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See detailDon't Trust Me, Test Me: 100% Code Coverage for a 3rd-party Android App
Pilgun, Aleksandr UL

in Pilgun, Aleksandr (Ed.) Don't Trust Me, Test Me: 100% Code Coverage for a 3rd-party Android App (in press)

The incompleteness of 3rd-party app testing is an accepted fact in Software Engineering. This issue makes it impossible to verify the app functionality and to confirm its safety to the end-user. To solve ... [more ▼]

The incompleteness of 3rd-party app testing is an accepted fact in Software Engineering. This issue makes it impossible to verify the app functionality and to confirm its safety to the end-user. To solve this problem, enterprises developed strict policies. A company, willing to use modern apps, may perform an expensive security analysis, rely on trust or forbid the app. These strategies may lead companies to high direct and indirect spending with no guarantee of safety. In this work, we present a novel approach, called Dynamic Binary Shrinking, that allows a user to review app functionality and leave only tested code. The shrunk app produces 100% instruction coverage on observed behaviors and in this way guarantees the absence of unexplored, and therefore, potentially malicious code. On our running examples, we demonstrate that apps use less than 20% of the codebase. We developed an approach and the ACVCut tool to shrink Android apps towards the executed code. Repository — http://github.com/pilgun/acvcut. [less ▲]

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See detailPrevalence of memory impairment 2000-2015 in Sao Paolo, Brazil
Ribeiro, Fabiana UL; de Oliveira Duarte, Yeda; Santos, Jair Licio Ferreira et al

in Alzheimer's and Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association (in press)

Background: Decreases in prevalence of memory impairment and dementia over the last two decades have been observed in different countries for cohorts entering older age. We sought to explore the changes ... [more ▼]

Background: Decreases in prevalence of memory impairment and dementia over the last two decades have been observed in different countries for cohorts entering older age. We sought to explore the changes in prevalence of cognitive impairment across four waves of the Health, Welfare and Aging survey (SABE) with data collected in Sao Paolo, Brazil, in 2000, 2006, 2010, and 2015. Method: Mini Mental State Exam (MMSE) scores and covariate values were available for 5,191 respondents (62.4% female) aged 60 to 99 across four waves. Cognitive impairment was defined as having <=12 points on a 19-point abbreviated version of the MMSE. Age group, educational attainment (no formal schooling, primary, secondary, post-secondary), self-reported heart disease, stroke, diabetes, hypertension, and BMI (<18.5, 18.5-24.9, 25-29.9, 30+) were adjusted for. Result: In more recent waves, prevalence of cognitive impairment was higher for respondents aged 60-64 years (9.0% in 2015 vs. 4.6% in 2000), 65-69 years (9.7% in 2015 vs. 5.8% in 2006) and 70-74 years (13.9% in 2015 vs. 5.8% in 2006). Between 2015 and 2000, respondents were increasingly more likely to report some formal education (90.8% vs. 75.3%), secondary (17.6% vs. 7.3%) or postsecondary education (11.4% vs. 4.3%). Respondents were increasingly more likely to report hypertension (66.5% vs. 54.2%), diabetes (28.7% vs. 17.8%), and be overweight/obese (74.1% vs. 58.9%). In age-adjusted logistic regressions, respondents in 2015 were more likely to show cognitive impairment compared to 2000 (OR 1.84, CI 1.20-2.82). Conclusion: SABE respondents showed higher prevalence of cognitive impairment in 2015 compared to respondents of the same age in earlier waves, but differences disappeared after adjusting for chronic disease burden and educational attainment. [less ▲]

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See detailBuffer XDEM
Mainassara Chekaraou, Abdoul Wahid UL; Besseron, Xavier UL; Rousset, Alban UL et al

Scientific Conference (in press)

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See detailHistorical outline and chromatic properties of purpura rubra Tarentina and its potential identification with purple dye extracted from Bolinus brandaris
Meiers, Fabienne UL

in Enegren, Hedvig; Meo, Francesco (Eds.) Treasures from the Sea : Sea-Silk and Shell purple dye in antiquity. Proceedings from the International workshop, 26.-28.05. (in press)

This paper presents a historical overview of the importance of the red dye found in spiny dye-murices (Bolinus brandaris) and its production in Taranto, one of the most industrious Greek colonies founded ... [more ▼]

This paper presents a historical overview of the importance of the red dye found in spiny dye-murices (Bolinus brandaris) and its production in Taranto, one of the most industrious Greek colonies founded in southern Italy in the 8th century BC and renowned for its luxury products. Written evidence as well as numismatic and archaeological sources dating from the 5th century BC to the 5th century AD have been analysed in this context to identify purpura rubra Tarentina. In addition, the results of a series of dye experiments with hypobranchial glands from the same species are treated in order to detect chromatic properties and potential manufacturing processes for Tarentine Red. The methods for vatting the dye glands are discussed in relation to historical validity and chromatic outcome. To conclude, comparisons are drawn between the colour characteristics of Bolinus brandaris and Hexaplex trunculus (banded dye-murex), and the possibility of mixing both dyes is taken into consideration. The synthesis of historical and experimental approach finally shows that purpura rubra Tarentina can potentially be identified with purple dye extracted from Bolinus brandaris. [less ▲]

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See detailA Methodology for Handling Data Movements by Anticipation: Position Paper
Bleuse, Raphaël UL; Lucarelli, Giorgio; Trystram, Denis

in Euro-Par 2018 Workshops (in press)

The enhanced capabilities of large scale parallel and distributed platforms produce a continuously increasing amount of data which have to be stored, exchanged and used by various tasks allocated on ... [more ▼]

The enhanced capabilities of large scale parallel and distributed platforms produce a continuously increasing amount of data which have to be stored, exchanged and used by various tasks allocated on different nodes of the system. The management of such a huge communication demand is crucial for reaching the best possible performance of the system. Meanwhile, we have to deal with more interferences as the trend is to use a single all-purpose interconnection network whatever the interconnect (tree-based hierarchies or topology-based heterarchies). There are two different types of communications, namely, the flows induced by data exchanges during the computations, and the flows related to Input/Output operations. We propose in this paper a general model for interference-aware scheduling, where explicit communications are replaced by external topological constraints. Specifically, the interferences of both communication types are reduced by adding geometric constraints on the allocation of tasks into machines. The proposed constraints reduce implicitly the data movements by restricting the set of possible allocations for each task. This methodology has been proved to be efficient in a recent study for a restricted interconnection network (a line/ring of processors which is an intermediate between a tree and higher dimensions grids/torus). The obtained results illustrated well the difficulty of the problem even on simple topologies, but also provided a pragmatic greedy solution, which was assessed to be efficient by simulations. We are currently extending this solution for more complex topologies. This work is a position paper which describes the methodology, it does not focus on the solving part. [less ▲]

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See detailBlockchain Governance: An Overview and Prediction of Optimal Strategies Using Nash Equilibrium
Khan, Nida UL; Ahmad, Tabrez; Patel, Anass et al

in 3rd AUE International Research Conference (in press)

Blockchain governance is a subject of ongoing research and an interdisciplinary view of blockchain governance is vital to aid in further research for establishing a formal governance framework for this ... [more ▼]

Blockchain governance is a subject of ongoing research and an interdisciplinary view of blockchain governance is vital to aid in further research for establishing a formal governance framework for this nascent technology. In this paper, the position of blockchain governance within the hierarchy of Institutional governance is discussed. Blockchain governance is analyzed from the perspective of IT governance using Nash equilibrium to predict the outcome of different governance decisions. A payoff matrix for blockchain governance is created and simulation of different strategy profiles is accomplished for computation of all Nash equilibria. We also create payoff matrices for different kinds of blockchain governance, which were used to propose novel mathematical formulae usable to predict the best governance strategy that minimizes the occurrence of a hard fork as well as predicts the behavior of the majority during protocol updates. [less ▲]

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See detailUpdate Internationales und Europäisches Steuerrecht
Sinnig, Julia UL

in Taeger, Jürgen (Ed.) Tagungsband DSRI-Herbstakademie 2020 (in press)

Im Berichtszeitraum dieses Updates rief die OECD zu einem zweiten Öffentlichkeitsbetei-ligungsverfahren auf und erarbeitete einen präziseren Lösungsansatz zur Besteuerung digitalisierter Geschäftsmodelle ... [more ▼]

Im Berichtszeitraum dieses Updates rief die OECD zu einem zweiten Öffentlichkeitsbetei-ligungsverfahren auf und erarbeitete einen präziseren Lösungsansatz zur Besteuerung digitalisierter Geschäftsmodelle, der in einer Veröffentlichung im Januar 2020 vorgestellt wurde. Auf Ebene der Europäischen Union gab es im Berichtszeitraum keine Weiterent-wicklung der Richtlinienvorschläge zu einer Digitalsteuer und dem Konzept der „signifi-kanten digitalen Präsenz“. Der EuGH urteilte am 3. März 2020 in Hinblick auf die unions-rechtliche Vereinbarkeit zweier ungarischer Umsatzsteuern. Dieses Urteil erlaubt erste Rückschlüsse bezüglich der Europarechtskonformität umsatzbasierter Steuern, wie bspw. auch im Berichtszeitraum eingeführte Digitalsteuern einzelner Mitgliedstaaten. Dieser Beitrag knüpft an die Vorträge von Prof. Dr. Jens M. Schmittmann und der Verfasserin anlässlich der Herbstakademien 2018 in Bochum und 2019 in Oldenburg, sowie dem Vortrag der Verfasserin anlässlich der Herbstakademie 2017 in Heidelberg an. [less ▲]

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See detailExternalisation de la politique migratoire et identité de l'Union européenne
Neframi, Eleftheria UL; Gatti, Mauro UL

in Benlolo, Myriam (Ed.) L'Union européenne et les migrations (in press)

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See detailLa Charte dans l'action extérieure de l'Union européenne
Neframi, Eleftheria UL

in Iliopoulou Penot, Anastasia; Xenou, Lamprini (Eds.) La Charte des droits fondamentaux de l'UE (in press)

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See detailHybrid Analog-Digital Precoding Design for Satellite Systems
Arora, Aakash UL; Tsinos, Christos UL; Shankar, Bhavani UL et al

in Proc. 37th International Communications Satellite Systems Conference (ICSSC'19) (in press)

The work investigates the feasibility of massive MIMO in SatCom. Towards this, the necessary channel models, system parameters and scenarios are identified and a basic simulator developed. The work then ... [more ▼]

The work investigates the feasibility of massive MIMO in SatCom. Towards this, the necessary channel models, system parameters and scenarios are identified and a basic simulator developed. The work then considers an efficient implementation of the massive MIMO transmission through the use of hybrid analog/digital precoder. Efficient algorithmic solutions are proposed for the partially connected precoder architecture which enables efficiency in power/ hardware complexity and its performance evaluated. [less ▲]

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See detailA New Perspective on the Luxembourgish Genitive
Döhmer, Caroline UL

in Germanic Genitives (in press)

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See detailUsing Passive Data Collection Methods to Learn Complex Mobility Patterns: An Exploratory Analysis
Toader, Bogdan UL; Cantelmo, Guido UL; Popescu, Mioara et al

Scientific Conference (in press)

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See detailDiscrete-Phase Sequence Design with Stopband and PSL Constraints for Cognitive Radar
Alaeekerahroodi, Mohammad UL; Kumar, Sumit UL; Mysore Rama Rao, Bhavani Shankar UL et al

in Proceedings of EuRAD 2020 (in press)

We present the design of discrete-phase sequences considering simultaneously the peak sidelobe level (PSL) and avoiding reserved frequency bands which are occupied by narrowband interferers or ... [more ▼]

We present the design of discrete-phase sequences considering simultaneously the peak sidelobe level (PSL) and avoiding reserved frequency bands which are occupied by narrowband interferers or communications. We use the coordinate descent framework and propose an algorithm to design discrete-phase sequences with spectral power suppressed in arbitrary bands and with low auto-correlation sidelobes in terms of PSL. Our proposed algorithm exploits fast Fourier transform and is, therefore, computationally efficient. The over-the-air experiments using implementation on software-defined radio show reasonable agreement with numerical simulations and feasibility for field-deployment [less ▲]

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See detailL’exposition d’objets ou de collections de « marque » : cobranding, réécriture, réénonciation
Schall, Céline UL

in Laval, Sylvie (Ed.) Marques muséales : un espace public revisité ? (in press)

Le cobranding est une pratique habituelle du secteur marchand. Mais lorsque deux musées réalisent ensemble une exposition, peut-on parler de cobranding muséal ? Quelles en seraient les spécificités  ... [more ▼]

Le cobranding est une pratique habituelle du secteur marchand. Mais lorsque deux musées réalisent ensemble une exposition, peut-on parler de cobranding muséal ? Quelles en seraient les spécificités ? Quels effets peut avoir cette démarche sur la communication ou sur l’exposition ? Notamment, le musée d’accueil s’approprie-t-il simplement l’imaginaire et les valeurs de la marque invitée par un phénomène de « transfert » ? Pour répondre à ces questions, nous étudions trois expositions qui reprennent des objets ou collections de musées dont la marque est internationalement reconnue. L’analyse sémiotique des images de marque du musée d’accueil et du musée invité ainsi que l’analyse sémiopragmatique des expositions montrent l’impact de la présence d’une grande marque internationale sur l’exposition et réciproquement, l’impact de l’exposition sur l’image de marque du musée d’accueil. Plus qu’un simple cobranding, c’est une réécriture impliquant une réénonciation du discours et des valeurs portés par les marques qui est proposée à travers ces expositions. Le processus aboutit à la création de nouveaux espaces symboliques et d’expositions réflexives, avec plusieurs niveaux de lecture. [less ▲]

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See detailDatenbank für Zweisprachige Historische Luxemburgische Bekanntmachungen
Gilles, Peter UL; Ziegler, Evelyn

in Wallmeier, Nadine; Tophinke, Doris (Eds.) Historische Stadtsprachenforschung (in press)

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See detailProcess analysis in thermal process engineering with high-performance computing using the example of grate firing
Peters, Bernhard UL; Rousset, Alban UL; Besseron, Xavier UL et al

in 12th European Conference on Industrial Furnaces and Boilers (in press)

Biomass as a renewable energy source continues to grow in popularity to reduce fossil fuel consumption for environmental and economic benefits. In the present contribution, the combustion chamber of a 16 ... [more ▼]

Biomass as a renewable energy source continues to grow in popularity to reduce fossil fuel consumption for environmental and economic benefits. In the present contribution, the combustion chamber of a 16 MW geothermal steam super-heater, which is part of the Enel Green Power "Cornia 2" power plant, is being investigated with high-performance computing methods. For this purpose, the extended discrete element method (XDEM) developed at the University of Luxembourg is used in a high-performance computing environment, which includes both the moving wooden bed and the combustion chamber above it. The XDEM simulation platform is based on a hybrid four-way coupling between the Discrete Element Method (DEM) and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). In this approach, particles are treated as discrete elements that are coupled by heat, mass, and momentum transfer to the surrounding gas as a continuous phase. For individual wood particles, besides the equations of motion, the differential conservation equations for mass, heat, and momentum are solved, which describe the thermodynamic state during thermal conversion. The consistency of the numerical results with the actual system performance is discussed in this paper to determine the potentials and limitations of the approach. [less ▲]

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See detailLe quotidien d’un poilu de la première guerre mondiale sur Facebook : nouvelle forme de médiation, nouvelle expérience ?
Schall, Céline UL; Vilatte, Jean-Christophe

in Les mondes de la médiation culturelle (in press)

« En 2013, le Musée de la Grande Guerre du Pays de Meaux et l’agence de communication DDB ont élaboré une page Facebook d’un genre nouveau. Facebook 1914, le quotidien de la première guerre offre une ... [more ▼]

« En 2013, le Musée de la Grande Guerre du Pays de Meaux et l’agence de communication DDB ont élaboré une page Facebook d’un genre nouveau. Facebook 1914, le quotidien de la première guerre offre une forme de médiation a priori inédite pour un musée français. Elle présente l’histoire d’un personnage de fiction, Léon Vivien, qui raconte son quotidien lors de la première guerre mondiale, sur Facebook, comme si ce réseau social avait existé à cette époque. Cette contribution met en évidence certains des effets de sens de la page par une analyse sémiotique du dispositif et une analyse thématique de ses contenus. Nous questionnons ensuite cette « nouvelle » forme de médiation qui se dit « participante » et qui, en réalité, reste assez classique dans son contenu et sous-exploite le potentiel de Facebook. » [less ▲]

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See detailWhich Properties has an Icon? A Critical Discussion on Evaluation Methods for Standardised Data Protection Iconography
Rossi, Arianna UL; Lenzini, Gabriele UL

in Proceedings of the 8th Workshop on Socio-Technical Aspects in Security and Trust (STAST) (in press)

Following GDPR's Article12.7's proposal to use standardized icons to inform data subject in "an easily visible, intelligible and clearly legible manner," several icon sets have been developed. In this ... [more ▼]

Following GDPR's Article12.7's proposal to use standardized icons to inform data subject in "an easily visible, intelligible and clearly legible manner," several icon sets have been developed. In this paper, we firstly critically review some of those proposals. We then examine the properties that icons and icon sets should arguably fulfill according to Art.12's transparency provisions. Lastly, we discuss metrics and evaluation procedures to measure compliance with the Article. [less ▲]

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See detailWidths of regular and context-free languages
Mestel, David UL

in 39th IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2019) (in press)

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See detail« … Eripuit servus mihi vitam » - Représentations médiatiques de la violence et de la criminalité dans les provinces occidentales de l'Empire romain
Binsfeld, Andrea UL

in Amodio, Mara (Ed.) The imagery of violence in Roman society (I-VI cent.). Persistence, innovations and interrelations from the Roman to the Christian Empire (in press)

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See detailConservazione e ricezione dei documenti pontifici in Italia settentrionale: il caso del monastero cistercense di Chiaravalle Milanese (secoli XII-XVI)
Salemme, Timothy UL

in Salemme, Timothy; Renault, Jean-Baptiste (Eds.) Conservation et réception des documents pontificaux par les Ordres religieux (XIe-XVe siècles). Actes du colloque international. Nancy, 12-13 décembre 2013 (in press)

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See detailThe legacy of coal mining – a view on examples in Belgium and France
Helfer, Malte UL

in Deutsches Bergbau-Museum Bochum (Ed.) Boom – Crisis – Heritage. King Coal and Energy Revolutions after 1945; proceedings of the international conference March 14th-16th 2018, Technische Hochschule Georg Agricola, Bochum (in press)

Following the end of coalmining in Belgium (1992) and France (2004), the year 2018 marks the end of hard coal mining in Germany as well. This contribution looks at the legacy of coalmining of Germany’s ... [more ▼]

Following the end of coalmining in Belgium (1992) and France (2004), the year 2018 marks the end of hard coal mining in Germany as well. This contribution looks at the legacy of coalmining of Germany’s French-speaking neighbours and presents the most important remaining coal mining heritage sites as well as some extraordinary converted sites in France and the Belgian province Wallonia. [less ▲]

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See detailUsing cohort data to emulate lifestyle interventions: Long-term beneficial effects of initiating physical activity on cognitive decline and dementia
Leist, Anja UL; Muniz-Terrera, Graciela; Solomon, Alina

in Alzheimer's and Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association (in press)

Background: Intervention studies have shown beneficial short-term effects of physical activity on cognitive decline and reduced risk of dementia. However, randomized controlled trial data of lifestyle ... [more ▼]

Background: Intervention studies have shown beneficial short-term effects of physical activity on cognitive decline and reduced risk of dementia. However, randomized controlled trial data of lifestyle interventions over long time spans are not available due to lack of resources, feasibility or ethical reasons. Drawing from the principles of emulating a ‘target trial’, which apply design principles of randomized trials to the analysis of observational data, cohort data of a large European survey were analyzed to understand the long-term effects of physical activity changes. Method: Biennial assessments of the economic, social, and health situation of respondents aged 50 and older came from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (2004-2017). Cognitive functioning (immediate recall, delayed recall, and verbal fluency) and self-reported diagnosis of dementia were assessed at each follow-up. The target trial included sedentary respondents at t1 who, at follow-up (t2), stayed sedentary (“control group”) or newly reported vigorous physical activity more often than once a week (initiators, “treatment group”). Inclusion and exclusion criteria were implemented as close as possible to those of the FINGER trial. Inverse-probability weighting accounted for the probability of initiating physical activity with a large set of predictor variables. Selecting respondents aged 50-85 years old who met the target trial inclusion and exclusion criteria, assessments of cognitive functioning and self-reported diagnosis of dementia were available for 8,781 respondents at t3 (on average 3.02 years later), 3,858 respondents at t4 (5.84 years), and 2,304 respondents at t5 (7.72 years). A total of 304 respondents reported a diagnosis of dementia. Result: Initiators of vigorous physical activity had higher cognitive functioning at two follow-ups compared to non-initiators (t3: “average treatment effect on the treated”, ATET=0.059, CI: 0.028, 0.090), which remained significant after implementing inclusion and exclusion criteria. Initiators had lower risk of dementia compared to non-initiators at all three follow-ups (t3: ATET=-0.009, CI: -0.015, -0.005, relative risk decrease -46.7%), remaining significant after implementing inclusion and exclusion criteria. Conclusion: Emulating a target trial showed long-term benefits of initiating physical activity for cognitive functioning and dementia risk. Multidomain interventions related to nutrition, social, cognitive activities etc. can be similarly emulated. [less ▲]

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See detailLe dialogue entre les juges en matière de protection des droits de l'homme
Pelin Raducu, Ioana UL

in Menetrey, Séverine; Hess, Burkhard (Eds.) Les dialogues des juges en Europe (in press)

Dans cet article, nous allons mettre en exergue quelques aspects des arrêts récents provenant de la Cour de justice de l’UE (Akerberg Frasson, Melloni, Kamberaj)qui démontrent l’émergence d’un standard ... [more ▼]

Dans cet article, nous allons mettre en exergue quelques aspects des arrêts récents provenant de la Cour de justice de l’UE (Akerberg Frasson, Melloni, Kamberaj)qui démontrent l’émergence d’un standard propre de l’UE en matière des droits de l’homme. Cette tendance de la C.J.U.E. contredira le prescrit normatif découlant du « dialogue des juges » d’interprétation conforme à la jurisprudence de la C.E.D.H. avant que l’adhésion de l’UE à la Convention E.D.H. ne soit formellement acquise. [less ▲]

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See detailLes archevêques de Milan face aux premières expériences seigneuriales: stratégies et positionnements (milieu XIIIe-début XIVe s.)
Salemme, Timothy UL

in Barralis, Christine (Ed.) L’évêque face à son métier. Actes du colloque international, Metz. 15-17 novembre 2017 (in press)

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See detailGoal-Directed Decision Procedures for Input/Output Logics
Steen, Alexander UL

in Marra, Alessandra; Liu, Fenrong; Portner, Paul (Eds.) et al Deontic Logic and Normative Systems: 15th International Conference (DEON2020/2021, Munich) (in press)

Input/Output (I/O) logics address the abstract study of conditional norms. Here, norms are represented as pairs of formulas instead of statements that themselves carry truth-values. I/O logics have been ... [more ▼]

Input/Output (I/O) logics address the abstract study of conditional norms. Here, norms are represented as pairs of formulas instead of statements that themselves carry truth-values. I/O logics have been studied thoroughly in the past, including further applications and refinements. In this paper, a class of automated reasoning procedures is presented that, given a set of norms and a concrete situation, decide whether a specific state of affairs is obligatory according to the output operations of I/O logics. The procedures are parametric in the underlying logical formalism and can be instantiated with different classical objects logics, such as propositional logic or first-order logic. The procedures are shown to be correct, and a proof-of-concept implementation for propositional I/O logics is surveyed. [less ▲]

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See detailSmall in size, great in significance: conspicilla and perspicilla in the visual arts of the Low Countries around 1600
Koeleman, Floor UL

Scientific Conference (2021, July)

A largely forgotten constcamer painting from the early seventeenth century shows eyeglasses and a telescope in close proximity. The inclusion of these extensions of sight in The Five Senses of the Musée ... [more ▼]

A largely forgotten constcamer painting from the early seventeenth century shows eyeglasses and a telescope in close proximity. The inclusion of these extensions of sight in The Five Senses of the Musée Magnin (Dijon) seems to allude to the implicit link between the two. As tools to observe with and through, these instruments visualize the limits of human perception and the ability to alter the scale of the visible world. The Five Senses was created in Antwerp around the same time the telescope first appeared in textual sources, namely 1608. However, the optical instrument is likely to have existed for years by then. This paper investigates if any references to the telescope in the visual arts predate the first written evidence of its invention. For artists the early telescope was probably not that challenging an object to represent. The exterior, a simple tube characterized by a diaphragm, housed two lenses made by the same glass industry that manufactured eyeglasses. This paper takes a closer look at the imagery of eyeglasses and telescopes, depicted in the visual arts of the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries. The meaning assigned to these instruments can be inferred from the context in which they are presented and their relative scale. Together eyeglasses and telescopes feature prominently in constcamer paintings dedicated to visual perception, understood both physically and metaphysically. While the exact date of creation remains subject to debate, The Five Senses probably contains the earliest known depiction of a telescope – true to scale. [less ▲]

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See detailMeasuring multicultural ideology: Scale development and validation in different languages and contexts
Stogianni, Maria UL; Schmidt, Lea Marie; Murdock, Elke UL et al

Scientific Conference (2021, July)

Increased migration has led to the formation of culturally diverse societies in many places around the world. The concept of Multicultural Ideology incorporates two values as a way to promote positive ... [more ▼]

Increased migration has led to the formation of culturally diverse societies in many places around the world. The concept of Multicultural Ideology incorporates two values as a way to promote positive intercultural relations: a) Diversity: the presence of ethnocultural diversity in the population and b) Equity: the right for equal participation of all cultural groups in the society. Both diversity and equity are necessary conditions for the success of multicultural policies. Culturally heterogeneous communities that do not support inclusion and equitable participation of all groups face the negative consequences of segregation and marginalization. In line with this notion, an international research consortium is developing a revised version of the Multicultural Ideology Scale to assess the endorsement of multicultural ideology in different national contexts. The scale aims to distinguish various attitudinal dimensions of multiculturalism, relevant to the acceptance of diversity and social inclusion of different ethnocultural groups: Cultural Maintenance, Social Interaction, Equity/Inclusion, Extent of Differences, Conflictual Relations, Essentialistic Boundaries. We present the first assessment of the new scale in the German language. The survey was administered online to a sample of native German citizens (N = 382) with different demographic characteristics. Our aim was to understand the attitude of native citizens towards cultural diversity and their willingness to have members of ethnic minority groups be included in the larger society. We investigated the factor structure of the scale, its psychometric properties, and the relationship between multicultural ideology and some individual difference variables, such as ethnic group attachment and social dominance orientation. [less ▲]

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See detailAn MDE Method for Improving Deep Learning Dataset Requiements Engineering using Alloy and UML
Ries, Benoit UL; Guelfi, Nicolas UL; Jahic, Benjamin UL

in Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Model-Driven Engineering and Software Development (2021, February)

Since the emergence of deep learning (DL) a decade ago, only few software engineering development methods have been defined for systems based on this machine learning approach. Moreover, rare are the DL ... [more ▼]

Since the emergence of deep learning (DL) a decade ago, only few software engineering development methods have been defined for systems based on this machine learning approach. Moreover, rare are the DL approaches addressing specifically requirements engineering. In this paper, we define a model-driven engineering (MDE) method based on traditional requirements engineering to improve datasets requirements engineering. Our MDE method is composed of a process supported by tools to aid customers and analysts in eliciting, specifying and validating dataset structural requirements for DL-based systems. Our model driven engineering approach uses the UML semi-formal modeling language for the analysis of datasets structural requirements, and the Alloy formal language for the requirements model execution based on our informal translational semantics. The model executions results are then presented to the customer for improving the dataset validation activity. Our approach aims at validating DL-based dataset structural requirements by modeling and instantiating their datatypes. We illustrate our approach with a case study on the requirements engineering of the structure of a dataset for classification of five-segments digits images. [less ▲]

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See detailVertex Feature Encoding and Hierarchical Temporal Modeling in a Spatio-Temporal Graph Convolutional Network for Action Recognition
Papadopoulos, Konstantinos UL; Ghorbel, Enjie UL; Aouada, Djamila UL et al

in International Conference on Pattern Recognition, Milan 10-15 January 2021 (2021, January)

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See detailConcise UC Zero-Knowledge Proofs for Oblivious Updatable Databases
Camenisch, Jan; Dubovitskaya, Maria; Rial, Alfredo UL

in 2021 34th IEEE Computer Security Foundations Symposium (2021)

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See detailKant's supposed realism about things-in-themselves
Heidemann, Dietmar UL

in Serck-Hanssen, Camila (Ed.) Proceedings of the 13th International Kant Congress ‘The Court of Reason’ (Oslo, 6-9 August 2019) (2021)

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See detailWind Music during the Nazi occupation in Luxembourg from 1940 to 1944
Sagrillo, Damien François UL

Scientific Conference (2020, December 18)

From 1940 to 1944 Luxembourg was governed by the National Socialist regime. Besides the many human destinies, social life also had to bear the consequences. The keyword is "Gleichschaltung" (co-ordination ... [more ▼]

From 1940 to 1944 Luxembourg was governed by the National Socialist regime. Besides the many human destinies, social life also had to bear the consequences. The keyword is "Gleichschaltung" (co-ordination). In my lecture, I will provide some examples to show how this abusive and arbitrary interference affected the activities of the music associations. [less ▲]

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See detailMultipath Mitigation Maps feasibility and applicability as an International GNSS Service product
Hunegnaw, Addisu UL; Teferle, Felix Norman UL; Elgered, Gunnar et al

Scientific Conference (2020, December 17)

There have been many advances in the modeling of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) observables when estimating position and other parameters of interest. Some of these bias models are related to ... [more ▼]

There have been many advances in the modeling of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) observables when estimating position and other parameters of interest. Some of these bias models are related to improvements of reference frames, phase center offsets and variations of transmitter and receiver antennas, satellite orbits and clocks, and troposphere. Nonetheless, multipath remains for the most part an unmodelled source of error which causes range errors in the GNSS observations. The associated effects show highly localized features and have a different impact for each receiver and antenna. Multipath errors can propagate, can cause in-situ position biases and are also contributing to the prevalent draconitic harmonic signals. In order to mitigate the problem we generate site-specific corrections by employing a suitable averaging scheme for the stacking of carrier phase residuals. Our processing is based on globally distributed static multi-GNSS observations using several scientific GNSS software packages (Bernese GNSS Software, NAPEOS, GAMIT-GLOBK, and CSRS-PPP). Our multipath stacking maps (MPS) use the stacking of carrier phase residuals generated by variable azimuth cell size (congruent cells) and by allocating carrier phase residuals in each cell to generate the correction maps, unlike the standard fixed azimuth cell resolution approaches. This reduces the binning of fewer residuals at higher elevation angles. Before stacking, we also apply rigorous statistical outlier screening tests for each one-way post-fit carrier phase residual assigned to each of the congruent cells. We thus correct the multipath effects by subtracting the stacked multipath map from the post-fit carrier phase residual. Using this technique we produce a model available in the form of the Antenna Exchange (ANTEX) file format, that can potentially be implemented in routine GNSS analysis with no or little additional overhead for individual analysis centers (ACs). In this study, we assess the feasibility and applicability of the MPS maps as an International GNSS Service (IGS) product for routine GNSS analysis. We demonstrate the multipath stacking technique to result in a significant reduction of the variation in the one-way post-fit carrier phase residuals from multi-GNSS observations. [less ▲]

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See detailVertical Land Movements and Sea Level Changes on South Georgia, South Atlantic Ocean: Results from 7 Years of Geodetic and Oceanographic Observations on a Remote Island
Teferle, Felix Norman UL; Hunegnaw, Addisu UL; Hibbert, Angela et al

Scientific Conference (2020, December 16)

South Georgia Island in the South Atlantic Ocean, is a small remote land mass that supports various ground-based instrumental observations (Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), tide gauge ... [more ▼]

South Georgia Island in the South Atlantic Ocean, is a small remote land mass that supports various ground-based instrumental observations (Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), tide gauge, meteorological and seismic) in an otherwise largely under sampled oceanic region. Moreover, the South Atlantic Ocean plays an important role in global ocean circulation, con-necting the deep thermohaline circulation of the North Atlantic and Indian Oceans, whilst also linking to the Antarctic Circumpolar Current in the South, where the lack of continental barriers allows a free exchange of water between the major ocean basins. Hence, South Georgia po-tentially lies within a region susceptible to climatic changes before these can be felt further afield. In 2013 and 2014 a total of five GNSS stations were installed covering the area of the main island (approximately 170 x 50 km) with two of those being located close to the King Edward Point (KEP) Research Station and the GLOSS tide gauge (ID 187). Furthermore, precise levelling campaigns in 2013, 2014, 2017 and 2020 supported the analysis of local ground instabilities near the tide gauge. Through these activities the tide gauge datum within the Permanent Ser-vice for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL) has been established, which in turn, makes the derived KEP mean sea level (MSL) record highly valuable for long-term studies and satellite altimetry cali-brations. In this study, we will present the vertical land movement estimates from seven years of GNSS observations, five precise levelling campaigns, and will discuss their impact on the sea level record from the KEP tide gauge and nearby satellite altimetry sea surface heights. Our results confirm uplift all over South Georgia Island while the area at KEP and particularly the jetty with tide gauge are subsiding relative to the rest of the island. Using this information we correct the MSL record for the vertical land movements and investigate its signals together with those from nearby satellite altimetry tracks. [less ▲]

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See detailOutdoor STEAM integrated framework in elementary schools in Luxembourg using MathCityMap and GeoGebra 3D Calculator
Haas, Ben; Kreis, Yves UL; Lavicza, Zsolt

Scientific Conference (2020, December 15)

In elementary schools in Luxemburg, sciences and mathematics are generally taught in class based essentially on textbooks. However, the findings of multiple studies on understanding and applying skills in ... [more ▼]

In elementary schools in Luxemburg, sciences and mathematics are generally taught in class based essentially on textbooks. However, the findings of multiple studies on understanding and applying skills in STEAM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Arts and Mathematics) report that students need hands-on activities on real-world objects. Furthermore, in times of the COVID-19 pandemic, where numerous restrictions and risks dominate teaching inside the classroom, outdoor learning is safer and offers many opportunities. Hence, we created outdoor mathematical trails with a STEAM integrated approach for elementary schools using the free educational software MathCityMap and the dynamic mathematics software GeoGebra 3D. In these outdoor trails, students used a set of promising technologies, i.e. AR (Augmented Reality) or GPS, to support STEAM education. Based on results from our first study on outdoor mathematical trails in June 2020 (in review), we developed and evaluated a framework on outdoor STEAM integrated teaching. This framework was used for further outdoor task and trail creations in elementary schools, which we investigated by conducting semi-structured interviews with students and teachers. Hence, we will present how this framework was used in elementary schools to create outdoor mathematical trails and describe how it affected the students' learning. [less ▲]

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See detailCross-Evaluation of Surface Meteorological Data and GNSS-derived Water Vapor with Re-analysis Information for South Georgia Island, South Atlantic Ocean
Erkihune, Eshetu Nega UL; Teferle, Felix Norman UL; Hunegnaw, Addisu UL et al

Poster (2020, December 11)

As one of the most important components of the global hydrologic cycle, atmospheric water vapor shows significant variability in both space and time over a large range of scales. This variability results ... [more ▼]

As one of the most important components of the global hydrologic cycle, atmospheric water vapor shows significant variability in both space and time over a large range of scales. This variability results from the interactions of many different factors, including topography and the presence of specific atmospheric processes. One of the key regions for affecting global climatic variations lies in the sub-Antarctic zone over the Southern Ocean with its Antarctic Circumpolar Current and the associated Antarctic Convergence. There, in this cold and maritime region, lies South Georgia Island with its weather and climate being largely affected by both the dominating ocean currents and the strong east ward blowing winds in this zone. While the island forms an important outpost for various surface observations in this largely under-sampled and extremely remote region, it also forms a barrier for these winds due to its high topography, which, in turn, leads to various local meteorological phenomena, such as foehn winds. Surface meteorological data have been available for several stations near King Edward Point (KEP) on South Georgia for much of the 20th century. Since 2013 and 2014, Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) data have been available at five locations around the periphery of the island and during a few months in 2016 also radiosonde data have been collected at KEP. This study aims at investigating the consistency between the different surface meteorological data sets such as temperature, pressure and wind direction/speed that have been collected at KEP and a nearby GNSS station on Brown Mountain (BMT) for which we also compare the precipitable water vapor estimates. A cross-evaluation of these data sets with model values from the ERA-Interim re-analyses is carried out to further investigate the performance of both instruments and models. Overall, our preliminary results show high consistency between the surface meteorological observations and the re-analysis model values. It was our main objective to investigate the homogeneity and accuracy of the BMT observation time series through cross-evaluation with the series of the official WMO station at KEP. Air temperature and pressure at both sites from observation and model data are strongly correlated at hourly intervals, reaching correlation coefficients in the range of 0.966 - 0.968 for the former data set. The difference temperature time series shows seasonal variations but no obvious steps. The difference pressure time series is flat, also indicating no discontinuities. A cross-evaluation of the wind observations shows the distinct directional feature at KEP for a station in a valley where the winds are funneled through the valley. For BMT the wind observations confirm the main directions of winds but also show the openness of the station from all directions. The observations of temperature, pressure, humidity and GNSS-derived PWV clearly show the signatures of the frequent foehn events. [less ▲]

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See detailUnderstanding through Experimentation: An Experimental Media Archaeological Approach to Early Twentieth-Century Home Movie Making
van der Heijden, Tim UL

Scientific Conference (2020, December 11)

This presentation addresses the question in what ways visual media have contributed to the construction of a specific view on twentieth-century century (family) life by means of an experimental media ... [more ▼]

This presentation addresses the question in what ways visual media have contributed to the construction of a specific view on twentieth-century century (family) life by means of an experimental media archaeological approach to early home movie making. Based on hands-on experiments with an original Ciné-Kodak 16mm film camera from 1930, it will be shown how filming one’s family was never truly a neutral practice of capturing everyday life. Rather, making a home movie should be regarded a highly “co-constructive” practice that includes various social, sensorial, technological and user-related dimensions. The presentation reflects work in progress from the research project “Doing Experimental Media Archaeology” (DEMA) of the Centre for Contemporary and Digital History (C2DH) of the University of Luxembourg: https://dema.uni.lu/. [less ▲]

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See detailTest
Erkihune, Eshetu Nega UL; Teferle, Felix Norman UL; Hunegnaw, Addisu UL et al

Poster (2020, December 11)

test

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See detailWhat is problematic about binary questions on gender in health surveys – a missing answer analysis
Heinz, Andreas UL; Költő, András; Godeau, Emmanuelle et al

in Cogent Medicine (2020, December 04)

Background: In many studies, participants who do not state their gender are excluded from the analysis. This may be appropriate if they do not answer the questionnaire seriously. However, some ... [more ▼]

Background: In many studies, participants who do not state their gender are excluded from the analysis. This may be appropriate if they do not answer the questionnaire seriously. However, some participants may have understandable reasons for not reporting their gender, e.g. questioning their gender identity. Research question: How many students and which students do not answer the question on gender? Methods: We analyzed data of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study from Ireland, France, Hungary, Scotland, Belgium (Flemish) and Luxembourg (n = 40,053). To explore the reasons for non-response, we divided the participants into 3 groups: 1. Responders answered both socio- demographic questions (age and gender) 2. age non-responders did not answer the question on age. 3. Gender non-responders answered the question on age, but not the one on gender. Results: 311 out of 40,053 (0.8%) pupils aged 11–18 did not report their gender. About 40% of them did not answer the age question either. However, the other 60% belong to the group of gender non-responders and this group is disadvantaged compared to responders: they report lower self-rated health, more health complaints, less family support and more substance use (alcohol, tobacco, cannabis). 1.9% of pupils did not answer the question about age. These age non-responders answered the questionnaire more selectively overall and skipped more questions. Conclusion: The data suggest that the reasons for age non-response and gender non-response are different. For age non-responders, the fear of de-anonymization seems to be the reason for not indicating their age. Not answering the question on gender is rare. If the participants answered the question on age, but not the question on gender, then the variable gender is missing not at random. The health problems of gender non-responders correspond to the health problems of gender non-conforming adolescents. Thus, the question arises if the group of gender non-responders should be included in the analysis and if the question on gender should be asked differently in the future [less ▲]

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See detailStochastic-Geometry-Based Interference Modeling in Automotive Radars Using Matérn Hard-Core Process
Mishra, K. V.; R., B. Shankar M.; Ottersten, Björn UL

in 2020 IEEE Radar Conference (RadarConf20), Stochastic-Geometry-Based Interference Modeling in Automotive Radars Using Matérn Hard-Core Process (2020, December 04)

As the use of radars in autonomous driving systems becomes more prevalent, these systems are increasingly susceptible to mutual interference. In this paper, we employ stochastic geometry to model the ... [more ▼]

As the use of radars in autonomous driving systems becomes more prevalent, these systems are increasingly susceptible to mutual interference. In this paper, we employ stochastic geometry to model the automotive radar interference in realistic traffic scenarios and then derive trade-offs between the radar design parameters and detection probability. Prior works model the locations of radars in the lane as a homogeneous Poisson point process (PPP). However, the PPP models assume all nodes to be independent, do not account for the lengths of vehicles, and ignore spatial mutual exclusion. In order to provide a more realistic interference effect, we adopt the Matérn hardcore process (MHCP) instead of PPP, in which two vehicles are not closer than an exclusion radius from one another. We show that the MHCP model leads to more practical design trade-offs for adapting the radar parameters than the conventional PPP model. [less ▲]

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See detailMeasuring sex and gender identity in a cross-national adolescent population survey: Perspectives of adolescent health experts from 44 countries
Költő, András; Heinz, Andreas UL; Moreno-Maldonado, Concepcion et al

in Cogent Medicine (2020, December 04)

Introduction: The Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) is a World Health Organization collaborative cross-cultural study of adolescents aged 11–15 years, from 50 countries and regions in Europe ... [more ▼]

Introduction: The Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) is a World Health Organization collaborative cross-cultural study of adolescents aged 11–15 years, from 50 countries and regions in Europe, North America and the former Soviet republics. Since 1983 (the first survey round), the sex/gender of the respondents have been categorised with the question “Are you a boy or a girl?”, the response options being “a boy” and “a girl”. In the light of lived experiences of young people and contemporary theoretical and empirical approaches to the measurement of sex assigned birth and gender identity, this item is contested.Research Questions: What are HBSC National Research Teams’ experiences with using this item? What is their position on any potential change or amendment of the item? Have they already made any changes? Do they see potential drawbacks and benefits in changing the item? Method: In Summer 2019, an online survey was conducted with HBSC National Teams, to under-stand member countries’ position on the measurement of sex and gender in the HBSC survey. Results: Of the 50 research teams, 44 responded to the online questionnaire. Opinions on potential changes or amendments of the item were polarised, with 19 teams (43%) not supporting any changes, 15 teams (34%) agreeing with a change, and 10 teams (23%) indicating they don’t know or not sure if changes are necessary. Various arguments were raised for and against any changes or amendments. Six national teams already implemented a change, by adding a third response option, replacing the item, or using additional items. Conclusions: The results demonstrate that the issue of sex and gender in HBSC needs to be addressed, but methodological, political and cultural implications need to be considered. The complexity of this problem makes it impossible to suggest a “one-size-fits-all” solution. [less ▲]

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See detailSensitivity Analysis on Regularity Based Driver Advisory Systems
Laskaris, Georgios; Seredynski, Marcin; Viti, Francesco UL

in 2020 IEEE 23rd International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSC) (2020, December)

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See detailLow-light image enhancement of permanently shadowed lunar regions with physics-based machine learning
Moseley, Ben; Bikel, Valentin; Lopez-Francos, Ignacio et al

in Low-light image enhancement of permanently shadowed lunar regions with physics-based machine learning (2020, December)

Finding water(-ice) on the Moon is key to enabling a sustainable human presence on the Moon and beyond. There is evidence that water-ice is abundant in and around the Moon’s Permanently Shadowed Regions ... [more ▼]

Finding water(-ice) on the Moon is key to enabling a sustainable human presence on the Moon and beyond. There is evidence that water-ice is abundant in and around the Moon’s Permanently Shadowed Regions (PSRs), however, direct visual detection has not yet been possible. Surface ice or related physical features could potentially be directly detected from high-resolution optical imagery, but, due to the extremely low-light conditions in these areas, high levels of sensor and photon noise make this very challenging. In this work we generate high-resolution, low-noise optical images over lunar PSRs by using two physics-based deep neural networks to model and remove CCD-related and photon noise in existing low-light optical imagery, potentially paving the way for a direct water-ice detection method. [less ▲]

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See detailA cascading Kalman filtering framework for real-time urban network flow estimation
Rinaldi, Marco UL; Viti, Francesco UL

in 2020 IEEE 23rd International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSC) (2020, December)

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See detailAR4OER: A Semantic Platform for Open Educational Augmented Reality Resources
Grevisse, Christian UL; Martins Gomes, Carina; Rothkugel, Steffen UL

in Proceedings of the 2020 IEEE International Symposium on Multimedia (2020, December)

Tablet computers are gaining in presence in modern-day classrooms, enabling the use of a variety of apps for purposes such as note-taking or assessment. Augmented Reality (AR) experiences in the classroom ... [more ▼]

Tablet computers are gaining in presence in modern-day classrooms, enabling the use of a variety of apps for purposes such as note-taking or assessment. Augmented Reality (AR) experiences in the classroom, made possible by current hardware, permit new ways of interaction and visualization, as well as increase student motivation and engagement. They also overcome the need for potentially expensive hardware required for experiments in certain scientific domains. The movement of Open Educational Resources (OER) has enabled the sharing of heterogeneous learning resources. Their retrieval can be improved by enriching their metadata using Semantic Web technologies. In this paper, we present AR4OER, a semantic platform for heterogeneous AR experiences provided as OER. We showcase four AR scenarios from different school subjects. These scenarios can be integrated through a lose coupling in third-party apps. Apart from describing how this integration works, we demonstrate how a note-taking app can benefit from these scenarios. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluating Pretrained Transformer-based Models on the Task of Fine-Grained Named Entity Recognition
Lothritz, Cedric UL; Allix, Kevin UL; Veiber, Lisa UL et al

in Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Computational Linguistics (2020, December)

Named Entity Recognition (NER) is a fundamental Natural Language Processing (NLP) task and has remained an active research field. In recent years, transformer models and more specifically the BERT model ... [more ▼]

Named Entity Recognition (NER) is a fundamental Natural Language Processing (NLP) task and has remained an active research field. In recent years, transformer models and more specifically the BERT model developed at Google revolutionised the field of NLP. While the performance of transformer-based approaches such as BERT has been studied for NER, there has not yet been a study for the fine-grained Named Entity Recognition (FG-NER) task. In this paper, we compare three transformer-based models (BERT, RoBERTa, and XLNet) to two non-transformer-based models (CRF and BiLSTM-CNN-CRF). Furthermore, we apply each model to a multitude of distinct domains. We find that transformer-based models incrementally outperform the studied non-transformer-based models in most domains with respect to the F1 score. Furthermore, we find that the choice of domains significantly influenced the performance regardless of the respective data size or the model chosen. [less ▲]

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See detailPrivacy-Preserving Logistic Regression as a Cloud Service Based on Residue Number System
Cortés-Mendoza, Jorge; Tchernykh, Andrei; Babenko, Mikhail et al

in Voevodin, Vladimir; Sobolev, Sergey (Eds.) 6th Russian Supercomputing Days, Moscow 21-22 September 2020 (2020, December)

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See detailTowards 2-Hop Neighbor Management for Heterogeneous Vehicular Networks
Turcanu, Ion UL; Kim, Minsuk; Klingler, Florian

Poster (2020, December)

Message dissemination protocols for vehicular networks often build upon information maintained in neighbor tables. Due to high mobility and scarce channel capacity available in such networks, algorithms ... [more ▼]

Message dissemination protocols for vehicular networks often build upon information maintained in neighbor tables. Due to high mobility and scarce channel capacity available in such networks, algorithms for maintaining neighbor tables must carefully select which information is transmitted at which time. Recent approaches rely on probabilistic data structures (e.g., Bloom filter) for transmitting such neighbor information in order to reduce channel load, yet they still suffer from scarce channel capacities. In this paper, we propose to use multiple communication technologies (heterogeneous networking) for maintaining neighbor tables by building upon recent 2-hop neighbor management strategies. Promising results show an increase of up to 19 % of covered neighbors in comparison to a Baseline approach that only uses one communication technology. [less ▲]

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See detailSupporting findability of COVID-19 research with large-scale text mining of scientific publications
Welter, Danielle UL; Vega Moreno, Carlos Gonzalo UL; Biryukov, Maria UL et al

Poster (2020, November 27)

When the COVID-19 pandemic hit in early 2020, a lot of research efforts were quickly redirected towards studies on SARS-CoV2 and COVID-19 disease, from the sequencing and assembly of viral genomes to the ... [more ▼]

When the COVID-19 pandemic hit in early 2020, a lot of research efforts were quickly redirected towards studies on SARS-CoV2 and COVID-19 disease, from the sequencing and assembly of viral genomes to the elaboration of robust testing methodologies and the development of treatment and vaccination strategies. At the same time, a flurry of scientific publications around SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 began to appear, making it increasingly difficult for researchers to stay up-to-date with latest trends and developments in this rapidly evolving field. The BioKB platform is a pipeline which, by exploiting text mining and semantic technologies, helps researchers easily access semantic content of thousands of abstracts and full text articles. The content of the articles is analysed and concepts from a range of contexts, including proteins, species, chemicals, diseases and biological processes are tagged based on existing dictionaries of controlled terms. Co-occurring concepts are classified based on their asserted relationship and the resulting subject-relation-object triples are stored in a publicly accessible human- and machine-readable knowledge base. All concepts in the BioKB dictionaries are linked to stable, persistent identifiers, either a resource accession such as an Ensembl, Uniprot or PubChem ID for genes, proteins and chemicals, or an ontology term ID for diseases, phenotypes and other ontology terms. In order to improve COVID-19 related text mining, we extended the underlying dictionaries to include many additional viral species (via NCBI Taxonomy identifiers), phenotypes from the Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO), COVID-related concepts including clinical and laboratory tests from the COVID-19 ontology, as well as additional diseases (DO) and biological processes (GO). We also added all viral proteins found in UniProt and gene entries from EntrezGene to increase the sensitivity of the text mining pipeline to viral data. To date, BioKB has indexed over 270’000 sentences from 21’935 publications relating to coronavirus infections, with publications dating from 1963 to 2021, 3’863 of which were published this year. We are currently working to further refine the text mining pipeline by training it on the extraction of increasingly complex relations such as protein-phenotype relationships. We are also regularly adding new terms to our dictionaries for areas where coverage is currently low, such as clinical and laboratory tests and procedures and novel drug treatments. [less ▲]

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See detailOut-of-the-box Multipath TCP as a Tor Transport Protocol: Performance and Privacy Implications
de La Cadena Ramos, Augusto Wladimir UL; Kaiser, Daniel UL; Panchenko, Andriy UL et al

in 19th IEEE International Symposium on Network Computing and Applications (IEEE NCA 2020) (2020, November 25)

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See detailRadial Urban Forms: Lessons from Land Profile Scaling Analyses & Spatial-Explicit Models
Caruso, Geoffrey UL

Scientific Conference (2020, November 25)

We definitely live in an increasingly urban World for half of humanity now lives in cities. Cities provide wealth but also negatively impact the environment and the health of citizens. Arguably the ... [more ▼]

We definitely live in an increasingly urban World for half of humanity now lives in cities. Cities provide wealth but also negatively impact the environment and the health of citizens. Arguably the benefits and costs of cities relate to both their size, in population terms, and their internal structure, in terms of the relative spatial arrangement of built-up and natural land. Much of urban research focusses on very large cities and urban cores. Yet 3 urban human out of 4 live in cities of less than 4 million inhabitants (according to the global GHSL dataset). Similarly, 3 out of 4 in a typical (European) city do not live in its core but beyond (using a 7-8km radius to define core for a city like London or Paris). To address urban sustainability issues and design adaptation policies, these 75% certainly count and, we can argue, also deserve specific attention because of the relative proximity between urban and non-urban (natural) use that smaller cities and suburban (non-core) areas may permit. In this respect, it is key to understand how the internal structure of cities, in particular the form and density of built-up areas and the interwoven green space emerge out of the core up until the fringe. It is also key to understand whether the form of cities, especially density gradients and the share of urbanised/non-urbanised land change with city size. In this talk we draw lessons from 2 research approaches to urban forms: one theoretical that uses spatial micro-economic simulations, and one empirical that uses spatially detailed land use datasets. Our theoretical simulations relate individual behaviour to urban forms while our empirics relate urban forms to city size. Both have in common a radial perspective to cities, i.e. explicitly or implicitly assuming that the accessibility trade-off to a given centre is a key determinant of locations and land uses. In both cases, we look at urbanisation and green space structures and at pollution exposure as an example of impact. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Helpers of Anne Frank - Recontextualising the Rescue of Dutch Jews
Zaagsma, Gerben UL

Scientific Conference (2020, November 24)

This paper sets out to recontextualise the memory of rescue as it pertains to Dutch Jewry during the Holocaust, by focusing on the helpers of Anne Frank and the other Jews in hiding in the Secret Annex ... [more ▼]

This paper sets out to recontextualise the memory of rescue as it pertains to Dutch Jewry during the Holocaust, by focusing on the helpers of Anne Frank and the other Jews in hiding in the Secret Annex. Much in the same way as perceptions of Jews in hiding have been decisively shaped by the story of Anne Frank, not only in the Dutch public imagination but arguably globally, so too the image of help, at least in the Western European and Anglosaxon world, has been considerably shaped by the story of two of the five helpers, Miep and Jan Gies, even if the support they provided to the onderduikers in the Secret Annex could ultimately not prevent discovery. The question of help, as well as the ultimate betrayal, of the onderduikers are linked to the broader question of the role of the Dutch population during the Holocaust. Within that context the Anne Frank story can and has indeed been used to provide both a stereotypical image of Gentile betrayal as well as an idealized and, arguably, romanticized image of Gentile help. In this paper I will trace the ways in which the image of help and rescue of Dutch Jews was shaped by the story of, especially, Miep Gies and analyse the ways in which her story resonated in the Netherlands as well as abroad. Important moments in this regard were the recognition of Miep Gies and the other helpers as Righteous Among the Nations in 1972, and the global publication of Miep Gies’ memoirs in 1987. I will frame this analysis within the broader historical context of 1) help provided to Jews in hiding in the Netherlands and the question of how representative the ‘helpers of Anne Frank’ were, and 2) the extent to which a focus on a few key individuals obscures the more complex reality of how rescue functioned in the first place. [less ▲]

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See detailHeuristic Evaluation of COVID-19 Chatbots
Hoehn, Sviatlana UL; Bongard, Kerstin UL

in Proceedings of CONVERSATIONS 2020 (2020, November 23)

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See detailDesigning of the module envelope of a hybrid modular building to meet the passive house standards in Luxembourg
Rakotonjanahary, Tahiana Roland Michaël UL; Scholzen, Frank UL; Ferreira Silva, Marielle UL et al

in IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science (2020, November 20), 588(5), 052026

To face the challenges of climate change, new buildings need to be further greener while being able to ensure a minimum comfort to the tenants. Nonetheless, extensibility and flexibility could be added to ... [more ▼]

To face the challenges of climate change, new buildings need to be further greener while being able to ensure a minimum comfort to the tenants. Nonetheless, extensibility and flexibility could be added to buildings. In this context, the architect jointly with the team of this research project have designed a hybrid modular construction called “slab building” which is composed of a permanent concrete structure and several removable wooden modules. A module offers 27m² of living space but larger housings can be realized by combining two up to four modules. The aim of this paper is to design the walls of the modules to meet the criteria of nZEB. The thicknesses of the studied thermal insulations, namely rock wool, wood wool, polyurethane and aerogel, have been determined in accordance with the passive house requirements in Luxembourg. The embodied energy of the building materials has also been considered in the designing of the modules. Steady state calculations revealed that a wall thickness of 40 cm, comprising 31cm of insulation is sufficient but according to the LCA outcomes, there is no environmental benefit in having the modules comply with the AAA energy class requirements at reasonable wall thicknesses. [less ▲]

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See detailOn socially constructed aspects of language (in)competence: Raising critical language awareness in the multilingual workplace
Lovrits, Veronika UL

Scientific Conference (2020, November 19)

In this theoretical contribution, I invite fellow researchers and managers to engage in a reflection on what is perceived as a competent language use at work. The objective is to open a broader discussion ... [more ▼]

In this theoretical contribution, I invite fellow researchers and managers to engage in a reflection on what is perceived as a competent language use at work. The objective is to open a broader discussion on seemingly obvious assumptions that may skew our understanding of everyday language practices. Critically reflected research review will point out to limitations of commonplace perspectives that mirror in managerial research and have implications for practice. Two questions will be discussed to raise critical awareness in the multilingual workplace: what linguistic norm sets the bar for the appropriateness of language use in the workplace, and whose interests does the language norm represent. This way, three problematic topics will be brought to attention: non acknowledged proliferation of linguistic concepts from education to workplace; questionable aptness of referring to standard language norm; and unacknowledged power plays fuelled by competing pragmatic needs of communicative partners. A reflection of power relations linked to norms and needs in the workplace may subsequently support a variety of practical managerial responses – ranging from a symbolic social acceptance of nonstandard language use to a decision to hire a professional linguistic service. [less ▲]

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See detailExperimenter Effects in Children Using the Smileyometer Scale
Lehnert, Florence Kristin UL; Lallemand, Carine UL; Fischbach, Antoine UL et al

Scientific Conference (2020, November 19)

Researchers in the social sciences like human-computer interaction face novel challenges concerning the development of methods and tools for evaluating interactive technology with children. One of these ... [more ▼]

Researchers in the social sciences like human-computer interaction face novel challenges concerning the development of methods and tools for evaluating interactive technology with children. One of these challenges is related to the validity and reliability of user experience measurement tools. Scale designs, like the Smileyometer, have been proven to contain biases such as the tendency for children to rate almost every technology as great. This explorative paper discusses a possible effect of two experimenter styles on the distribution of 6-8 years old pupils' ratings (N= 73) to the Smileyometer. We administered the scale before and after a tablet-based assessment in two schools. Experimenter 1 employed a child-directed speech compared to a monotone speech of Experimenter 2. While brilliant (5 out of 5) was the most frequent answer option in all conditions, the mean scores were higher and associated with a lower variability across both conditions for Experimenter 2. We discuss a possible experimenter effect in the Smileyometer and implications for evaluating children’s user experiences. [less ▲]

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See detailUpdate on NORMAN-SLE / SusDat for NORMAN-CWG-NTS Meeting (17 Nov 2020)
Schymanski, Emma UL

Scientific Conference (2020, November 17)

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See detailMultilingual education in early years in Luxembourg: mind ideologies!
Kirsch, Claudine UL

Scientific Conference (2020, November 14)

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See detailFormation à la pratique d’enseignement en temps de crise sanitaire: Conception, production et diffusion de vidéos pédagogiques à distance
Reuter, Robert UL; Reeff, Alain; Busana, Gilbert UL

Scientific Conference (2020, November 13)

Le Bachelor en Sciences de l’Education (BScE) de l’Université du Luxembourg propose une formation approfondie et exigeante alliant savoir académique et pratique. Ils sont formés pour enseigner dans tous ... [more ▼]

Le Bachelor en Sciences de l’Education (BScE) de l’Université du Luxembourg propose une formation approfondie et exigeante alliant savoir académique et pratique. Ils sont formés pour enseigner dans tous les cycles de l’école fondamentale, dans les classes de la voie de préparation et dans le contexte d’élèves à besoins éducatifs spécifiques au Luxembourg. Comme dans de nombreuses autres formations initiales des enseignants, le temps de terrain (ou stage) représente un moment clé de chaque semestre dans le BScE. Face à la crise sanitaire du COVID-19, ce dispositif de formation à la pratique pédagogique n’a pas pu être conservé. En effet, les écoles étaient fermées, les élèves étaient scolarisés à distance par leur enseignant. Nous avons donc dû rapidement innover et mettre en place des activités d’apprentissage alternatives qui correspondaient au mieux aux objectifs visés par les temps de terrain. Nous avons ainsi demandé à nos étudiants de concevoir et produire, en dyades, des vidéos pédagogiques à destination des écoles du pays. Le but était de permettre à nos étudiants de développer les compétences nécessaires pour réaliser de telles ressources d’apprentissage et de de les mettre à disposition des écoles via Internet. Nous allons décrire, analyser et évaluer le dispositif mis en place, ainsi que les vidéos qui ont été produite. Nous allons également discuter des éventuelles leçons apprises qui conduiront à des adaptations dans notre formation. [less ▲]

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See detailTrafficSliver: Fighting Website Fingerprinting Attacks with Traffic Splitting
de La Cadena Ramos, Augusto Wladimir UL; Mitseva, Asya; Hiller, Jens et al

in 27th ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security (CCS '20) (2020, November 13)

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See detailProfessional development to promote innovative language teaching: examples from multilingual Luxembourg
Kirsch, Claudine UL

Scientific Conference (2020, November 13)

While multilingual programmes have been implemented in early childhood education in several countries in Europe, professionals may still be unsure of how to promote multilingualism and deal with language ... [more ▼]

While multilingual programmes have been implemented in early childhood education in several countries in Europe, professionals may still be unsure of how to promote multilingualism and deal with language diversity. There is a need for professional development (PD) which can influence the practitioners’ attitudes, knowledge and skills, and the quality of their teaching (Egert et al., 2018; Peleman et al., 2017). This presentation begins with an outline of several theoretical models of PD and explains why integrated models that are collaborative, inquiry-based, and performance-based are the most effective in contributing to change. I will then present a PD used in Luxembourg to help early childhood practitioners develop and implement multilingual pedagogies. The model, which comprised training sessions, network meetings, and coaching, aimed to deepen the practitioners’ understanding of multilingualism and language learning, familiarize them with translanguaging (García & Reid, 2019) and enable them to implement language and literacy activities in Luxembourgish, French and children’s home languages (Kirsch et al. forthcoming). Finally, I provide insights into the professional learning of two preschool teachers. The PD, the experience of engaging in multilingual activities, and the reflection on teaching and learning, enabled the teachers to develop a positive stance to multilingual education, design productive leaning environments based on social-constructivist theories, and monitor language use to guarantee responsible translanguaging (Kirsch 2020). [less ▲]

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See detailHow do pupils experience Technology-Based Assessments? Implications for methodological approaches to measuring the User Experience based on two case studies in France and Luxembourg
Lehnert, Florence Kristin UL; Lallemand, Carine UL; Fischbach, Antoine UL et al

Scientific Conference (2020, November 12)

Technology-based assessments (TBAs) are widely used in the education field to examine whether the learning goals were achieved. To design fair and child-friendly TBAs that enable pupils to perform at ... [more ▼]

Technology-based assessments (TBAs) are widely used in the education field to examine whether the learning goals were achieved. To design fair and child-friendly TBAs that enable pupils to perform at their best (i.a. independent of individual differences in computer literacy), we must ensure reliable and valid data collection. By reducing Human-Computer Interaction issues, we provide the best possible assessment conditions and user experience (UX) with the TBA and reduce educational inequalities. Good UX is thus a prerequisite for better data validity. Building on a recent case study, we investigated how pupils perform TBAs in real-life settings. We addressed the context-dependent factors resulting from the observations that ultimately influence the UX. The first case study was conducted with pupils age 6 to 7 in three elementary schools in France (n=61) in collaboration with la direction de l’évaluation, de la prospective et de la performance (DEPP). The second case study was done with pupils age 12 to 16 in four secondary schools in Luxembourg (n=104) in collaboration with the Luxembourg Centre for Educational Testing (LUCET). This exploratory study focused on the collection of various qualitative datasets to identify factors that influence the interaction with the TBA. We also discuss the importance of teachers’ moderation style and mere system-related characteristics, such as audio protocols of the assessment data. This study contribution comprises design recommendations and implications for methodological approaches to measuring pupils’ user experience during TBAs. [less ▲]

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See detailInequalities in the Luxembourgish Educational System: Effects of Language Proficiency on Math Performance Among Different Generations of Immigrant Students
Krämer, Charlotte UL; Rivas, Salvador UL; Reichel, Yanica UL et al

Poster (2020, November 12)

Research indicates students with immigrant background are disadvantaged in educational systems of the host country (e.g., OECD, 2018). In Luxembourg, roughly half of the school population has an immigrant ... [more ▼]

Research indicates students with immigrant background are disadvantaged in educational systems of the host country (e.g., OECD, 2018). In Luxembourg, roughly half of the school population has an immigrant background (Lenz & Heinz, 2018), and several studies indicate these students are considerably disadvantaged in terms of educational achievement levels (Hadjar et al., 2015, 2018). Lower achievement may be partly due to difficulties related to displacement and settling of 1st generation immigrant students. Second and later generation students may however also experience disadvantages as they speak languages at home that are different from the two main languages of instruction (i.e., German and French), and their parents may be less familiar with the educational system and less able to provide support for their children (Alba & Foner, 2016). This may explain why educational inequalities persist; however little is known about the influence of language proficiency of different generations of immigrant students on their performance in other school subjects. Therefore, our poster focuses on the effect of generation after controlling for the effect of language on math competency. Using data from the Luxembourg School Monitoring Programme (Épreuves Standardisées) for the 2016 cohort of 9th grade students in the two main tracks of secondary school (n=4,339), we conduct regression analysis to investigate to what extent language proficiency in German and French and generational status have an impact on math performance. Data indicates that language proficiency in both German and French explains a significant proportion of variance in math performance. In addition, there is a generation effect, whereby 3rd and later generation immigrant students achieve a higher level of math competency than students of the 1st or 2nd generation. Results will be discussed in terms of social mobility and educational inequality. [less ▲]

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See detailGeoGebraTAO: Geometry Learning using a Dynamic Adaptive ICT-Enhanced Environment to Promote String Differentiation of Children's Individual Pathways
Dording, Carole; Max, Charles Joseph UL; Kreis, Yves UL et al

Scientific Conference (2020, November 12)

In our project, we investigate the scientific validity of a specific self-built Adaptive Learning Tool in the field of dynamic geometry with a particular focus on the individual learning pathways of a ... [more ▼]

In our project, we investigate the scientific validity of a specific self-built Adaptive Learning Tool in the field of dynamic geometry with a particular focus on the individual learning pathways of a highly diverse student population. 164 children of Luxembourg elementary schools, aged between 10 and 13 years, acted as test-group and explored elementary geometric concepts in a sequence of learning assignments, created with the dynamic mathematics system GeoGebra integrated into the computer-assisted testing framework TAO. They actively built new knowledge in an autonomous way and at their own pace with only minor support interventions of their teacher. Based on easily exploitable data, collected within a sequence of exploratory learning assignments, the GeoGebraTAO tool analyses the answers provided by the child and performs a diagnostic of the child’s competencies in geometry. With respect to this outcome, the tool manages to identify children struggling with geometry concepts and subsequently proposes a differentiated individual pathway through scaffolding and feedback practices. Short videoclips aim at helping the children to better understand any task in case of need and can be watched voluntarily. Furthermore, a spaced repetition feature is another highly useful component. Pre- and post-test results show that the test-group, working with GeoGebraTAO, and a parallel working control-group, following a traditional paper-and-pencil geometry course, increased their geometry skills and knowledge through the training program; the test-group performed even better in items related to dynamic geometry. In addition, a more precise analysis within clusters, based on similar performances in both pre- and post-tests and the child’s progress within GeoGebraTAO activities, provides evidence of some common ways of working with our dynamic geometry tool, leading to overall improvement at an individualized level. [less ▲]

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See detailThe use of augmented reality, digital and physical modelling in schooling at home in early childhood in Echternach
Haas, Ben; Kreis, Yves UL; Zsolt, Lavicza

Scientific Conference (2020, November 12)

During the confinement of COVID-19, many efforts were made by teachers in elementary school to switch from in-school to schooling at home (Kreis et al., 2020). The use of educational technology in early ... [more ▼]

During the confinement of COVID-19, many efforts were made by teachers in elementary school to switch from in-school to schooling at home (Kreis et al., 2020). The use of educational technology in early childhood (cycle 1), however, is not yet a common practice in elementary schools in Luxemburg. Participation in online video conferences or the use of educational technologies relied in early childhood in significant parts on the disponibility and skills of parents. Younger students were experiencing difficulties in following-up courses requests in schooling at home. From previous research (Haas et al., In Preparation), we designed a conceptual framework on parent assisted remote teaching. Hence, we used these findings to work with 12 early childhood students (ages 4-6), their teachers and parents in schooling at home. Based on the four basic principles of Dienes’s theory of mathematics in physical and digital modelling (Lieban, 2019), we created mathematical modelling tasks with TinkerCad. During two weeks, we collected data through chat responses, web meetings and observations. In this presentation, we will explain insights and how further tasks in schooling at home in early childhood could benefit from this experience. [less ▲]

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See detailBeyond School Effects: Private Schooling, Segregation and Standardization of School Systems in Latin America
Ceron, Francisco UL

in Tackling Educational Inequalities in Luxembourg and Beyond. Abstract Booklet (2020, November 11)

The design of educational institutions may face policy trade-offs in the tasks of school systems that are served by them (van de Werfhorst and Mijs, 2010; Pedró et al 2015). Differentiation of school ... [more ▼]

The design of educational institutions may face policy trade-offs in the tasks of school systems that are served by them (van de Werfhorst and Mijs, 2010; Pedró et al 2015). Differentiation of school systems may foster efficient sorting of students and then maximize learnings but at the cost of exacerbating social inequalities. A centralized education system may guarantee equality of educational opportunities, but it is not clear if it increases or hinder the overall performance level (e.g. Woessman 2003; Brunello & Checchi 2007; Bol et al., 2014; Bol & van de Werfhorst, 2016; Mijs 2016). Until now, researchers have overlooked the role of private schooling as an important dimension of stratification in national school systems, focusing mainly on its relative effectiveness and assuming implicitly that school sector capacity truly reflects a level of differentiation (e.g. Hanushek & Woessman, 2015; Chmielewski & Reardon 2016). I attempt to address the following research question: to what extend the differentiation induced by private schooling increase achievement inequalities, counteracting the effects of standardization of the school systems in Latin American countries? Using data from the 2013 UNESCO TERCE regional large-scale assessment, I study how private schooling is related to overall levels of stratification and the extent to which it affects achievement inequality in a context of varying levels of standardization, across countries. I construct a generalized entropy measure of segregation to capture system level differentiation induced by private schooling, a standardization index (Bol & van de Werfhorst, 2016) and by using multilevel models with county fixed effects, I find that private schooling counterbalance the equalizing effect of higher levels of standardization on achievement inequalities, no matter their relative size, on top of individual and school level controls. I conclude by discussing how these findings speak to the potential policy trade-off between equality and efficiency in the region. [less ▲]

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See detailTackling educational inequalities using school effectiveness measures
Levy, Jessica UL; Mussack, Dominic UL; Brunner, Martin et al

Scientific Conference (2020, November 11)

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See detailStudents’ Personality Relates to Experienced Variability in State Academic Self-Concept
Hausen, Jennifer UL; Möller, Jens; Greiff, Samuel UL et al

Scientific Conference (2020, November 11)

Attaining a positive academic self-concept (ASC) is linked to many desirable educational outcomes. Research on which student attributes relate to the formation of ASC is therefore considered to be central ... [more ▼]

Attaining a positive academic self-concept (ASC) is linked to many desirable educational outcomes. Research on which student attributes relate to the formation of ASC is therefore considered to be central. Past research on the association between personality traits and ASC has taken an interindividual perspective, while the intraindividual perspective has been disregarded. The present research explored the relation between students’ Big Five traits and intraindividual variability in state general-school ASC in everyday school life for the first time using intensive longitudinal data. We drew on N=294 German ninth and tenth graders who completed a three-week e-diary and a previously presented 60-item Big Five questionnaire (BFI-2; Danner et al., 2016; Soto & John, 2017) assessing Open-Mindedness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Negative Emotionality as well as their respective subfacets (i.e., resulting in 15 subfacets). To assess state ASC, students completed three items after every single lesson across four different subjects (resulting in Mlessons = 21.12). We ran six mixed-effects location scale models: one specified with all five Big Five domains, and five (one for each Big Five domain) with the subfacets as predictors of intraindividual variability in state ASC. We found that Open-Mindedness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, and Negative Emotionality as well as at least one subfacet of each Big Five trait were significant predictors of levels of state ASC independently of students’ gender and reasoning ability, and the narrower subfacets Organization (Conscientiousness) and Depression (Negative Emotionality) predicted variability in state ASC independently of students’ gender and reasoning ability. These findings thus provide first evidence that students’ ASC undergoes short-term fluctuations from school lesson to school lesson and that this intraindividual variability can be partly explained by students’ personality. Our results thus contribute to a more complete map of the formation of ASC and the role of personality therein. [less ▲]

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See detailScanning of questionnaires as a tool to identify difficult questions - lessons learned
Heinz, Andreas UL; van Duin, Claire UL; Catunda, Carolina UL et al

Scientific Conference (2020, November 10)

Background: In 2018, the Luxembourg HBSC team scanned the questionnaires to make the data available faster and to avoid entry errors. Scanning has been shown to be suitable for identifying difficult ... [more ▼]

Background: In 2018, the Luxembourg HBSC team scanned the questionnaires to make the data available faster and to avoid entry errors. Scanning has been shown to be suitable for identifying difficult questions. Objective: The presentation shows which questions were difficult to answer and what the difficulty was. Method: The questionnaires were scanned by student assistants and the data was validated by them if the scanning programme did not detect any errors. If errors occurred (e.g. missing answers or multiple answers), then these questionnaires were checked by HBSC team members. This gave us a systematic overview of which questions were difficult to answer. Results 1. The data from 10000 questionnaires were entered in 6 weeks (half the time needed compared to manual entry in 2014). 2. The MVPA question was frequently the subject of multiple answers. This may indicate that these students use the answer scale as a counting aid. 3. Students who state that they have never smoked in their lives often skip the question about tobacco use in the last month. This behaviour can be explained by Grice's conversational maxims. 4. Behaviours indicating that the answers are not serious (crossed-out questions, crosses outside the boxes, fun answers to open questions) are rare. Conclusions: Scanning is an efficient way to enter many questionnaires in a short time and high quality. Furthermore, it can help to discover difficult questions and to find out what the difficulty is. [less ▲]

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See detailMixed method situational review of primary family violence care in IMOCAFV
Ares Blanco, Sara; Frese, Thomas; Lacatus, Anca et al

in 90th European General Practice Research Network Meeting (2020, November 10)

Background: The ‘IMOCAFV’ project is developing a multi-country vision on how to provide effective primary care for family violence (FV). In phase I, a situational analysis is performed based on mixed ... [more ▼]

Background: The ‘IMOCAFV’ project is developing a multi-country vision on how to provide effective primary care for family violence (FV). In phase I, a situational analysis is performed based on mixed method review of countries’ policies and interventions, key persons inquiries and professional questionnaires. Aim: Provide in a first phase of IMOCAFV a mixed methods analysis of policies and interventions for primary FV care in different health care settings, high, low and middle income countries. Research questions: How to perform a multi-level in depth mixed method analysis of policies, protocols, problems and good practices on primary FV care? Method: National guidance for FV primary care tasks is centralised into a central online database. Documentation is reviewed online nationally answering questions about prevention, detection, assessment and collaborative care for intimate partner violence, child abuse and elder abuse. Semistructured online inquiries are sent to a pragmatic sample of key persons and professionals in each country. Online training provides guidance for standardized mixed method review of materials. A continuous comparative analysis is made at local and international level; it should provide cues for the Delphi study planned in the second phase. Results: The key questionnaire describes policies and interventions defined for primary health care and advocacy support in different health services settings in three continents. The professional questionnaire describes problems encountered and professionals opinion´s. Different online software packages are suitable for international research collaboration with some limitations. Ethical and security requirements may differ, while high security level applications require more budgets. Conclusions: The organisation of a two-level international qualitative analysis is challenging from a methodological and organisational point of view. A qualitative analysis in a multilanguage context requires specific agreements. Challenges will be discussed using first results. Points for discussion: 1.How to facilitate a good qualitative analysis at both national and international level? 2.How to use different software platforms taking into account countries’ different requirements and organisational facilities in different income countries? [less ▲]

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See detailThe health, well-being and life satisfaction of young people in Luxembourg before the COVID-19 pandemic and during deconfinement
Residori, Caroline UL; Schomaker, Léa UL; Samuel, Robin UL

Scientific Conference (2020, November 10)

Background: During 2020, most aspects of young people’s lives have been altered by the COVID-19 pandemic and the measures being implemented to contain it. Early studies on the effects of the COVID-19 ... [more ▼]

Background: During 2020, most aspects of young people’s lives have been altered by the COVID-19 pandemic and the measures being implemented to contain it. Early studies on the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic suggest that confinement (so-called “lockdowns”) affect health, well-being and life satisfaction. However, the current situation in many countries is not confinement but prolonged deconfinement with less strict but still considerable measures and recommendations. Objectives: The possible effects of this deconfinement on the health, well-being and life satisfaction of young people is the focus of this oral presentation, which is based on the YAC-Young Adults and COVID-19 study (see Residori et al., 2020). Methods: The study relies on data collected from a random sample of residents of Luxembourg for the Youth Survey Luxembourg in Mai-July 2019 (age-range: 16-29, n=2.800) and in July 2020 (age-range: 12-29, n=3768, preliminary data). The data was gathered via online survey and using the same items as the HBSC study (self-rated health, life satisfaction (Cantril ladder) and the WHO-5 Well-being Index) (Sozio et al., 2020). Results: The cross-sectional comparison of this representative data, explores the health, wellbeing and life satisfaction of young people in Luxembourg before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. The results are presented for the overall population and detailed by socio-demographic groups. For the 12-15-year-olds, the observed proportion reporting a low life satisfaction (<6) was, for example, 31.3% in 2020. This proportion has increased from 19.9% in 2019 to 25.5 % in 2020 for the 16-20-year-olds, from 23.9% to 35.3 % for the 21-25-year-olds and from 20.2% to 32.8% for the 26-29-year-olds. Conclusion: The presentation will conclude on a reflection of the links between the observed differences and the measures implemented to during deconfinement as well as the scientific and political relevance of the observed differences for Luxembourg and other countries. Literature: Residori, Caroline; Sozio, Maria E.; Schomaker, Lea; Samuel, Robin (2020): YAC – Young People and COVID-19. Preliminary Results of a Representative Survey of Adolescents and Young Adults in Luxembourg. University of Luxembourg: Esch-sur-Alzette Sozio, M., Procopio, A., & Samuel, R. (2020). Youth Survey Luxembourg – Technical Report 2019. Esch-sur-Alzette: University of Luxembourg. [less ▲]

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See detailBeyond School Effects: Private Schooling, Segregation and Standardization of School Systems in Latin America
Ceron, Francisco UL

Scientific Conference (2020, November 07)

Introduction A considerable body of studies have shown that specific institutional arrangements in educational systems help in understanding cross-national differences in educational outcomes (Woessman ... [more ▼]

Introduction A considerable body of studies have shown that specific institutional arrangements in educational systems help in understanding cross-national differences in educational outcomes (Woessman 2003, Brunello and Checchi 2007, Bol and van de Werfhorst 2011, Bol et al 2014, Mijs 2016). The design of educational institutions may face policy trade-offs in the tasks of school systems that are served by them. Deregulation as privatization and school autonomy may enhance efficient sorting of students and then maximize learnings but at the cost of exacerbating social inequalities. A centralized education system may guarantee equality of educational opportunities, but it is not clear if it increases or hinder the overall performance level (Bol and van de Werfhorst 2011, Pedró et al 2015). This study is aimed to fill this gap, first, by departing from the widely supported assumption that the organization of educational systems affect, partly, the educational outcomes of students. Second, I focus on developing countries –Latin American countries- as we know less about the impact of institutions in educational outcomes in the region. Third, I attempt to address the following research question: what is the effect of the level of privatization increase achievement inequalities, given the level of standardization of the school systems in Latin American countries? Data and Methods I analyse data from the Tercer Estudio Regional Comparativo y Explicativo (TERCE), implemented in in year 2013 by UNESCO office in Santiago, Chile. TERCE is the most recent large-scale assessment that exclusively cover students and schools in Latin American countries. Fifteen countries participated: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru and Uruguay. Following the comparative research body, I use two-level hierarchical model to account for the multilevel structure of the data, students nested in schools, with random school effects and country fixed effects, to identify variability in the educational institutions of interest, given the small number of countries. The dependent variable is performance in mathematics in 6th grade as it is the subject that is most clearly learned at schools (Coleman 1975, Bol et al 2014), and seems to be more sensitive to socioeconomic background than other subjects. The main predictor is socioeconomic status of student, and I control for several indicators related to learning home environment, and sociodemographic variables. At school level, I control for several organizational characteristics and social composition. Findings The main findings show that country-specific configurations of school systems are associated to difference in mathematics achievement. Differences between schools in performance are partly explained by differences at country level. In this regard, I have chosen two important dimensions of school systems, for the Latin American region: the level of standardization and privatization. These results confirm some recent findings that achievement inequality is larger in school systems with a great level of differentiation between schools, in which the stratification triggered by the private sector is one important indicator (Chmielewski and Reardon, 2016). In case of the level of standardization results show that is associated to a lesser degree of achievement inequality. However, the main finding points to persistent inequalities as much as private sector in school systems is bigger. Further, the models predict that these inequalities are not decreasing as the standardization level increases. In this respect, I also find support for a diminishing effect of policies that points to equalization of opportunities (Woessman 2003, Bol and van de Werfhorst 2011). The results suggest higher inequalities as the stratification induced by private school sector increases. These effects are still significant after adding school level controls, which suggest that over and above school processes, uneven between school sorting induces by private sector. [less ▲]

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See detailSpecifying key-properties to improve the recognition skills of neural networks
Jahic, Benjamin UL; Guelfi, Nicolas UL; Ries, Benoit UL

in Proceedings of the 2020 European Symposium on Software Engineering (2020, November 06)

Software engineers are increasingly asked to build datasets for engineering neural network-based software systems. These datasets are used to train neural networks to recognise data. Traditionally, data ... [more ▼]

Software engineers are increasingly asked to build datasets for engineering neural network-based software systems. These datasets are used to train neural networks to recognise data. Traditionally, data scientists build datasets consisting of random collected or generated data. Their approaches are often costly, inefficient and time-consuming. Software engineers rely on these traditional approaches that do not support precise data selection criteria based on customer’s requirements. In this paper, we introduce an extended software engineering method for dataset augmentation to improve neural networks by satisfying the customer’s requirements. We introduce the notion of key-properties to describe the neural network’s recognition skills. Key-properties are used all along the engineering process for developing the neural network in cooperation with the customer. We propose a rigorous process for augmenting datasets based on the analysis and specification of the key-properties. We conducted an experimentation on a case study on the recognition of the state of a digital meter counter. We demonstrate an informal specification of the neural network’s key-properties and a successful improvement of a neural network’s recognition of the meter counter state. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalysing transnational Events through Web archives
Schafer, Valerie UL

Scientific Conference (2020, November 04)

As a co-PI of the WARCnet project, programme chair of this second WARCnet meeting and head of WG2 dedicated to "Analysing transnational Events", Valérie Schafer will give an overview of the challenges ... [more ▼]

As a co-PI of the WARCnet project, programme chair of this second WARCnet meeting and head of WG2 dedicated to "Analysing transnational Events", Valérie Schafer will give an overview of the challenges, issues, achievements, results, case studies, next steps of WG2 since the launch of the WARCnet project. [less ▲]

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See detailGraph Diffusion Kernel LMS using Random Fourier Features
Gogineni, Vinay; Elias, Vitor R. M.; Alves Martins, Wallace UL et al

in 2020 54th Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems, and Computers, Pacific Grove, CA, USA, 1-5 November 2020 (2020, November)

This work introduces kernel adaptive graph filters that operate in the reproducing kernel Hilbert space. We propose a centralized graph kernel least mean squares (GKLMS) approach for identifying the ... [more ▼]

This work introduces kernel adaptive graph filters that operate in the reproducing kernel Hilbert space. We propose a centralized graph kernel least mean squares (GKLMS) approach for identifying the nonlinear graph filters. The principles of coherence-check and random Fourier features (RFF) are used to reduce the dictionary size. Additionally, we leverage on the graph structure to derive the graph diffusion KLMS (GDKLMS). The proposed GDKLMS requires only single-hop communication during successive time instants, making it viable for real-time network-based applications. In the distributed implementation, usage of RFF avoids the requirement of a centralized pretrained dictionary in the case of coherence-check. Finally, the performance of the proposed algorithms is demonstrated in modeling a nonlinear graph filter via numerical examples. The results show that centralized and distributed implementations effectively model the nonlinear graph filters, whereas the random feature-based solutions is shown to outperform coherence-check based solutions. [less ▲]

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See detailIs there a bilingual advantage in mathematics?
Martini, Sophie Frédérique UL; Keller, Ulrich UL; Ugen, Sonja UL

Scientific Conference (2020, November)

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See detailAn SKOS-Based Vocabulary on the Swift Programming Language
Grevisse, Christian UL; Rothkugel, Steffen UL

in The Semantic Web – ISWC 2020 (2020, November)

Domain ontologies about one or several programming languages have been created in various occasions, mostly in the context of Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL). Their benefits range from modeling ... [more ▼]

Domain ontologies about one or several programming languages have been created in various occasions, mostly in the context of Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL). Their benefits range from modeling learning outcomes, over organization and annotation of learning material, to providing scaffolding support in programming labs by integrating relevant learning resources. The Swift programming language, introduced in 2014, is currently gaining momentum in different fields of application. Both its powerful syntax as well as the provided type safety make it a good language for first-year computer science students. However, it has not yet been the subject of a domain ontology. In this paper, we present an SKOS-based vocabulary on the Swift programming language, aiming at enabling the benefits of previous research for this particular language. After reviewing existing ontologies on other programming languages, we present the modeling process of the Swift vocabulary, its integration into the LOD Cloud and list all of its resources available to the research community. Finally, we showcase how it is being used in different TEL tools. [less ▲]

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See detailHPC Multi-physics Biomass Furnace simulations as a Service
Besseron, Xavier UL; Rusche, Henrik; Peters, Bernhard UL et al

Scientific Conference (2020, November)

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See detailDiffusion-based Virtual Graph Adjacency for Fourier Analysis of Network Signals
Elias, Vitor R. M.; Alves Martins, Wallace UL; Werner, Stefan

in XXXVIII SIMPÓSIO BRASILEIRO DE TELECOMUNICAÇÕES E PROCESSAMENTO DE SINAIS, Florianópolis 22-25 November 2020 (2020, November)

This work proposes a graph model for networks where node collaborations can be described by the Markov property. The proposed model augments an initial graph adjacency using diffusion distances. The ... [more ▼]

This work proposes a graph model for networks where node collaborations can be described by the Markov property. The proposed model augments an initial graph adjacency using diffusion distances. The resulting virtual adjacency depends on a diffusion-scale parameter, which leads to a controlled shift in the graph-Fourier-transform spectrum. This enables a frequency analysis tailored to the actual network collaboration, revealing more information on the graph signal when compared to traditional approaches. The proposed model is employed for anomaly detection in real and synthetic networks, and results confirm that using the proposed virtual adjacency yields better classification than the initial adjacency. [less ▲]

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See detailSeparation of Concerns Within Robotic Systems Through Proactive Computing
Frantz, Alexandre; Zampunieris, Denis UL

in Proceeding of the 4th IEEE International Conference on Robotic Computing (2020, November)

In this short paper, we first introduce a possible new model for designing and implementing software in robotic systems. This model is based on proactive scenarios, coded through dynamic sets of condition ... [more ▼]

In this short paper, we first introduce a possible new model for designing and implementing software in robotic systems. This model is based on proactive scenarios, coded through dynamic sets of condition-action rules. Each scenario embeds the required rules and can be assembled dynamically with others, allowing the proactive system to achieve a unique objective or behavior and instruct the robot accordingly. Furthermore, a scenario is not aware of the existence of the other scenarios. In fact, it only contains information about a predefined central scenario, which oversees global decision making. In addition, each scenario knows where to enter its suggestions, thus allowing for a high degree in terms of separating concerns and modularity of code. Consequently, allowing easier development, testing and optimization of each scenario independently, possible reuse in different robots, and finally, a faster achievement of robust and scalable robotics software. We then show how to apply this programming model and its functionalities during runtime, by a proof of concept consisting of a virtual robot deployed in the Webots™ simulator. This simulator is controlled with four proactive scenarios (plus the central one), in charge of three different objectives. [less ▲]

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See detailInequalities in teacher reports on students’ inclusion at school
Zurbriggen, Carmen UL; Nusser, Lena; Schmitt, Monja

Scientific Conference (2020, November)

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See detailThe CORONA Business in Modern Cities
Vitello, Piergiorgio UL; Capponi, Andrea UL; Klopp, Pol et al

Poster (2020, November)

As a response to the global outbreak of the SARS-COVID-19 pandemic, authorities have enforced a number of measures including social distancing, travel restrictions that lead to the “temporary” closure of ... [more ▼]

As a response to the global outbreak of the SARS-COVID-19 pandemic, authorities have enforced a number of measures including social distancing, travel restrictions that lead to the “temporary” closure of activities stemming from public services, schools, industry to local businesses. In this poster we draw the attention to the impact of such measures on urban environments and activities. For this, we use crowdsensed information available from datasets like Google Popular Times and Apple Maps to shed light on the changes undergone during the outbreak and the recovery [less ▲]

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See detailSTREAMS: A supporting tool for shared mobility services
Giorgione, Giulio UL; Viti, Francesco UL

Scientific Conference (2020, November)

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See detailImpact of Congestion Pricing Policies in Round-Trip and Free-Floating Carsharing Systems
Cisterna, Carolina UL; Giorgione, Giulio UL; Viti, Francesco UL

in Nathail, Eftihia (Ed.) Advances in Mobility-as-a-Service Systems (2020, November)

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See detaileCoBus: Smart and sustainable public transport in Luxembourg
Viti, Francesco UL

Scientific Conference (2020, November)

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See detailDemountable and reusable construction system for steel-concrete composite structures
Odenbreit, Christoph UL; Kozma, Andras UL

in Odenbreit, Christoph; Kozma, Andras (Eds.) Demountable and reusable construction system for steel-concrete composite structures (2020, October 30)

In the face of climate change and the depletion of finite resources, sustainability is becoming increasingly important recently. This is especially true in the construction industry that is responsible ... [more ▼]

In the face of climate change and the depletion of finite resources, sustainability is becoming increasingly important recently. This is especially true in the construction industry that is responsible for the 11% of global carbon dioxide emissions. Besides the technological improvements, the emissions can be further reduced by the application of the principles of the circular economy. This concept is based on the efficient allocation of resources. Three terms are frequently used when talking about this concept: reduce, reuse and recycle. Reducing is cut-ting back on the amount of waste we produce, reusing is finding a new way to use our products so that they do not be-come waste, and recycling is using the materials of our products to produce new materials. The traditional life-cycle of a building usually follows a linear model from the extraction of the raw materials through material production, component manufacturing, construction and building use, until when finally the building is demolished and most of the materials become debris and go into landfill. This is in direct opposition with the concept of circular economy. With proper considerations at the design stage, it is possible to deconstruct whole buildings and re-erect them elsewhere. In the frame of the RFCS Research Project “REDUCE” of the European Commission, a demountable and reusable construction system for steel-concrete composite structures has been recently developed. The system is based on a modular “kit-of-parts” system that uses prefabricated and standardised elements that are easy to manufacture and to assemble with the help of standardised connections. The elements were designed in a systematic way such that, a wide variety of different configurations are possible. In this system, the geometry of all elements respects the planning grid that is based on a basic module size. The research included the development and structural testing of novel demountable and adjustable structural solutions including beam-to-slab, beam-to-beam and beam-to-column connections. During the development of the structural solutions the following aspects were considered: structural performance, safety, installation and tolerances, demountability, corrosion resistance, aesthetics, economy, adaptability, standardisation and environmental impact. The laboratory testing was supplemented by nonlinear numerical studies using the finite element software ABAQUS. Based on the results and the experiences obtained throughout the research project, a design proposal was prepared. One objective of the project was to find structural solutions that are easily applicable and compatible with the current standard de-sign rules. The proposed beam-to-beam and beam-to-column joint is in the scope of EN1993-1-8. The new shear connections behave differently than the traditionally applied welded studs. The cor-responding standard would not allow the equidistant placement of the connectors nor the application of the partial shear theory. This would make the use of demountable shear connections complicated and uneconomical. In order to overcome this issue, a simple algorithm was developed that transforms the elastic-brittle shear connection behaviour into an equivalent ductile rigid-plastic behaviour so that the Eurocode 4 design rules for the determination of the moment resistance of composite beams with partial shear connection remain applicable. The design proposal also contains recommendations to maximize the reuse potential of the building components. This paper presents a general overview of the developed construction system and the corresponding laboratory tests and numerical studies as well as recommendations for the design and application of de-mountable and reusable composite structures. [less ▲]

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See detailThe patients’ perspective on access to and use of Personal Health Records
Paccoud, Ivana UL; Baumann, Michèle UL; Le Bihan, Etienne UL et al

Scientific Conference (2020, October 29)

We present the patients' perspective regarding the use of Personal Health Records, and give insights on patients' characteristics, such as socioeconomic and behavioural factors, that are associated with ... [more ▼]

We present the patients' perspective regarding the use of Personal Health Records, and give insights on patients' characteristics, such as socioeconomic and behavioural factors, that are associated with the access to and use of Personal Health Records. The findings come from the INTERREG APPS project that investigated preferences for and intention to use Personal Health Records in four cross-border regions, in Lorraine/France, Luxembourg, Rhineland-Palatinate and Saarland/Germany, and Wallonia/Belgium. [less ▲]

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See detailABSOLUTE LOCALIZATION FOR SURFACE ROBOTICS IN GPS-DENIED ENVIRONMENTS USING A NEURAL NETWORK.
Wu, Ben; Ludivig, Philippe UL; Potter, Ross et al

Poster (2020, October 23)

Accurate localization in surface robotics is essential for navigation, path planning, and science objectives. On Earth, absolute localization can be readily achieved via satellite navigation (e.g., GPS ... [more ▼]

Accurate localization in surface robotics is essential for navigation, path planning, and science objectives. On Earth, absolute localization can be readily achieved via satellite navigation (e.g., GPS). For other planetary bodies such as the Moon or Mars, however, such systems are unavailable. Current methods for absolute localization of planetary rovers rely on time- and labor-intensive human visual matching of surface perspective features with satellite images. Relative localization also accumulates errors over time, with different methods estimating dissimilar locations (e.g., [1]). Thus, an absolute localization method that can quickly, automatically, and accurately reduce the position search space is of great benefit to future planetary exploration missions. This project [2] presents a new approach to localizing planetary rovers: training an artificial neural network to match surfaceperspective imagery to corresponding satellite maps. [less ▲]

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