References of "Scientific congresses, symposiums and conference proceedings"
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See detailMusique à vent pendant l'occupation nazie au Luxembourg de 1940 à 1944
Sagrillo, Damien François UL

Scientific Conference (2022, April 09)

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See detailThe Instrumental Turn of Nationality: An Investment Law Perspective
Garcia Olmedo, Javier UL

Scientific Conference (2022, April 08)

This workshop takes a holistic approach to examine the role and future of nationality in a globalised world, taking citizenship by investment (CBI) schemes as a point of departure. It explores the ... [more ▼]

This workshop takes a holistic approach to examine the role and future of nationality in a globalised world, taking citizenship by investment (CBI) schemes as a point of departure. It explores the implications and impacts of CBI schemes, followed by a discussion on the instrumental turn of nationality in different areas, including EU law, private international law, human rights law, immigration law, diplomatic protection and international investment law. [less ▲]

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See detailAbstract: The Importance of Dataset Choice Lessons Learned from COVID-19 X-ray Imaging Models
Garcia Santa Cruz, Beatriz UL; Bossa, Matias Nicolas UL; Soelter, Jan et al

in Bildverarbeitung für die Medizin 2022. Informatik aktuell. Springer Vieweg, Wiesbaden. (2022, April 05)

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See detailHabilyzer: A User-Driven Open-Ended Sensor Kit for Office Workers
van den Heuvel, Roy; van Bussel, Tjeu; Lallemand, Carine UL

in Proceedings of the Extended Abstracts of the 2022 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (2022, April)

Office work presents health and wellbeing challenges, triggered by working habits or environmental factors. While technological interventions gain popularity in the workplace, they often fall short of ... [more ▼]

Office work presents health and wellbeing challenges, triggered by working habits or environmental factors. While technological interventions gain popularity in the workplace, they often fall short of acknowledging personal needs. Building on approaches from personal informatics, we present our vision on the use of user-driven, situated sensor probes in an office context and how the community might deal with complex yet timely questions around the use of data to empower people in becoming explorers of their own habits and experiences. We demonstrate Habilyzer, an open-ended sensor toolkit for office workers, which enables user-driven explorations in self-tracking their work routines. This research contributes an alternative approach to improving working habits and vitality in the workplace, moving from solution-oriented technologies to inquiry-enabling tools. Through this demonstration, we also aim to trigger discussions on the use of sensors and data in the office context, in the light of privacy, consent and data ownership. [less ▲]

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See detailFontana: Triggering Physical Activity and Social Connectedness through an Interactive Water Installation
van Renswouw, Loes; van Hamersveld, Yvonne; Huibers, Hugo et al

in Proceedings of the Extended Abstracts of the 2022 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (2022, April)

Promoting healthy and active lifestyles is an important objective for many governing agencies. The design of active urban environments can be an effective tool to encourage more active behaviors and water ... [more ▼]

Promoting healthy and active lifestyles is an important objective for many governing agencies. The design of active urban environments can be an effective tool to encourage more active behaviors and water features can attract people, improving their experience of the urban space. To explore the potential of these concepts, we designed Fontana; an interactive public installation that aims to stimulate physical activity and social connectedness in the urban outdoor space, using the multidimensional attractiveness of water. We focus on the use of embedded interactive technology to promote physical activity, using water as a linking element between users. Adopting a research-through-design approach, we explored how such installations can nudge people into an active behavior while additionally strengthening social connectedness, using inclusive design principles. We report on insights gathered through this case study and findings of a preliminary user test, discussing the implications of this work for design researchers and practitioners. [less ▲]

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See detailEmpathy in Design Scale: Development and Initial Insights
Drouet, Luce UL; Bongard, Kerstin UL; Koenig, Vincent UL et al

in Proceedings of the Extended Abstracts of the 2022 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (2022, April)

Empathy towards users is crucial to the design of user-centered technologies and services. Previous research focused on defining empathy and its role in the design process for triggering empathy for end ... [more ▼]

Empathy towards users is crucial to the design of user-centered technologies and services. Previous research focused on defining empathy and its role in the design process for triggering empathy for end-users. However, there is a lack of empathy measurement instruments in design. Most previous work focused on designers, overlooking the need for other stakeholders to develop empathy towards the users to break organizational silos and deliver high-quality user-centered services and products. In this contribution, we share the preliminary stages of the development of an empathy scale for service design. We build on empathy literature from psychology and design to define 18 items representing four empathy dimensions. We report on the definition of these dimensions and their underlying items, and present preliminary studies in which we reviewed the first version of the scale with experts and stakeholders. [less ▲]

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See detailPhysical Journey Maps: Staging Users’ Experiences to Increase Stakeholders’ Empathy towards Users
Lallemand, Carine UL; Lauret, Jessie; Drouet, Luce UL

in Proceedings of the Extended Abstracts of the 2022 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (2022, April)

Customer Journey Mapping is a widespread service design tool that synthesizes and communicates user research insights to stakeholders. In its common form, a journey map is a synthetic (typically non ... [more ▼]

Customer Journey Mapping is a widespread service design tool that synthesizes and communicates user research insights to stakeholders. In its common form, a journey map is a synthetic (typically non-interactive) visualization of the key steps of the users’ experience with a service or product. By decomposing the elements of a journey map and staging them under the form of a physical and interactive installation, we intend to leverage the power of journey mapping to break silos and prompt employees within an organization to discover end-users journeys in a compelling and empathic way. This aims to support the user-centered maturity of the organization by developing employees’ curiosity and empathy towards users. We illustrate this approach through a case study on railway passengers’ experiences. We explore the value of richer transfers of user research insights through physical journey maps and discuss design processes and mediums enabling journey maps to come to life. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of various outdoor conditions on Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) of bridges using data from Luxembourg
Dakhili, Khatereh UL; Kebig, Tanja; Maas, Stefan UL

in VDI-Berichte 2379, 7. VDI-Fachtagung Baudynamik 27. und 28. April 2022, Würzburg (2022, April)

An increasing number of bridges are approaching the end of their service life due to corrosion and fatigue. Damages can be detected by performing regular measurements of characteristic values and ... [more ▼]

An increasing number of bridges are approaching the end of their service life due to corrosion and fatigue. Damages can be detected by performing regular measurements of characteristic values and comparing them with reference state data when there is no damage in the bridge. Unfortunately, environmental factors such as temperature variations have a considerable impact on the measurements and structural properties, such as stiffness. Since these environmental effects can be in the same order as damage, it is important to quantify them and reduce their effect before damage assessment. This paper aims to establish a correct reference model by investigating the parameters that affect structural responses. Doing so enables discrimination between structural property changes caused by damage and parameters such as temperature variations, load uncertainties, and various bearings. In this regard, several static and dynamic experiments are performed on a full scale undamaged prestressed concrete beam from a demolished bridge, and the results are reported. [less ▲]

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See detailIndividual factors and beliefs determining COVID-19 vaccination willingness
Pauly, Laure UL; Paccoud, Ivana UL; Satagopam, Venkata UL et al

Poster (2022, April)

Background: High vaccination coverage rates are necessary to reduce infections and transmissions of the SARS-CoV-2 virus causing COVID-19 and to allow successful mitigation of the current pandemic. To ... [more ▼]

Background: High vaccination coverage rates are necessary to reduce infections and transmissions of the SARS-CoV-2 virus causing COVID-19 and to allow successful mitigation of the current pandemic. To date, we are still lacking information to explain the hesitancy in Luxembourg towards uptake of the available COVID-19 vaccines. The present study explored motivations for and against vaccination in a population-representative sample of residents across Luxembourg to identify hesitant groups and develop strategies to increase population immunity against SARS-CoV-2. Methods: In the framework of the nationwide, representative longitudinal CON-VINCE study, a sample of 1589 respondents (49.6% women, 84.3% Luxembourg nationality) ranging from 18-84 years, participated in the survey in spring 2021. The protocol of the CON-VINCE study has been described in detail elsewhere (Snoeck et al. 2020). Results: 52% of the respondents had at least partial vaccination at time of assessment between April to June 2021. The most common reasons for vaccination of those willing to be vaccinated (81.2%) were altruistic motivations. Prevalent reasons against vaccination for those undecided (8.7%) or reluctant (10.2%) to be vaccinated were that the vaccine had not been tested sufficiently and the fear of long-term vaccine side effects. Only very few of the vaccination-hesitant or -reluctant respondents reported that they did not believe in vaccination in general. Conclusion: The present study identified motivations for and against COVID-19 vaccination and determined demographic and socio-economic factors associated with vaccination willingness. To increase vaccination rates, public health communication needs to target those unsure or unwilling to be vaccinated. We will continue to study the vaccination uptake in the Luxembourg population, as CON-VINCE is now part of the H2020-funded international ORCHESTRA project (https://orchestra-cohort.eu), research into comparing these results on a Pan-European level. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimizing the Use of the Sentence Completion Survey Technique in User Research – A Case Study on the Experience of E-Reading
Lallemand, Carine UL; Mercier, Emeline

in Proceeding of the CHI 2022 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (2022, April)

Sentence completion, originally a semi-projective psychological technique, has been used as an effective and lightweight user research method in user experience (UX) design. More information is yet still ... [more ▼]

Sentence completion, originally a semi-projective psychological technique, has been used as an effective and lightweight user research method in user experience (UX) design. More information is yet still needed to understand how different sentence stems probe users’ insights, thereby providing recommendations for effective sentence completion surveys. We used the completion method on a large-scale sample to explore (e-)readers’ experiences and needs. Depending on their reading habits, participants (N=1880) were asked to complete a set of sentences, as part of a web survey. With 14143 user ideas collected in two weeks, our results confirm that remote online sentence completion is a cost-effective data collection method able to uncover feelings, attitudes, motivations, needs, or frustrations. Variation in sentence stems affected collected data in terms of item response rate, idea quantity as well as variety and originality. Building on previous research, this paper delivers actionable insights to optimize the richness of sentence completion outputs. [less ▲]

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See detailHabilyzer: Empowering Office Workers to Investigate their Working Habits using an Open-Ended Sensor Kit
van Bussel, Tjeu; van den Heuvel, Roy; Lallemand, Carine UL

in Proceedings of the Extended Abstracts of the 2022 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (2022, April)

Office work presents health and wellbeing challenges, triggered by unhealthy working habits or environmental factors. While technologies for vitality in the office context gain popularity, they are often ... [more ▼]

Office work presents health and wellbeing challenges, triggered by unhealthy working habits or environmental factors. While technologies for vitality in the office context gain popularity, they are often solution-focused and fall short in acknowledging personal needs. Building on approaches from personal informatics, we see value in opening up the design space of tracking and sensing technologies for office workers. We designed and deployed an open-ended sensor kit and conducted two complementary studies to investigate the value of empowering office workers to investigate their own working habits. Findings show that Habilyzer triggers curiosity about working habits, and wireless sensors contribute to inquire into those habits, possibly supported by additional tools. We contribute new insights into how an open-ended sensor kit can be designed to support self-tracking practices and underlying reflections in the underexplored context of office work. It is an alternative approach to workplace vitality, moving from solution-oriented technologies to inquiry-enabling tools. [less ▲]

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See detailEduCHI 2022 - 4th Annual Symposium on HCI Education
McDonald, Craig; St-Cyr, Olivier; Gray, Colin M. et al

in Proceedings of the CHI 2022 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (2022, April)

EduCHI 2022 will bring together an international community of scholars, practitioners, and researchers to shape the future of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) education. Held as part of the CHI 2022 ... [more ▼]

EduCHI 2022 will bring together an international community of scholars, practitioners, and researchers to shape the future of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) education. Held as part of the CHI 2022 conference, the two-day symposium will feature in- teractive discussions about trends, curricula, pedagogies, teaching practices, and current and future challenges facing HCI educators. In addition to providing a platform to share curriculum plans and teaching materials, EduCHI 2022 will also provide opportunities for HCI educators to learn new instructional strategies and deepen their pedagogical knowledge. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Candy Workshop: Supporting Rich Sensory Modalities in Constructive Data Physicalization
Lallemand, Carine UL; Oomen, Maud

in Proceedings of the Extended Abstracts of the 2022 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (2022, April)

Constructive data physicalization (i.e. the creation of visualizations by non-experts using physical elements) is a promising research area in a context of rapid democratization of data collection and ... [more ▼]

Constructive data physicalization (i.e. the creation of visualizations by non-experts using physical elements) is a promising research area in a context of rapid democratization of data collection and visualization, driven notably by the quantified-self movement. Despite a prolific body of work developed to explore physicalization as a mean to communicate data to individuals, little is known about how people transform data into physical artefacts. Current research also falls short in studying constructive physicalizations using other sensory modalities than sight or touch. Building on the principles of data edibilization, we propose to use candies as a medium to study constructive data physicalization processes, due to their ability to leverage multiple sensory channels. We conducted a preliminary study (candy workshop) to gain insights into how people make use of various sensory modalities in the construction of data physicalizations. We hope to inspire new research using candies as accessible research material. [less ▲]

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See detailConceptualising the Legal Notion of ‘State of the Art’ in the Context of IT Security
Schmitz, Sandra UL

in Friedewald, Michael; Krenn, Stephan; Schiffner, Stefan (Eds.) et al Privacy and Identity Management. Between Data Protection and Security (2022, March 31)

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See detailSanierung erhaltenswürdiger Gebäude in der Südeifel mit regionaltypischen Bruch-steinmauerwerk im Kontext der Innendämmung
Müller, Lukas; Latz, Sebastian UL; Thewes, Andreas UL

in Bauphysiktage Kaiserslautern (2022, March 29), 5

Um eine Innendämmung, welche an Bestandsgebäuden oftmals aufgrund baurechtlicher Einschränkungen die einzige Möglichkeit zur thermischen Ertüchtigung der Fassade darstellt, entsprechend planen und ... [more ▼]

Um eine Innendämmung, welche an Bestandsgebäuden oftmals aufgrund baurechtlicher Einschränkungen die einzige Möglichkeit zur thermischen Ertüchtigung der Fassade darstellt, entsprechend planen und nachweisen zu können, sollten die bauphysikalischen Randbedingungen der Außenfassade sowie des darunterliegenden Bruchsteinmauerwerks messtechnisch erfasst und entsprechend gedeutet werden. Mit Hilfe korrekt abgeschätzter Ein-gangsparameter für notwendige, hygrothermische Berechnungen lassen sich spätere Bauschäden, welche die Folge eines fehlerhaften Sanierungskonzepts wären, weitestgehend ausschließen. Diese Studie befasst sich mit typischen Baustoffen für die „Südeifel“ (Sandstein, Schiefer und Kalkstein). An drei realen Wohngebäuden wurden entsprechende Messungen durchgeführt und deren Einfluss auf die Planung einer Innendämmmaßnahme untersucht. Die Ergebnisse wurden zusammengeführt und dienen als Grundlage für möglichst realitätsnahe, dynamische Simulationen. [less ▲]

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See detailThe History of Cross-Border Cooperation: some historiographical remarks
Brüll, Christoph UL

Scientific Conference (2022, March 24)

What is Cross-Border Cooperation? How to write the History of Cross-Border Cooperation? The contribution explores the historiography in the field and presents two case studies (Euregio Meuse-Rhine and ... [more ▼]

What is Cross-Border Cooperation? How to write the History of Cross-Border Cooperation? The contribution explores the historiography in the field and presents two case studies (Euregio Meuse-Rhine and Europäische Vereinigung Eifel-Ardennen). It focusses on the sources that could be used for such a history and on difficulties regarding archival research. [less ▲]

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See detailSeeking A Balanced Investment Protocol in the African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCTA)
Garcia Olmedo, Javier UL

Scientific Conference (2022, March 21)

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See detailLa relecture entre pairs : un levier de motivation de la pratique de l’écrit
Lejot, Eve UL

Scientific Conference (2022, March 17)

Les enseignants corrigent et donnent des conseils d’amélioration à leurs apprenants, mais les commentaires des enseignants sont parfois mal compris (Cole, Coats, Lentell 1986 ; Smith 1997), alors que la ... [more ▼]

Les enseignants corrigent et donnent des conseils d’amélioration à leurs apprenants, mais les commentaires des enseignants sont parfois mal compris (Cole, Coats, Lentell 1986 ; Smith 1997), alors que la relecture entre pairs apporte un échange avec moins de pression (Lejot 2017). Cet échange se fait à un niveau de hiérarchie égal et facilite la négociation de sens des éléments du texte. Néanmoins, certains élèves pointent le manque de qualification des pairs pour remplacer les commentaires des professeurs dans l’enseignement supérieur (Rollinson 2005). Cette démarche trouve toute sa force pour les doctorants. Mis en place sur un semestre, ce système fermé de relecture et de commentaires reçus en boucle est bénéfique et motivant pour ces derniers. Dans les ateliers interdisciplinaires sur les compétences transversales et en l'occurrence celle de l'écrit académique, les doctorants soulignent l’énergie, la réflexion commune et le soutien que leur a apporté la relecture de texte d'un pair et d'être eux-mêmes relus (Lejot 2017). Relire est formateur et être compris par des chercheurs pairs fait faire un grand pas en termes de cohérence d'écriture et d'argumentation bien articulée à ces groupes des écoles doctorales. [less ▲]

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See detailHerausforderungen und Zukunftsperspektiven des Sachunterrichts im Fokus von Migration und Mehrsprachigkeit
Andersen, Katja Natalie UL; Peschel, Markus; Neuböck-Hubinger, Brigitte

Scientific Conference (2022, March 11)

Ein zukunftsfähiger Sachunterricht nimmt auf lebensweltliche Erfahrungen, (Fach)Sprache und aktuelle Entwicklungen zu Migration und Mehrsprachigkeit Bezug (Kahlert 2016). Dazu bedarf es einer ... [more ▼]

Ein zukunftsfähiger Sachunterricht nimmt auf lebensweltliche Erfahrungen, (Fach)Sprache und aktuelle Entwicklungen zu Migration und Mehrsprachigkeit Bezug (Kahlert 2016). Dazu bedarf es einer partizipativen Zusammenführung aller Wissens- und Erfahrungsbereiche im Klassenraum (vgl. Stoltenberg 2004). Das Symposium diskutiert Zukunftsperspektiven für die Entwicklung und Umsetzung von Aufgabenstellungen im Sachunterricht, dargestellt anhand des Themenkomplexes „Schwimmen und Sinken“. Aus unterschiedlichen Blickwinkeln wird der Frage nachgegangen, wie zukünftig Aufgaben gestaltet sein müssen, um eine sprachlich heterogener werdende Schülerschaft in der aktiven Auseinandersetzung mit der Sache zu unterstützen. Ausgehend von einer Klärung der fach-sprachlichen Begrifflichkeiten und der fachlichen Anschlussfähigkeit von Phänomenen und Konzepten zum Thema werden Ergebnisse erster explorativer Untersuchungen entsprechender Aufgaben vorgestellt und aus fachlicher und sprachlicher Sicht diskutiert. Auf der Planungsebene wird die Text-Bild-Kommunikation in Schulbuchaufgaben als Ausgangspunkt gewählt, um den Prozess der didaktischen Rekonstruktion von Aufgaben zu erörtern. Auf der Umsetzungsebene wird sich mit dem Problem mangelnder fachinhaltlicher und -methodischer Kompetenzen der Lehrkräfte auseinandergesetzt, um Forderungen für die Qualifizierung zu formulieren – auch im Hinblick auf die wachsende Mehrsprachigkeit der Schüler*innen. Ziel des Symposiums ist es, zukünftige Entwicklungsfelder mit Blick auf Aufgaben und Lehrer*innenbildung – am Beispiel des Themas „Schwimmen und Sinken“ – aufzuzeigen und vor dem Hintergrund aktueller Entwicklungen zu diskutieren. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Digital Archive and the Politics of Digitisation
Zaagsma, Gerben UL

Scientific Conference (2022, March 10)

In this paper I will discuss key parameters of the politics of digitisation within a broader historical and global context with the aim to encourage further debate on its implications for historical ... [more ▼]

In this paper I will discuss key parameters of the politics of digitisation within a broader historical and global context with the aim to encourage further debate on its implications for historical research. In the first part, I will outline the global dimensions of the politics of digital cultural heritage with a particular focus on developments within and between Europe and Africa, framed within the broader context of the politics of heritage and its preservation and recent debates about ‘postcolonial digital humanities’. In the second part, I will discuss the history and current state of digitisation in Europe and Africa. Here I will partly draw upon the web archive of the IFLA/Unesco Directory of Digitised Library Collections (2002-2006) and recent global and European digitisation surveys. The paper will conclude by highlighting the paradoxical situation we currently face with regard to digitisation and the state of ‘memory’ in both the global North and South. [less ▲]

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See detailDie Bedeutung der Schule für Gesundheit und Wohlbe- finden von Schülerinnen und Schülern: Ergebnisse der HBSC Surveys 2018 in Luxemburg
van Duin, Claire UL; Heinz, Andreas UL; Willems, Helmut Erich UL

Scientific Conference (2022, March 10)

Neben der Familie ist die Schule für Kinder und Jugendliche ein wichtiges Umfeld. Hier verbringen sie einen großen Teil des Tages, hier treffen sie ihre Freunde, und ihre schulischen Leistungen bestimmen ... [more ▼]

Neben der Familie ist die Schule für Kinder und Jugendliche ein wichtiges Umfeld. Hier verbringen sie einen großen Teil des Tages, hier treffen sie ihre Freunde, und ihre schulischen Leistungen bestimmen wesentlich mit, welchen beruflichen Weg sie später einschlagen können. Dementsprechend hat die Schule als sozialer Kontext einen großen Einfluss auch auf das Wohlbefinden und gesundheitliche Befindlichkeiten der Schüler. Positive schulische Erfahrungen können eine Ressource für Wohlbefinden sein, negative Erfahrungen können die psychische und physische Gesundheit beeinträchtigen. Da es sich bei HBSC um eine Befragung handelt, die in der Schule durchgeführt wird und da die Schule ein wichtiges soziales Umfeld ist, werden auch mehrere Fragen zur Schule gestellt. Im Vortrag werden zunächst aktuelle Ergebnisse aus Luxemburg zum schulischen Kontext präsentiert und international eingeordnet. So wird schon seit mehreren Befragungen erhoben, ob die Schüler die Schule mögen, ob sie sich durch die Schularbeit gestresst fühlen und wie sie die Beziehungen zu ihren Klassenkameraden und den Lehrern bewerten und ob sie viel auf der Ebene der Klasse und der Schule mitbestimmen können. In einem zweiten Schritt wird mit Hilfe einer Clusteranalyse untersucht, ob es typische Konstellationen gibt, d. h. Gruppen von Schülern, die sich in ihren Schulerfahrungen möglichst stark ähneln. Aus der HBSC-Studie ist bekannt, dass es zahlreiche Zusammenhänge zwischen diesen Erfahrungen gibt. Wenn solche kohärenten Gruppen identifiziert werden können, dann kann eine darauf basierende Typologie helfen, die komplexen Zusammenhänge zwischen zahlreichen Variablen in komprimierter Form darzustellen. Im konkreten Fall wurden 4 schulbezogene Einstellungen und Bewertungen dazu genutzt, um solche Gruppen zu identifizieren. Diese Gruppen/Cluster werden zunächst anhand der Variablen beschrieben, die zur Gruppenbildung genutzt wurden. Die Analyse zeigt, dass es bezüglich der Schulerfahrungen fünf in sich homogene Cluster gibt. Cluster 1, in dem sich der größte Anteil der Schüler (28.8%) befindet, ist durch allgemein positive Schulerfahrungen gekennzeichnet. Die Schüler in dieser Gruppe mögen die Schule, sie berichten von einem guten Klassenklima und sie geben an, kaum durch die Schularbeit gestresst zu sein. Darüber hinaus berichten diese Schüler über ein gutes Verhältnis zu ihren Lehrern. Cluster 2 ist durch Schüler gekennzeichnet, deren Schulerfahrungen überwiegend positiv sind (sie mögen die Schule und sie haben ein gutes Verhältnis zu den Mitschülern und Lehrern), die sich aber durch die Schularbeit gestresst fühlen, was sich negativ auf ihr allgemeines Wohlbefinden auswirkt. Cluster 3 zeichnet sich durch Schüler aus, die über ein geringes Maß an Stress berichten und insgesamt durchschnittliche Werte für die schulbezogenen Variablen wie Beziehungen zu ihrem Lehrer und das Klassenklima aufweisen. In Cluster 4 befinden sich die Schüler, die viel Schulstress erfahren, relativ schlechte Beziehungen zu ihren Lehrern haben und die Schule im Allgemeinen nicht mögen. Allerdings berichten diese Schüler von einem guten Klassenklima. Dieses Cluster umfasst 14.7% der Schüler und ist damit das kleinste Cluster. Cluster 5 besteht aus Schülern mit durchweg negativen Schulerfahrungen und ist damit das Gegenteil von Cluster 1. Die Schüler in Cluster 5 haben viel Schulstress, sind nicht gerne in der Schule und berichten von schlechteren Beziehungen zu ihren Lehrern und Mitschülern im Vergleich zu den Schülern in den anderen Clustern. Die weitere Beschreibung der Cluster mit Hilfe von soziodemografischen Variablen, anderen schulbezogenen Variablen und gesundheitsbezogenen Ergebnisvariablen wird zeigen, dass die gefundenen Gruppen in sich kohärent sind bezüglich der schulbezogenen Variablen, und dass sie zudem mit gesundheitsbezogenen und mit soziodemografischen Variablen korrelieren. [less ▲]

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See detailSubjektives Wohlbefinden in der 5. und 9. Schulklasse: gibt es einen Zusammenhang mit dem Bildungsweg und der schulischen Leistung?
Pit-Ten Cate, Ineke UL; Esch, Pascale UL; Keller, Ulrich UL et al

Scientific Conference (2022, March 09)

Der Bildungsauftrag unserer heutigen Wissensgesellschaft vereint ein vielseitiges Spektrum an Kompetenzen, die den Schüler*innen vermittelt werden sollen. Die Lernziele beinhalten nicht nur akademischen ... [more ▼]

Der Bildungsauftrag unserer heutigen Wissensgesellschaft vereint ein vielseitiges Spektrum an Kompetenzen, die den Schüler*innen vermittelt werden sollen. Die Lernziele beinhalten nicht nur akademischen Erfolg, sondern auch schulisches Wohlbefinden. In der Bildungsforschung haben affektive und sozio-emotionale Faktoren sowie deren Einfluss auf das Erreichen von Lernzielen über die letzten Jahrzehnte an Interesse gewonnen (s.a. Hascher et al., 2018). Subjektives Wohlbefinden (SWB) ist ein komplexes, multidimensionales Phänomen, welches emotionale, soziale und kognitive Facetten umfasst (Hascher & Edlinger, 2009). Das SWB wird als Grundlage für erfolgreiches Lernen betrachtet (Hascher & Hagenauer, 2011), wobei der Zusammenhang je nach Entwicklungsstadium der Schüler*innen variieren kann. Ergebnisse einer Metaanalyse (Bücker et al., 2018) zeigten eine statistisch signifikante mittlere Effektstärke für den Zusammenhang zwischen SWB und Leistung, wobei diese Ergebnisse über verschiedene Ebenen soziodemografischer Merkmale, SWB-Domäne und Indikatoren der Leistung hinweg stabil waren. Außerdem zeigten Gutman und Voraus (2012) in einer längsschnittlichen Studie mit einer Kohorte von Schüler*innen zwischen 7 und 13 Jahren, schwache bis mittlere Korrelationen zwischen unterschiedlichen Dimensionen des Wohlbefindens und aktueller sowie späterer akademischer Leistung. In dieser Studie haben wir den Zusammenhang zwischen verschiedenen Dimensionen des SWB und standardisierten Kompetenztestergebnissen zu verschiedenen Zeitpunkten (5. und 9. Schulkasse) untersucht. Ein erstes Ziel bestand darin, die Unterschiede des Wohlbefindens in Bezug auf das Entwicklungsstadium zu untersuchen, wobei wir auch den Einfluss von Klassenwiederholung und Schulzweig betrachteten. Ein weiteres Ziel der Studie bestand darin, den Zusammenhang zwischen SWB und Leistung unter Berücksichtigung sozio-demografischer Variablen zu ermitteln. Die Ergebnisse basieren auf den Daten der gesamte Kohorte von Fünft- und Neuntklässler*innen (N=5159 bzw. N=6279), die im Rahmen des nationalen Schulmonitoring (Luxembourg School Monitoring Programm „Épreuves Standardisées“; Martin et al., 2015) im November 2018 in Luxemburg erhoben wurden. Im Rahmen dieser Erhebung wurden sowohl standardisierte Schulleistungstests als auch ein Fragebogen zu soziodemographischen und sozio-emotionalen Aspekten durchgeführt. Vier Domäne des SWB wurden erfasst: Selbstkonzept, Schulangst, soziale- sowie emotionale Inklusion. Die standardisierten Leistungstests umfassten Leseverstehen in Deutsch und Französisch sowie Mathematik. Zusätzlich wurden über einen Schüler- oder Elternfragebogen weitere sozio-demographische Merkmale erfasst. Der Zusammenhang zwischen SWB und Entwicklungsstadium (Schulklasse) unter Einbeziehung von Klassenwiederholung und Schulzweig wurde mittels zwei mixed model Analysen überprüft. Die Ergebnisse zeigten, dass Schüler*innen in der 5. Klasse höhere Werte von SWB angaben als Schüler*innen in der 9. Klasse, F(8,121164)=180.61, p<.001. Zusätzlich wurde das SWB negativ beeinflusst durch Klassenwiederholung, F(8, 63989)=17.75, p<.001. Neuntklässler*innen in anspruchsvolleren Schulzweigen gaben höhere Werte von SWB an als Schüler*innen in niedrigeren Schulzweigen, F(2,40219)=15.71, p<001. Die Schulleistung wurde über eine schrittweise Regression vorhergesagt: zunächst wurden sozio-demographische Hintergrundvariable (Geschlecht, Migrationshintergrund, HISEI der Eltern) dem Model hinzugefügt und, in einem zweiten Schritt, Indikatoren des SWB. Die Ergebnisse zeigten, dass in der 5. Klasse 13% und in der 9. Klasse 19% der Varianz in der Schulleistung durch soziodemografische Variablen vorausgesagt werden kann. Sowohl für Fünft- als auch für Neuntklässler*innen, erklärten die Dimensionen des SWB zusätzliche 6% bzw. 4% der Varianz. Die Ergebnisse dieser Studie zeigten, dass Entwicklungsstadium, Klassenwiederholung und Schulzweig einen Einfluß auf das SWB der Schüler*innen haben. Darüber hinaus zeigten die Ergebnisse, dass das SWB über soziodemografische Merkmale hinaus zur Erklärung der schulischen Leistung beiträgt. In Anbetracht ihrer Ergebnisse, kann diese Studie auch die Diskussion um Klassenwiederholung als pädagogische Intervention und um die Praxis der Aufgliederung von Schüler*innen nach Leistungsniveau innerhalb und zwischen Schulformen bereichern. Während sich die meisten Studien zu den Effekten dieser Interventionen auf die schulische Leistung konzentrierten, zeigt die vorliegende Studie, dass diese Maßnahmen auch das SWB betreffen. Weitere (längsschnittliche) Studien könnten darauf eingehen, inwieweit es letztendlich zu einem kumulativen Effekt auf die schulische Leistung kommen kann oder ob und inwiefern das SWB den Zusammenhang zwischen diesen Faktoren und der schulischen Leistung beeinflussen kann. [less ▲]

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See detailStereotypbasierte Erwartungen und Lehrer*innenverhalten: Auswirkungen eines diagnostischen Etiketts auf die Klassenführung und die Beziehung zwischen Lehrperson und Schüler*innen.
Glock, Sabine UL; Pit-Ten Cate, Ineke UL

Scientific Conference (2022, March 09)

Theoretischer Hintergrund Neben der allgemeinen und domänenspezifischen Kompetenz von Lehrkräften bestimmen die Klassenführung und die Beziehung zwischen Lehrpersonen und Schüler*innen den Lernerfolg der ... [more ▼]

Theoretischer Hintergrund Neben der allgemeinen und domänenspezifischen Kompetenz von Lehrkräften bestimmen die Klassenführung und die Beziehung zwischen Lehrpersonen und Schüler*innen den Lernerfolg der Schüler*innen (Korpershoek et al., 2016). Die Klassenführung umfasst Strategien, die durchgeführt werden, um Ordnung zu schaffen (Doyle, 2006) und die aktive Arbeitszeit zu maximieren (Ophardt & Thiel, 2013), wobei eine Kombination von präventiven und intervenierenden Strategien zu einer effektiven Klassenführung beitragen (Little & Akin-Little, 2008). Das Modell des zwischenmenschlichen Lehrer*innenverhaltens (Wubbels et al., 2006) klassifiziert das Verhalten von Lehrkräften in die zwei Dimensionen Einfluss und Nähe, wobei eine Kombination aus autoritärem und tolerantem Verhalten als optimal angesehen wird (Wubbels & Brekelmans, 2005). Eine effektive Klassenführung und das Verständnis der Lehrkräfte für Faktoren im Zusammenhang mit dem Externalisierungs- und Internalisierungsverhalten von Schüler*innen können im Hinblick auf die Umsetzung inklusiver Bildung besonders relevant sein. Die von Lehrer*innen gewählten Strategien können jedoch durch ihre Überzeugungen und Erwartungen an bestimmte Gruppen von Schüler*innen beeinflusst werden (Bibou-Nakou et al., 2000), die mit Stereotypen in Verbindung stehen. Diese Stereotype können durch Etikettierungen aktiviert werden, beispielsweise durch eine Diagnose von sonderpädagogischem Förderbedarf (Hornstra et al., 2010). Solche Diagnosen können die Erwartungen beeinflussen und zu erhöhter Akzeptanz und Toleranz führen, und Lehrer*innen wenden oft unterschiedliche Standards und Strategien an, um auf diese Schüler*innen zu reagieren und sie zu unterstützen (Andreou & Rapti, 2010; Georgiou et al., 2002). Fragestellung Die Studie zielte darauf ab, die Klassenführung und das zwischenmenschliche Lehrer*innenverhalten als Funktion des Schülerverhaltens und einer klinischen Diagnose zu untersuchen. Wir erwarteten erstens, dass die Lehramtsstudierende bei der Konfrontation mit externalisierendem Verhalten im Vergleich zu internalisierendem Verhalten eine strengere Klassenführung und negativeres zwischenmenschliches Verhalten zeigen und zweitens, dass die Lehramtsstudierenden ihre Strategien in Abhängigkeit von einer Diagnose des sonderpädagogischen Förderbedarfs anpassen. Methode An der Studie haben 254 Lehramtsstudierende (143 weiblich) teilgenommen. Die Teilnehmer*innen wurden gebeten, anhand von Schülervignetten eine Bewertung bezüglich einer passenden Klassenführung (Neuenschwander et al., 2003) und eines angemessenen zwischenmenschlichen Lehrer*innenverhaltens abzugeben (Fisher et al., 1995; Wubbels et al., 2006). Die Schülervignetten beschrieben zwei unterschiedliche Schüler mit externalisierende oder internalisierende Verhaltensauffälligkeiten (s.a. Glock, 2016; Glock & Kleen, 2017). Um den Einfluss der Diagnose auf die Antworten der Teilnehmer*innen zu untersuchen, variierten wir systematisch das Vorliegen einer klinischen Diagnose. Daher folgte die Studie einem 2 (Diagnose: ja/nein) x 2 (Verhalten: internalisierend/externalisierend) Zwischensubjekt Design. Ergebnisse und ihre Bedeutung Die Daten zur Klassenführung wurden mit einer 2x2 MANOVA ausgewertet. Die Ergebnisse zeigten signifikanten Haupteffekte für Schülerverhalten und Diagnose, das heißt die angegebenen Klassenführungsstrategien variierten in Abhängigkeit des Schülerverhaltens (externalisierend vs. internalisierend) und Diagnose (ja/nein). Auch der Interaktionseffekt Verhalten x Diagnose war signifikant. Die Ergebnisse zusätzlicher ANOVAs zeigten, dass Lehramtsstudierende als Antwort auf Schüler mit externalisierenden Verhalten strengere Kontrolle (Regeln setzen) und mehr Flexibilität anwenden als auf internalisierendes Verhalten, vor allem wenn die Schüler mit internalisierenden Verhalten eine Diagnose sonderpädagogischen Förderbedarfs haben. Die Angaben zu dem zwischenmenschlichen Verhalten wurden mit einer 2x2 MANOVA analysiert. Auch hier waren die beiden Haupteffekte (Schülerverhalten und Diagnose) und der Interaktionseffekt (Verhalten x Diagnose) signifikant. Zusätzliche ANOVAs zeigten, dass Lehramtsstudierende im Allgemeinen autoritative zwischenmenschliche Verhaltensmuster bevorzugen, die durch Kooperation und eine gewisse Dominanz charakterisiert werden. Insgesamt zeigen die Befunde, dass Lehramtsstudiere ihre Klassenführung und zwischenmenschliches Verhalten an das Schülerverhalten und an eine klinische Diagnose anpassen. Die Lehramtsstudierenden passten ihre Strategien an, wenn Schüler eine klinische Diagnose erhielten, und wurden toleranter und unterstützender für Schüler mit internalisierendem Verhalten, während sie vor allem strengere Kontrolle und Strategien zur Begrenzung störenden (externalisierenden) Schülerverhalten anwendeten, unabhängig von einer Diagnose. Diese Befunde können teilweise auf bestehende Überzeugungen und Erwartungen hinweisen, insbesondere da die Lehramtsstudierende weniger bereit sind, externalisierendes Verhalten zu tolerieren. [less ▲]

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See detailConsent To Shoot – Rethinking The Anti-satellite Weapon Versus Space Debris Dilemma
Graczyk, Rafal UL; Rodrigues de Mendonça Neto, Júlio UL; Volp, Marcus UL

Scientific Conference (2022, March 02)

Space debris, whether caused by anti-satellite weapons or from collisions with defunct vehicles, has become a serious threat to the safe and sustainable use of space. Technologies have been proposed to ... [more ▼]

Space debris, whether caused by anti-satellite weapons or from collisions with defunct vehicles, has become a serious threat to the safe and sustainable use of space. Technologies have been proposed to mitigate this problem by actively removing debris (ADR) by capturing and de-orbiting the targets (e.g., rendezvous operations, tethers, or harpoons) or by indirectly affecting the target’s orbit (e.g., using lasers). However, rather sooner than later, deploying ADR technologies against healthy satellites turns the tools for making space safer into anti-satellite weapons, capable of crippling other nations’ infrastructure. In an attempt to resolve the tool-versus-weapon dilemma, we discuss in this paper technical solutions that involve a paradigm shift in the Concept of Operations, but that also have the potential to avoid political implications and many concerns that currently prevent us from solving the space-debris problem. The solutions we advocate require consensus between involved stakeholders for all critical operations of an ADR system. We show it is technologically possible and, in fact, already well understood how to enforce that such operations can only be performed consensually. We sketch a distributed infrastructure, capable of supporting such operations among all stakeholders, enforcing agreement in international cooperation about where and for how long an ADR system gets activated, what targets it follows and where safety zones and objects are. In this way, stakeholders have to validate every piece of information to remove single points of failures, but more importantly to put the required mutual trust on solid and technologically enforced foundations. [less ▲]

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See detailWaveform Design for Joint Radar-Communications with Low Complexity Analog Components
Kaushik, Aryan; Arora, Aakash; Tsinos,Christos et al

Poster (2022, March)

In this paper, we aim to design an efficient and low hardware complexity based dual-function multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) joint radar-communication (JRC) system. It is implemented via a low ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we aim to design an efficient and low hardware complexity based dual-function multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) joint radar-communication (JRC) system. It is implemented via a low complexity analog architecture, constituted by a phase shifting network and variable gain amplifier. The proposed system exploits the multiple antenna transmitter for the simultaneous communication with multiple downlink users and radar target detection. The transmit waveform of the proposed JRC system is designed to minimize the downlink multi-user interference such that the desired radar beampattern is achieved and the architecture specific constraints are satisfied. The resulting optimization problem is non-convex and in general difficult to solve. We propose an efficient algorithmic solution based on the primal-dual framework. The numerical results show the effectiveness of the proposed approach. [less ▲]

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See detailAre Value-Added Scores Stable Enough for High-Stakes Decisions?
Emslander, Valentin UL; Levy, Jessica UL; Scherer, Ronny et al

Scientific Conference (2022, March)

Theoretical Background: Can we quantify the effectiveness of a teacher or a school with a single number? Researchers in the field of value-added (VA) models may argue just that (e.g., Chetty et al., 2014 ... [more ▼]

Theoretical Background: Can we quantify the effectiveness of a teacher or a school with a single number? Researchers in the field of value-added (VA) models may argue just that (e.g., Chetty et al., 2014; Kane et al., 2013). VA models are widely used for accountability purposes in education and quantify the value a teacher or a school adds to their students’ achievement. For this purpose, these models predict achievement over time and attempt to control for factors that cannot be influenced by schools or teachers (i.e., sociodemographic & sociocultural background). Following this logic, what is left must be due to teacher or school differences (see, e.g., Braun, 2005). To utilize VA models for high-stakes decision-making (e.g., teachers’ tenure, the allocation of funding), these models would need to be highly stable over time. School-level stability over time, however, has hardly been researched at all and the resulting findings are mixed, with some studies indicating high stability of school VA scores over time (Ferrão, 2012; Thomas et al., 2007) and others reporting a lack of stability (e.g., Gorard et al., 2013; Perry, 2016). Furthermore, as there is no consensus on which variables to use as independent or dependent variables in VA models (Everson, 2017; Levy et al., 2019), the stability of VA could vary between different outcome measures (e.g., language or mathematics). If VA models lack stability over time and across outcome measures, their use as the primary information for high-stakes decision-making is in question, and the inferences drawn from them could be compromised. Questions: With these uncertainties in mind, we examine the stability of school VA model scores over time and investigate the differences between language and mathematics achievement as outcome variables. Additionally, we demonstrate the real-life implications of (in)stable VA scores for single schools and point out an alternative, more constructive use of school VA models in educational research. Method: To study the stability of VA scores on school level over time and across outcomes, we drew on a sample of 146 primary schools, using representative longitudinal data from the standardized achievement tests of the Luxembourg School Monitoring Programme (LUCET, 2021). These schools included a heterogeneous and multilingual sample of 7016 students. To determine the stability of VA scores in the subject of mathematics and in languages over time, we based our analysis on two longitudinal datasets (from 2015 to 2017 and from 2017 to 2019, respectively) and generated two VA scores per dataset, one for language and one for mathematics achievement. We further analyzed how many schools displayed stable VA scores in the respective outcomes over two years, and compared the rank correlations of VA scores between language and mathematics achievement as an outcome variable. Results and Their Significance: Only 34-38 % of the schools showed stable VA scores from grade 1 to 3 with moderate rank correlations of r = .37 with language and r = .34 with mathematics achievement. We therefore discourage using VA models as the only information for high-stakes educational decisions. Nonetheless, we argue that VA models could be employed to find genuinely effective teaching or school practices—especially in heterogeneous student populations, such as Luxembourg, in which educational disparities are an important topic already in primary school (Hoffmann et al., 2018). Consequently, we contrast the school climate and instructional quality, which might be a driver of the differences between schools with stable high vs. low VA scores. Literature Braun, H. (2005). Using student progress to evaluate teachers: A primer on value-added models. Educational Testing Service. Chetty, R., Friedman, J. N., & Rockoff, J. E. (2014). Measuring the impacts of teachers I: Evaluating bias in teacher value-added estimates. American Economic Review, 104(9), 2593–2632. https://doi.org/10.1257/aer.104.9.2593 Everson, K. C. (2017). Value-added modeling and educational accountability: Are we answering the real questions? Review of Educational Research, 87(1), 35–70. https://doi.org/10.3102/0034654316637199 Ferrão, M. E. (2012). On the stability of value added indicators. Quality & Quantity, 46(2), 627–637. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11135-010-9417-6 Gorard, S., Hordosy, R., & Siddiqui, N. (2013). How unstable are “school effects” assessed by a value-added technique? International Education Studies, 6(1), 1–9. https://doi.org/10.5539/ies.v6n1p1 Kane, T. J., McCaffrey, D. F., Miller, T., & Staiger, D. O. (2013). Have We Identified Effective Teachers? Validating Measures of Effective Teaching Using Random Assignment. Research Paper. MET Project. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED540959.pdf Levy, J., Brunner, M., Keller, U., & Fischbach, A. (2019). Methodological issues in value-added modeling: An international review from 26 countries. Educational Assessment, Evaluation and Accountability, 31(3), 257–287. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11092-019-09303-w LUCET. (2021). Épreuves Standardisées (ÉpStan). https://epstan.lu Perry, T. (2016). English value-added measures: Examining the limitations of school performance measurement. British Educational Research Journal, 42(6), 1056–1080. https://doi.org/10.1002/berj.3247 Thomas, S., Peng, W. J., & Gray, J. (2007). Modelling patterns of improvement over time: Value added trends in English secondary school performance across ten cohorts. Oxford Review of Education, 33(3), 261–295. https://doi.org/10.1080/03054980701366116 [less ▲]

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See detailA TWO-STEP FEATURE EXTRACTION ALGORITHM: APPLICATION TO DEEP LEARNING FOR POINT CLOUD CLASSIFICATION
Nurunnabi, Abdul Awal Md UL; Teferle, Felix Norman UL; Laefer, Debra et al

in A TWO-STEP FEATURE EXTRACTION ALGORITHM: APPLICATION TO DEEP LEARNING FOR POINT CLOUD CLASSIFICATION (2022, March)

Most deep learning (DL) methods that are not end-to-end use several multi-scale and multi-type hand-crafted features that make the network challenging, more computationally intensive and vulnerable to ... [more ▼]

Most deep learning (DL) methods that are not end-to-end use several multi-scale and multi-type hand-crafted features that make the network challenging, more computationally intensive and vulnerable to overfitting. Furthermore, reliance on empirically-based feature dimensionality reduction may lead to misclassification. In contrast, efficient feature management can reduce storage and computational complexities, builds better classifiers, and improves overall performance. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is a well-known dimension reduction technique that has been used for feature extraction. This paper presents a two-step PCA based feature extraction algorithm that employs a variant of feature-based PointNet (Qi et al., 2017a) for point cloud classification. This paper extends the PointNet framework for use on large-scale aerial LiDAR data, and contributes by (i) developing a new feature extraction algorithm, (ii) exploring the impact of dimensionality reduction in feature extraction, and (iii) introducing a non-end-to-end PointNet variant for per point classification in point clouds. This is demonstrated on aerial laser scanning (ALS) point clouds. The algorithm successfully reduces the dimension of the feature space without sacrificing performance, as benchmarked against the original PointNet algorithm. When tested on the well-known Vaihingen data set, the proposed algorithm achieves an Overall Accuracy (OA) of 74.64% by using 9 input vectors and 14 shape features, whereas with the same 9 input vectors and only 5PCs (principal components built by the 14 shape features) it actually achieves a higher OA of 75.36% which demonstrates the effect of efficient dimensionality reduction. [less ▲]

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See detailProvably Solving the Hidden Subset Sum Problem via Statistical Learning
Coron, Jean-Sébastien UL; Gini, Agnese UL

in Mathematical Cryptology (2022, March), 1

At Crypto ’99, Nguyen and Stern described a lattice based algorithm for solving the hidden subset sum problem, a variant of the classical subset sum problem where the n weights are also hidden. As an ... [more ▼]

At Crypto ’99, Nguyen and Stern described a lattice based algorithm for solving the hidden subset sum problem, a variant of the classical subset sum problem where the n weights are also hidden. As an application, they showed how to break the Boyko et al. fast generator of random pairs (x, g x(mod p)). The Nguyen-Stern algorithm works quite well in practice for moderate values of n, but its complexity is exponential in n. A polynomial-time variant was recently described at Crypto 2020, based on a multivariate technique, but the approach is heuristic only. In this paper, we describe a proven polynomial-time algorithm for solving the hidden subset-sum problem, based on statistical learning. In addition, we show that the statistical approach is also quite efficient in practice: using the FastICA algorithm, we can reach n = 250 in reasonable time. [less ▲]

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See detailInteractive Narratives and Transmedia Storytelling: An Insight on Digital Exhibitions
Camarda, Sandra UL

in Sonnabend, Gaby; Thewes, Guy (Eds.) Narratives in History Museums – Reflections and Perspectives (2022, March)

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See detailRetrograde Procedural Memory in Parkinson's Disease
Pauly, Laure UL; Pauly, Claire UL; Hansen, Maxime UL et al

Poster (2022, March)

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See detailMaking History Together: Participation in Museums
Cauvin, Thomas UL

in Sonnabend, Gaby; Guy, Thewes (Eds.) Narratives in History Museums – Reflections and Perspectives (2022, March)

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See detailPost-quantum Security of Plain OAEP Transform
Ebrahimi, Ehsan UL

in The International Conference on Practice and Theory of Public-Key Cryptography (PKC), Japan 8-11 March 2022. (2022, March)

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See detail“Keeping the lights on” – Maintaining (communication) infrastructures
Krebs, Stefan UL

Scientific Conference (2022, February 24)

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See detailThe delicate balance between expansion, innovation and maintenance of the Luxembourg Telephone Network
Krebs, Stefan UL; Mossop, Rebecca UL

Scientific Conference (2022, February 24)

Since its establishment in 1885, the Luxembourg telephone network was characterised by bottlenecks in network expansion, which were in the course of the 20th century to be remedied by new cables ... [more ▼]

Since its establishment in 1885, the Luxembourg telephone network was characterised by bottlenecks in network expansion, which were in the course of the 20th century to be remedied by new cables (expansion) and new distribution technology (innovation). However, the envisioned expansion was repeatedly slowed down by a lack of trained technical staff and resources. For example, requests for new connections had repeatedly to be rejected and already planned expansion measures had to be postponed. Due to the one-sided focus of government and Luxembourg Post (PTT) administration on network expansion, the maintenance and repair of the network suffered at the same time, so that more frequent defects occurred. At the same time did the repair of defects tie up human and material resources that were then not available for expansion works. The PTT was thus confronted with a constant balancing act between the expansion and modernisation of the network and its maintenance, with the management level prioritising expansion and innovation. The problem was particularly virulent during the rapid expansion of telephony in the 1960s and 70s, but the paper will trace the fundamental conflict of interests for the first one hundred years of telephony in Luxembourg. The paper draws on legal documents and PTT reports to show how the construction, expansion and maintenance of the telephone network was envisioned, and how the shortage of technical staff and resources hampered the smooth operation of the system. [less ▲]

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See detailDiscussion of an algorithm to transfer arbitrary shear connector load-slip curves into an effective shear resistance
Odenbreit, Christoph UL; Kozma, Andras UL; Romero, Alfredo UL

in Kolloquiumsband - 23 DASt-Forschungskolloquium (2022, February 22)

The RFCS research project REDUCE (Project No. 710040) investigated dismountable shear connections with preloaded bolts. These connectors have in most cases a slip capacity greater than 6 mm and show a ... [more ▼]

The RFCS research project REDUCE (Project No. 710040) investigated dismountable shear connections with preloaded bolts. These connectors have in most cases a slip capacity greater than 6 mm and show a monotonic increasing nonlinear load-slip behaviour without plastic plateau and failure of the bolt in shear. Current design procedures of steel-concrete composite beams are largely based on the implementation of headed shear studs, which exhibit a rather different load-slip behaviour with a pronounced plastic niveau. Thus, a question turned out, which compression force can be activated by the shear connection in the concrete girder of a composite beam and how can the respective ultimate bending capacity be determined. Hence, this contribution presents an analytical algorithm to estimate the occurring compression force in the concrete girder when demountable shear connectors are used. The proposed algorithm bases on the actual measured load-slip curve of the shear connection and the expected slip along the beam, which is estimated for each single connector to later determine the compression force in the concrete girder. In addition to the explanation of the “general algorithm”, assumptions for practical use have been made for the slip distribution to simplify the calculation of the compression force and an effective shear resistance P_Rd,eff. [less ▲]

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See detailRetrofitting of legacy machines in the context of Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT)
Kolla, Sri Sudha Vijay Keshav UL; Machado Lourenço, Diogo UL; Plapper, Peter UL

in Procedia Computer Science (2022, February 08), 200

In the context of Industry 4.0 (I 4.0), one of the most important aspects is data, followed by the capital required to deploy advanced technologies. However, most Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) are ... [more ▼]

In the context of Industry 4.0 (I 4.0), one of the most important aspects is data, followed by the capital required to deploy advanced technologies. However, most Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) are neither data ready nor have the capital to upgrade their existing machinery. In SMEs, most of the legacy machines do not have data gathering capabilities. In this scenario, the concept of retrofitting the existing machinery with sensors and building an Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) is more beneficial than upgrading the equipment to newer machinery. The current research paper proposes a simple architecture on retrofitting a legacy machine with external sensors for data collection and feeding the cloud-based databases for analysis/monitoring purposes. The design and functional aspects of the architecture are then tested in a laboratory environment on a drilling machine with no embedded sensors. Data related to the speed of the drill head and the bore depth are collected using newly retrofitted sensors to validate the proposed architecture. [less ▲]

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See detailTHE EVOLUTION OF THERMAL DISTORTION AND STRESSES AT MACRO SCALE FOR METAL ADDITIVELY MANUFACTURED PART
Mashhood, Muhammad UL; Zilian, Andreas UL; Peters, Bernhard UL et al

Scientific Conference (2022, February 05)

[1] R.K. Ganeriwala, M. Strantza, W.E. King, B. Clausen, T.Q. Phan, L.E. Levine, D.W. Brown, N.E. Hodge, Evaluation of a thermomechanical modelfor prediction of residual stress during laser powder bed ... [more ▼]

[1] R.K. Ganeriwala, M. Strantza, W.E. King, B. Clausen, T.Q. Phan, L.E. Levine, D.W. Brown, N.E. Hodge, Evaluation of a thermomechanical modelfor prediction of residual stress during laser powder bed fusion of Ti-6Al- 4V, Additive Manufacturing(2019), Vol. 27., 489–502. [2] M. S. Alnaes, J. Blechta, J. Hake, A. Johansson, B. Kehlet, A. Logg, C. Richardson, J. Ring, M. E. Rognes and G. N. Wells, The FEniCS Project Version 1.5, Archive of Numerical Software(2015), Vol. 3., 100:9–23. [less ▲]

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See detailTechnical Sovereignty and Digital Democracy in Europe – Follower or Influencer ? A New Media Approach
Danescu, Elena UL

Scientific Conference (2022, February 04)

The digital turn has considerably impacted geopolitics in terms of power, governance and regulation, leading to a proliferation of stakeholders and networks at multiple levels (states, international ... [more ▼]

The digital turn has considerably impacted geopolitics in terms of power, governance and regulation, leading to a proliferation of stakeholders and networks at multiple levels (states, international organisations, private companies, civil society and citizens), new dynamics of competition in a transnational space that is becoming increasingly virtual, borderless and deterritorialised (cyberspace), and novel forms of learning, work and human activity. Digital technologies have also brought about a paradigm shift in information and communication systems, with the emergence of new media (online platforms, interactive websites, algorithmic decision-making ecosystems, etc.) that will have a long-term impact on social and cultural practices, interpersonal and societal relations, the public sphere and the exercise of individual and collective democracy. [less ▲]

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See detailExploring Mathematical concepts in an Ecosystem of STEAM Learning, consisting of Physical Objects, Digital Toolkits and Tutoring Systems, 3D Printing and Outdoor Mathematical Trails
Haas, Ben; Kreis, Yves UL; Lavicza, Zsolt et al

Poster (2022, February 04)

We performed several research studies on various technologies such as automated tutoring and GPS-assisted systems as well as Computer Assisted Design, Augmented Reality, and 3D Printing solutions; with ... [more ▼]

We performed several research studies on various technologies such as automated tutoring and GPS-assisted systems as well as Computer Assisted Design, Augmented Reality, and 3D Printing solutions; with various groups of teacher educators, teachers, students and parents. The selected technologies offered different opportunities and developed varied skills for each stakeholder group. This poster outlines our technology ecosystems with different target groups and core findings of our studies. [less ▲]

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See detail“Spread or die”. Online Virality as a Transmedia Phenomenon
Schafer, Valerie UL; Pailler, Fred UL

Scientific Conference (2022, February 03)

Memes (Kaplan and Nova, 2016; McGrath, 2019), gifs (Eppink, 2014), buzz on the Web and social networks are inherent to digital cultures since the very first steps of the Web (i.e., Dancing babies, Hamster ... [more ▼]

Memes (Kaplan and Nova, 2016; McGrath, 2019), gifs (Eppink, 2014), buzz on the Web and social networks are inherent to digital cultures since the very first steps of the Web (i.e., Dancing babies, Hamster Dance). Virality has developed and changed over time through several platforms (YouTube, 4Chan, Twitter, TikTok, etc.), while relying on some patterns identified by Shifman (2014), Milner (2018), Jenkins (2009) and others. Historicizing virality through times, spaces and platforms is at the heart of the Hivi project1 (https://hivi.uni.lu). While starting to historicize these phenomena, may it be Numa Numa Guy, Leave Britney Alone, Grumpy Cat, the Harlem Shake, online challenges (Ice Bucket Challenge, Fire challenge, etc.) and many others, the transmedia circulations and the role played by “traditional media” in the life cycles and virality of such practices have become more and more obvious. This proposal aims therefore to demonstrate and analyze how Internet phenomena are transmedia. Building upon several case studies, this presentation will first remind us how virality occurred before the digital (Pinker, 2020) and how previous historical forms were also reused in the digital. We will then analyse the circulation between online viral phenomena and other media, may it be Internet phenomena that are echoed in other media (press, cinema, video games...) or on the contrary the use of media phenomena by digital cultures (see for example memes related to Chuck Norris or Sad Keanu). Finally, the last part will specifically focus on the relationship between online virality and the general press, relying on a vast corpus gathered through Europresse, on which we conducted a diachronic distant reading. This intertwinement of Media cultures and Digital Cultures aim at highlightening several topics of the call and notably Temporalities of media through digital technologies; Persistence and discontinuities in communication; and finally Digital sources, new practices, tools and narratives in media history. References Eppink, J., “A brief history of the GIF”, Journal of Visual Culture, 2014, 13(3), p. 298- 306. Jenkins, H., « If it doesn’t spread, it’s dead (Part One) : Media Viruses and Memes”, Confessions of an Aca-Fan, 2009. http://henryjenkins.org/blog/2009/02/if_it_doesnt_spread_its_dead_p.html Kaplan, D., Nova, N., La culture Internet des Mèmes, Lausanne, PPUR, 2016. MacGrath, J., “Memes”, in Brügger, N., Milligan, I. (ed.), The Sage handbook of Web History, Los Angeles, London, Sage, 2019. Milner, R., The Word Mad Meme. Public Conversations and Participatory Media, Cambridge, MA, MIT Press, 2018. Shifman, L., Memes in Digital Culture, Cambridge MA, Mit Press, 2014. Pinker, R., Fake News & Viralité avant Internet. Les lapins du Père-Lachaise et autres légendes médiatiques, Paris, CNRS Éditions, 2020. [less ▲]

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See detailHighly Vectorized SIKE for AVX-512
Cheng, Hao UL; Fotiadis, Georgios UL; Groszschädl, Johann UL et al

in IACR Transactions on Cryptographic Hardware and Embedded Systems (TCHES) (2022, February), 2022(2), 41-68

It is generally accepted that a large-scale quantum computer would be capable to break any public-key cryptosystem used today, thereby posing a serious threat to the security of the Internet’s public-key ... [more ▼]

It is generally accepted that a large-scale quantum computer would be capable to break any public-key cryptosystem used today, thereby posing a serious threat to the security of the Internet’s public-key infrastructure. The US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) addresses this threat with an open process for the standardization of quantum-safe key establishment and signature schemes, which is now in the final phase of the evaluation of candidates. SIKE (an abbreviation of Supersingular Isogeny Key Encapsulation) is one of the alternate candidates under evaluation and distinguishes itself from other candidates due to relatively short key lengths and relatively high computing costs. In this paper, we analyze how the latest generation of Intel’s Advanced Vector Extensions (AVX), in particular AVX-512IFMA, can be used to minimize the latency (resp. maximize the throughput) of the SIKE key encapsulation mechanism when executed on Ice LakeCPUs based on the Sunny Cove microarchitecture. We present various techniques to parallelize and speed up the base/extension field arithmetic, point arithmetic, and isogeny computations performed by SIKE. All these parallel processing techniques are combined in AVXSIKE, a highly optimized implementation of SIKE using Intel AVX-512IFMA instructions. Our experiments indicate that AVXSIKE instantiated with the SIKEp503 parameter set is approximately 1.5 times faster than the to-date best AVX-512IFMA-based SIKE software from the literature. When executed on an Intel Core i3-1005G1 CPU, AVXSIKE outperforms the x64 assembly implementation of SIKE contained in Microsoft’s SIDHv3.4 library by a factor of about 2.5 for key generation and decapsulation, while the encapsulation is even 3.2 times faster. [less ▲]

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See detailAchievements and Developments of the UniGR-Center for Border Studies
Wille, Christian UL

Scientific Conference (2022, February)

The UniGR-Center for Border Studies (UniGR-CBS) is a thematic cross-border network of approximately 80 researchers within the university grouping University of the Greater Region (UniGR) conducting ... [more ▼]

The UniGR-Center for Border Studies (UniGR-CBS) is a thematic cross-border network of approximately 80 researchers within the university grouping University of the Greater Region (UniGR) conducting research on borders, their meanings and challenges. [less ▲]

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See detailApproaching border complexities: von der Linie zur Textur
Wille, Christian UL

Scientific Conference (2022, February)

Die Renaissance von Grenzen hat nicht nur für eine stärkere Institutionalisierung und Sichtbarkeit der Grenzforschung gesorgt, sondern auch theoretisch-konzeptionelle Entwicklungen und Neuorientierungen ... [more ▼]

Die Renaissance von Grenzen hat nicht nur für eine stärkere Institutionalisierung und Sichtbarkeit der Grenzforschung gesorgt, sondern auch theoretisch-konzeptionelle Entwicklungen und Neuorientierungen in Gang gesetzt. Davon zeugen die zahlreichen Konzepte und Ansätze, die – inspiriert vom cultural, spatial und practice turn der Sozial- und Kulturwissenschaften – die Grenze als soziale Praxis fassen. Die Prozessorientierung überwindet die Idee der Grenze als Linie und bildet den Ausgangspunkt des Vortrags. Er zeigt verschiedene Weiterentwicklungen des sogenannten „‘bordering turn‘“ (Cooper 2020: 17) auf und geht dabei näher auf komplexitätsorientierte Ansätze als jüngsten Trend der territorialen und kulturellen Grenzforschung ein. [less ▲]

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See detailAI and Education. Luxemborug and Estonia
Baumann, Isabell Eva UL

Scientific Conference (2022, February)

Detailed reference viewed: 50 (3 UL)
See detailDas ehemalige Schloss "La Fontaine" und sein Areal in Luxemburg-Clausen - Einführung in die Tagungsthematik
Uhrmacher, Martin UL

Scientific Conference (2022, February)

On the basis of the current state of historical, archaeological and architectural research, the 15 speakers at the conference took an interdisciplinary look at the possibilities for future use and ... [more ▼]

On the basis of the current state of historical, archaeological and architectural research, the 15 speakers at the conference took an interdisciplinary look at the possibilities for future use and landscaping of the former palace and its gardens. [less ▲]

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See detailIML-GCN: Improved Multi-Label Graph Convolutional Network for Efficient yet Precise Image Classification
Singh, Inder Pal UL; Oyedotun, Oyebade UL; Ghorbel, Enjie UL et al

in AAAI-22 Workshop Program-Deep Learning on Graphs: Methods and Applications (2022, February)

In this paper, we propose the Improved Multi-Label Graph Convolutional Network (IML-GCN) as a precise and efficient framework for multi-label image classification. Although previous approaches have shown ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we propose the Improved Multi-Label Graph Convolutional Network (IML-GCN) as a precise and efficient framework for multi-label image classification. Although previous approaches have shown great performance, they usually make use of very large architectures. To handle this, we propose to combine the small version of a newly introduced network called TResNet with an extended version of Multi-label Graph Convolution Networks (ML-GCN); therefore ensuring the learning of label correlation while reducing the size of the overall network. The proposed approach considers a novel image feature embedding instead of using word embeddings. In fact, the latter are learned from words and not images making them inadequate for the task of multi-label image classification. Experimental results show that our framework competes with the state-of-the-art on two multi-label image benchmarks in terms of both precision and memory requirements. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the Suitability of SHAP Explanations for Refining Classifications
Arslan, Yusuf UL; Lebichot, Bertrand UL; Allix, Kevin UL et al

in In Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Agents and Artificial Intelligence (ICAART 2022) (2022, February)

In industrial contexts, when an ML model classifies a sample as positive, it raises an alarm, which is subsequently sent to human analysts for verification. Reducing the number of false alarms upstream in ... [more ▼]

In industrial contexts, when an ML model classifies a sample as positive, it raises an alarm, which is subsequently sent to human analysts for verification. Reducing the number of false alarms upstream in an ML pipeline is paramount to reduce the workload of experts while increasing customers’ trust. Increasingly, SHAP Explanations are leveraged to facilitate manual analysis. Because they have been shown to be useful to human analysts in the detection of false positives, we postulate that SHAP Explanations may provide a means to automate false-positive reduction. To confirm our intuition, we evaluate clustering and rules detection metrics with ground truth labels to understand the utility of SHAP Explanations to discriminate false positives from true positives. We show that SHAP Explanations are indeed relevant in discriminating samples and are a relevant candidate to automate ML tasks and help to detect and reduce false-positive results. [less ▲]

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See detailPreliminary findings: EMN-OECD InformDigitalisation and Artificial Intelligence
Sommarribas, Adolfo UL

Scientific Conference (2022, January 27)

This presentation provides the preliminary findings of the EMN-OECD Inform on Digitalisation and Artificial Intelligence. It aims to analyse the use of digitalisation and artificial intelligence in ... [more ▼]

This presentation provides the preliminary findings of the EMN-OECD Inform on Digitalisation and Artificial Intelligence. It aims to analyse the use of digitalisation and artificial intelligence in migration management. [less ▲]

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See detailIm Spannungsfeld zwischen Informationsfreiheit und Datenschutz: Das Luxemburger Archivgesetz von 2018 und die zeithistorische Forschung
Brüll, Christoph UL; Janz, Nina UL

Scientific Conference (2022, January 19)

Im Sommer 2018 trat in Luxemburg erstmals ein Archivgesetz in Kraft, das nach jahrelangen Verhandlungen – leider ohne Beteiligung der Archivnutzer*innen – zustande kam. Es war lange erwartet und ... [more ▼]

Im Sommer 2018 trat in Luxemburg erstmals ein Archivgesetz in Kraft, das nach jahrelangen Verhandlungen – leider ohne Beteiligung der Archivnutzer*innen – zustande kam. Es war lange erwartet und definierte für das Großherzogtum (endlich!), wie Quellen aus Ministerien und Verwaltungen archivalisch behandelt werden müssen. Das Gesetz schuf damit den Rahmen für eine notwendige und geregelte Ablieferungs- und Archivierungspolitik sowie den erforderlichen Einsatz von geschultem Personal in staatlichen und kommunalen Verwaltungen. Der Gesetzestext weist große Ähnlichkeiten mit bundesdeutschen und belgischen Bestimmungen zum Archivzugang auf. Die allgemeine Schutzfrist von 50 Jahren ist allerdings deutlich länger als in den meisten Ländern, wohingegen die 75-Jahre-Sperrfrist für Akten mit persönlichen Daten auf dem Papier kürzer ausfällt als bei den Nachbarn. Die Auslegung des Gesetzes durch das Nationalarchiv und die Ministerialverwaltungen war seitdem mehrmals Gegenstand von parlamentarischen Fragen und Presseberichterstattung, die die restriktive Zugangspraxis und lange Bearbeitungszeiten bei Anträgen auf Schutzfristverkürzung monieren. Den Forscher*innen fielen dabei zwei Dinge auf: zum einen wurde die Entscheidungsfrist für die Anträge auf Schutzfristverkürzungen regelmäßig deutlich überschritten; zum anderen legten die Archivmitarbeiter*innen ihren Entscheidungen, ob ein solcher Antrag vonnöten sei, ein extrem rigides Verständnis von „persönlichen Daten“ zugrunde. Dies verweist auf einige Grundprobleme bei der Konzeption des Gesetzes: die wissenschaftliche Forschung, die ein großes Interesse daran hatte, bei der Archivnutzung Rechtssicherheit zu haben, war zu keinem Zeitpunkt in den Gesetzgebungsprozess eingebunden. Zum anderen problematisierte dieser zu wenig die Tatsache, dass das Nationalarchiv historisch als eine kulturelle und nicht als eine wissenschaftliche Einrichtung betrachtet wurde. Dies war nach unserer Auffassung ein weiterer Grund dafür, dass die Perspektive der Forschung nicht ausreichend mitgedacht wurde. In der Praxis wird beispielsweise der Zugang zu Dokumenten aus der Zeit des Zweiten Weltkriegs noch regelmäßig erschwert; an eine zeitgeschichtliche Forschung zum Zeitraum ab den 1960er Jahren auf der Grundlage der im Nationalarchiv aufbewahrten Quellen ist kaum zu denken. Das Nationalarchiv nimmt eine restriktive Haltung gegenüber seinen Nutzer*innen ein: Inventare, wie z.B. vorläufige Abgabelisten, werden nicht vorgelegt, ganze Bestände werden wegen mangelnder Bearbeitung oder Unkenntnis der Zuständigkeiten gesperrt. Den Forscher*innen wird kein Vertrauen entgegengebracht. Es besteht beispielsweise keine Möglichkeit, Dokumente nach Zusicherung von Anonymisierung oder Unterzeichnung einer Verpflichtungserklärung einzusehen. Die Einsicht (falls gesperrt) bedarf noch immer teilweise der Zustimmung durch die Aktenproduzenten. Mitunter ist aber den Benutzern nicht klar, welche Akten noch dem Produzenten unterliegen oder nicht. In anderen Fällen ist selbst dem Archiv nicht klar, wer die „Zuständigkeit“ und damit das letzte Wort über den Zugang innehat. Solange aber das Archiv nicht die Benutzungshoheit oder die „Archivhoheit“ über seine eigenen Akten hat, kann keine professionelle Benutzung gewährleistet werden. In Bezug auf die Gemeindearchive gilt das Archivgesetz von 2018 nicht, daher ist dort die Verunsicherung sehr groß und es fehlt das Bewusstsein für eine geordnete Archivierung und Bereitstellung von Unterlagen. Es fehlen beispielsweise Benutzungsordnungen und professionelle Findmittel. Im Falle von Akteneinsichten müssen die Forscher mit der zuständigen Gemeinde eine Art Datenschutzvertrag (Convention de mise á disposition d’archives et collections) schließen, in welches jedes Dokument aufgelistet wird. Seitdem die Probleme mit dem Gesetz und seiner Anwendung bekannt sind, wurden regelmäßig Lösungsansätze diskutiert, die jedoch bisher nicht umgesetzt wurden. Zum einen wird angeregt, die Entscheidungen zu Schutzfristverkürzungen in die Hände des Nationalarchivs zu legen. Dazu wären, wie in anderen Ländern auch, Abkommen zwischen den Ministerialverwaltungen und dem Archiv nötig. In der Zwischenzeit ist jedoch Bewegung in die Sache gekommen: zumindest auf der politischen Ebene ist das Bewusstsein dafür, dass überhaupt ein Problem besteht, gewachsen. Im Raum steht derzeit eine Evaluierung des Gesetzes, die bisher nicht vorgesehen war – obwohl eine solche Vorgehensweise bei anderen Gesetzen regelmäßig praktiziert wird – und die mündlich signalisierte Bereitschaft der Justizministerin, für die ihr unterstellten Bereiche ein Abkommen mit dem Archiv zu schließen. Vielleicht kann so ein Paradox aufgelöst werden. [less ▲]

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See detailWeakly-Supervised Free Space Estimation through Stochastic Co-Teaching
Robinet, François UL; Parera, Claudia UL; Hundt, Christian UL et al

in Proceedings of the IEEE/CVF Winter Conference on Applications of Computer Vision (WACV) Workshops, 2022 (2022, January 04)

Free space estimation is an important problem for autonomous robot navigation. Traditional camera-based approaches train a segmentation model using an annotated dataset. The training data needs to capture ... [more ▼]

Free space estimation is an important problem for autonomous robot navigation. Traditional camera-based approaches train a segmentation model using an annotated dataset. The training data needs to capture the wide variety of environments and weather conditions encountered at runtime, making the annotation cost prohibitively high. In this work, we propose a novel approach for obtaining free space estimates from images taken with a single road-facing camera. We rely on a technique that generates weak free space labels without any supervision, which are then used as ground truth to train a segmentation model for free space estimation. Our work differs from prior attempts by explicitly taking label noise into account through the use of Co-Teaching. Since Co-Teaching has traditionally been investigated in classification tasks, we adapt it for segmentation and examine how its parameters affect performances in our experiments. In addition, we propose Stochastic Co-Teaching, which is a novel method to select clean samples that leads to enhanced results. We achieve an IoU of 82.6%, a Precision of 90.9%, and a Recall of 90.3%. Our best model reaches 87% of the IoU, 93% of the Precision, and 93% of the Recall of the equivalent fully-supervised baseline while using no human annotations. To the best of our knowledge, this work is the first to use Co-Teaching to train a free space segmentation model under explicit label noise. Our implementation and trained models are freely available online. [less ▲]

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See detailA serverless distributed ledger for enterprises
Sedlmeir, Johannes UL; Wagner, Tim; Djerekarov, Emil et al

in Proceedings of the 55th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (2022, January 04)

Enterprises have been attracted by the capability of blockchains to provide a single source of truth for workloads that span companies, geographies, and clouds while retaining the independence of each ... [more ▼]

Enterprises have been attracted by the capability of blockchains to provide a single source of truth for workloads that span companies, geographies, and clouds while retaining the independence of each party’s IT operations. However, so far production applications have remained rare, stymied by technical limitations of existing blockchain technologies and challenges with their integration into enterprises’ IT systems. In this paper, we collect enterprises’ requirements on distributed ledgers for data sharing and integration from a technical perspective, argue that they are not sufficiently addressed by available blockchain frameworks, and propose a novel distributed ledger design that is “serverless”, i.e., built on cloud-native resources. We evaluate its qualitative and quantitative properties and give evidence that enterprises already heavily reliant on cloud service providers would consider such an approach acceptable, particularly if it offers ease of deployment, low transactional cost structure, and a combination of latency and scalability aligned with real-time IT application needs. [less ▲]

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See detailYes, I do: Marrying blockchain applications with GDPR
Schellinger, Benjamin; Völter, Fabiane; Urbach, Nils et al

in Proceedings of the 55th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (2022, January 04)

Due to blockchains’ intrinsic transparency and immutability, blockchain-based applications are challenged by privacy regulations, such as the EU General Data Protection Regulation. Hence, scaling ... [more ▼]

Due to blockchains’ intrinsic transparency and immutability, blockchain-based applications are challenged by privacy regulations, such as the EU General Data Protection Regulation. Hence, scaling blockchain use cases to production often fails to owe to a lack of compliance with legal constraints. As current research mainly focuses on specific use cases, we aim to offer comprehensive guidance regarding the development of blockchain solutions that comply with privacy regulations. Following the action design research method, we contribute a generic framework and design principles to the research domain. In this context, we also emphasize the need for distinguishing between applications based on blockchains’ data integrity and computational integrity guarantees. [less ▲]

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See detailOn Frame Fingerprinting and Controller Area Networks Security in Connected Vehicles
Buscemi, Alessio UL; Turcanu, Ion; Castignani, German et al

in IEEE Consumer Communications & Networking Conference, Virtual Conference 8-11 January 2022 (2022, January)

Modern connected vehicles are equipped with a large number of sensors, which enable a wide range of services that can improve overall traffic safety and efficiency. However, remote access to connected ... [more ▼]

Modern connected vehicles are equipped with a large number of sensors, which enable a wide range of services that can improve overall traffic safety and efficiency. However, remote access to connected vehicles also introduces new security issues affecting both inter and intra-vehicle communications. In fact, existing intra-vehicle communication systems, such as Controller Area Network (CAN), lack security features, such as encryption and secure authentication for Electronic Control Units (ECUs). Instead, Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) seek security through obscurity by keeping secret the proprietary format with which they encode the information. Recently, it has been shown that the reuse of CAN frame IDs can be exploited to perform CAN bus reverse engineering without physical access to the vehicle, thus raising further security concerns in a connected environment. This work investigates whether anonymizing the frames of each newly released vehicle is sufficient to prevent CAN bus reverse engineering based on frame ID matching. The results show that, by adopting Machine Learning techniques, anonymized CAN frames can still be fingerprinted and identified in an unknown vehicle with an accuracy of up to 80 %. [less ▲]

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See detailEnhancing Trust in Trust Services: Towards an Intelligent Human-input-based Blockchain Oracle (IHiBO)
Yu, Liuwen UL; Zichichi, Mirko; Markovich, Réka UL et al

in Proceedings of the 55th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (2022, January)

As their name suggests, trust is of crucial importance in ‘‘trust service". Nevertheless, in many cases, these services suffer from a lack transparency, documentation, traceability, and inclusive multi ... [more ▼]

As their name suggests, trust is of crucial importance in ‘‘trust service". Nevertheless, in many cases, these services suffer from a lack transparency, documentation, traceability, and inclusive multi-lateral decision-making mechanisms. To overcome these challenges, in this paper we propose an integrated framework which incorporates formal argumentation and negotiation within a blockchain environment to make the decision-making processes of fund management transparent and traceable. We introduce three possible architectures and we evaluate and compare them considering different technical, financial, and legal aspects. [less ▲]

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See detailRevealing defect-induced spin disorder in nanocrystalline
Bersweiler, Mathias UL

Scientific Conference (2022, January)

Detailed reference viewed: 34 (8 UL)
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See detailDeFi, Not So Decentralized: The Measured Distribution of Voting Rights
Barbereau, Tom Josua UL; Smethurst, Reilly UL; Papageorgiou, Orestis UL et al

in Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences 2022 (2022, January)

Bitcoin and Ethereum are frequently promoted as decentralized, but developers and academics question their actual decentralization. This motivates further experiments with public permissionless ... [more ▼]

Bitcoin and Ethereum are frequently promoted as decentralized, but developers and academics question their actual decentralization. This motivates further experiments with public permissionless blockchains to achieve decentralization along technical, economic, and political lines. The distribution of tokenized voting rights aims for political decentralization. Tokenized voting rights achieved notoriety within the nascent field of decentralized finance (DeFi) in 2020. As an alternative to centralized crypto-asset exchanges and lending platforms (owned by companies like Coinbase and Celsius), DeFi developers typically create non-custodial projects that are not majority-owned or managed by legal entities. Holders of tokenized voting rights can instead govern DeFi projects. To scrutinize DeFi’s distributed governance strategies, we conducted a multiple-case study of non-custodial, Ethereum-based DeFi projects: Uniswap, Maker, SushiSwap, Yearn Finance, and UMA. Our findings are novel and surprising: quantitative evaluations of DeFi’s distributed governance strategies reveal a failure to achieve political decentralization. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Social Construction of Self-Sovereign Identity: An Extended Model of Interpretive Flexibility
Weigl, Linda UL; Barbereau, Tom Josua UL; Rieger, Alexander UL et al

in Proceedings of the 55th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS) (2022, January)

User-centric identity management systems are gaining momentum as concerns about Big Tech and Big Government rise. Many of these systems are framed as offering Self-Sovereign Identity (SSI). Yet, competing ... [more ▼]

User-centric identity management systems are gaining momentum as concerns about Big Tech and Big Government rise. Many of these systems are framed as offering Self-Sovereign Identity (SSI). Yet, competing appropriation and the social embedding of SSI have resulted in diverging interpretations. These vague and value-laden interpretations can damage the public discourse and risk misrepresenting values and affordances that technology offers to users. To unpack the various social and technical understandings of SSI, we adopt an ‘interpretive flexibility’ lens. Based on a qualitative inductive interview study, we find that SSI’s interpretation is strongly mediated by surrounding institutional properties. Our study helps to better navigate these different perceptions and highlights the need for a multidimensional framework that can improve the understanding of complex socio-technical systems for digital government practitioners, researchers, and policy-makers. [less ▲]

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See detailIS PERIMETER CONTROL AN EMERGING STRUCTURE IN NETWORK-WIDE URBAN TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT?
Rinaldi, Marco; Viti, Francesco UL; Serge, Hoogendoorn

Scientific Conference (2022, January)

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See detailThe Green Stock Market Bubble
Lehnert, Thorsten UL

Scientific Conference (2022, January)

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See detailBridge damage assessment based on static and dynamic flexibility matrices
Dakhili, Khatereh UL; Kebig, Tanja; Schäfer, Markus UL et al

in Bridge Safety, Maintenance, Management, Life-Cycle, Resilience and Sustainability (2022)

Being an indispensable part of transportation systems, Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) of bridges has been increasingly studied. Various SHM techniques not only enhance reliability and safety but also ... [more ▼]

Being an indispensable part of transportation systems, Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) of bridges has been increasingly studied. Various SHM techniques not only enhance reliability and safety but also reduce maintenance costs. Various bridge deteriorations change the structural properties, such as flexibility and stiffness. Therefore, damage assessment can be achieved by monitoring the structural matrices of bridges and tracking the deviations from the healthy-state or reference data. This paper focuses on damage detection of a prestressed concrete beam from a demolished bridge based on the flexibility matrix. The dynamic and static flexibility matrices are calculated numerically and experimentally when the beam is undamaged. The simulated and measured static flexibility matrices differ by only about 5 %. Additionally, the numerical dynamic flexibility matrix is strongly correlated with static results. The findings of this study can be employed as a basis for future damage detection applications when artificial damage is introduced. [less ▲]

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See detailPhysics-Based Cognitive Radar Modeling and Parameter Estimation
Sedighi, Saeid UL; Mysore Rama Rao, Bhavani Shankar UL; Mishra, Kumar Vijay et al

in IEEE Radar Conference (2022)

We consider the problem of channel response estimation in cognitive fully adaptive radar (CoFAR). We show that this problem can be expressed as a constrained channel estimation problem exploiting the ... [more ▼]

We consider the problem of channel response estimation in cognitive fully adaptive radar (CoFAR). We show that this problem can be expressed as a constrained channel estimation problem exploiting the similarity between the channel impulse responses (CIRs) of the adjacent channels. We develop a constrained CIR estimation (CCIRE) algorithm enhancing estimation performance compared to the unconstrained CIR estimation where the similarity between the CIRs of the adjacent channels is not employed. Further, we we derive the Cram\'{e}r-Rao bound (CRB) for the CCIRE and show the optimality of the proposed CCIRE through comparing its performance with the derived CRB. [less ▲]

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See detailQoE-Oriented Resource Allocation Design Coping with Time-Varying Demands in Wireless Communication Networks
Kebedew, Teweldebrhan Mezgebo UL; Ha, Vu Nguyen UL; Lagunas, Eva UL et al

in IEEE 96st Vehicular Technology Conference, London-Beijing, Sept. 2022 (2022)

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See detailUnwinding a Legal and Ethical Ariadne’s Thread Out of the Twitter Scraping Maze
Rossi, Arianna UL; Kumari, Archana; Lenzini, Gabriele UL

in Schiffner, Stefan; Ziegler, Sebastien; Quesada Rodriguez, Adrian (Eds.) Data Protection Law International Convergence and Compliance with Innovative Technologies (DPLICIT) (2022)

Social media data is a gold mine for research scientists, but such type of data carries unique legal and ethical implications while there is no checklist that can be followed to effortlessly comply with ... [more ▼]

Social media data is a gold mine for research scientists, but such type of data carries unique legal and ethical implications while there is no checklist that can be followed to effortlessly comply with all the applicable rules and principles. On the contrary, academic researchers need to find their way in a maze of regulations, sectoral and institutional codes of conduct, interpretations and techniques of compliance. Taking an autoethnographic approach combined with desk research, we describe the path we have paved to find the answers to questions such as: what counts as personal data on Twitter and can it be anonymized? How may we inform Twitter users of an ongoing data collection? Is their informed consent necessary? This article reports practical insights on ethical, legal, and technical measures that we have adopted to scrape Twitter data and discusses some solutions that should be envisaged to make the task of compliance less daunting for academic researchers. The subject matter is relevant for any social computing research activity and, more in general, for all those that intend to gather data of EU social media users. [less ▲]

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See detailBelElect: A New Dataset for Bias Research from a ”Dark” Platform
Hoehn, Sviatlana UL; Mauw, Sjouke UL; Asher, Nicholas

in Vol. 16 (2022): Proceedings of the Sixteenth International AAAI Conference on Web and Social Media (2022)

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See detailA Graphical Proof Theory of Logical Time
Acclavio, Matteo UL; Horne, Ross James UL; Mauw, Sjouke UL et al

in Felty, Amy P. (Ed.) Proc. 7th International Conference on Formal Structures for Computation and Deduction (FSCD 2022) (2022)

Logical time is a partial order over events in distributed systems, constraining which events precede others. Special interest has been given to series-parallel orders since they correspond to formulas ... [more ▼]

Logical time is a partial order over events in distributed systems, constraining which events precede others. Special interest has been given to series-parallel orders since they correspond to formulas constructed via the two operations for "series" and "parallel" composition. For this reason, series-parallel orders have received attention from proof theory, leading to pomset logic, the logic BV, and their extensions. However, logical time does not always form a series-parallel order; indeed, ubiquitous structures in distributed systems are beyond current proof theoretic methods. In this paper, we explore how this restriction can be lifted. We design new logics that work directly on graphs instead of formulas, we develop their proof theory, and we show that our logics are conservative extensions of the logic BV. [less ▲]

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See detailMULTI LABEL IMAGE CLASSIFICATION USING ADAPTIVE GRAPH CONVOLUTIONAL NETWORKS (ML-AGCN)
Singh, Inder Pal UL; Ghorbel, Enjie UL; Oyedotun, Oyebade UL et al

in IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (2022)

In this paper, a novel graph-based approach for multi-label image classification called Multi-Label Adaptive Graph Convolutional Network (ML-AGCN) is introduced. Graph-based methods have shown great ... [more ▼]

In this paper, a novel graph-based approach for multi-label image classification called Multi-Label Adaptive Graph Convolutional Network (ML-AGCN) is introduced. Graph-based methods have shown great potential in the field of multi-label classification. However, these approaches heuristically fix the graph topology for modeling label dependencies, which might be not optimal. To handle that, we propose to learn the topology in an end-to-end manner. Specifically, we incorporate an attention-based mechanism for estimating the pairwise importance between graph nodes and a similarity-based mechanism for conserving the feature similarity between different nodes. This offers a more flexible way for adaptively modeling the graph. Experimental results are reported on two well-known datasets, namely, MS-COCO and VG-500. Results show that ML-AGCN outperforms state-of-the-art methods while reducing the number of model parameters. [less ▲]

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See detailAutomated Question Answering for Improved Understanding of Compliance Requirements: A Multi-Document Study
Abualhaija, Sallam UL; Arora, Chetan; Sleimi, Amin et al

in In Proceedings of the 30th IEEE International Requirements Engineering Conference (RE'22), Melbourne, Australia 15-19 August 2022 (2022)

Software systems are increasingly subject to regulatory compliance. Extracting compliance requirements from regulations is challenging. Ideally, locating compliance-related information in a regulation ... [more ▼]

Software systems are increasingly subject to regulatory compliance. Extracting compliance requirements from regulations is challenging. Ideally, locating compliance-related information in a regulation requires a joint effort from requirements engineers and legal experts, whose availability is limited. However, regulations are typically long documents spanning hundreds of pages, containing legal jargon, applying complicated natural language structures, and including cross-references, thus making their analysis effort-intensive. In this paper, we propose an automated question-answering (QA) approach that assists requirements engineers in finding the legal text passages relevant to compliance requirements. Our approach utilizes large-scale language models fine-tuned for QA, including BERT and three variants. We evaluate our approach on 107 question-answer pairs, manually curated by subject-matter experts, for four different European regulatory documents. Among these documents is the general data protection regulation (GDPR) – a major source for privacy-related requirements. Our empirical results show that, in ~94% of the cases, our approach finds the text passage containing the answer to a given question among the top five passages that our approach marks as most relevant. Further, our approach successfully demarcates, in the selected passage, the right answer with an average accuracy of ~ 91%. [less ▲]

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See detailMulticast MMSE-based Precoded Satellite Systems: User Scheduling and Equivalent Channel Impact
Lagunas, Eva UL; Ha, Vu Nguyen UL; Chien, Trinh-Van et al

in IEEE 96st Vehicular Technology Conference, London-Beijing, Sept. 2022 (2022)

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See detailA Dialogue on Socio-Technical Systems and Situation Awareness
Botev, Jean UL; Bellman, Kirstie

in Proceedings of 12th IEEE Conference on Cognitive and Computational Aspects of Situation Management (CogSIMA) (2022)

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See detailInterference Mitigation via NMF for Radio Astronomy Applications: A Feasibility Study
Silva, Felipe Barboza; Cetin, Ediz; Alves Martins, Wallace UL et al

in 15th International Conference on Sensing Technology (ICST), Sydney 5-7 December 2022 (2022)

This work assesses the feasibility of using nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) for radio frequency interference (RFI) mitigation in radio astronomy applications. Two NMF-based mitigation approaches ... [more ▼]

This work assesses the feasibility of using nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) for radio frequency interference (RFI) mitigation in radio astronomy applications. Two NMF-based mitigation approaches are proposed, one using RFI frequency information extracted from the received signals and the other using an RFI template. The suitability and efficacy of these approaches are evaluated by targeting automatic dependent surveillance-broadcast (ADS-B) RFI using data collected from the Parkes radio telescope in Australia. Results show that the proposed approaches can mitigate the RFI with minimal degradation to the underlying observation of a double pulsar, and without discarding any received data, indicating the applicability of NMF-based approaches as potential RFI mitigation tools in radio astronomy applications. [less ▲]

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See detailSparsification and Optimization for Energy-Efficient Federated Learning in Wireless Edge Networks
Lei, Lei; Yuan, Yaxiong; Yang, Yang et al

in IEEE (2022)

Federated Learning (FL), as an effective decentral- ized approach, has attracted considerable attention in privacy- preserving applications for wireless edge networks. In practice, edge devices are ... [more ▼]

Federated Learning (FL), as an effective decentral- ized approach, has attracted considerable attention in privacy- preserving applications for wireless edge networks. In practice, edge devices are typically limited by energy, memory, and computation capabilities. In addition, the communications be- tween the central server and edge devices are with constrained resources, e.g., power or bandwidth. In this paper, we propose a joint sparsification and optimization scheme to reduce the energy consumption in local training and data transmission. On the one hand, we introduce sparsification, leading to a large number of zero weights in sparse neural networks, to alleviate devices’ computational burden and mitigate the data volume to be uploaded. To handle the non-smoothness incurred by sparsification, we develop an enhanced stochastic gradient descent algorithm to improve the learning performance. On the other hand, we optimize power, bandwidth, and learning parameters to avoid communication congestion and enable an energy-efficient transmission between the central server and edge devices. By collaboratively deploying the above two components, the numerical results show that the overall energy consumption in FL can be significantly reduced, compared to benchmark FL with fully-connected neural networks. [less ▲]

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See detailTheoretical and empirical perspectives on the value of non-formal education
Biewers, Sandra UL; Weis, Daniel UL; Latz, Anita UL

in Carmo, Mafalda (Ed.) Education and New Developments 2022 (2022)

Due to its principles of voluntariness and openness and because of its diverse offer of subject-related educational opportunities, open youth work has a high potential to support young people in their ... [more ▼]

Due to its principles of voluntariness and openness and because of its diverse offer of subject-related educational opportunities, open youth work has a high potential to support young people in their development and self-education. These learning and educational opportunities are holistic and comprehensive and often go far beyond the acquisition of skills and competences. How can these educational processes be described empirically and what form of education can be spoken of here at all? These questions are addressed by the qualitative-reconstructive study "Educational Experiences in Non-formal Settings", which is conducted at the Centre for Childhood and Youth Research (CCY) at the University of Luxembourg. The study examines the subjective educational experiences of young people in open youth work from various perspectives: on the basis of participant observations in youth centres, in problem-centred interviews and group discussions with young people, as well as via a complementary quantitative survey of young people. [less ▲]

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See detailAutonomous Reconfigurable Intelligent Surfaces Through Wireless Energy Harvesting
Ntontin, Konstantinos UL; Boulogeorgos, Apostolos-Alexandros A.; Björnson, Emil et al

Scientific Conference (2022)

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See detailLGV: Boosting Adversarial Example Transferability from Large Geometric Vicinity
Gubri, Martin UL; Cordy, Maxime UL; Papadakis, Mike UL et al

in Computer Vision -- ECCV 2022 (2022)

We propose transferability from Large Geometric Vicinity (LGV), a new technique to increase the transferability of black-box adversarial attacks. LGV starts from a pretrained surrogate model and collects ... [more ▼]

We propose transferability from Large Geometric Vicinity (LGV), a new technique to increase the transferability of black-box adversarial attacks. LGV starts from a pretrained surrogate model and collects multiple weight sets from a few additional training epochs with a constant and high learning rate. LGV exploits two geometric properties that we relate to transferability. First, models that belong to a wider weight optimum are better surrogates. Second, we identify a subspace able to generate an effective surrogate ensemble among this wider optimum. Through extensive experiments, we show that LGV alone outperforms all (combinations of) four established test-time transformations by 1.8 to 59.9\% points. Our findings shed new light on the importance of the geometry of the weight space to explain the transferability of adversarial examples. [less ▲]

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See detailAggregating Energy Flexibility for Demand-Side Management in Manufacturing Companies – A Two-Step Method
Lindner, M; Wenninger, Simon; Fridgen, Gilbert UL et al

in Production at the Leading Edge of Technology (2022)

Towards greener production, manufacturing companies face several challenges, for example peak load shaving or flexible production planning as parts of demand-side management (DSM). DSM uses processes that ... [more ▼]

Towards greener production, manufacturing companies face several challenges, for example peak load shaving or flexible production planning as parts of demand-side management (DSM). DSM uses processes that can be shut down, shifted, or controlled. Advances in digitalization in the energy sector and manufacturing systems create transparency which in turn offers new opportunities to commercialize energy flexibility potentials as optimally and automatically as possible. The variety of flexibilities in manufacturing systems and various dependencies of different kinds of complex manufacturing processes complicate the modelling and aggregation of flexibility. To overcome this challenge, we developed a method for the aggregation of energy flexibilities that is based on a generic energy flexibility data model. The method proposes a two-step approach to aggregate flexibilities cost efficiently and considers manufacturing specific limitations. For cost-efficient aggregation, we use in the first step the merit-order model known from the energy industry and in the second step the bin-packing problem originating from combinatorial optimization, adapted according to the generic data model. The two-step approach allows energy flexibilities to be aggregated across industries, facilities, and systems, thus ensuring broad applicability. [less ▲]

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See detailIs Eve nearby? Analysing protocols under the distant-attacker assumption
Gil Pons, Reynaldo UL; Horne, Ross James UL; Mauw, Sjouke UL et al

in IEEE Computer Security Foundations Symposium, August 7 - 10, 2022, Haifa, Israel (2022)

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See detailTalent turnover in High-Tech industry: Is there a contagion effect?
Usanova, Ksenia UL; Geraudel, Mickaël UL

Scientific Conference (2022)

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See detailBarriers to the implementation of corporate social responsibility in a network of French retirement homes
Chehimi, Melinda; Geraudel, Mickaël UL

in Journal of the international council for small business (2022)

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See detailJoint Communications and Sensing for Hybrid Massive MIMO LEO Satellite Systems With Beam Squint
Qiang, Xiaoyu; You, Li; Tsinos, Christos UL et al

in 2022 IEEE International Conference on Communications Workshops (ICC Workshops) (2022)

To improve the efficient utilization of spectral and hardware resources, joint communications and sensing (JCS) has drawn extensive attention. Most existing JCS works focus on terrestrial networks and can ... [more ▼]

To improve the efficient utilization of spectral and hardware resources, joint communications and sensing (JCS) has drawn extensive attention. Most existing JCS works focus on terrestrial networks and can not be straightforwardly applied in satellite systems due to the significantly different electromagnetic wave propagation properties. In this work, we investigate the application of JCS in massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) low earth orbit (LEO) satellite systems. We first charac-terize the statistical wave propagation properties by considering beam squint effects. Based on this analysis, we propose a beam squint-aware JCS technique for hybrid analog/digital massive MIMO LEO satellite systems exploiting statistical channel s-tate information. Simulation results demonstrate that both the wireless communications and target sensing can be operated simultaneously with satisfactory performance, and the beam squint effects can be efficiently mitigated with the proposed method in typical LEO satellite systems. [less ▲]

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See detailConvergence time analysis of Asynchronous Distributed Artificial Neural Networks
Dalle Lucca Tosi, Mauro UL; Ellampallil Venugopal, Vinu; Theobald, Martin UL

in 5th Joint International Conference on Data Science Management of Data (9th ACM IKDD CODS and 27th COMAD) (2022)

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See detailVision-Based Safety System for Barrierless Human-Robot Collaboration
Amaya-Mejía, Lina María; Duque-Suárez, Nicolás; Jaramillo-Ramírez, Daniel et al

in 2022 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS) (2022)

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See detailImproving Pulse-Compression Weather Radar via the Joint Design of Subpulses and Extended Mismatch Filter
Wu, Linlong UL; Alaeekerahroodi, Mohammad UL; Mysore Rama Rao, Bhavani Shankar UL

in IGARSS 2022-2022 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (2022)

Pulse compression can enhance both the performance in range resolution and sensitivity for weather radar. However, it will introduce the issue of high sidelobes if not delicately implemented. Motivated by ... [more ▼]

Pulse compression can enhance both the performance in range resolution and sensitivity for weather radar. However, it will introduce the issue of high sidelobes if not delicately implemented. Motivated by this fact, we focus on the pulse compression design for weather radar in this paper. Specifically, we jointly design both the subpulse codes and extended mismatch filter based on the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM). This joint design will yield a pulse compression with low sidelobes, which equivalently implies a high signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) and a low estimation error on meteorological reflectivity. The experiment results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed pulse compression strategy since its achieved meteorological reflectivity estimations are highly similar to the ground truth. [less ▲]

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See detailTheory of Mind and Delegation to Robotic Virtual Agents
Sun, Ningyuan UL; Botev, Jean UL; Khaluf, Yara et al

in Proceedings of the 31st IEEE International Conference on Robot and Human Interactive Communication (RO-MAN) (2022)

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See detail5G Space Communications Lab: Reaching New Heights
Kodheli, Oltjon UL; Querol, Jorge UL; Astro, Abdelrahman et al

in Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Distributed Computing in Sensor Systems (DCOSS) (2022)

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See detailCubeSat-CDT: A Cross-Domain Dataset for 6-DoF Trajectory Estimation of a Symmetric Spacecraft
Mohamed Ali, Mohamed Adel UL; Rathinam, Arunkumar UL; Gaudilliere, Vincent UL et al

in Proceedings of the 17th European Conference on Computer Vision Workshops (ECCVW 2022) (2022)

This paper introduces a new cross-domain dataset, CubeSat- CDT, that includes 21 trajectories of a real CubeSat acquired in a labora- tory setup, combined with 65 trajectories generated using two ... [more ▼]

This paper introduces a new cross-domain dataset, CubeSat- CDT, that includes 21 trajectories of a real CubeSat acquired in a labora- tory setup, combined with 65 trajectories generated using two rendering engines – i.e. Unity and Blender. The three data sources incorporate the same 1U CubeSat and share the same camera intrinsic parameters. In ad- dition, we conduct experiments to show the characteristics of the dataset using a novel and efficient spacecraft trajectory estimation method, that leverages the information provided from the three data domains. Given a video input of a target spacecraft, the proposed end-to-end approach re- lies on a Temporal Convolutional Network that enforces the inter-frame coherence of the estimated 6-Degree-of-Freedom spacecraft poses. The pipeline is decomposed into two stages; first, spatial features are ex- tracted from each frame in parallel; second, these features are lifted to the space of camera poses while preserving temporal information. Our re- sults highlight the importance of addressing the domain gap problem to propose reliable solutions for close-range autonomous relative navigation between spacecrafts. Since the nature of the data used during training impacts directly the performance of the final solution, the CubeSat-CDT dataset is provided to advance research into this direction. [less ▲]

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See detailNon-Orthogonal Multicast and Unicast Robust Beamforming in Integrated Terrestrial-Satellite Networks
Peng, Deyi; Domouchtsidis, Stavros UL; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL et al

in IEEE Global Communications Conference (2022)

This paper studies the non-orthogonal multicast and unicast coordinated beamforming design for integrated terrestrial and satellite networks (ITSN), when the channel state information at the transmitter ... [more ▼]

This paper studies the non-orthogonal multicast and unicast coordinated beamforming design for integrated terrestrial and satellite networks (ITSN), when the channel state information at the transmitter (CSIT) is imperfect. In order to mitigate the interference induced by simultaneous multicast and unicast links along with the spectrum coexisting mechanism for integrated terrestrial and satellite transmissions, we consider a two-layer layered division multiplexing (LDM) structure where the mul ticast and unicast services are provided in different layers. We formulate a coordinated beamforming problem with the objective to minimize the transmit power under individual quality of service (QoS) constraints. With regard to the unknown convexity of the transmit power minimization problem, we transform the original infeasible optimization into a deterministic optimization form with linear matrix inequality (LMI) by utilizing S-procedure and semi-definite relaxation (SDR) methods. Then, we introduce a penalty function and propose an iterative algorithm with guaranteed convergence to obtain optimal solutions. Simulation results demonstrate the superiority of the proposed coordinated beamforming scheme, especially for the case of imperfect CSIT, while our LDM based coordinated beamforming scheme signifi cantly outperforms the conventional ones in terms of sum rate. Index Terms—Integrated terrestrial and satellite networks (IT SN), beamforming, robust, layered division multiplexing (LDM) [less ▲]

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See detailAdversarial Robustness in Multi-Task Learning: Promises and Illusions
Ghamizi, Salah UL; Cordy, Maxime UL; Papadakis, Mike UL et al

in Proceedings of the thirty-Sixth AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence (AAAI-22) (2022)

Vulnerability to adversarial attacks is a well-known weakness of Deep Neural networks. While most of the studies focus on single-task neural networks with computer vision datasets, very little research ... [more ▼]

Vulnerability to adversarial attacks is a well-known weakness of Deep Neural networks. While most of the studies focus on single-task neural networks with computer vision datasets, very little research has considered complex multi-task models that are common in real applications. In this paper, we evaluate the design choices that impact the robustness of multi-task deep learning networks. We provide evidence that blindly adding auxiliary tasks, or weighing the tasks provides a false sense of robustness. Thereby, we tone down the claim made by previous research and study the different factors which may affect robustness. In particular, we show that the choice of the task to incorporate in the loss function are important factors that can be leveraged to yield more robust models. [less ▲]

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See detailControlling Smart Propagation Environments: Long-Term Versus Short-Term Phase Shift Optimization
Van Chien, Trinh; Tu, Lam Thanh; Tran Dinh, Hieu UL et al

in ICASSP 2022 - 2022 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP) (2022)

Reconfigurable intelligent surfaces (RISs) have recently gained significant interest as an emerging technology for future wireless networks. This paper studies an RIS-assisted propagation environment ... [more ▼]

Reconfigurable intelligent surfaces (RISs) have recently gained significant interest as an emerging technology for future wireless networks. This paper studies an RIS-assisted propagation environment, where a single-antenna source transmits data to a single-antenna destination in the presence of a weak direct link. We analyze and compare RIS designs based on long-term and short-term channel statistics in terms of coverage probability and ergodic rate. For the considered optimization designs, closed-form expressions for the coverage probability and ergodic rate are derived. We use numerical simulations to validate the obtained analytical framework. Also, we show that the considered optimal phase shift designs outperform several heuristic benchmarks. [less ▲]

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See detailTransfer Learning for Deontic Rule Classification: the Case Study of the GDPR
Liga, Davide UL; Palmirani, Monica

in INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON LEGAL KNOWLEDGE AND INFORMATION SYSTEMS, Saarbrücken 14-16 December 2022 (2022)

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See detailJOINT CARRIER ALLOCATION AND PRECODING OPTIMIZATION FOR INTERFERENCE-LIMITED GEO SATELLITE
Abdu, Tedros Salih UL; Kisseleff, Steven UL; Lagunas, Eva UL et al

Scientific Conference (2022)

The rise of flexible payloads on satellites opens a door for controlling satellite resources according to the user demand, user location, and satellite position. In addition to resource management ... [more ▼]

The rise of flexible payloads on satellites opens a door for controlling satellite resources according to the user demand, user location, and satellite position. In addition to resource management, applying precoding on flexible payloads is essential to obtain high spectral efficiency. However, these cannot be achieved using a conventional resource allocation algorithm that does not consider the user demand. In this paper, we propose a demand-aware algorithm based on multiobjective optimization to jointly design the carrier allocation and precoding for better spectral efficiency and demand matching with proper management of the satellite resources. The optimization problem is non-convex, and we solve it using convex relaxation and successive convex approximation. Then, we evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm through numerical results. It is shown that the proposed method outperforms the benchmark schemes in terms of resource utilization and demand satisfaction. [less ▲]

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See detailEspaces (in)sensibles : l'appropriation en didactique comparée
Thiltges, Sébastian UL; Raus, Tonia

in Thiltges, Sébastian; Raus, Tonia (Eds.) spaces (in)sensibles : l'appropriation en didactique comparée (2022)

La nouvelle d'anticipation « Une voix dans le silence » (trad.) de Yorick Schmit sensibilise les lecteurs aux bouleversements environnementaux, psychologiques et affectifs engendrés par une catastrophe ... [more ▼]

La nouvelle d'anticipation « Une voix dans le silence » (trad.) de Yorick Schmit sensibilise les lecteurs aux bouleversements environnementaux, psychologiques et affectifs engendrés par une catastrophe nucléaire. Partant d'une lecture écopoétique, nous imaginons l'étude de ce récit en langue luxembourgeoise en cours de français, afin d'exploiter la tension ainsi créée par le dispositif translinguistique et interculturel. Dans une double perspective de didactique des langues et de la littérature, nous interrogeons dès lors le rôle du sensible dans le développement du plurilinguisme dans l'enseignement-apprentissage de la littérature. Pour ce faire, notre approche de didactique comparée se fonde sur le paradigme de l'appropriation en tant que concept à la fois linguistique et littéraire : le lecteur devient sensible en faisant sien le récit lu, dans un corps à corps avec la matérialité du texte écrit dans une langue familière en tant que langue véhiculaire mais étrangère en tant que langue littéraire, favorisant ainsi une prise de conscience des sens de la langue et du texte. [less ▲]

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See detailIntegrated Trajectory Optimization and Cubature Kalman Filter for UAV-Based Target Tracking with Unknown Initial Position
Xu, Sheng; Wu, Linlong UL; MR, Bhavani Shankar et al

in 2022 IEEE 12th Sensor Array and Multichannel Signal Processing Workshop (SAM) (2022)

This paper investigates the target localization/tracking by angle-of-arrival (AOA) sensors carried on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). In many practical applications, the UAV's own position is not ... [more ▼]

This paper investigates the target localization/tracking by angle-of-arrival (AOA) sensors carried on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). In many practical applications, the UAV's own position is not available, since the global position system (GPS) can hardly work in the indoor environment or interference region. Therefore, considering the unknown initial position of the UAV, a modified cubature Kalman filter (CKF) is developed to estimate both the target states and UAV's initial position jointly by leveraging a benchmark anchor. To further improve the estimation efficiency, we propose an algorithm to optimize the UAV flying trajectory by minimizing the the trace of the estimation covariance matrix in the CKF. According to the simulation results, an observation is found that the UAV will keeping flying alternatively between the anchor and target to guarantee the estimation performance. [less ▲]