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See detailMusique à vent pendant l'occupation nazie au Luxembourg de 1940 à 1944
Sagrillo, Damien François UL

Scientific Conference (2022, April 09)

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See detailThe Instrumental Turn of Nationality: An Investment Law Perspective
Garcia Olmedo, Javier UL

Scientific Conference (2022, April 08)

This workshop takes a holistic approach to examine the role and future of nationality in a globalised world, taking citizenship by investment (CBI) schemes as a point of departure. It explores the ... [more ▼]

This workshop takes a holistic approach to examine the role and future of nationality in a globalised world, taking citizenship by investment (CBI) schemes as a point of departure. It explores the implications and impacts of CBI schemes, followed by a discussion on the instrumental turn of nationality in different areas, including EU law, private international law, human rights law, immigration law, diplomatic protection and international investment law. [less ▲]

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See detailThe History of Cross-Border Cooperation: some historiographical remarks
Brüll, Christoph UL

Scientific Conference (2022, March 24)

What is Cross-Border Cooperation? How to write the History of Cross-Border Cooperation? The contribution explores the historiography in the field and presents two case studies (Euregio Meuse-Rhine and ... [more ▼]

What is Cross-Border Cooperation? How to write the History of Cross-Border Cooperation? The contribution explores the historiography in the field and presents two case studies (Euregio Meuse-Rhine and Europäische Vereinigung Eifel-Ardennen). It focusses on the sources that could be used for such a history and on difficulties regarding archival research. [less ▲]

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See detailSeeking A Balanced Investment Protocol in the African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCTA)
Garcia Olmedo, Javier UL

Scientific Conference (2022, March 21)

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See detailLa relecture entre pairs : un levier de motivation de la pratique de l’écrit
Lejot, Eve UL

Scientific Conference (2022, March 17)

Les enseignants corrigent et donnent des conseils d’amélioration à leurs apprenants, mais les commentaires des enseignants sont parfois mal compris (Cole, Coats, Lentell 1986 ; Smith 1997), alors que la ... [more ▼]

Les enseignants corrigent et donnent des conseils d’amélioration à leurs apprenants, mais les commentaires des enseignants sont parfois mal compris (Cole, Coats, Lentell 1986 ; Smith 1997), alors que la relecture entre pairs apporte un échange avec moins de pression (Lejot 2017). Cet échange se fait à un niveau de hiérarchie égal et facilite la négociation de sens des éléments du texte. Néanmoins, certains élèves pointent le manque de qualification des pairs pour remplacer les commentaires des professeurs dans l’enseignement supérieur (Rollinson 2005). Cette démarche trouve toute sa force pour les doctorants. Mis en place sur un semestre, ce système fermé de relecture et de commentaires reçus en boucle est bénéfique et motivant pour ces derniers. Dans les ateliers interdisciplinaires sur les compétences transversales et en l'occurrence celle de l'écrit académique, les doctorants soulignent l’énergie, la réflexion commune et le soutien que leur a apporté la relecture de texte d'un pair et d'être eux-mêmes relus (Lejot 2017). Relire est formateur et être compris par des chercheurs pairs fait faire un grand pas en termes de cohérence d'écriture et d'argumentation bien articulée à ces groupes des écoles doctorales. [less ▲]

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See detailHerausforderungen und Zukunftsperspektiven des Sachunterrichts im Fokus von Migration und Mehrsprachigkeit
Andersen, Katja Natalie UL; Peschel, Markus; Neuböck-Hubinger, Brigitte

Scientific Conference (2022, March 11)

Ein zukunftsfähiger Sachunterricht nimmt auf lebensweltliche Erfahrungen, (Fach)Sprache und aktuelle Entwicklungen zu Migration und Mehrsprachigkeit Bezug (Kahlert 2016). Dazu bedarf es einer ... [more ▼]

Ein zukunftsfähiger Sachunterricht nimmt auf lebensweltliche Erfahrungen, (Fach)Sprache und aktuelle Entwicklungen zu Migration und Mehrsprachigkeit Bezug (Kahlert 2016). Dazu bedarf es einer partizipativen Zusammenführung aller Wissens- und Erfahrungsbereiche im Klassenraum (vgl. Stoltenberg 2004). Das Symposium diskutiert Zukunftsperspektiven für die Entwicklung und Umsetzung von Aufgabenstellungen im Sachunterricht, dargestellt anhand des Themenkomplexes „Schwimmen und Sinken“. Aus unterschiedlichen Blickwinkeln wird der Frage nachgegangen, wie zukünftig Aufgaben gestaltet sein müssen, um eine sprachlich heterogener werdende Schülerschaft in der aktiven Auseinandersetzung mit der Sache zu unterstützen. Ausgehend von einer Klärung der fach-sprachlichen Begrifflichkeiten und der fachlichen Anschlussfähigkeit von Phänomenen und Konzepten zum Thema werden Ergebnisse erster explorativer Untersuchungen entsprechender Aufgaben vorgestellt und aus fachlicher und sprachlicher Sicht diskutiert. Auf der Planungsebene wird die Text-Bild-Kommunikation in Schulbuchaufgaben als Ausgangspunkt gewählt, um den Prozess der didaktischen Rekonstruktion von Aufgaben zu erörtern. Auf der Umsetzungsebene wird sich mit dem Problem mangelnder fachinhaltlicher und -methodischer Kompetenzen der Lehrkräfte auseinandergesetzt, um Forderungen für die Qualifizierung zu formulieren – auch im Hinblick auf die wachsende Mehrsprachigkeit der Schüler*innen. Ziel des Symposiums ist es, zukünftige Entwicklungsfelder mit Blick auf Aufgaben und Lehrer*innenbildung – am Beispiel des Themas „Schwimmen und Sinken“ – aufzuzeigen und vor dem Hintergrund aktueller Entwicklungen zu diskutieren. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Digital Archive and the Politics of Digitisation
Zaagsma, Gerben UL

Scientific Conference (2022, March 10)

In this paper I will discuss key parameters of the politics of digitisation within a broader historical and global context with the aim to encourage further debate on its implications for historical ... [more ▼]

In this paper I will discuss key parameters of the politics of digitisation within a broader historical and global context with the aim to encourage further debate on its implications for historical research. In the first part, I will outline the global dimensions of the politics of digital cultural heritage with a particular focus on developments within and between Europe and Africa, framed within the broader context of the politics of heritage and its preservation and recent debates about ‘postcolonial digital humanities’. In the second part, I will discuss the history and current state of digitisation in Europe and Africa. Here I will partly draw upon the web archive of the IFLA/Unesco Directory of Digitised Library Collections (2002-2006) and recent global and European digitisation surveys. The paper will conclude by highlighting the paradoxical situation we currently face with regard to digitisation and the state of ‘memory’ in both the global North and South. [less ▲]

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See detailDie Bedeutung der Schule für Gesundheit und Wohlbe- finden von Schülerinnen und Schülern: Ergebnisse der HBSC Surveys 2018 in Luxemburg
van Duin, Claire UL; Heinz, Andreas UL; Willems, Helmut Erich UL

Scientific Conference (2022, March 10)

Neben der Familie ist die Schule für Kinder und Jugendliche ein wichtiges Umfeld. Hier verbringen sie einen großen Teil des Tages, hier treffen sie ihre Freunde, und ihre schulischen Leistungen bestimmen ... [more ▼]

Neben der Familie ist die Schule für Kinder und Jugendliche ein wichtiges Umfeld. Hier verbringen sie einen großen Teil des Tages, hier treffen sie ihre Freunde, und ihre schulischen Leistungen bestimmen wesentlich mit, welchen beruflichen Weg sie später einschlagen können. Dementsprechend hat die Schule als sozialer Kontext einen großen Einfluss auch auf das Wohlbefinden und gesundheitliche Befindlichkeiten der Schüler. Positive schulische Erfahrungen können eine Ressource für Wohlbefinden sein, negative Erfahrungen können die psychische und physische Gesundheit beeinträchtigen. Da es sich bei HBSC um eine Befragung handelt, die in der Schule durchgeführt wird und da die Schule ein wichtiges soziales Umfeld ist, werden auch mehrere Fragen zur Schule gestellt. Im Vortrag werden zunächst aktuelle Ergebnisse aus Luxemburg zum schulischen Kontext präsentiert und international eingeordnet. So wird schon seit mehreren Befragungen erhoben, ob die Schüler die Schule mögen, ob sie sich durch die Schularbeit gestresst fühlen und wie sie die Beziehungen zu ihren Klassenkameraden und den Lehrern bewerten und ob sie viel auf der Ebene der Klasse und der Schule mitbestimmen können. In einem zweiten Schritt wird mit Hilfe einer Clusteranalyse untersucht, ob es typische Konstellationen gibt, d. h. Gruppen von Schülern, die sich in ihren Schulerfahrungen möglichst stark ähneln. Aus der HBSC-Studie ist bekannt, dass es zahlreiche Zusammenhänge zwischen diesen Erfahrungen gibt. Wenn solche kohärenten Gruppen identifiziert werden können, dann kann eine darauf basierende Typologie helfen, die komplexen Zusammenhänge zwischen zahlreichen Variablen in komprimierter Form darzustellen. Im konkreten Fall wurden 4 schulbezogene Einstellungen und Bewertungen dazu genutzt, um solche Gruppen zu identifizieren. Diese Gruppen/Cluster werden zunächst anhand der Variablen beschrieben, die zur Gruppenbildung genutzt wurden. Die Analyse zeigt, dass es bezüglich der Schulerfahrungen fünf in sich homogene Cluster gibt. Cluster 1, in dem sich der größte Anteil der Schüler (28.8%) befindet, ist durch allgemein positive Schulerfahrungen gekennzeichnet. Die Schüler in dieser Gruppe mögen die Schule, sie berichten von einem guten Klassenklima und sie geben an, kaum durch die Schularbeit gestresst zu sein. Darüber hinaus berichten diese Schüler über ein gutes Verhältnis zu ihren Lehrern. Cluster 2 ist durch Schüler gekennzeichnet, deren Schulerfahrungen überwiegend positiv sind (sie mögen die Schule und sie haben ein gutes Verhältnis zu den Mitschülern und Lehrern), die sich aber durch die Schularbeit gestresst fühlen, was sich negativ auf ihr allgemeines Wohlbefinden auswirkt. Cluster 3 zeichnet sich durch Schüler aus, die über ein geringes Maß an Stress berichten und insgesamt durchschnittliche Werte für die schulbezogenen Variablen wie Beziehungen zu ihrem Lehrer und das Klassenklima aufweisen. In Cluster 4 befinden sich die Schüler, die viel Schulstress erfahren, relativ schlechte Beziehungen zu ihren Lehrern haben und die Schule im Allgemeinen nicht mögen. Allerdings berichten diese Schüler von einem guten Klassenklima. Dieses Cluster umfasst 14.7% der Schüler und ist damit das kleinste Cluster. Cluster 5 besteht aus Schülern mit durchweg negativen Schulerfahrungen und ist damit das Gegenteil von Cluster 1. Die Schüler in Cluster 5 haben viel Schulstress, sind nicht gerne in der Schule und berichten von schlechteren Beziehungen zu ihren Lehrern und Mitschülern im Vergleich zu den Schülern in den anderen Clustern. Die weitere Beschreibung der Cluster mit Hilfe von soziodemografischen Variablen, anderen schulbezogenen Variablen und gesundheitsbezogenen Ergebnisvariablen wird zeigen, dass die gefundenen Gruppen in sich kohärent sind bezüglich der schulbezogenen Variablen, und dass sie zudem mit gesundheitsbezogenen und mit soziodemografischen Variablen korrelieren. [less ▲]

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See detailSubjektives Wohlbefinden in der 5. und 9. Schulklasse: gibt es einen Zusammenhang mit dem Bildungsweg und der schulischen Leistung?
Pit-Ten Cate, Ineke UL; Esch, Pascale UL; Keller, Ulrich UL et al

Scientific Conference (2022, March 09)

Der Bildungsauftrag unserer heutigen Wissensgesellschaft vereint ein vielseitiges Spektrum an Kompetenzen, die den Schüler*innen vermittelt werden sollen. Die Lernziele beinhalten nicht nur akademischen ... [more ▼]

Der Bildungsauftrag unserer heutigen Wissensgesellschaft vereint ein vielseitiges Spektrum an Kompetenzen, die den Schüler*innen vermittelt werden sollen. Die Lernziele beinhalten nicht nur akademischen Erfolg, sondern auch schulisches Wohlbefinden. In der Bildungsforschung haben affektive und sozio-emotionale Faktoren sowie deren Einfluss auf das Erreichen von Lernzielen über die letzten Jahrzehnte an Interesse gewonnen (s.a. Hascher et al., 2018). Subjektives Wohlbefinden (SWB) ist ein komplexes, multidimensionales Phänomen, welches emotionale, soziale und kognitive Facetten umfasst (Hascher & Edlinger, 2009). Das SWB wird als Grundlage für erfolgreiches Lernen betrachtet (Hascher & Hagenauer, 2011), wobei der Zusammenhang je nach Entwicklungsstadium der Schüler*innen variieren kann. Ergebnisse einer Metaanalyse (Bücker et al., 2018) zeigten eine statistisch signifikante mittlere Effektstärke für den Zusammenhang zwischen SWB und Leistung, wobei diese Ergebnisse über verschiedene Ebenen soziodemografischer Merkmale, SWB-Domäne und Indikatoren der Leistung hinweg stabil waren. Außerdem zeigten Gutman und Voraus (2012) in einer längsschnittlichen Studie mit einer Kohorte von Schüler*innen zwischen 7 und 13 Jahren, schwache bis mittlere Korrelationen zwischen unterschiedlichen Dimensionen des Wohlbefindens und aktueller sowie späterer akademischer Leistung. In dieser Studie haben wir den Zusammenhang zwischen verschiedenen Dimensionen des SWB und standardisierten Kompetenztestergebnissen zu verschiedenen Zeitpunkten (5. und 9. Schulkasse) untersucht. Ein erstes Ziel bestand darin, die Unterschiede des Wohlbefindens in Bezug auf das Entwicklungsstadium zu untersuchen, wobei wir auch den Einfluss von Klassenwiederholung und Schulzweig betrachteten. Ein weiteres Ziel der Studie bestand darin, den Zusammenhang zwischen SWB und Leistung unter Berücksichtigung sozio-demografischer Variablen zu ermitteln. Die Ergebnisse basieren auf den Daten der gesamte Kohorte von Fünft- und Neuntklässler*innen (N=5159 bzw. N=6279), die im Rahmen des nationalen Schulmonitoring (Luxembourg School Monitoring Programm „Épreuves Standardisées“; Martin et al., 2015) im November 2018 in Luxemburg erhoben wurden. Im Rahmen dieser Erhebung wurden sowohl standardisierte Schulleistungstests als auch ein Fragebogen zu soziodemographischen und sozio-emotionalen Aspekten durchgeführt. Vier Domäne des SWB wurden erfasst: Selbstkonzept, Schulangst, soziale- sowie emotionale Inklusion. Die standardisierten Leistungstests umfassten Leseverstehen in Deutsch und Französisch sowie Mathematik. Zusätzlich wurden über einen Schüler- oder Elternfragebogen weitere sozio-demographische Merkmale erfasst. Der Zusammenhang zwischen SWB und Entwicklungsstadium (Schulklasse) unter Einbeziehung von Klassenwiederholung und Schulzweig wurde mittels zwei mixed model Analysen überprüft. Die Ergebnisse zeigten, dass Schüler*innen in der 5. Klasse höhere Werte von SWB angaben als Schüler*innen in der 9. Klasse, F(8,121164)=180.61, p<.001. Zusätzlich wurde das SWB negativ beeinflusst durch Klassenwiederholung, F(8, 63989)=17.75, p<.001. Neuntklässler*innen in anspruchsvolleren Schulzweigen gaben höhere Werte von SWB an als Schüler*innen in niedrigeren Schulzweigen, F(2,40219)=15.71, p<001. Die Schulleistung wurde über eine schrittweise Regression vorhergesagt: zunächst wurden sozio-demographische Hintergrundvariable (Geschlecht, Migrationshintergrund, HISEI der Eltern) dem Model hinzugefügt und, in einem zweiten Schritt, Indikatoren des SWB. Die Ergebnisse zeigten, dass in der 5. Klasse 13% und in der 9. Klasse 19% der Varianz in der Schulleistung durch soziodemografische Variablen vorausgesagt werden kann. Sowohl für Fünft- als auch für Neuntklässler*innen, erklärten die Dimensionen des SWB zusätzliche 6% bzw. 4% der Varianz. Die Ergebnisse dieser Studie zeigten, dass Entwicklungsstadium, Klassenwiederholung und Schulzweig einen Einfluß auf das SWB der Schüler*innen haben. Darüber hinaus zeigten die Ergebnisse, dass das SWB über soziodemografische Merkmale hinaus zur Erklärung der schulischen Leistung beiträgt. In Anbetracht ihrer Ergebnisse, kann diese Studie auch die Diskussion um Klassenwiederholung als pädagogische Intervention und um die Praxis der Aufgliederung von Schüler*innen nach Leistungsniveau innerhalb und zwischen Schulformen bereichern. Während sich die meisten Studien zu den Effekten dieser Interventionen auf die schulische Leistung konzentrierten, zeigt die vorliegende Studie, dass diese Maßnahmen auch das SWB betreffen. Weitere (längsschnittliche) Studien könnten darauf eingehen, inwieweit es letztendlich zu einem kumulativen Effekt auf die schulische Leistung kommen kann oder ob und inwiefern das SWB den Zusammenhang zwischen diesen Faktoren und der schulischen Leistung beeinflussen kann. [less ▲]

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See detailStereotypbasierte Erwartungen und Lehrer*innenverhalten: Auswirkungen eines diagnostischen Etiketts auf die Klassenführung und die Beziehung zwischen Lehrperson und Schüler*innen.
Glock, Sabine UL; Pit-Ten Cate, Ineke UL

Scientific Conference (2022, March 09)

Theoretischer Hintergrund Neben der allgemeinen und domänenspezifischen Kompetenz von Lehrkräften bestimmen die Klassenführung und die Beziehung zwischen Lehrpersonen und Schüler*innen den Lernerfolg der ... [more ▼]

Theoretischer Hintergrund Neben der allgemeinen und domänenspezifischen Kompetenz von Lehrkräften bestimmen die Klassenführung und die Beziehung zwischen Lehrpersonen und Schüler*innen den Lernerfolg der Schüler*innen (Korpershoek et al., 2016). Die Klassenführung umfasst Strategien, die durchgeführt werden, um Ordnung zu schaffen (Doyle, 2006) und die aktive Arbeitszeit zu maximieren (Ophardt & Thiel, 2013), wobei eine Kombination von präventiven und intervenierenden Strategien zu einer effektiven Klassenführung beitragen (Little & Akin-Little, 2008). Das Modell des zwischenmenschlichen Lehrer*innenverhaltens (Wubbels et al., 2006) klassifiziert das Verhalten von Lehrkräften in die zwei Dimensionen Einfluss und Nähe, wobei eine Kombination aus autoritärem und tolerantem Verhalten als optimal angesehen wird (Wubbels & Brekelmans, 2005). Eine effektive Klassenführung und das Verständnis der Lehrkräfte für Faktoren im Zusammenhang mit dem Externalisierungs- und Internalisierungsverhalten von Schüler*innen können im Hinblick auf die Umsetzung inklusiver Bildung besonders relevant sein. Die von Lehrer*innen gewählten Strategien können jedoch durch ihre Überzeugungen und Erwartungen an bestimmte Gruppen von Schüler*innen beeinflusst werden (Bibou-Nakou et al., 2000), die mit Stereotypen in Verbindung stehen. Diese Stereotype können durch Etikettierungen aktiviert werden, beispielsweise durch eine Diagnose von sonderpädagogischem Förderbedarf (Hornstra et al., 2010). Solche Diagnosen können die Erwartungen beeinflussen und zu erhöhter Akzeptanz und Toleranz führen, und Lehrer*innen wenden oft unterschiedliche Standards und Strategien an, um auf diese Schüler*innen zu reagieren und sie zu unterstützen (Andreou & Rapti, 2010; Georgiou et al., 2002). Fragestellung Die Studie zielte darauf ab, die Klassenführung und das zwischenmenschliche Lehrer*innenverhalten als Funktion des Schülerverhaltens und einer klinischen Diagnose zu untersuchen. Wir erwarteten erstens, dass die Lehramtsstudierende bei der Konfrontation mit externalisierendem Verhalten im Vergleich zu internalisierendem Verhalten eine strengere Klassenführung und negativeres zwischenmenschliches Verhalten zeigen und zweitens, dass die Lehramtsstudierenden ihre Strategien in Abhängigkeit von einer Diagnose des sonderpädagogischen Förderbedarfs anpassen. Methode An der Studie haben 254 Lehramtsstudierende (143 weiblich) teilgenommen. Die Teilnehmer*innen wurden gebeten, anhand von Schülervignetten eine Bewertung bezüglich einer passenden Klassenführung (Neuenschwander et al., 2003) und eines angemessenen zwischenmenschlichen Lehrer*innenverhaltens abzugeben (Fisher et al., 1995; Wubbels et al., 2006). Die Schülervignetten beschrieben zwei unterschiedliche Schüler mit externalisierende oder internalisierende Verhaltensauffälligkeiten (s.a. Glock, 2016; Glock & Kleen, 2017). Um den Einfluss der Diagnose auf die Antworten der Teilnehmer*innen zu untersuchen, variierten wir systematisch das Vorliegen einer klinischen Diagnose. Daher folgte die Studie einem 2 (Diagnose: ja/nein) x 2 (Verhalten: internalisierend/externalisierend) Zwischensubjekt Design. Ergebnisse und ihre Bedeutung Die Daten zur Klassenführung wurden mit einer 2x2 MANOVA ausgewertet. Die Ergebnisse zeigten signifikanten Haupteffekte für Schülerverhalten und Diagnose, das heißt die angegebenen Klassenführungsstrategien variierten in Abhängigkeit des Schülerverhaltens (externalisierend vs. internalisierend) und Diagnose (ja/nein). Auch der Interaktionseffekt Verhalten x Diagnose war signifikant. Die Ergebnisse zusätzlicher ANOVAs zeigten, dass Lehramtsstudierende als Antwort auf Schüler mit externalisierenden Verhalten strengere Kontrolle (Regeln setzen) und mehr Flexibilität anwenden als auf internalisierendes Verhalten, vor allem wenn die Schüler mit internalisierenden Verhalten eine Diagnose sonderpädagogischen Förderbedarfs haben. Die Angaben zu dem zwischenmenschlichen Verhalten wurden mit einer 2x2 MANOVA analysiert. Auch hier waren die beiden Haupteffekte (Schülerverhalten und Diagnose) und der Interaktionseffekt (Verhalten x Diagnose) signifikant. Zusätzliche ANOVAs zeigten, dass Lehramtsstudierende im Allgemeinen autoritative zwischenmenschliche Verhaltensmuster bevorzugen, die durch Kooperation und eine gewisse Dominanz charakterisiert werden. Insgesamt zeigen die Befunde, dass Lehramtsstudiere ihre Klassenführung und zwischenmenschliches Verhalten an das Schülerverhalten und an eine klinische Diagnose anpassen. Die Lehramtsstudierenden passten ihre Strategien an, wenn Schüler eine klinische Diagnose erhielten, und wurden toleranter und unterstützender für Schüler mit internalisierendem Verhalten, während sie vor allem strengere Kontrolle und Strategien zur Begrenzung störenden (externalisierenden) Schülerverhalten anwendeten, unabhängig von einer Diagnose. Diese Befunde können teilweise auf bestehende Überzeugungen und Erwartungen hinweisen, insbesondere da die Lehramtsstudierende weniger bereit sind, externalisierendes Verhalten zu tolerieren. [less ▲]

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See detailConsent To Shoot – Rethinking The Anti-satellite Weapon Versus Space Debris Dilemma
Graczyk, Rafal UL; Rodrigues de Mendonça Neto, Júlio UL; Volp, Marcus UL

Scientific Conference (2022, March 02)

Space debris, whether caused by anti-satellite weapons or from collisions with defunct vehicles, has become a serious threat to the safe and sustainable use of space. Technologies have been proposed to ... [more ▼]

Space debris, whether caused by anti-satellite weapons or from collisions with defunct vehicles, has become a serious threat to the safe and sustainable use of space. Technologies have been proposed to mitigate this problem by actively removing debris (ADR) by capturing and de-orbiting the targets (e.g., rendezvous operations, tethers, or harpoons) or by indirectly affecting the target’s orbit (e.g., using lasers). However, rather sooner than later, deploying ADR technologies against healthy satellites turns the tools for making space safer into anti-satellite weapons, capable of crippling other nations’ infrastructure. In an attempt to resolve the tool-versus-weapon dilemma, we discuss in this paper technical solutions that involve a paradigm shift in the Concept of Operations, but that also have the potential to avoid political implications and many concerns that currently prevent us from solving the space-debris problem. The solutions we advocate require consensus between involved stakeholders for all critical operations of an ADR system. We show it is technologically possible and, in fact, already well understood how to enforce that such operations can only be performed consensually. We sketch a distributed infrastructure, capable of supporting such operations among all stakeholders, enforcing agreement in international cooperation about where and for how long an ADR system gets activated, what targets it follows and where safety zones and objects are. In this way, stakeholders have to validate every piece of information to remove single points of failures, but more importantly to put the required mutual trust on solid and technologically enforced foundations. [less ▲]

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See detailAre Value-Added Scores Stable Enough for High-Stakes Decisions?
Emslander, Valentin UL; Levy, Jessica UL; Scherer, Ronny et al

Scientific Conference (2022, March)

Theoretical Background: Can we quantify the effectiveness of a teacher or a school with a single number? Researchers in the field of value-added (VA) models may argue just that (e.g., Chetty et al., 2014 ... [more ▼]

Theoretical Background: Can we quantify the effectiveness of a teacher or a school with a single number? Researchers in the field of value-added (VA) models may argue just that (e.g., Chetty et al., 2014; Kane et al., 2013). VA models are widely used for accountability purposes in education and quantify the value a teacher or a school adds to their students’ achievement. For this purpose, these models predict achievement over time and attempt to control for factors that cannot be influenced by schools or teachers (i.e., sociodemographic & sociocultural background). Following this logic, what is left must be due to teacher or school differences (see, e.g., Braun, 2005). To utilize VA models for high-stakes decision-making (e.g., teachers’ tenure, the allocation of funding), these models would need to be highly stable over time. School-level stability over time, however, has hardly been researched at all and the resulting findings are mixed, with some studies indicating high stability of school VA scores over time (Ferrão, 2012; Thomas et al., 2007) and others reporting a lack of stability (e.g., Gorard et al., 2013; Perry, 2016). Furthermore, as there is no consensus on which variables to use as independent or dependent variables in VA models (Everson, 2017; Levy et al., 2019), the stability of VA could vary between different outcome measures (e.g., language or mathematics). If VA models lack stability over time and across outcome measures, their use as the primary information for high-stakes decision-making is in question, and the inferences drawn from them could be compromised. Questions: With these uncertainties in mind, we examine the stability of school VA model scores over time and investigate the differences between language and mathematics achievement as outcome variables. Additionally, we demonstrate the real-life implications of (in)stable VA scores for single schools and point out an alternative, more constructive use of school VA models in educational research. Method: To study the stability of VA scores on school level over time and across outcomes, we drew on a sample of 146 primary schools, using representative longitudinal data from the standardized achievement tests of the Luxembourg School Monitoring Programme (LUCET, 2021). These schools included a heterogeneous and multilingual sample of 7016 students. To determine the stability of VA scores in the subject of mathematics and in languages over time, we based our analysis on two longitudinal datasets (from 2015 to 2017 and from 2017 to 2019, respectively) and generated two VA scores per dataset, one for language and one for mathematics achievement. We further analyzed how many schools displayed stable VA scores in the respective outcomes over two years, and compared the rank correlations of VA scores between language and mathematics achievement as an outcome variable. Results and Their Significance: Only 34-38 % of the schools showed stable VA scores from grade 1 to 3 with moderate rank correlations of r = .37 with language and r = .34 with mathematics achievement. We therefore discourage using VA models as the only information for high-stakes educational decisions. Nonetheless, we argue that VA models could be employed to find genuinely effective teaching or school practices—especially in heterogeneous student populations, such as Luxembourg, in which educational disparities are an important topic already in primary school (Hoffmann et al., 2018). Consequently, we contrast the school climate and instructional quality, which might be a driver of the differences between schools with stable high vs. low VA scores. Literature Braun, H. (2005). Using student progress to evaluate teachers: A primer on value-added models. Educational Testing Service. Chetty, R., Friedman, J. N., & Rockoff, J. E. (2014). Measuring the impacts of teachers I: Evaluating bias in teacher value-added estimates. American Economic Review, 104(9), 2593–2632. https://doi.org/10.1257/aer.104.9.2593 Everson, K. C. (2017). Value-added modeling and educational accountability: Are we answering the real questions? Review of Educational Research, 87(1), 35–70. https://doi.org/10.3102/0034654316637199 Ferrão, M. E. (2012). On the stability of value added indicators. Quality & Quantity, 46(2), 627–637. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11135-010-9417-6 Gorard, S., Hordosy, R., & Siddiqui, N. (2013). How unstable are “school effects” assessed by a value-added technique? International Education Studies, 6(1), 1–9. https://doi.org/10.5539/ies.v6n1p1 Kane, T. J., McCaffrey, D. F., Miller, T., & Staiger, D. O. (2013). Have We Identified Effective Teachers? Validating Measures of Effective Teaching Using Random Assignment. Research Paper. MET Project. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED540959.pdf Levy, J., Brunner, M., Keller, U., & Fischbach, A. (2019). Methodological issues in value-added modeling: An international review from 26 countries. Educational Assessment, Evaluation and Accountability, 31(3), 257–287. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11092-019-09303-w LUCET. (2021). Épreuves Standardisées (ÉpStan). https://epstan.lu Perry, T. (2016). English value-added measures: Examining the limitations of school performance measurement. British Educational Research Journal, 42(6), 1056–1080. https://doi.org/10.1002/berj.3247 Thomas, S., Peng, W. J., & Gray, J. (2007). Modelling patterns of improvement over time: Value added trends in English secondary school performance across ten cohorts. Oxford Review of Education, 33(3), 261–295. https://doi.org/10.1080/03054980701366116 [less ▲]

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See detail“Keeping the lights on” – Maintaining (communication) infrastructures
Krebs, Stefan UL

Scientific Conference (2022, February 24)

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See detailThe delicate balance between expansion, innovation and maintenance of the Luxembourg Telephone Network
Krebs, Stefan UL; Mossop, Rebecca UL

Scientific Conference (2022, February 24)

Since its establishment in 1885, the Luxembourg telephone network was characterised by bottlenecks in network expansion, which were in the course of the 20th century to be remedied by new cables ... [more ▼]

Since its establishment in 1885, the Luxembourg telephone network was characterised by bottlenecks in network expansion, which were in the course of the 20th century to be remedied by new cables (expansion) and new distribution technology (innovation). However, the envisioned expansion was repeatedly slowed down by a lack of trained technical staff and resources. For example, requests for new connections had repeatedly to be rejected and already planned expansion measures had to be postponed. Due to the one-sided focus of government and Luxembourg Post (PTT) administration on network expansion, the maintenance and repair of the network suffered at the same time, so that more frequent defects occurred. At the same time did the repair of defects tie up human and material resources that were then not available for expansion works. The PTT was thus confronted with a constant balancing act between the expansion and modernisation of the network and its maintenance, with the management level prioritising expansion and innovation. The problem was particularly virulent during the rapid expansion of telephony in the 1960s and 70s, but the paper will trace the fundamental conflict of interests for the first one hundred years of telephony in Luxembourg. The paper draws on legal documents and PTT reports to show how the construction, expansion and maintenance of the telephone network was envisioned, and how the shortage of technical staff and resources hampered the smooth operation of the system. [less ▲]

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See detailTHE EVOLUTION OF THERMAL DISTORTION AND STRESSES AT MACRO SCALE FOR METAL ADDITIVELY MANUFACTURED PART
Mashhood, Muhammad UL; Zilian, Andreas UL; Peters, Bernhard UL et al

Scientific Conference (2022, February 05)

[1] R.K. Ganeriwala, M. Strantza, W.E. King, B. Clausen, T.Q. Phan, L.E. Levine, D.W. Brown, N.E. Hodge, Evaluation of a thermomechanical modelfor prediction of residual stress during laser powder bed ... [more ▼]

[1] R.K. Ganeriwala, M. Strantza, W.E. King, B. Clausen, T.Q. Phan, L.E. Levine, D.W. Brown, N.E. Hodge, Evaluation of a thermomechanical modelfor prediction of residual stress during laser powder bed fusion of Ti-6Al- 4V, Additive Manufacturing(2019), Vol. 27., 489–502. [2] M. S. Alnaes, J. Blechta, J. Hake, A. Johansson, B. Kehlet, A. Logg, C. Richardson, J. Ring, M. E. Rognes and G. N. Wells, The FEniCS Project Version 1.5, Archive of Numerical Software(2015), Vol. 3., 100:9–23. [less ▲]

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See detailTechnical Sovereignty and Digital Democracy in Europe – Follower or Influencer ? A New Media Approach
Danescu, Elena UL

Scientific Conference (2022, February 04)

The digital turn has considerably impacted geopolitics in terms of power, governance and regulation, leading to a proliferation of stakeholders and networks at multiple levels (states, international ... [more ▼]

The digital turn has considerably impacted geopolitics in terms of power, governance and regulation, leading to a proliferation of stakeholders and networks at multiple levels (states, international organisations, private companies, civil society and citizens), new dynamics of competition in a transnational space that is becoming increasingly virtual, borderless and deterritorialised (cyberspace), and novel forms of learning, work and human activity. Digital technologies have also brought about a paradigm shift in information and communication systems, with the emergence of new media (online platforms, interactive websites, algorithmic decision-making ecosystems, etc.) that will have a long-term impact on social and cultural practices, interpersonal and societal relations, the public sphere and the exercise of individual and collective democracy. [less ▲]

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See detail“Spread or die”. Online Virality as a Transmedia Phenomenon
Schafer, Valerie UL; Pailler, Fred UL

Scientific Conference (2022, February 03)

Memes (Kaplan and Nova, 2016; McGrath, 2019), gifs (Eppink, 2014), buzz on the Web and social networks are inherent to digital cultures since the very first steps of the Web (i.e., Dancing babies, Hamster ... [more ▼]

Memes (Kaplan and Nova, 2016; McGrath, 2019), gifs (Eppink, 2014), buzz on the Web and social networks are inherent to digital cultures since the very first steps of the Web (i.e., Dancing babies, Hamster Dance). Virality has developed and changed over time through several platforms (YouTube, 4Chan, Twitter, TikTok, etc.), while relying on some patterns identified by Shifman (2014), Milner (2018), Jenkins (2009) and others. Historicizing virality through times, spaces and platforms is at the heart of the Hivi project1 (https://hivi.uni.lu). While starting to historicize these phenomena, may it be Numa Numa Guy, Leave Britney Alone, Grumpy Cat, the Harlem Shake, online challenges (Ice Bucket Challenge, Fire challenge, etc.) and many others, the transmedia circulations and the role played by “traditional media” in the life cycles and virality of such practices have become more and more obvious. This proposal aims therefore to demonstrate and analyze how Internet phenomena are transmedia. Building upon several case studies, this presentation will first remind us how virality occurred before the digital (Pinker, 2020) and how previous historical forms were also reused in the digital. We will then analyse the circulation between online viral phenomena and other media, may it be Internet phenomena that are echoed in other media (press, cinema, video games...) or on the contrary the use of media phenomena by digital cultures (see for example memes related to Chuck Norris or Sad Keanu). Finally, the last part will specifically focus on the relationship between online virality and the general press, relying on a vast corpus gathered through Europresse, on which we conducted a diachronic distant reading. This intertwinement of Media cultures and Digital Cultures aim at highlightening several topics of the call and notably Temporalities of media through digital technologies; Persistence and discontinuities in communication; and finally Digital sources, new practices, tools and narratives in media history. References Eppink, J., “A brief history of the GIF”, Journal of Visual Culture, 2014, 13(3), p. 298- 306. Jenkins, H., « If it doesn’t spread, it’s dead (Part One) : Media Viruses and Memes”, Confessions of an Aca-Fan, 2009. http://henryjenkins.org/blog/2009/02/if_it_doesnt_spread_its_dead_p.html Kaplan, D., Nova, N., La culture Internet des Mèmes, Lausanne, PPUR, 2016. MacGrath, J., “Memes”, in Brügger, N., Milligan, I. (ed.), The Sage handbook of Web History, Los Angeles, London, Sage, 2019. Milner, R., The Word Mad Meme. Public Conversations and Participatory Media, Cambridge, MA, MIT Press, 2018. Shifman, L., Memes in Digital Culture, Cambridge MA, Mit Press, 2014. Pinker, R., Fake News & Viralité avant Internet. Les lapins du Père-Lachaise et autres légendes médiatiques, Paris, CNRS Éditions, 2020. [less ▲]

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See detailApproaching border complexities: von der Linie zur Textur
Wille, Christian UL

Scientific Conference (2022, February)

Die Renaissance von Grenzen hat nicht nur für eine stärkere Institutionalisierung und Sichtbarkeit der Grenzforschung gesorgt, sondern auch theoretisch-konzeptionelle Entwicklungen und Neuorientierungen ... [more ▼]

Die Renaissance von Grenzen hat nicht nur für eine stärkere Institutionalisierung und Sichtbarkeit der Grenzforschung gesorgt, sondern auch theoretisch-konzeptionelle Entwicklungen und Neuorientierungen in Gang gesetzt. Davon zeugen die zahlreichen Konzepte und Ansätze, die – inspiriert vom cultural, spatial und practice turn der Sozial- und Kulturwissenschaften – die Grenze als soziale Praxis fassen. Die Prozessorientierung überwindet die Idee der Grenze als Linie und bildet den Ausgangspunkt des Vortrags. Er zeigt verschiedene Weiterentwicklungen des sogenannten „‘bordering turn‘“ (Cooper 2020: 17) auf und geht dabei näher auf komplexitätsorientierte Ansätze als jüngsten Trend der territorialen und kulturellen Grenzforschung ein. [less ▲]

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See detailDas ehemalige Schloss "La Fontaine" und sein Areal in Luxemburg-Clausen - Einführung in die Tagungsthematik
Uhrmacher, Martin UL

Scientific Conference (2022, February)

On the basis of the current state of historical, archaeological and architectural research, the 15 speakers at the conference took an interdisciplinary look at the possibilities for future use and ... [more ▼]

On the basis of the current state of historical, archaeological and architectural research, the 15 speakers at the conference took an interdisciplinary look at the possibilities for future use and landscaping of the former palace and its gardens. [less ▲]

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See detailAI and Education. Luxemborug and Estonia
Baumann, Isabell Eva UL

Scientific Conference (2022, February)

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See detailAchievements and Developments of the UniGR-Center for Border Studies
Wille, Christian UL

Scientific Conference (2022, February)

The UniGR-Center for Border Studies (UniGR-CBS) is a thematic cross-border network of approximately 80 researchers within the university grouping University of the Greater Region (UniGR) conducting ... [more ▼]

The UniGR-Center for Border Studies (UniGR-CBS) is a thematic cross-border network of approximately 80 researchers within the university grouping University of the Greater Region (UniGR) conducting research on borders, their meanings and challenges. [less ▲]

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See detailPreliminary findings: EMN-OECD InformDigitalisation and Artificial Intelligence
Sommarribas, Adolfo UL

Scientific Conference (2022, January 27)

This presentation provides the preliminary findings of the EMN-OECD Inform on Digitalisation and Artificial Intelligence. It aims to analyse the use of digitalisation and artificial intelligence in ... [more ▼]

This presentation provides the preliminary findings of the EMN-OECD Inform on Digitalisation and Artificial Intelligence. It aims to analyse the use of digitalisation and artificial intelligence in migration management. [less ▲]

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See detailIm Spannungsfeld zwischen Informationsfreiheit und Datenschutz: Das Luxemburger Archivgesetz von 2018 und die zeithistorische Forschung
Brüll, Christoph UL; Janz, Nina UL

Scientific Conference (2022, January 19)

Im Sommer 2018 trat in Luxemburg erstmals ein Archivgesetz in Kraft, das nach jahrelangen Verhandlungen – leider ohne Beteiligung der Archivnutzer*innen – zustande kam. Es war lange erwartet und ... [more ▼]

Im Sommer 2018 trat in Luxemburg erstmals ein Archivgesetz in Kraft, das nach jahrelangen Verhandlungen – leider ohne Beteiligung der Archivnutzer*innen – zustande kam. Es war lange erwartet und definierte für das Großherzogtum (endlich!), wie Quellen aus Ministerien und Verwaltungen archivalisch behandelt werden müssen. Das Gesetz schuf damit den Rahmen für eine notwendige und geregelte Ablieferungs- und Archivierungspolitik sowie den erforderlichen Einsatz von geschultem Personal in staatlichen und kommunalen Verwaltungen. Der Gesetzestext weist große Ähnlichkeiten mit bundesdeutschen und belgischen Bestimmungen zum Archivzugang auf. Die allgemeine Schutzfrist von 50 Jahren ist allerdings deutlich länger als in den meisten Ländern, wohingegen die 75-Jahre-Sperrfrist für Akten mit persönlichen Daten auf dem Papier kürzer ausfällt als bei den Nachbarn. Die Auslegung des Gesetzes durch das Nationalarchiv und die Ministerialverwaltungen war seitdem mehrmals Gegenstand von parlamentarischen Fragen und Presseberichterstattung, die die restriktive Zugangspraxis und lange Bearbeitungszeiten bei Anträgen auf Schutzfristverkürzung monieren. Den Forscher*innen fielen dabei zwei Dinge auf: zum einen wurde die Entscheidungsfrist für die Anträge auf Schutzfristverkürzungen regelmäßig deutlich überschritten; zum anderen legten die Archivmitarbeiter*innen ihren Entscheidungen, ob ein solcher Antrag vonnöten sei, ein extrem rigides Verständnis von „persönlichen Daten“ zugrunde. Dies verweist auf einige Grundprobleme bei der Konzeption des Gesetzes: die wissenschaftliche Forschung, die ein großes Interesse daran hatte, bei der Archivnutzung Rechtssicherheit zu haben, war zu keinem Zeitpunkt in den Gesetzgebungsprozess eingebunden. Zum anderen problematisierte dieser zu wenig die Tatsache, dass das Nationalarchiv historisch als eine kulturelle und nicht als eine wissenschaftliche Einrichtung betrachtet wurde. Dies war nach unserer Auffassung ein weiterer Grund dafür, dass die Perspektive der Forschung nicht ausreichend mitgedacht wurde. In der Praxis wird beispielsweise der Zugang zu Dokumenten aus der Zeit des Zweiten Weltkriegs noch regelmäßig erschwert; an eine zeitgeschichtliche Forschung zum Zeitraum ab den 1960er Jahren auf der Grundlage der im Nationalarchiv aufbewahrten Quellen ist kaum zu denken. Das Nationalarchiv nimmt eine restriktive Haltung gegenüber seinen Nutzer*innen ein: Inventare, wie z.B. vorläufige Abgabelisten, werden nicht vorgelegt, ganze Bestände werden wegen mangelnder Bearbeitung oder Unkenntnis der Zuständigkeiten gesperrt. Den Forscher*innen wird kein Vertrauen entgegengebracht. Es besteht beispielsweise keine Möglichkeit, Dokumente nach Zusicherung von Anonymisierung oder Unterzeichnung einer Verpflichtungserklärung einzusehen. Die Einsicht (falls gesperrt) bedarf noch immer teilweise der Zustimmung durch die Aktenproduzenten. Mitunter ist aber den Benutzern nicht klar, welche Akten noch dem Produzenten unterliegen oder nicht. In anderen Fällen ist selbst dem Archiv nicht klar, wer die „Zuständigkeit“ und damit das letzte Wort über den Zugang innehat. Solange aber das Archiv nicht die Benutzungshoheit oder die „Archivhoheit“ über seine eigenen Akten hat, kann keine professionelle Benutzung gewährleistet werden. In Bezug auf die Gemeindearchive gilt das Archivgesetz von 2018 nicht, daher ist dort die Verunsicherung sehr groß und es fehlt das Bewusstsein für eine geordnete Archivierung und Bereitstellung von Unterlagen. Es fehlen beispielsweise Benutzungsordnungen und professionelle Findmittel. Im Falle von Akteneinsichten müssen die Forscher mit der zuständigen Gemeinde eine Art Datenschutzvertrag (Convention de mise á disposition d’archives et collections) schließen, in welches jedes Dokument aufgelistet wird. Seitdem die Probleme mit dem Gesetz und seiner Anwendung bekannt sind, wurden regelmäßig Lösungsansätze diskutiert, die jedoch bisher nicht umgesetzt wurden. Zum einen wird angeregt, die Entscheidungen zu Schutzfristverkürzungen in die Hände des Nationalarchivs zu legen. Dazu wären, wie in anderen Ländern auch, Abkommen zwischen den Ministerialverwaltungen und dem Archiv nötig. In der Zwischenzeit ist jedoch Bewegung in die Sache gekommen: zumindest auf der politischen Ebene ist das Bewusstsein dafür, dass überhaupt ein Problem besteht, gewachsen. Im Raum steht derzeit eine Evaluierung des Gesetzes, die bisher nicht vorgesehen war – obwohl eine solche Vorgehensweise bei anderen Gesetzen regelmäßig praktiziert wird – und die mündlich signalisierte Bereitschaft der Justizministerin, für die ihr unterstellten Bereiche ein Abkommen mit dem Archiv zu schließen. Vielleicht kann so ein Paradox aufgelöst werden. [less ▲]

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See detailRevealing defect-induced spin disorder in nanocrystalline
Bersweiler, Mathias UL

Scientific Conference (2022, January)

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See detailThe Green Stock Market Bubble
Lehnert, Thorsten UL

Scientific Conference (2022, January)

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See detailIS PERIMETER CONTROL AN EMERGING STRUCTURE IN NETWORK-WIDE URBAN TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT?
Rinaldi, Marco; Viti, Francesco UL; Serge, Hoogendoorn

Scientific Conference (2022, January)

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See detailTime vs. Unit Cell Splitting for Autonomous Reconfigurable Intelligent Surfaces
Ntontin, Konstantinos UL; Boulogeorgos, Alexandros-Apostolos A.; Abdullah, Zaid UL et al

Scientific Conference (2022)

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See detailGeodetic climate research in the Austrian Alps
Ullrich, Christian; Francis, Olivier UL; Tabibi, Sajad UL et al

Scientific Conference (2022)

The Federal Office of Metrology and Surveying (BEV) in Austria is responsible for the geodetic reference system like gravity and height reference frame. Some of these gravity reference stations are ... [more ▼]

The Federal Office of Metrology and Surveying (BEV) in Austria is responsible for the geodetic reference system like gravity and height reference frame. Some of these gravity reference stations are monitored regularly by different geodetic terrestrial techniques. The gravity data on some stations show variations and/or changes in gravity. In this presentation, the alpine geodetic reference stations Obergurgl and Franz-Josefs- Höhe in the Austrian eastern Alps will be presented. Both stations are investigated with different geodetic terrestrial techniques in a cooperation of the University of Luxemburg with BEV. Global warming and associated climate change during the last century and recent decades are among the main reasons for glacier retreat in the Alps. Absolute gravity measurements have been regularly performed in the Austrian Eastern Alps since 1987 in the Ötztal Valley at Obergurgl. In addition, absolute gravity has been regularly observed at Obergurgl from 1987 to 2009 with the absolute gravimeter JILAg6. From 2010, the absolute gravity measurements were continued with the highest accurate absolute gravimeters FG5 from BEV and FG5x from University of Luxemburg. The newest gravity data show again a small increase of gravity. Additionally, a permanent GNSS station was established in 2019 to record information about the assumed vertical uplift at this station. A second alpine research station was established near the Pasterze Glacier at Großglockner Mountain in 2019. The Pasterze Glacier is one of the largest glaciers in the eastern Alps and is in the vicinity of the highest mountain of Austria, the Großglockner. The station is monitored by repeated absolute gravity measurements and is equipped with a permanent GNSS station. In addition, precise leveling measurements were also tied to this station. In this contribution, initial results of the geodetic research like the gravity results, precise leveling and GNSS measurements will be presented. In the future, gravity data will be quantitively compared to ice mass balance information derived from glacier inventories. A Geodetic Global Navigation Satellite System reflectometry (GNSS-R) antenna will also be installed to study glacier-ice change. A third station at an altitude of 3300 m is planned and will be checked for operating absolute gravity measurements there. The geodynamical processes like vertical uplift and postglacial deformation will be investigated together with glacier retreat on these stations. [less ▲]

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See detailDeXTER: A post-authentic approach to heritage visualisation
Viola, Lorella UL

Scientific Conference (2022)

Cultural heritage institutions and academics are resorting more and more to visual representations of cultural heritage material as a way to enhance access to collections for users’ appreciation and ... [more ▼]

Cultural heritage institutions and academics are resorting more and more to visual representations of cultural heritage material as a way to enhance access to collections for users’ appreciation and research purposes (Windhager et al., 2019). However, scholars have pointed out (Drucker, 2011; 2013; 2014; 2020; Windhager et al., 2019) how a critical approach to visualisation is still largely missing and how on the whole, user-interface (UI) design still shows a functional and task-driven approach, oriented towards satisfying a need for information rather than towards eliciting curiosity, engagement and reflection. With this presentation, I aim to contribute to the urgent need for the establishment of a critical data and visualisation literacy in current task-driven approaches to interface design which continue to see the user as a consumer and to operate within a problem solver model. Drawing on critical posthumanities (Braidotti, 2017; 2019), I here propose a critical framework to digital cultural heritage and digital cultural heritage visualisation. With this approach —which I labelled “postauthentic framework” (Viola, 2021) —I want to initiate a discussion and critique of the fetishization of empriricism and technical objectivity in digital knowledge creation. To exemplify how the post-authentic framework works in practice, I present the design choices for developing the tool DeXTER – DeepteXTminER, an interactive visualisation app to explore enriched cultural heritage material. The discussion will revolve around the challenges facing product design, with specific reference to visualising the ambiguities and uncertainties of network analysis (NA) and sentiment analysis (SA). DeXTER is currently loaded with Chroniclitaly 3.0 (Viola and Fiscarelli, 2021a), a digital heritage collection of Italian American newspapers published in the USA by Italian immigrants between 1897 and 1936. [less ▲]

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See detailGeometrie der römischen Mosaiken
Perucca, Antonella UL

Scientific Conference (2022)

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See detailE-commerce adoption in startups: Applying a strategic perspective
Gurau, Calin; Geraudel, Mickaël UL; Gundolf, Katherine

Scientific Conference (2022)

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See detailDigitizing Inclusion in a Changing World: Comparing insights into four European countries for matching new global realities
Andersen, Katja Natalie UL; Vogt, Michaela; Bagger, Anette et al

Scientific Conference (2022)

Inclusion and digitalization are among the driving forces in global discourses on education and learning. These global realities cause extensive transformations at local, national, and international ... [more ▼]

Inclusion and digitalization are among the driving forces in global discourses on education and learning. These global realities cause extensive transformations at local, national, and international levels. At the same time, the goal of inclusion is directly interwoven with local conditions, understandings, and historically grown valuations. The concept oscillates between universally shared norms and highly divergent local implementations. Regarding the focus of the symposium it can be assumed that especially in the course of digitalization as one main reaction of the corona pandemic, learning materials are not only expected to be inclusion oriented but also need to be combinable with digital demands to address alls kinds of inequalities amongst students appropriately. Learning materials thus are a central momentum to expatiate on transformations of a changing world. In correspondence with the congress theme, the symposium will therefore discuss how a reflection on centrifugal forces of interdependence and individuality can be located in the context of the immediate everyday life in schools and educational practice. In order to be able to discuss these tensions and current changes within educational practices starting from learning materials, an anchor point is needed in order to open up the international comparison of local specifics. The anchor point for this symposium is a criteria catalog which enables the international comparison of learning materials in their cultural contexts and provides a visualization of local particularities in the field of learning materials (Vogt et al. 2021). If these results are put into relation with the inclusive landscapes in different countries, further insights of relevance for inclusion as a global topic can be generated. The data basis springs from the ITM project (2018-2021, funded by Erasmus+) and other international collections of material. Speakers with expertise in regard to the triangulation of learning materials, inclusion and digitalization from four European universities (Ostrava, Czech Republic; Bielefeld, Germany; Luxemburg and Örebro, Sweden) present their findings in the symposium, more in-depth talks about national perspectives as well as a concluding wrap up. The following research questions are a guideline for each section of the symposium: 1. What are the local specifics and constellations as well as understandings of inclusion as a global reality that are being mirrored in teaching material? 2. How can the international comparison of teaching material impact the advancement of inclusion on a local level? 3. How can international comparative educational research become a driving force in the productive negotiation of globally relevant tensions? The contributions are methodologically based on group discussions and expert interviews about selected learning materials, their quality and criteria for evaluating them. These exchanges have been evaluated with the qualitative content analysis by Mayring (2015). Discourse analysis and context analysis were applied. Furthermore, source corpora of learning material were developed and materials were examined using a qualitative content analysis. This refers to the ITM project from Luxembourg, Örebro and Bielefeld University (Erasmus funding line, 2018-2021) as well as the contribution by Ostrava University. The material mainly comes from primary school education and takes into account various subjects, e.g. mathematics and natural sciences. By looking at the results of the interviews and the analysis of teaching materials as well as on the findings about the cultural and local conditions the presenters were able to develop a deeper understanding about how learning materials are set up for inclusive learning processes and about the underpinning understanding of inclusion in different cultural settings. This is the needed foundation to contextualize everyday practices of teaching and learning with the demands of education within the digital condition. [less ▲]

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See detailEnergy Efficient Sparse Precoding Design for Satellite Communication System
Abdu, Tedros Salih UL; Kisseleff, Steven UL; Lagunas, Eva UL et al

Scientific Conference (2022)

Through precoding, the spectral efficiency of the system can be improved; thus, more users can benefit from 5G and beyond broadband services. However, complete precoding (using all precoding coefficients ... [more ▼]

Through precoding, the spectral efficiency of the system can be improved; thus, more users can benefit from 5G and beyond broadband services. However, complete precoding (using all precoding coefficients) may not be possible in practice due to the high signal processing complexity involved in calculating a large number of precoding coefficients and combining them with symbols for transmission. In this paper, we propose an energy-efficient sparse precoding design, where only a few precoding coefficients are used with lower power consumption depending on the demand. In this context, we formulate an optimization problem that minimizes the number of in-use precoding coefficients and the system power consumption while matching the per beam demand. This problem is nonconvex. Hence, we apply Lagrangian relaxation and successive convex approximation to convexify it. The proposed solution outperforms the benchmark scheme in power consumption and demand satisfaction with the additional advantage of sparse precoding design. [less ▲]

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See detailWhich companies go public via SPACs? The role of venture capital
Hansen, Christopher UL

Scientific Conference (2022)

This study investigates the characteristics and stock market performance of companies going public via special-purpose acquisition companies (SPACs). Using a sample of 798 companies that went public in ... [more ▼]

This study investigates the characteristics and stock market performance of companies going public via special-purpose acquisition companies (SPACs). Using a sample of 798 companies that went public in 2020 and 2021, we compare those companies that went public via SPAC to companies that conducted a traditional IPO. Moreover, we examine the potential impact of venture capital funding on the mode of going public and the post-listing performance of the respective companies. Our results show that companies going public via SPAC in 2020 and 2021 did not systematically differ in their firm characteristics from traditional IPO companies. However, they perform nevertheless constantly and significantly worse in terms of stock return over a period of six months after becoming publicly listed. Venture capital funding has not per se an impact on the mode of going public, but companies with more prestigious VCs invested prefer to chose a traditional IPO over a SPAC to go public. [less ▲]

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See detailPrivacy-preserving Copy Number Variation Analysis with Homomorphic Encryption
Demirci, Huseyin UL; Lenzini, Gabriele UL

Scientific Conference (2022)

Innovative pharma-genomics and personalized medicine services are now possible thanks to the availability for processing and analysis of a large amount of genomic data. Operating on such databases, is ... [more ▼]

Innovative pharma-genomics and personalized medicine services are now possible thanks to the availability for processing and analysis of a large amount of genomic data. Operating on such databases, is possible to test for predisposition to diseases by searching for genomic variants on whole genomes as well as on exomes, which are collections of protein coding regions called exons. Genomic data are therefore shared amongst research institutes, public/private operators, and third parties, creating issues of privacy, ethics, and data protection because genome data are strictly personal and identifying. To prevent damages that could follow a data breach—a likely threat nowadays—and to be compliant with current data protection regulations, genomic data files should be encrypted, and the data processing algorithms should be privacy-preserving. Such a migration is not always feasible: not all operations can be implemented straightforwardly to be privacypreserving; a privacy-preserving version of an algorithm may not be as accurate for the purpose of biomedical analysis as the original; or the privacy-preserving version may not scale up when applied to genomic data processing because of inefficiency in computation time. In this work, we demonstrate that at least for a wellknown genomic data procedure for the analysis of copy number variants called copy number variations (CNV) a privacy-preserving analysis is possible and feasible. Our algorithm relies on Homomorphic Encryption, a cryptographic technique to perform calculations directly on the encrypted data. We test our implementation for performance and reliability, giving evidence that it is practical to study copy number variations and preserve genomic data privacy. Our proof-of-concept application successfully and efficiently searches for a patient’s somatic copy number variation changes by comparing the patient gene coverage in the whole exome with a healthy control exome coverage. Since all the genomics data are securely encrypted, the data remain protected even if they are transmitted or shared via an insecure environment like a public cloud. Being this the first study for privacy-preserving copy number variation analysis, we demonstrate the potential of recent Homomorphic Encryption tools in genomic applications. [less ▲]

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See detailStatistical Performance Analysis of Radar-Based Vital-Sign Processing Techniques
Tedgue Beltrao, Gabriel UL; Alaeekerahroodi, Mohammad UL; Schroeder, Udo et al

Scientific Conference (2022)

Radar-based vital-sign monitoring provides several advantages over standard methodologies. Despite the huge amount of recent work, the preference for particular technique(s) is in debt, due to lack of a ... [more ▼]

Radar-based vital-sign monitoring provides several advantages over standard methodologies. Despite the huge amount of recent work, the preference for particular technique(s) is in debt, due to lack of a formal comparison between them. In addition, collection of real data is a time-consuming process and therefore most of the proposed solutions are only evaluated under very limited scenarios. In this paper we present a simulation framework and a selection of results which allow easy performance comparison between radar-based vital-sign processing techniques. The proposed simulation tool scans over multiple breathing and heartbeat frequencies, and the combined effects along the entire signal processing chain can be analyzed, for different combinations of scenarios and techniques. The results have shown specific limitations for each method, thus indicating a need for proper selection based on operating conditions. In addition, while breathing estimation performance is only limited by noise, heartbeat estimation is limited by the presence of breathing harmonics and, despite promising results at specific breathing/heartbeat frequencies, the presented methods fail to fully mitigate this type of interference in all scenarios. [less ▲]

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See detailAutonomous Reconfigurable Intelligent Surfaces Through Wireless Energy Harvesting
Ntontin, Konstantinos UL; Boulogeorgos, Apostolos-Alexandros A.; Björnson, Emil et al

Scientific Conference (2022)

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See detailGiving talents a voice: Talent management n the aerospace industry
Usanova, Ksenia UL; Geraudel, Mickaël UL

Scientific Conference (2022)

Although Talent Management (TM) has been studied for the last two decades, the empirical knowledge represents highly managerial view on the phenomenon. Those important studies that investigated TM from ... [more ▼]

Although Talent Management (TM) has been studied for the last two decades, the empirical knowledge represents highly managerial view on the phenomenon. Those important studies that investigated TM from both managers’ and talents’ perspectives are scarce and quite fragmented since they focus only on one or two components of TM. In this work, we try to examine TM holistically by focusing on five main TM components together – talent definition, TM goals, attraction, development and retention of talents – through the perspectives of managers and talented individuals. To that end, we interviewed 40 talents and their managers in the aerospace industry in Luxembourg. We identified shared, exclusively managers’ and exclusively talents’ views of TM and named them “functional”, “pragmatic” and “romanticized” respectively. By combining the shared view and expected views, we propose an ideal TM for talent and an ideal TM for managers. [less ▲]

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See detailAn advanced genetic algorithm for large-scale mixed-fleet multi-terminal electric bus scheduling
Rinaldi, Marco; Bosi, Tommaso; Viti, Francesco UL et al

Scientific Conference (2022)

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See detailJOINT CARRIER ALLOCATION AND PRECODING OPTIMIZATION FOR INTERFERENCE-LIMITED GEO SATELLITE
Abdu, Tedros Salih UL; Kisseleff, Steven UL; Lagunas, Eva UL et al

Scientific Conference (2022)

The rise of flexible payloads on satellites opens a door for controlling satellite resources according to the user demand, user location, and satellite position. In addition to resource management ... [more ▼]

The rise of flexible payloads on satellites opens a door for controlling satellite resources according to the user demand, user location, and satellite position. In addition to resource management, applying precoding on flexible payloads is essential to obtain high spectral efficiency. However, these cannot be achieved using a conventional resource allocation algorithm that does not consider the user demand. In this paper, we propose a demand-aware algorithm based on multiobjective optimization to jointly design the carrier allocation and precoding for better spectral efficiency and demand matching with proper management of the satellite resources. The optimization problem is non-convex, and we solve it using convex relaxation and successive convex approximation. Then, we evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm through numerical results. It is shown that the proposed method outperforms the benchmark schemes in terms of resource utilization and demand satisfaction. [less ▲]

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See detailPrinciples for setting single or multiline bus holding control based on network characteristics
Laskaris, Georgios; Cats, Oded; Jenelius, Erik et al

Scientific Conference (2022)

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See detailProportionalitätsrechner für Menschen mit einer Dyskalkulie
Perucca, Antonella UL; Ronk, Pit Ferdy UL

Scientific Conference (2022)

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See detailPerformance Evaluation of Forward Link Packet Scheduling in Satellite Communication Systems with Carrier Aggregation
Al-Hraishawi, Hayder UL; Lagunas, Eva UL; Kumar, Sumit UL et al

Scientific Conference (2022)

The rapidly growing demand for increased data rates and spectrum scarcity in satellite communication systems require new paradigms to effectively utilize radio resources. Of many candidate techniques ... [more ▼]

The rapidly growing demand for increased data rates and spectrum scarcity in satellite communication systems require new paradigms to effectively utilize radio resources. Of many candidate techniques, carrier aggregation (CA) is a promising solution that combines multiple carriers across the available spectrum to achieve a substantial increase in peak data rate and improve user experience. The concept of CA was introduced in 3GPP standards for the terrestrial communication systems and has been successfully deployed and commercialized worldwide. Recently, satellite communication community has investigated the requirements for adopting CA technique to satellite infrastructures. In this setting, aggregating multiple heterogeneous satellite links to boost a single-user peak throughput requires an efficient data packet scheduler at the gateway in order to avoid the out-of-order packet issues and the subsequent queuing delays at the receiver side. Thereby, several research efforts have been devoted to circumvent this challenge through developing packet schedulers that are aiming at delivering data packets without perturbing their original transmission order. In this paper, the performance of the developed schedulers is evaluated using end-to-end system simulations to investigate the impact of different network metrics. The obtained results demonstrate the design tradeoffs and summarize the pros and cons of the schedulers. [less ▲]

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See detailTalent turnover in High-Tech industry: Is there a contagion effect?
Usanova, Ksenia UL; Geraudel, Mickaël UL

Scientific Conference (2022)

Detailed reference viewed: 15 (2 UL)
See detailWhen a Kippah Represents All Jews: Navigating Shifting Signs from Talmud Torah to School in Luxembourg
Badder, Anastasia UL

Scientific Conference (2021, December 20)

Across the contexts of the lives of Luxembourg's Liberal Talmud Torah students, secularism and mobility are highly valued and understood to be key characteristics of modern living. Talmud Torah students ... [more ▼]

Across the contexts of the lives of Luxembourg's Liberal Talmud Torah students, secularism and mobility are highly valued and understood to be key characteristics of modern living. Talmud Torah students feel they easily meet these criteria – they are multilingual, they currently lead and anticipate highly mobile lives, they see themselves as cosmopolitan and their approach to Jewish life as flexible, and, equally importantly, they look, dress, and comport themselves "like everyone else", all of which are understood to facilitate movement (in the sense of movement across geographic, economic, social, and religious/secular spheres) and belonging in the modern world. The students directly contrast their ways of being with those of more observant Jews. Identifiable by their rootedness, linguistic stringency, and, especially, their ways of dressing (e.g. wearing a kippah in public), the embodied practices and visibility of observant Jews are perceived to be impediments to participation and success in the secular realm. For Talmud Torah students, the public kippah in particular indexes a religious individual and a "backwards" and undesirable life. However, when Jewishness appears in their school classrooms, it is usually visually represented by orthodox-presenting men – often a man in a white shirt and black kippah. In the school classroom, these men and their kippot are framed as representing all Jews, understood as a homogenous group of adherents to the religion Judaism. For many Talmud Torah students, their first encounter with this new meaning of the kippah, visualization and associated conceptualization of Jewishness is jarring – they suddenly find themselves on the 'wrong' side of the religious/secular divide and grouped together with those from whom they could not feel more distant. Based on 31 months of ethnographic fieldwork with Luxembourg's Liberal Jewish community, this paper will explore how the kippah is remediated from the Talmud Torah to the school classroom, how students grapple with this uncomfortable process, and some of its implications. [less ▲]

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See detailModel-Based Systems Engineering to Design An Onboard Surround Vision System for Cooperative Automated Vehicles
Kemsaram, Narsimlu UL; Das, Anweshan; Dubbelman, Gijs

Scientific Conference (2021, December 17)

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See detailA SysML-based Design and Development of Stereo Vision System with Pose and Velocity Estimation for Cooperative Automated Vehicles
Kemsaram, Narsimlu UL; Das, Anweshan; Dubbelman, Gijs

Scientific Conference (2021, December 09)

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See detailDual-DNN Assisted Optimization for Efficient Resource Scheduling in NOMA-Enabled Satellite Systems
Wang, Anyue UL; Lei, Lei UL; Lagunas, Eva UL et al

Scientific Conference (2021, December 08)

In this paper, we apply non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) in satellite systems to assist data transmission for services with latency constraints. We investigate a problem to minimize the transmission ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we apply non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) in satellite systems to assist data transmission for services with latency constraints. We investigate a problem to minimize the transmission time by jointly optimizing power allocation and terminal-timeslot assignment for accomplishing a transmission task in NOMA-enabled satellite systems. The problem appears non-linear/non-convex with integer variables and can be equivalently reformulated in the format of mixed-integer convex programming (MICP). Conventional iterative methods may apply but at the expenses of high computational complexity in approaching the optimum or near-optimum. We propose a combined learning and optimization scheme to tackle the problem, where the primal MICP is decomposed into two learning-suited classification tasks and a power allocation problem. In the proposed scheme, the first learning task is to predict the integer variables while the second task is to guarantee the feasibility of the solutions. Numerical results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms benchmarks in terms of average computational time, transmission time performance, and feasibility guarantee. [less ▲]

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See detailShort-Packet Communications in Multi-Hop WPINs: Performance Analysis and Deep Learning Design
Nguyen, Toan-Van; Nguyen, van Dinh UL; Costa, Daniel Benevides da et al

Scientific Conference (2021, December 07)

In this paper, we study short-packet communications (SPCs) in multi-hop wireless-powered Internet-of-Things networks (WPINs), where IoT devices transmit short packets to multiple destination nodes by ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we study short-packet communications (SPCs) in multi-hop wireless-powered Internet-of-Things networks (WPINs), where IoT devices transmit short packets to multiple destination nodes by harvesting energy from multiple power beacons. To improve system block error rate (BLER) and throughput, we propose a best relay-best user (bR-bU) selection scheme with an accumulated energy harvesting mechanism. Closed-form expressions for the BLER and throughput of the proposed scheme over Rayleigh fading channels are derived and the respective asymptotic analysis is also carried out. To support real-time settings, we design a deep neural network (DNN) framework to predict the system throughput under different channel settings. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed bR-bU selection scheme outperforms several baseline ones in terms of the BLER and throughput, showing to be an efficient strategy for multi-hop SPCs. The resulting DNN can estimate accurately the throughput with low execution time. The effects of message size on reliability and latency are also evaluated and discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailTo verify or tolerate, that’s the question
Pinto Gouveia, Ines UL; Sakr, Mouhammad UL; Graczyk, Rafal UL et al

Scientific Conference (2021, December 06)

Formal verification carries the promise of absolute correctness, guaranteed at the highest level of assurance known today. However, inherent to many verification attempts is the assumption that the ... [more ▼]

Formal verification carries the promise of absolute correctness, guaranteed at the highest level of assurance known today. However, inherent to many verification attempts is the assumption that the underlying hardware, the code-generation toolchain and the verification tools are correct, all of the time. While this assumption creates interesting recursive verification challenges, which already have been executed successfully for all three of these elements, the coverage of this assumption remains incomplete, in particular for hardware. Accidental faults, such as single-event upsets, transistor aging and latchups keep causing hardware to behave arbitrarily in situations where such events occur and require other means (e.g., tolerance) to safely operate through them. Targeted attacks, especially physical ones, have a similar potential to cause havoc. Moreover, faults of the above kind may well manifest in such a way that their effects extend to all software layers, causing incorrect behavior, even in proven correct ones. In this position paper, we take a holistic system-architectural point of view on the role of trusted-execution environments (TEEs), their implementation complexity and the guarantees they can convey and that we want to be preserved in the presence of faults. We find that if absolute correctness should remain our visionary goal, TEEs can and should be constructed differently with tolerance embedded at the lowest levels and with verification playing an essential role. Verification should both assure the correctness of the TEE construction protocols and mechanisms as well as help protecting the applications executing inside the TEEs. [less ▲]

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See detailSelf-Sovereign Identity for the Financial Sector: A Case Study of PayString Service
Scheidt de Cristo, Flaviene UL; Shbair, Wazen UL; Trestioreanu, Lucian Andrei UL et al

Scientific Conference (2021, December 06)

PayString is an initiative to make payment identifiers global and human-readable, facilitating the exchange of payment information. However, the reference implementation lacks privacy and security ... [more ▼]

PayString is an initiative to make payment identifiers global and human-readable, facilitating the exchange of payment information. However, the reference implementation lacks privacy and security features, making it possible for anyone to access the payment information as long as the PayString identifier is known. Also this paper presents the first performance evaluation of PayString. Via a large-scale testbed our experimental results show an overhead which, given the privacy and security advantages offered, is acceptable in practice, thus making the proposed solution feasible. [less ▲]

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See detailWeb Materialities
Schafer, Valerie UL

Scientific Conference (2021, December 03)

Although Web development was driven by a conceptual repertoire of dematerialisation, of eliminating borders between “Netizens” and ensuring the independence of cyberspace (John Perry Barlow), in the 1990s ... [more ▼]

Although Web development was driven by a conceptual repertoire of dematerialisation, of eliminating borders between “Netizens” and ensuring the independence of cyberspace (John Perry Barlow), in the 1990s the accessibility of the Web was largely subject to material challenges associated with infrastructures, equipment, Internet billing and regulation. They were also linked with groups of technicians and communities of practice, the development of ISPs, the acquisition of equipment or the use of cyber cafés. Taking the example of France in the 90s as a starting point, this contribution will shed light on the agencies at work in a bid to demonstrate why digital materiality matters in Web histories. [less ▲]

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See detailPresenter: Peripheries at the Centre. Borderland Schooling in Interwar Europe
Venken, Machteld UL

Scientific Conference (2021, December 03)

Detailed reference viewed: 7 (1 UL)
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See detailGender Differences and Extreme Events
Lehnert, Thorsten UL

Scientific Conference (2021, December)

Detailed reference viewed: 39 (2 UL)
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See detailGender Differences and Extreme Events
Lehnert, Thorsten UL

Scientific Conference (2021, December)

Detailed reference viewed: 28 (2 UL)
See detailThe Historian as Archivist: Crowdsourced Corona Collections
Zumthurm, Tizian UL

Scientific Conference (2021, November 26)

Detailed reference viewed: 14 (0 UL)
See detailNowe technologie w sprawach karnych
Wisniewska, Katarzyna UL

Scientific Conference (2021, November 25)

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See detailFactors Affecting the Implementation of Computational Thinking in the Curriculum
Hennico, Jeff; Reuter, Robert UL; Weinberger, Armin

Scientific Conference (2021, November 24)

Computational thinking (CT) in fundamental education is an emerging topic in research about educational policies and practices around the globe. In Luxembourg, CT was introduced as a learning topic in ... [more ▼]

Computational thinking (CT) in fundamental education is an emerging topic in research about educational policies and practices around the globe. In Luxembourg, CT was introduced as a learning topic in fundamental schools in 2020. This situation offers a unique opportunity to investigate how various factors influence emerging CT teaching practices. Based on a revised version of the Technology Acceptance Model (Inan & Lowther, 2010), a research-based path model of CT teaching was developed, emphasising the influence of teachers’ beliefs and readiness on CT teaching practices. It investigated the effects of demographic factors, teaching approaches, ICT proficiency, previous CT experience, and overall support for technology integration on readiness, beliefs, and CT teaching practices. The current study reveals that teachers are interested in teaching CT. However, they hold a widespread misconception (Fessakis & Prantsoudi, 2019), confusing CT with programming or technology use. ICT proficiency is indeed associated with beliefs about CT and readiness for teaching CT. Readiness for teaching CT, beliefs about CT, and previous CT experience are the strongest predictors for CT teaching practices. In line with Cuny et al. (2010), the current study highlights the importance of training teachers to accurately define CT and to identify good practices. [less ▲]

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See detailThe positional value of education in the Americas: dynamics of inequality in labour market returns for highly unequal countries, 2000-2019
Ceron, Francisco UL; Chauvel, Louis UL

Scientific Conference (2021, November 17)

The article examines how the labour market value of education has changed in the context of the expansion of higher education. However, one drawback is understanding how it generates differences between ... [more ▼]

The article examines how the labour market value of education has changed in the context of the expansion of higher education. However, one drawback is understanding how it generates differences between high and low-skilled labour markets, particularly in contexts of high inequality and informality. This could be linked to specific mechanisms by which employers value educational credentials as signalled skills. Using the Luxembourg Income Study (LIS), we analyse trends over two decades in 11 American countries. Our results confirm the previous results for the claim that education has become increasingly positional, compared with the absolute model of education. However, we find that the relative gains in wages for workers with higher levels of education, as the pool of higher education graduates expand over time, increased only slightly in high-skilled occupations, while their relative gains decreased for lower-skilled occupations. This trend is present in both absolute and positional models of education. Moreover, when looking at the structure of labour markets in terms of the linkage between educational credentials and occupational groups, we higher the tertiary education specificity of occupations, the higher the earnings for workers with advantaged positions. These findings are consistent with processes of displacement of low-skilled workers due to increasing competition among highly educated workers, from the positional model of education. [less ▲]

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See detail"You want to undress us to press your case": Negotiating claims to religious truth in a secularizing state
Badder, Anastasia UL

Scientific Conference (2021, November 17)

For decades, Luxembourg funded its recognized religious communities; recently, with a goal of greater secularization, the state made major changes (and cuts) to its funding scheme. This move revived ... [more ▼]

For decades, Luxembourg funded its recognized religious communities; recently, with a goal of greater secularization, the state made major changes (and cuts) to its funding scheme. This move revived simmering tensions in the Jewish community, comprised of one Orthodox and one Liberal synagogue and represented to the state by a single Orthodox-led administrative body (la communauté israélite du Luxembourg, or CIL). Emboldened by growing membership and fearing a loss of their already-precarious autonomy and financial support, the Liberal congregation has begun pushing for representation on the CIL, which the Orthodox congregation in turn resists. In the process, Orthodox leadership is forced to reflect on their own practices and values in sometimes uncomfortable ways. As they jostle for control of the CIL, each side makes claims to truth, authenticity, and authority based on drastically different ethics and visions of the future for Luxembourg and its Jewish community. In board meetings, general assemblies, and conversations, old conflicts around the 'right' kind of Jewish life and current and future shape and needs of the Jewish community are rearticulated as the two congregations debate who can and should be the state's interlocutor. Based on 31 months of fieldwork, this paper explores how a reorganization of state administrative control reignited an old struggle within Luxembourg's Jewish community and how two congregations with different histories, ethical projects, and anticipated futures fight to define Jewishness, community, and a good Jewish life and to maintain (or gain) the right to represent Judaism to the Luxembourgish state. [less ▲]

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See detailThe need of standardised metadata to encode causal relationships: Towards safer data-driven machine learning biological solutions
Garcia Santa Cruz, Beatriz UL; Vega Moreno, Carlos Gonzalo UL; Hertel, Frank UL

Scientific Conference (2021, November 16)

In this paper, we discuss the importance of considering causal relations in the development of machine learning solutions to prevent factors hampering the robustness and generalisation capacity of the ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we discuss the importance of considering causal relations in the development of machine learning solutions to prevent factors hampering the robustness and generalisation capacity of the models, such as induced biases. This issue often arises when the algorithm decision is affected by confounding factors. In this work, we argue that the integration of causal relationships can identify potential confounders. We call for standardised meta-information practices as a crucial step for proper machine learning solutions development, validation, and data sharing. Such practices include detailing the dataset generation process, aiming for automatic integration of causal relationships. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment of a screening tool for functional vision impairments in early childhood
Monteiro, Sara UL; Esch, Pascale UL; Hipp, Géraldine et al

Scientific Conference (2021, November 11)

Cerebral Visual Impairment (CVI) is a term used to designate a neurological disorder of the visual pathways impacting visual processes at any given level (Lueck et al., 2019). Due to the advances n ... [more ▼]

Cerebral Visual Impairment (CVI) is a term used to designate a neurological disorder of the visual pathways impacting visual processes at any given level (Lueck et al., 2019). Due to the advances n perinatal and medicinal care, CVI’s occurrence has increased significantly over the last years (Chokron & Dutton, 2016). The condition almost always entails aggregated functional vision impairments, i.e., limitations on the use of binocular vision during everyday tasks (Dutton, 2015). CVI can have effects on school achievements if undetected. Early detection is thus key to offer appropriate aids to avoid a negative impact on learning processes. The aim of this project is to develop a large-scale screener at the beginning of formal schooling, to identify functional vision impairments early on. For this reason, a set of items assessing different visual functions will be incorporated into the Luxembourgish school monitoring program. Based on a theoretical model of object recognition (Humphreys and Riddoch, 1987), we developed items that can be administered in a classroom setting which target different stages of visual perceptual processing, as well as visual functions connected with both dorsal and ventral streams, visual spatial processing and visual memory. We will present the design of the large-scale screener in relation to the theoretical model, as well as the rationale used to include or exclude various perceptual visual functions in the final test. Furthermore, we will explain the foreseen data collection and tool validation processes. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 228 (11 UL)
See detailGenderrepräsentatiounen an de Schoulbicher vum Enseignement fondamental
Kerger, Sylvie UL; Brasseur, Laurence

Scientific Conference (2021, November 11)

Detailed reference viewed: 32 (2 UL)
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See detailUsing Automatic Item Generation in the context of the Épreuves Standardisées (Épstan): A pilot study on effects of altering item characteristics and semantic embeddings
Michels, Michael Andreas UL; Hornung, Caroline UL; Inostroza Fernandez, Pamela Isabel UL et al

Scientific Conference (2021, November 11)

Assessing mathematical skills in national school monitoring programs such as the Luxembourgish Épreuves Standardisées (ÉpStan) creates a constant demand of developing high-quality items that is both ... [more ▼]

Assessing mathematical skills in national school monitoring programs such as the Luxembourgish Épreuves Standardisées (ÉpStan) creates a constant demand of developing high-quality items that is both expensive and time-consuming. One approach to provide high-quality items in a more efficient way is Automatic Item Generation (AIG, Gierl, 2013). Instead of creating single items, cognitive item models form the base for an algorithmic generation of a large number of new items with supposedly identical item characteristics. The stability of item characteristics is questionable, however, when different semantic embeddings are used to present the mathematical problems (Dewolf, Van Dooren, & Verschaffel, 2017, Hoogland, et al., 2018). Given culture-specific knowledge differences in students, it is not guaranteed that illustrations showing everyday activities do not differentially impact item difficulty (Martin, et al., 2012). Moreover, the prediction of empirical item difficulties based on theoretical rationales has proved to be difficult (Leighton & Gierl, 2011). This paper presents a first attempt to better understand the impact of (a) different semantic embeddings, and (b) problem-related variations on mathematics items in grades 1 (n = 2338), 3 (n = 3835) and 5 (n = 3377) within the context of ÉpStan. In total, 30 mathematical problems were presented in up to 4 different versions, either using different but equally plausible semantic contexts or altering the problem’s content characteristics. Preliminary results of IRT-scaling and DIF-analysis reveal substantial effects of both, the embedding, as well as the problem characteristics on general item difficulties as well as on subgroup level. Further results and implications for developing mathematic items, and specifically, for using AIG in the course of Épstan will be discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailFrontières et pluralité des marchés du travail : l’exemple du Luxembourg
Pigeron-Piroth, Isabelle UL; Belkacem, rachid

Scientific Conference (2021, November 11)

L’objet de cette communication est d’aborder la structuration des marchés transfrontaliers du travail. La situation du Luxembourg est particulièrement riche d’enseignements empiriques et théoriques. Dans ... [more ▼]

L’objet de cette communication est d’aborder la structuration des marchés transfrontaliers du travail. La situation du Luxembourg est particulièrement riche d’enseignements empiriques et théoriques. Dans ce petit pays au cœur de la Grande Région SaarLorLux, les frontières se vivent au quotidien. Le marché du travail est ouvert sur ses régions frontalières ainsi que sur l’espace mondial. Dans ce contexte, deux questions organisent notre problématique : Quels sont les effets des frontières sur la structuration du marché du travail ? Et quelles grilles de lectures théoriques paraissent les plus appropriées pour analyser cette structuration particulière du marché du travail ? [less ▲]

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See detailFair Assessment of Cognitive Abilities in Multilingual Children
Kijamet, Dzenita UL; Ugen, Sonja UL

Scientific Conference (2021, November 11)

Detailed reference viewed: 120 (10 UL)
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See detailWhat Tendency for "Inquiry" and "Language": Examining Key Journals in Science Education
de Albuquerque Trigo, Maiza UL; Siry, Christina UL

Scientific Conference (2021, November 10)

Conducting a review of the literature can provide a foundation for understanding research trajectories in a given field, and this proposed presentation will explore one literature review mapping that has ... [more ▼]

Conducting a review of the literature can provide a foundation for understanding research trajectories in a given field, and this proposed presentation will explore one literature review mapping that has been conducted to guide a PhD research project relating primary science education and multilingual learning contexts. A first generic search with the terms “teacher education”, “primary education”, “science education”, “inquiry” and “language” led to an overwhelmingly high number of publications to be gathered and analyzed. So, the path of searching articles in the main scope of the research (science education) was chosen, towards the elaboration of an analytic review map. This mapping consists of a database that was built with articles retrieved from six key journals’ official website (identified through JCR/Scimago ranking), funneling the scope to “teacher education” in primary level (and elementary, for the USA context), and focusing on how the words “inquiry” and “language” emerge in these publications starting from 2008 (after the Rocard report, from 2007). This type of data is presented by the frequency of occurrences and analyzed by theme cluster for tendency construct, using content analysis. The first set of data extracted from one journal (CSSE) shows that “language” and “inquiry” appear in 35 documents, but the number of appearances in titles decreases to three occurrences, narrowed to two titles (one title overlaps both terms); serving as an example of an area to be potentially explored. In order to tackle how the implications and overlaps between language learning and science education (focusing on the inquiry-based method) are presented in published articles, the qualitative analysis exposes two set of results: 1. Occurrence and thematic mapping from a social-cultural perspective; 2. A set of meanings and its relevance to the topics as relations between the use of the words “inquiry” and “language” are drawn. [less ▲]

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See detailOpening minds to translanguaging pedagogies: perspectives and practices of professionals in early childhood education and primary school.Keynote
Kirsch, Claudine UL

Scientific Conference (2021, November 09)

In Europe, migration, mobility, technology and globalisation have resulted in multilingualism at the societal and individual level. These changes require policy-makers and educationalists to adapt ... [more ▼]

In Europe, migration, mobility, technology and globalisation have resulted in multilingualism at the societal and individual level. These changes require policy-makers and educationalists to adapt teaching. For the last decades, institutions and scholars have called for multilingual education programmes that recognise the existence of the multiple languages spoken by children. The policies of the Council of Europe encourage ‘pluralistic approaches’ as well as early language learning. In the United States, García and her team developed multilingual pedagogies, later called translanguaging pedagogies, that draw on the students’ entire semiotic repertoire to leverage their learning. Research findings in monolingual, bilingual and multilingual contexts testify to the benefits of translanguaging for learning, well-being and identity-building. Such programmes are in line with the UN convention of children’s rights demanding respect for their language, culture and values. While multilingual programmes have been implemented in early childhood education and primary schools in several countries in Europe, professionals seem to be unsure of how to promote multilingualism and deal with language diversity. This presentation is based on the perspectives and practices of professionals in early education and primary schools in multilingual Luxembourg where a programme of plurilingual education has been implemented in the early years in 2017 and where children follow a trilingual curriculum in primary school. I will provide insights into the perspectives of practitioners by drawing on several research projects carried out over the last 6 years in Luxembourg. I will show excerpts of interviews and observations that indicate that early years practitioners have opened up to multilingual education over the last years and are tackling the multiple challenges they face during the implementation of the multilingual programme. Translanguaging also exists in primary schools but a clear language hierarchy is in place and teachers and children do not draw on their entire semiotic repertoire. The presentation concludes with implications for practitioners and policy-makers. [less ▲]

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See detailDifferent forms of workplace bullying involvement and its link to personality, power, social status and well-being
Sischka, Philipp UL; Klingler, Fabrice; Wehage, Mattea et al

Scientific Conference (2021, November 05)

Workplace bullying research is dominated by a victim perspective that is investigated with variable-centered approaches. Thus, we know little about the interplay of bullying exposure and perpetration. The ... [more ▼]

Workplace bullying research is dominated by a victim perspective that is investigated with variable-centered approaches. Thus, we know little about the interplay of bullying exposure and perpetration. The current study employs a person-centered approach to identify employees that show different patterns of workplace bullying involvement. Moreover, the current study aims to identify predictors and outcomes of latent class membership. Self-reported online survey data were collected among employees with different working backgrounds (N = 1,492) via Amazon’s Mechanical Turk. Latent class analysis revealed four classes, i.e., (1) mild bullying involvement, (2) bully-victims (3) non-involved and (4) victims. These classes were meaningfully linked with the big five dimensions, trait aggression, dominance, power and social status, as well as vigor and burnout. Specifically, bully-victims scored high on extraversion, neuroticism, trait aggression, dominance, power, burnout and low on status, agreeableness, conscientiousness, openness, and vigor. Victims on the other hand scored also high on neuroticism and – compared with non-involved – lower on agreeableness, conscientiousness and openness and higher on trait aggression, dominance and burnout. Victims showed the lowest levels of extraversion and status. Scholars and policy makers need to be aware of different patterns of being involved in workplace bullying in order to create effective interventions. [less ▲]

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See detailCentrality and city size effects on NO2 ground and tropospheric concentrations within European cities
Wei, Yufei UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL; Lemoy, Rémi

Scientific Conference (2021, November 05)

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See detailLa paradoja de las desigualdades en la transición a la educación superior en Chile: un análisis de tendencias de contrafactuales y componentes de efectos primarios de origen social
Ceron, Francisco UL; Madia, Joan

Scientific Conference (2021, November 03)

This study analyzes to what extent changes in access to higher education in a diversified educational system are influenced by trends in social and achievement inequalities, and how changes in its ... [more ▼]

This study analyzes to what extent changes in access to higher education in a diversified educational system are influenced by trends in social and achievement inequalities, and how changes in its components influence these inequality trends, in a context of expansion of educational opportunities. We use a unique longitudinal census dataset from entire student cohorts between 2008 and 2018, covering a national standardized assessment in 10th grade and administrative registers of higher education enrolment in Chile, a country with a well-known private provision of education at all levels. By means of decomposition analyses and multinomial logistic models, we focus on access to university tracks, confirming early findings on the major importance of achievement inequalities in explaining socioeconomic differences in enrolments at selective tracks. Social origin, in turn, drives enrollments in non-selective tracks. However, we found that although achievement inequalities between advantaged and disadvantaged students decline over time, the importance of primary effects shows a general increasing tendency. This paradox is explained by the differential rates of change in the relative influence of social origin and the components of achievement inequality. Social differentials influence on enrollments, on top of achievement differences, have declined steeper than achievement inequalities. We discuss how these trends may reflect processes of adaptation and exclusion in achievement inequalities which could drive a regime of effective maintained inequality to one of expanding inequality, even after the free tuition reform of 2016. [less ▲]

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See detailWARCnet WG2 activities: a report
Schafer, Valerie UL

Scientific Conference (2021, November 03)

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See detailThe Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on the Luxembourgish Education System: Differences between students based on background characteristics in elementary and secondary school
Fischbach, Antoine UL; Colling, Joanne UL; Levy, Jessica UL et al

Scientific Conference (2021, November)

Policy responses to the COVID-19 pandemic (e.g., school closure, home-schooling) have affected students at various stages of education all over the world and were found to increase inequalities in ... [more ▼]

Policy responses to the COVID-19 pandemic (e.g., school closure, home-schooling) have affected students at various stages of education all over the world and were found to increase inequalities in academic achievement (OECD, 2021). The present study is based on fully representative large-scale data from the Luxembourg School Monitoring Programme (Épreuves Standardisées; ÉpStan; LUCET, 2021). The ÉpStan are assessing key competencies of primary and secondary school students in different subjects (e.g., German, French and Math). To allow a fair performance comparison, socio-economic and socio-cultural backgrounds of students (e.g., gender, migration and language background) are systematically taken into consideration. The ÉpStan 2020 entail data from approximatively 25.000 students from five different grades (elementary and secondary school), from 15.000 parents (elementary school) and comparative data from 160.000 students from previous cohorts, thus providing key empirical findings on the pandemic’s impact on the Luxembourgish education system. In the present contribution, we analyze a) how the results of standardized achievement tests compare to previous cohorts and under consideration of students’ socio-economical and socio-cultural background, as well as b) how parents and students perceived home-schooling with regard to aspects such as coping, technical equipment, motivation or contact to teachers. First results indicate that in Grades 1, 5, 7 and 9, standardized achievement scores were generally stable in comparison to previous years. However, in Grade 3, students’ competency scores in German (primary language of instruction in elementary school) listening comprehension worsened substantially. Furthermore, third graders from socio-economically disadvantaged households and/or students that do not speak Luxembourgish/German at home did worse in German reading comprehension than their peers from socio-economically advantaged households and/or speaking Luxembourgish/German at home. Concerning the perception of home-schooling, students coped rather well with the situation, with German being a bit more challenging in primary school and math in secondary school. Findings concerning motivation and enjoyment of home-schooling were mixed, with primary school students’ motivation being comparably to the regular school setting but approximately half of the secondary school students being less motivated than in the regular school setting. Furthermore, all households seem to have been well equipped, with the situation being slightly more favorable in socio-economically advantaged households. For the majority of students, the contact with teachers was frequent, with teachers having adapted their type of support to the needs of their students (e.g., more personal contact towards students from socio-economically disadvantaged households). To conclude, it can be said that no systematic negative trend has been identified in students’ achievement scores. Only German listening comprehension in Grade 3 has worsened substantially and these skills should therefore be fostered as early as possible. Overall, students coped rather well with home-schooling without, however, particularly enjoying it. While students entering the pandemic with favorable background characteristics (e.g., higher socio-economic status, speaking a language of instruction at home) managed better both regarding competencies and perception of home-schooling, students with less favorable background characteristics have received more differentiated support. These findings underline that already existing inequalities in the Luxembourgish school system have in parts been intensified by the pandemic. References LUCET. (2021). Épreuves Standardisées (ÉpStan). https://epstan.lu OECD. (2021). The State of School Education: One Year into the COVID Pandemic. OECD Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1787/201dde84-en [less ▲]

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See detailStability of Primary School Value-Added Scores over Time: A Comparison Between Math and Language Achievement as Outcome Variables
Emslander, Valentin UL; Levy, Jessica UL; Scherer, Ronny et al

Scientific Conference (2021, November)

Value-added (VA) models are widely used for accountability purposes in education. Tracking a teacher’s or a school’s VA score over time forms oftentimes the basis for high-stakes decision-making and can ... [more ▼]

Value-added (VA) models are widely used for accountability purposes in education. Tracking a teacher’s or a school’s VA score over time forms oftentimes the basis for high-stakes decision-making and can determine whether teachers can keep their jobs or schools may receive certain funding. Despite their high-stakes application, the stability of VA scores over time has not yet been investigated for primary schools. Moreover, it is unclear whether different outcome measures (e.g., language and mathematics) may differ in their stability over time. In the present study, we aimed to clarify the stability of VA scores over time and investigate the differences across outcome variables. Furthermore, we wanted to showcase the real-life implications of (in)stable VA scores for single schools, with a focus on an informative use of VA scores rather than an evaluative way. The exploration of school VA scores in primary schools is especially relevant for heterogeneous student populations, for instance, in Luxembourg. Thus, we drew on representative longitudinal data from the standardized achievement tests of the Luxembourg School Monitoring Programme and examined the stability of school VA scores over two years in 146 schools (N = 7016 students). The overall stability, as measured by correlation coefficients, was moderate with r = .37 for VA scores in language and r = .34 for VA scores in mathematics from grade one to grade three. Real-life implications for schools will be discussed. [less ▲]

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