings and learning as such? This seems of particular interest, as the current ways of looking into education are heavily biased by concerns of technological infrastructure, investment and structural fitness (i.e., teachers as appexperts, networks, online setups, disregarding actual learners). Moreover, other ways of looking into formerly accepted « groups » (i.e., gender, age, background) seem to fall apart and disintegrate, making the issue of heterogeneity even more challenging to grapple with. Finally, when looking at the landscape of educational contexts and their societal anchorage at large (i.e., learning settings, formal/informal settings, mobility, development of professionals …) one aspect seems of particular interest: Is there learning in and from the actual situation ? How sustainable are the developments? Which perspectives can be drawn beyond the short term? [less ▲]

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See detailLong-term effects of retention in grade 8 in Luxembourg
Klapproth, Florian; Keller, Ulrich UL; Fischbach, Antoine UL

Scientific Conference (2021, August 26)

Meta-analyses have suggested that grade retention rarely has positive effects and more often negative effects on students’ performance and psycho-emotional well-being. The occurrence of negative effects ... [more ▼]

Meta-analyses have suggested that grade retention rarely has positive effects and more often negative effects on students’ performance and psycho-emotional well-being. The occurrence of negative effects may be due to the absence of new learning experiences. However, in the short term, positive effects of grade retention are quite likely to occur. In Luxembourg, more than half of the students repeat at least one grade within their entire school career. Since grade retention is applied quite frequently, the aim of the current study was to examine long-term effects of grade retention. A representative sample of 2,835 Luxembourgish 8th grade students was used for this study, and propensity score matching was applied to select a control group of promoted students who were similar to the retained students on a variety of characteristics. Furthermore, a type of comparison was used by which the outcome variables of the retained and promoted students were compared at different times while the grade- and age-cohort were held equal between groups. With respect to school marks as an indicator of students’ academic achievement, this study showed that grade 8 retention lowered repeaters’ school marks, on average, in grades 10 to 13, as compared to matched non-repeaters. [less ▲]

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See detailNew Estimates of Inequality of Opportunity Across European Cohorts (and Some Insights on the Long-term Impact of Educational Policy)
Andreoli, Francesco; Fusco, Alessio; Kyzyma, Iryna et al

Scientific Conference (2021, August 25)

This paper provides a set of new estimates of inequality of opportunity (IOp) in Europe, using the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Condition (EU-SILC). Unlike previous research, we estimate ... [more ▼]

This paper provides a set of new estimates of inequality of opportunity (IOp) in Europe, using the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Condition (EU-SILC). Unlike previous research, we estimate inequality of opportunity within birth cohorts, which we argue is the most appropriate population level for inequality of opportunity analysis. Most IOp measures require estimation of the conditional distribution of the outcome of interest given circumstances. With multiple circumstances and the sample sizes available in EU-SILC, we use distribution regression methods combined with local kernel weighting and show how these can be used to estimate a large set of IOp measures. Endowed with cohort-level estimates of IOp, we finally examine the relationship between educational policy variables measured at the time of parental education and offspring generation inequality of opportunity in adulthood. We find a negative relationship between the duration of compulsory education of the parents and IOp among offspring, but the relationship is not very strong. [less ▲]

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See detailTeacher expectations and emotions concerning students with special needs or immigrant background
Pit-Ten Cate, Ineke UL; Krischler, Mireille UL

Scientific Conference (2021, August 23)

Teachers are faced with increasingly heterogenous student groups, whereby the successful inclusion of all students largely depend on teachers´ competence and attitudes. Attitudes are understood as a ... [more ▼]

Teachers are faced with increasingly heterogenous student groups, whereby the successful inclusion of all students largely depend on teachers´ competence and attitudes. Attitudes are understood as a multifaceted construct with cognitive, affective and conative components. In the current study we investigated to what extent teachers´ expectations concerning students´ academic performance - reflecting the cognitive component of attitudes - varied as a function of specific student characteristics (special educational needs and immigrant background). In addition, we assessed teachers´ emotions - reflecting the affective component of attitudes - concerning the inclusion of these students in mainstream education. Result confirmed previous findings that teachers´ expectations and emotions vary as a function of student characteristics. Teachers had lower expectations of the academic performance of students with learning difficulties than students with challenging behaviour, whereby the estimates of German proficiency were also affected by the immigrant background of the student. Teachers felt however less positive about the inclusion of students with challenging behaviour than of students with learning difficulties, regardless of the immigrant background of the student. Results will be discussed in relation to theory and their practical implications. [less ▲]

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See detailAutour des possessions luxembourgeoises dans le comté de Hainaut sous le règne de Jean, roi de Bohême et comte de Luxembourg (1310-1346)
Pettiau, Hérold UL

Scientific Conference (2021, August 20)

The purpose of this contribution is to open what appeared at first sight to be a small dossier, devoted to the heritage held in the county of Hainaut for several decades at the beginning of the 14th ... [more ▼]

The purpose of this contribution is to open what appeared at first sight to be a small dossier, devoted to the heritage held in the county of Hainaut for several decades at the beginning of the 14th century between 1304 and 1343, and even afterwards, by the counts of the Luxembourg dynasty (Henry VII and his son John the Blind, King of Bohemia), of which I have presented the main items and the interest that their study (and publication) could bring. This file is interesting in more than one way: It is- on the Luxembourg side at least, little known - even if important documents have been published and available for a long time - these 'outlying' possessions have not been much taken into consideration by researchers working on the territorialisation of the principality or on the 'finances' of John of Bohemia. It also concerns a period during which documentary writing developed in the management of the possessions of the principalities of the Low Countries - including, of course, Hainaut (in union with Zealand Holland), which has been very well studied by Valeria Van Camp. In Luxembourg, a first cartulary, currently called liber foeodorum, was drawn up in 1308-1309, and subsequently completed; a second in 1343, and also a censary (or Urbar) noting the revenues of the various components of the possessions of the Luxembourgs by provostship, land, and castellany in the years 1306-1317, subsequently completed in the years 1322-1327. This file raises questions about the practical management of such possessions, which were quite remote, beyond the administrative organisation of the county. [less ▲]

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See detailNational and transnational family and friendship networks and their role for subjective well-being of older migrants compared to non-migrants in Luxembourg
Albert, Isabelle UL; Hoffmann, Martine; Vandenbosch, Petra et al

Scientific Conference (2021, August 18)

Creating new bonds in the receiving country constitutes an important developmental task for migrants. Nonetheless, migrants often have smaller social networks in the receiving countries compared to non ... [more ▼]

Creating new bonds in the receiving country constitutes an important developmental task for migrants. Nonetheless, migrants often have smaller social networks in the receiving countries compared to non-migrants, while they stay connected with left behind family members in their countries of origin. The role of transnational ties can thereby be twofold – on the one hand, transnational relations might provide support for migrants from a distance, on the other hand feelings of loneliness might arise when network partners are living far away. The present study is part of the project PAN-VAL on active ageing in Luxembourg, financed by the Ministry of Family and Integration, which focusses on social embeddedness vs. social isolation of migrants and non-migrants living in the multicultural context of Luxembourg. A national sample of N=1000 migrants and non-migrants 50+ living in Luxembourg were asked about their family and friendship networks, their satisfaction with family, friends and life as a whole as well as their feelings of loneliness. Further, N = 20 qualitative interviews with older migrants and non-migrants in four selected municipalities were carried out to explore social networks in more depth. First analyses revealed smaller national family and friendship networks of migrants compared to non-migrants and people with double nationality, whereas migrants reported more transnational bonds. Migrants also reported a lower satisfaction with family and friendship networks compared to non-migrants and people with double nationality, whereas no differences were found between migrants and non-migrants with regard to feelings of loneliness. However, people with double nationality felt less lonely compared to both other groups. Results will be discussed in a life-span perspective, considering the role of national family and friendship networks to create a sense belonging as a fundamental need of human beings. [less ▲]

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See detailA professional development course in translanguaging: Teachers’ beliefs and attitudes
Aleksic, Gabrijela UL

Scientific Conference (2021, August 16)

In multilingual Luxembourg there are almost 65% of 4 year-old children who do not speak Luxembourgish, of which 28% speak Portuguese (MENJE, 2018). The new law declared multilingual early education ... [more ▼]

In multilingual Luxembourg there are almost 65% of 4 year-old children who do not speak Luxembourgish, of which 28% speak Portuguese (MENJE, 2018). The new law declared multilingual early education mandatory in 2017 with the focus on developing Luxembourgish, familiarizing children with French and valuing their home languages. Thus, our project aimed to: (1) offer a professional development (PD) course in translanguaging pedagogy for preschool teachers, (2) involve children's families to strengthen home-school collaboration, and (3) foster children's cognitive, linguistic, and socio-emotional engagement in the classroom. We employed mixed methods. With teachers we used focus groups, questionnaires, and language portraits, with parents, questionnaires and interviews, and, with children test in early literacy and numeracy in school and home language as well as video observations. The main topic of our 18-hour course (June – December 2019) was translanguaging pedagogy divided into 7 sessions with the focus on multilingual ecology, home-school collaboration, multilingual brain, and multilingual oracy and literacy. We worked with 4 groups of 38 preschool teachers, of which two groups represented two entire schools. The focus of the current presentation are the results from teacher questionnaires and focus groups, delivered before and after the professional development course. The analysis of teacher questionnaires showed that there was a significant increase in positive attitudes towards children's home languages and multilingualism in general and a significant decrease in focus on Luxembourgish only, after the course. In addition, the results from the focus groups indicated that most of the teachers realized that the inclusion of children's home languages and cultures are important for their linguistic and socio-emotional development. However, the monolingual stance towards Luxembourgish for most of the teachers remained quite firm. References: Ministry of National Education, Childhood and Youth [MENJE]. (2018). Key numbers of the national education: statistics and indicators – School year 2016-2017. Retrieved from http://www.men.public.lu/fr/actualites/publications/themes-transversaux/statistiques-analyses/chiffres-cles/index.html [less ▲]

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See detailA conceptual model for understanding vulnerability in the context of migration
Gilodi, Amalia UL

Scientific Conference (2021, August 05)

The notion of ‘vulnerability’ is as popular as it is fuzzy. Its increased prominence in social research and in political and humanitarian discourses on migration has led many scholars and practitioners to ... [more ▼]

The notion of ‘vulnerability’ is as popular as it is fuzzy. Its increased prominence in social research and in political and humanitarian discourses on migration has led many scholars and practitioners to treat the concept as self-explanatory, without problematizing neither its conceptualization nor its use and possible negative societal and psychological consequences. Set within the framework of the EU-funded project MIMY (n°870700), investigating the processes of integration of young migrants in 9 European countries, this paper critically evaluates different conceptualizations and uses of vulnerability and proposes a new multilevel conceptual model for understanding vulnerability in the context of migration. Focusing on different levels of analysis, the model situates individuals and groups in the broader socio-political hierarchies and power dynamics that inevitably affect them (structural vulnerability), acknowledges how these systems are (re)produced in situated interpersonal relationships (situational vulnerability) and accounts for migrants’ biographical and psychological experiences of vulnerability. Focusing on the interrelationships between levels of analysis, the model highlights how macro conditions and definitions of vulnerability may affect individual experiences, through processes such as stigmatization, internalization of stereotypes, disempowerment, but also how individuals can actively negotiate their ascribed ‘vulnerability’ through processes such as resistance, mobilization and collective action. [less ▲]

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See detailDeparture and Trajectory Design Applications using Stretching Directions
Muralidharan, Vivek UL; Howell, Kathleen C.

Scientific Conference (2021, August)

Stable or nearly stable orbits do not always possess well-distinguished manifold structures that assist in departing from or arriving onto the orbit. Generally, for potential missions, the orbits of ... [more ▼]

Stable or nearly stable orbits do not always possess well-distinguished manifold structures that assist in departing from or arriving onto the orbit. Generally, for potential missions, the orbits of interest are nearly stable to reduce the possibility of rapid departure. The stable nature of these orbits also serves as a drawback for insertion or departure from the orbit. The Near Rectilinear Halo Orbits (NRHOs) and the Distant Retrograde Orbits (DROs) offer some potential long-horizon trajectories for exploration missions. The current investigation focuses on leveraging the stretching direction as a tool for departure and trajectory design applications. The magnitude of the state variations along the maximum stretching direction is expected to grow rapidly and, therefore, offers information for efficient departure from the orbit. Similarly, the maximum stretching in reverse time, enables arrival with a minimal maneuver magnitude. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the effects of income heterogeneity in monopolistically competitive markets”
Picard, Pierre M UL; Kichko, Sergey

Scientific Conference (2021, August)

This paper studies the e¤ects of income heterogeneity on monopolistically competitive product markets and welfare in the context of non-homothetic preferences. When richer individuals expenditures are ... [more ▼]

This paper studies the e¤ects of income heterogeneity on monopolistically competitive product markets and welfare in the context of non-homothetic preferences. When richer individuals expenditures are less sensitive to price change compared to poorer ones , a mean-preserving contraction of income distribution entices rms to charge higher prices, new rms enter and broaden product diversity. General equilibrium e¤ects have a negative impact on poorer individuals and, in speci c circumstances, on whole population. In open economies, lower income inequality in a country creates a price divergence between countries and decreases trade volumes and values. Those general equilibrium e¤ects are quantitatively non negligible. [less ▲]

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See detailInequalities in teacher reports on students’ inclusion at school
Krischler, Mireille UL; Zurbriggen, Carmen UL; Nusser, Lena et al

Scientific Conference (2021, August)

Theoretical background: With the ratification of the UN Convention of Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) on 26 March 2009, Germany has made the commitment – as have 181 other countries – to ... [more ▼]

Theoretical background: With the ratification of the UN Convention of Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) on 26 March 2009, Germany has made the commitment – as have 181 other countries – to guarantee non-discriminatory access to inclusive and high-quality teaching at all levels of the (general) educational system. The much-noticed Article 24 of the UN CRPD demands that participating states ensure, among others, effective and personalized support measures in inclusive learning settings to maximize academic as well as social and emotional development of all learners. Access to the general educational system is a prerequisite, but not a sufficient condition for successful inclusion (Powell & Hadjar, 2016). Students´ wellbeing is regarded as an important indicator of the quality of inclusion and as one of the main aims of inclusive education (Kullmann et al., 2015). As such, responding to student diversity has brought about new challenges for teachers. In order to meet diversity challenges in classroom, it is critical that teachers adapt their instructional practices. In this regard, teacher’s ability to accurately assess a student’s subjective wellbeing is supposed to support each student’s personal and academic development. However, while teachers’ assessment accuracy for students’ academic achievement and cognitive abilities is in general relatively adequate, the agreement between self-reports and teacher reports of socio-emotional aspects is rather low (Machts et al., 2016). The low to moderate consistencies suggest the occurrence of an assessment bias. Recent findings indicate that especially student’s gender and the status special educational needs (SEN) influence teachers’ assessment accuracy of students’ inclusion at school (Schwab et al., 2020). Teacher characteristics such as their self-efficacy and their attitudes towards inclusion are regarded as fundamental for successfully implementing inclusive education (Gebhardt et al., 2015). Teachers’ responsibility is related to the teachers’ belief in their ability to influence students and with positive attitudes towards teaching in heterogenous classrooms (Halvorsen et al., 2009). Furthermore, teachers with more job experience are better able to judge students’ performance (Van Ophuysen, 2006). In this line of thought, teachers’ assessment bias represented as stigmatization effects could ultimately lead to increasing educational inequalities. Even though to date several studies investigated the accuracy of teacher judgments, teachers’ assessment accuracy with respect to students’ emotional inclusion has been largely neglected in previous research. In this regard, the present study investigates, first, the consistency of the self-reports and the teacher reports of students‘ emotional well-being, social inclusion and academic self-concept. Second, we address the question whether students’ gender, first language and SEN can explain teachers’ assessment accuracy of students’ inclusion in school. Third, the possible influence of teachers’ job experience, self-efficacy and attitudes towards inclusion as well as their responsibility for every student on teachers´ assessment accuracy is also part of our study. Method: Data are from the project “Inklusion in der Sekundarstufe I in Deutschland” (INSIDE). The sample consisted of 3772 grade 6 students (Mage = 12.6 years, SDage = 0.62) from 231 schools and 432 teachers. To assess students’ emotional well-being, social participation and academic self-concept, both students and teachers were asked to fill out the German Version of the Perceptions of Inclusion Questionnaire (PIQ; Venetz et al., 2015). In the project INSIDE, the PIQ items with negative wording were not included. Additionally, teachers filled out the Self-efficacy for Inclusive Teaching Questionnaire (Bosse & Spörer, 2014), the Attitudes towards an Inclusive Education System Questionnaire (Lüke & Grosche, 2017) and an adapted version of the Teacher Responsibility Scale (Lauermann & Karabenick, 2013). Analyses were performed in Mplus Version 8.0. Given the nested structure of the data, we used the complex sample option. First, we applied a correlated trait-correlated method minus one [CT-C(M-1)] model (Eid et al., 2003) to examine the consistency of student self-reports and teacher ratings. To address the second and third research questions, we fitted a CT-C(M-1) model with covariates and latent interaction effects (Koch et al., 2018). Results: Research question 1: How consistent are self-reports and teacher reports of students‘ emotional well-being, social inclusion and academic self-concept? Results showed low to moderate consistencies between self-reports and teacher reports (12–33%). The consistency between teachers’ reports and self-reports of students’ emotional well-being and social inclusion is rather low. The consistency for academic self-concept is somewhat higher. Research question 2: Do the students’ gender, first language and the status special educational needs (SEN) predict teachers’ assessment accuracy regarding students’ inclusion? The students’ gender and the status SEN were important predictors for the assessment bias. Teachers underestimate the academic self-concept of students with the status SEN (compared to students without SEN) – and to a smaller extent also their social inclusion and emotional well-being. Moreover, they tend to overestimate girls’ subjective well-being. Research question 3: Do the teachers’ job experience, self-efficacy and attitudes towards inclusion as well as their responsibility for every student predict teachers’ assessment accuracy of students’ inclusion? The bias could partly be explained by teachers’ self-efficacy and attitudes towards inclusion and their responsibility for every student. Teachers’ assessment (in-)accuracy regarding students’ subjective well-being could be predicted only to a small extent by the teachers’ self-efficacy and attitudes towards inclusion and their responsibility for every student. The findings will be discussed in terms of their significance for educational inequalities. Implications for practice and recommendations for future research will be given. [less ▲]

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See detailVisual primes as culture-sensitive method to understanding acculturation processes
Murdock, Elke UL; Campill, Marc-Antoine; Valsiner, Jaan

Scientific Conference (2021, July 31)

One facet of contemporary societies is their increasingly divers composition. With a foreign population percentage of 47, 5 %, Luxembourg is an example for a super-diverse society and provides a rich ... [more ▼]

One facet of contemporary societies is their increasingly divers composition. With a foreign population percentage of 47, 5 %, Luxembourg is an example for a super-diverse society and provides a rich context to explore acculturation processes. The majority of immigrants have European roots, but the number of non-European immigrants is rising. Within this qualitative study we examined the identity construction processes of eight Japanese women living in Luxembourg using several visual primes guiding the interview. Building on Ying-yi Hong’s work on cultural mixing we developed hybrid images to evoke affective responses and to capture the negotiation processes between cultures. The choice of images was carefully prepared and first involved an ethnographic study of cultural dimensions of Japan and Luxembourg. Based on this analysis we decided to explore the domains of beauty, food, living, leisure and family. For each domain, we chose a prototypical European and Japanese image and created a hybrid image. All images were culturally meaningful and anchored in real life experiences. The Japanese images were tested in a pilot study in Japan. The interviews were carefully planned, each phase involving different visual stimuli. In the opening phase, the interviewer presented a business card in three different designs – European, Japanese and a mixed version. Interviewees could choose their preferred version and explain their choice. Next, a series of 15 matched typical images of Japan and Luxembourg were shown and the interviewees again chose their preferred images and explained their choice. Finally, the five sets of domain-specific images were presented. These provided a context for narration and especially the reaction to the hybrid stimuli showed how participants negotiate their cultural identities. The visual primes made the negotiation strategies visible. Findings from this study and the potential of this culture-sensitive method for accessing the process of acculturation will be discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailDeveloping a talent: An exploratory study of Talent Management in Russia
Usanova, Ksenia UL

Scientific Conference (2021, July 29)

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See detailSymposium: Immigrants‘ Acculturation across the Lifespan
Schwarz, Beate; Maehler, Debora; Murdock, Elke UL et al

Scientific Conference (2021, July 28)

Immigrants’ acculturation is a bi-linear process that refer to the orientation towards the host and the ethnic culture. Additionally, acculturation is a multidimensional construct that comprises changes ... [more ▼]

Immigrants’ acculturation is a bi-linear process that refer to the orientation towards the host and the ethnic culture. Additionally, acculturation is a multidimensional construct that comprises changes with respect to practices and behaviors, values and norms, and identity and identification (Schwartz, Unger, Zamboanga, & Szapocznik, 2010). From a developmental perspective, acculturation of first and second-generation immigrants differ remarkably because usually second generation immigrants have more opportunities to interact with representatives of the host culture in a phase of life with high plasticity (Sam & Oppedal, 2003). The symposium wants to gain insight into the complex acculturation processes with four studies that referred to different dimensions of acculturation and including age groups from adolescence to old age. The studies used quantitative and qualitative analyses and variable- as well as person-centered approaches. Starting with adolescence, Maehler provides a meta-analysis on factors that are related to identification with the ethnic and mainstream culture. Murdock and Gales also refer to the identity dimension of acculturation, here among young adults in Germany. With a qualitative approach they identified the role of the parents and the intergenerational relationships for the way how these young adults integrate both identities. In the third study with middle-aged second- generation immigrants in Switzerland, again intergenerational relationships are in the focus. Schwarz and Pfammatter analyzed the association of intergenerational relationships with orientations toward ethnic and mainstream culture. In the last study, Albert and colleagues used a person-centered approach. They investigated the patterns of sense of belonging on a local and national level of older immigrants in Luxembourg and the associations with expectations to stay and well-being. All four studies provide specific insight into the acculturation mechanism that are relevant in different periods of the lifespan. [less ▲]

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See detailMulticultural Identity Integration – the importance of the context of the family
Murdock, Elke UL; Gales, Sissy

Scientific Conference (2021, July 28)

Acculturation has been described as multidimensional process consisting of the confluence of different cultural practices, values and identifications. A growing body of research focuses on the ... [more ▼]

Acculturation has been described as multidimensional process consisting of the confluence of different cultural practices, values and identifications. A growing body of research focuses on the understanding identifications of persons growing up with multiple cultural experiences and how these influences are negotiated within themselves. The current study draws on a qualitative design and involved a semi-structured interview and two exercises designed to stimulate reflection on cultural influences. We recruited eight female participants, aged between 21 and 25 years, who all grew up in Germany. Their parents originate from a wide range of countries of various cultural distance to Germany. Fairly homogenous in terms of socioeconomic status and educational background, the sample was very diverse in terms of cultural influences. Half of our participants grew up in mixed national families. Building on the multicultural identity integration research we were particularly interested whether participants identify with one cultural group over others (categorization), keep their influences separate (compartmentalization) or link their cultural influences (integration) and drivers for each outcome. The results point towards the important role of parents regarding cultural resources and practices. Our results point to categorization, if there is little or no contact to one parent, compartmentalization, if the relationship between parents is conflicted and integration if both parents engage equally in cultural maintenance. Families are the primary socialization unit and our findings suggest that parental commitment to transfer of cultural values and practices impacts the cultural identity configurations. Findings will be discussed in a systemic perspective of identity construal processes. [less ▲]

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See detailThe WHO-5 Well Being Index – Validation based on item response theory and the analysis of measurement invariance across 35 countries
Sischka, Philipp UL

Scientific Conference (2021, July 23)

The five-item World Health Organization Well-Being Index (WHO-5) is a frequently used brief stan- dard measure in large-scale cross-cultural clinical studies. Despite its frequent use, some psychometric ... [more ▼]

The five-item World Health Organization Well-Being Index (WHO-5) is a frequently used brief stan- dard measure in large-scale cross-cultural clinical studies. Despite its frequent use, some psychometric questions remain that concern the choice of an adequate item response theory (IRT) model, the evaluation of reliability at important cutoffpoints, and most importantly the assessment of measurement invariance across countries. Data from the 6 th European Working Condition survey (2015) were used that collected nationally representative samples of employed and self-employed individuals ( N = 43,469) via computer-aided personal interviews across 35 European countries. An in-depth IRT analysis was conducted for each country, testing dif- ferent IRT assumptions (e.g., unidimensionality), comparing different IRT-models, and calculating reliabilities. Furthermore, measurement invariance analysis was conducted with the recently proposed alignment procedure. The graded response model fitted the data best for all countries. Furthermore, IRT assumptions were mostly fulfilled. The WHO-5 showed overall and at critical points high reliability. Measurement invariance anal- ysis revealed metric invariance but discarded scalar invariance across countries. Analysis of the test characteristic curves of the aligned graded response model indicated low levels of differential test functioning at medium levels of the WHO-5, but differential test functioning increased at more extreme levels. The current study has no external criterion (e.g., structured clinical interviews) to assess sensitivity and specificity of the WHO-5 as a depression screening-tool. The WHO-5 is a psychometrically sound measure. However, large-scale cross-cultural studies should employ a latent variable modeling approach that accounts for non-invariant parameters across countries (e.g., alignment). [less ▲]

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See detailRoma (2018) d’Alfonso Cuaron : “C’est seulement l’eau qui révèle la verité dans ce film”
Weber, Jean-Marie UL

Scientific Conference (2021, July 13)

Des vagues qui nous font jouir et qui nous apprennent à désirer Depuis ses débuts le cinéma semble l’art le plus apte à chercher, du côté de l’étrangeté, de l’indicible, de l’inconscient. C’est le « divan ... [more ▼]

Des vagues qui nous font jouir et qui nous apprennent à désirer Depuis ses débuts le cinéma semble l’art le plus apte à chercher, du côté de l’étrangeté, de l’indicible, de l’inconscient. C’est le « divan du pauvre », nous dit Guattari. En tout cas il est subversif comme la psychanalyse. Selon Slavoj Zizek il constitue un dispositif qui nous fait jouir et un lieu pédagogique qui nous apprend à désirer. Notre propos est de montrer à travers des extraits des films comme « Persona » de Bergman, « Breaking the Waves » de Lars von Trier, Silence de Scorsese , et « Les Quatre Cents Coups » de Truffaut, comment l’artiste nous confronte avec le réel et avec le fait qu’il n’y a plus de grand Autre. Ces scènes se jouent au bord de la mer, de l’étrangeté, finalement du traumatique. Touchés par la violence des vagues et la force du pulsionnel nous sommes confrontés avec notre regard, notre jouissance et notre désir. C’est en tant que « parlêtre » (Lacan), et plus spécifiquement en tant qu’être pulsionnel que nous nous rencontrons à travers de telles scènes. C’est finalement notre implication dans le film qui est questionnée dans notre intervention. [less ▲]

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See detailL'épopée de l'eau : à propos des Lusiades de Camões
Erchadi, Armand UL

Scientific Conference (2021, July 12)

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See detailQuelles solutions face à l’impossibilité de former des paires de tandems ?
Lejot, Eve UL; Molostoff, Leslie UL

Scientific Conference (2021, July 12)

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See detailDe Rosalie Vetch et Paul Claudel à Ysé et Mesa dans Partage de midi : la question de « l’acteur-passeur »
Deregnoncourt, Marine UL

Scientific Conference (2021, July 09)

Soit cette affirmation de l’actrice franco-britannique Marina Hands relative au rôle d’Ysé dans Partage de midi de Paul Claudel : […] en interprétant […] Rosalie Vetch qui était le grand amour de Paul ... [more ▼]

Soit cette affirmation de l’actrice franco-britannique Marina Hands relative au rôle d’Ysé dans Partage de midi de Paul Claudel : […] en interprétant […] Rosalie Vetch qui était le grand amour de Paul Claudel et dont il parle dans la pièce : c’est grâce à Ysé que j’ai commencé à me dire que les personnages étaient des personnes, qu’il n’y avait pas de personnages. […] J’ai appris qu’interpréter n’était plus interpréter et jouer. […] C’est très réel ce que j’ai vécu avec Ysé [...] Les personnages sont des personnes. J’imagine qu’ils sont vivants [...] et qu’ils nous empruntent, nous, les acteurs pour revivre encore un peu et redire tout ce qu’ils ont sur le cœur […]. Par le biais d’une communication divisée en deux parties, dont les intitulés sont les suivants : 1. Des Lettres à Ysé à Partage de midi : porosité entre réalité et fiction 2. « L’acteur-passeur » : définition, enjeux et implications nous envisagerons cette ligne ténue existant entre la réalité et la fiction, particulièrement prégnante dans le cas du drame claudélien Partage de midi, sur laquelle « l’acteur-passeur » tente de se tenir en équilibre. C’est avec cette approche que nous souhaitons apporter humblement notre pierre à l’édifice de ces journées doctorales organisées par le LOGOS. Pour ce faire, nous commencerons, tout d’abord, notre exposé par des extraits choisis des échanges épistolaires nourris entre Rosalie Vetch et Paul Claudel . Cette correspondance singulière a fait l’objet d’un séminaire méthodologique à destination des doctorants, supervisé par Madame Julia Gros de Gasquet, le jeudi 18 février 2021 (Sorbonne-Nouvelle, Paris 3), auquel nous avons participé. Nous entendons reprendre à notre compte les propos de l’enseignante en vue de démontrer à quel point les lettres contiennent la pièce de théâtre précitée et inversement. Ensuite, forte de cette analyse comparée préalable, nous verrons que les acteurs, dotés d’une voix et d’un corps, ont pleinement leur place dans l’équation précédemment esquissée, en leur qualité de passeurs des sentiments et des émotions des personnes (Rosalie Vetch et Paul Claudel) - personnages (Ysé et Mesa). [less ▲]

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See detailPanel Organiser: Meeting the Editors: De Gruyter Book Series 'Migrations in History'
Venken, Machteld UL

Scientific Conference (2021, July 09)

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See detailInteractive Narratives and Transmedia Storytelling: An Insight on Digital Exhibitions
Camarda, Sandra UL

Scientific Conference (2021, July 09)

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See detailRepoliticising Investment Disputes: Is it Time?
Garcia Olmedo, Javier UL

Scientific Conference (2021, July 09)

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See detailOn the move within themselves – cultural distance and negotiation processes of cultural belonging
Murdock, Elke UL; Gales, Sissy

Scientific Conference (2021, July 08)

In a boundary crossing world, having exposure to multiple cultures is becoming norm rather than exception. Children of migrants and children born into mixed national families grow up with more than one ... [more ▼]

In a boundary crossing world, having exposure to multiple cultures is becoming norm rather than exception. Children of migrants and children born into mixed national families grow up with more than one cultural point of reference from birth. In the growing body of literature on bi- and multiculturalism different models of cultural acquisition are described, but still little is known about how the negotiation process takes place and what factors facilitate resolution and well-being. The present study builds on a recent theoretical framework on multicultural identity integration developed by Yampolsky et al. and investigates the role of cultural distance in the negotiation process for cultural belonging. For the present study, we conducted semi-structured interviews with eight young women (Mage = 22.6). All grew up in Germany, yet each had a very different other cultural background ranging from Chile, Columbia, France, Ghana, Hungary, Luxembourg, Russia to Sri Lanka. We asked participants about their sense of belonging, perceived similarities and differences between their cultural influences and their way of positioning themselves within these. Each interview was complemented by two visual exercises illustrating the sense of belonging. The results show that all participants engaged in active negotiation processes and arrived at very different solutions in terms of belonging. The cultural integration process depends on a multitude of factors – cultural distance being one, but parents playing an important role. The findings will be discussed in light of current acculturation models. Explanations will be provided with special focus on implications for migration and acculturation research. [less ▲]

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See detailSymposium: Crossing borders – feeling connected? An exploration of drivers influencing the development of a sense of belonging in the receiving society
Murdock, Elke UL; Albert, Isabelle UL; Decieux, Jean Philippe Pierre UL et al

Scientific Conference (2021, July 08)

Migrants face the complex task of establishing bonds with the receiving society. The development of a sense of belonging is linked to subjective wellbeing. The present panel investigates factors ... [more ▼]

Migrants face the complex task of establishing bonds with the receiving society. The development of a sense of belonging is linked to subjective wellbeing. The present panel investigates factors influencing the development of a sense of belonging. It brings together researchers from four different countries, applying different methodological approaches examining the development of belonging among different migrant groups. Jean Décieux explores the role of cultural distance in the host country adjustment process. Suggesting a multidimensional conceptualization of cultural distance, he presents findings based on recently migrated German nationals (N = 2856) drawn from the German Emigration and Remigration Panel Study (GERPS). The role of cultural distance in negotiating belonging among young migrant women growing up in Germany is the subject of Elke Murdock’s qualitative study. Results point to the important role of parents in the process. How parents’ commitment or lack of commitment affects their children’s construction of their sense of belonging is the focus of Anna Gruszczynska’s qualitative study among immigrant youth in the UK. She shows the fluctuating nature of the pursuit of belonging in time and space. Gry Paulgaard focuses on immigrants arriving in the rural space of Northern Norway. The project explores everyday life practices of refugees taking the materiality of a place as a starting point, acknowledging the interdependency between the social and material contexts for practice. Finally, Isabelle Albert investigates practices by older migrants living in multicultural Luxembourg, their engagement or otherwise in social practices and how this impacts on their sense of belonging. [less ▲]

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See detailVulnerability in the context of migration: a critical assessment of its conceptualizations and uses
Gilodi, Amalia UL; Albert, Isabelle UL; Nienaber, Birte UL

Scientific Conference (2021, July 07)

The notions of ‘vulnerability’ and ‘vulnerable group’ have increasingly gained prominence in academic literature, policymaking, humanitarian debates and everyday discourses on migration and asylum. Its ... [more ▼]

The notions of ‘vulnerability’ and ‘vulnerable group’ have increasingly gained prominence in academic literature, policymaking, humanitarian debates and everyday discourses on migration and asylum. Its popularity, not limited to this field, has often led academics and practitioners to use ‘vulnerability’ as a self-explanatory condition or phenomenon. However, vulnerability is neither conceptually straight-forward nor politically and morally neutral. Multiple definitions and operationalizations of vulnerability exist across and within different fields of research and practice, without a common and systematic understanding of the concept. The notion of vulnerability can also be instrumentilised as a tool for discrimination, stigmatization, control, exclusion or even reduction of humanitarian assistance, when access to protection is restricted to ‘the most vulnerable’. In the context of the H2020 project MIMY (n°870700), this paper examines the multiplicities and hidden pitfalls behind different conceptualizations and uses of vulnerability and critically reflects on their implication for the study and governance of migration. By unpacking this concept, we hope to highlight both limitations and opportunities enclosed in the notion of vulnerability and encourage migration scholars to understand, address and take a stand before its complexities. Based on these considerations, a multilevel conceptual model of vulnerability in the specific context of migration is proposed. The model aims to capture several types and understandings of vulnerability and how these are (re)produced at different levels and by different actors, including migrants themselves. Particular attention is paid to migrants’ biographical and psychological experiences of vulnerability and how policy and political frameworks may affect them. [less ▲]

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See detailHistoricizing Media and Communication Concepts of the Digital Age: Global Governance
Musiani, Francesca; Schafer, Valerie UL

Scientific Conference (2021, July 02)

History is relevant for the concept of global governance for at least two reasons: to historicize the concept in itself through the Internet/digital age (the evolution and enrichment of the notion in the ... [more ▼]

History is relevant for the concept of global governance for at least two reasons: to historicize the concept in itself through the Internet/digital age (the evolution and enrichment of the notion in the past 30 years, with key turning points such as the creation of ICANN and WSIS) and to flesh out continuities through time with other “global media” or “global issues,” such as international standardization, multi-stakeholderism and communication rights. [less ▲]

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See detailWeb archiving of the COVID crisis in Europe : Close reading's challenges
Schafer, Valerie UL

Scientific Conference (2021, July 02)

The second part of this panel focuses on the methodologies and research approaches at stake when scholars face such rich but also heterogeneous collections: Susan Aasman (University of Groningen, The ... [more ▼]

The second part of this panel focuses on the methodologies and research approaches at stake when scholars face such rich but also heterogeneous collections: Susan Aasman (University of Groningen, The Netherlands), Karin de Wild (Leiden University, The Netherlands) and Nicola Bingham will provide feedback on a very concrete experiment that the working group is conducting through a Datathon based on metadata and derived data. This distant reading approach is complemented by a more qualitative approach, which also raises challenges, as Valérie Schafer will explain. The presentation of several concrete research topics will further demonstrate the methodological challenges at stake. [less ▲]

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See detail"Getting on the same page" - How participants' reading aloud from an interactive tabletop facilitates joint game participation
Heuser, Svenja UL; Arend, Béatrice UL; Sunnen, Patrick UL

Scientific Conference (2021, July 01)

This paper addresses how adult participants in a multiparty serious game-activity (ORBIT project, see Sunnen et al. 2018) at an interactive tabletop (ITT) use reading aloud (Heuser et al. 2020) to co ... [more ▼]

This paper addresses how adult participants in a multiparty serious game-activity (ORBIT project, see Sunnen et al. 2018) at an interactive tabletop (ITT) use reading aloud (Heuser et al. 2020) to co-facilitate joint accessibility to interactionally relevant text information about the unfamiliar game they are engaging in. These so called ‘written informings’ displayed on the horizontal interface are designed to serve as a game-manual. Since the activity is new to the participants, they rely on these informings in order to jointly accomplish the game. We consider participants’ reading aloud as an interactional practice for participating in the interaction and getting each other ‘on the same page’. By verbalizing and thereby also emphasizing specific (parts of the) text at a specific point in the interaction, participants make written informings from the ITT interactionally relevant and mutually accessible within the group. [less ▲]

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See detailKnowledge assessment with concept maps: Opportunities and challenges
Rohles, Björn UL; Koenig, Vincent UL; Fischbach, Antoine UL et al

Scientific Conference (2021, July)

21st-century digital society poses tremendous challenges for education and assessment. Learners have to understand the complex relations between diverse topics and learn how to learn their entire lives ... [more ▼]

21st-century digital society poses tremendous challenges for education and assessment. Learners have to understand the complex relations between diverse topics and learn how to learn their entire lives. Concept mapping is a promising approach to address these issues. It is a method that uses concepts connected by labeled links to visualize a semantic network of knowledge. Concept mapping is predestined for a digital approach because it allows for easy interactive editing, innovative test items, and incorporation of multimodal information. Concept mapping is available for summative and formative assessment and, thus, provides the opportunity to become a vital part of modern education. The biggest advantage of concept mapping (i.e., a comprehensive and yet comprehensible visualization of complex relations) also represents the biggest challenge when it comes to assessment with - and scoring of - concept maps. The first challenge is the enormous amount of indicators used for scoring concept maps in assessment. A second challenge comes from the fact that educators using concept mapping in their assessment have to understand and interpret the indicators that are used in scoring concept maps. This presentation reports on a Ph.D. project that investigates digital concept mapping in the context of knowledge assessment from a user experience perspective. The results are based on, first, a comprehensive international systematic literature review on concept map scoring, and second, three empirical studies covering the needs and experiences of learners and educators in concept mapping. It presents key findings from the iterative user experience design of a concept mapping tool as part of the online assessment platform OASYS, an overview of indicators used in concept map scoring, and research opportunities in knowledge assessment with concept maps. Finally, it stresses the value that user experience design brings to knowledge assessment with concept maps. [less ▲]

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See detailThe factor structure of mathematical abilities in Luxembourg’s national school monitoring: Its stability over elementary school and relations to, gender, language background, and SES
Sonnleitner, Philipp UL; Hornung, Caroline UL

Scientific Conference (2021, July)

Mathematics skills are the fundament of modern societies, especially those based on a knowledge-economy. The age of digitalization renders mathematics education even more crucial since it builds the ... [more ▼]

Mathematics skills are the fundament of modern societies, especially those based on a knowledge-economy. The age of digitalization renders mathematics education even more crucial since it builds the starting point for all STEM-related fields. Consequently, mathematics is at the core of numerous educational Large-Scale Assessments on international (e.g. PISA, TIMSS) or national level (e.g. NAEP, NEPS, SNSA). Although the underlying test development frameworks are most often multi-dimensional or hierarchical, psychometric analyses usually focus on a single latent factor that represents a rather vague general mathematical ability. How and to what extent this simplification affects educational studies that rely on these data remains unclear. The present study takes Luxembourg’s national school monitoring program ÉpStan as example to tackle this question and clarify the consequences. ÉpStan’s mathematics test is conducted annually in elementary school Grades 1, 3, and 5 and is comprised of around 50 to 70 items. Since ÉpStan captures competencies of all students biyearly, each analysis will be based on the full cohort (n > 5000). First, we will investigate whether the curriculum-based test framework for mathematics can psychometrically be represented in a related (multi-dimensional) confirmatory factor model including the domains numbers & operations and space & form. This will be done in Grades 1, 3, and 5. Second, we will study the factor model’s cross-sectional stability within each Grade (over three consecutive years) and longitudinal stability between Grades. Finally, we will study the factors’ relations to students’ cognitive and sociodemographic characteristics and compare the results with correlations found using the most widely used one-dimensional model of mathematical abilities. Based on the results, we will discuss implications not only for educational studies that often uncritically make use of large-scale assessment data, but also highlight the consequences for group-level feedback that is based on such assessments. [less ▲]

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See detailDigging into Digital Roots: introduction
Ribeiro, Nelson; Schafer, Valerie UL

Scientific Conference (2021, July)

Presentation of the project at stake (a collective book whose idea was born within the ECREA Communication History Section), its approach and theoretical framework.

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See detailSmall in size, great in significance: conspicilla and perspicilla in the visual arts of the Low Countries around 1600
Koeleman, Floor UL

Scientific Conference (2021, July)

A largely forgotten constcamer painting from the early seventeenth century shows eyeglasses and a telescope in close proximity. The inclusion of these extensions of sight in The Five Senses of the Musée ... [more ▼]

A largely forgotten constcamer painting from the early seventeenth century shows eyeglasses and a telescope in close proximity. The inclusion of these extensions of sight in The Five Senses of the Musée Magnin (Dijon) seems to allude to the implicit link between the two. As tools to observe with and through, these instruments visualize the limits of human perception and the ability to alter the scale of the visible world. The Five Senses was created in Antwerp around the same time the telescope first appeared in textual sources, namely 1608. However, the optical instrument is likely to have existed for years by then. This paper investigates if any references to the telescope in the visual arts predate the first written evidence of its invention. For artists the early telescope was probably not that challenging an object to represent. The exterior, a simple tube characterized by a diaphragm, housed two lenses made by the same glass industry that manufactured eyeglasses. This paper takes a closer look at the imagery of eyeglasses and telescopes, depicted in the visual arts of the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries. The meaning assigned to these instruments can be inferred from the context in which they are presented and their relative scale. Together eyeglasses and telescopes feature prominently in constcamer paintings dedicated to visual perception, understood both physically and metaphysically. While the exact date of creation remains subject to debate, The Five Senses probably contains the earliest known depiction of a telescope – true to scale. [less ▲]

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