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See detailL’investissement et l’arbitrage au sens du Traité sur la Charte de l’énergie vu par la Cour de justice : la dimension stratégique de l’arrêt Komstroy à l’aune de l’Avis 1/20
Happold, Matthew UL; Menetrey, Séverine UL

in Revue trimestrielle de droit européen (2022), 2022(4), 693-704

The article comments on the ECJ's Komstroy judgment from the EU and international law perspectives.

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See detailDesigning a framework for digital KYC processes built on blockchain-based self-sovereign identity
Schlatt, Vincent; Sedlmeir, Johannes UL; Feulner, Simon et al

in Information and Management (2022), 59(7),

Know your customer (KYC) processes place a great burden on banks, because they are costly, inefficient, and inconvenient for customers. While blockchain technology is often mentioned as a potential ... [more ▼]

Know your customer (KYC) processes place a great burden on banks, because they are costly, inefficient, and inconvenient for customers. While blockchain technology is often mentioned as a potential solution, it is not clear how to use the technology’s advantages without violating data protection regulations and customer privacy. We demonstrate how blockchain-based self-sovereign identity (SSI) can solve the challenges of KYC. We follow a rigorous design science research approach to create a framework that utilizes SSI in the KYC process, deriving nascent design principles that theorize on blockchain’s role for SSI. [less ▲]

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See detailIndividualised prediction of drug resistance and seizure recurrence after medication withdrawal in people with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy: A systematic review and individual participant data meta-analysis
Stevelink, Remi; Al-Toma, Dania; Jansen, Floor E. et al

in eClinicalMedicine (2022)

Summary Background A third of people with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) are drug-resistant. Three-quarters have a seizure relapse when attempting to withdraw anti-seizure medication (ASM) after ... [more ▼]

Summary Background A third of people with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) are drug-resistant. Three-quarters have a seizure relapse when attempting to withdraw anti-seizure medication (ASM) after achieving seizure-freedom. It is currently impossible to predict who is likely to become drug-resistant and safely withdraw treatment. We aimed to identify predictors of drug resistance and seizure recurrence to allow for individualised prediction of treatment outcomes in people with JME. Methods We performed an individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis based on a systematic search in EMBASE and PubMed – last updated on March 11, 2021 – including prospective and retrospective observational studies reporting on treatment outcomes of people diagnosed with JME and available seizure outcome data after a minimum one-year follow-up. We invited authors to share standardised IPD to identify predictors of drug resistance using multivariable logistic regression. We excluded pseudo-resistant individuals. A subset who attempted to withdraw ASM was included in a multivariable proportional hazards analysis on seizure recurrence after ASM withdrawal. The study was registered at the Open Science Framework (OSF; https://osf.io/b9zjc/). Findings  368) was predicted by an earlier age at the start of withdrawal, shorter seizure-free interval and more currently used ASMs, resulting in an average internal-external cross-validation concordance-statistic of 0·70 (95%CI 0·68–0·73). Interpretation We were able to predict and validate clinically relevant personalised treatment outcomes for people with JME. Individualised predictions are accessible as nomograms and web-based tools. Funding MING fonds. [less ▲]

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See detailDéploiement de l’espace muséal et engagement participatif des visiteurs : l’expérience perceptive d’une statue en ronde-bosse
Blanc, Mathias UL

in Cahiers de l'École du Louvre (2022), 19

This article reports on fieldwork conducted at the Musée du Louvre-Lens with visitors discovering a sculpture from the Louvre, the Discophorus. To study the statue’s reception, we developed a mixed ... [more ▼]

This article reports on fieldwork conducted at the Musée du Louvre-Lens with visitors discovering a sculpture from the Louvre, the Discophorus. To study the statue’s reception, we developed a mixed methodology based on video recordings and “annotation traces in augmented reality”. The article presents the salient results of several weeks of fieldwork with and without the digital device Ikonikat 3D. It appears that our study corroborates the strong influence of the label on the way visitors look at the sculptures. But it also shows that the use of a digital device, depending on the human-machine interaction it supports, creates a space of vision and a space of action that have consequences in terms of distance and point of view on the work being viewed. Finally, we can observe different registers of meaning in the museum situation. This leads us to use a certain perspective to accompany visitor engagement with the sculptures. [less ▲]

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See detailBetting Against Noisy Beta
Lehnert, Thorsten UL

in Journal of Finance and Data Science (2022), 8(-), 55-68

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See detailRevealing the landscape of privacy-enhancing technologies in the context of data markets for the IoT: A systematic literature review
Garrido, Gonzalo Munilla; Sedlmeir, Johannes UL; Uludag, Ömer et al

in Journal of Network and Computer Applications (2022), 207

IoT data markets in public and private institutions have become increasingly relevant in recent years because of their potential to improve data availability and unlock new business models. However ... [more ▼]

IoT data markets in public and private institutions have become increasingly relevant in recent years because of their potential to improve data availability and unlock new business models. However, exchanging data in markets bears considerable challenges related to disclosing sensitive information. Despite considerable research focused on different aspects of privacy-enhancing data markets for the IoT, none of the solutions proposed so far seems to find a practical adoption. Thus, this study aims to organize the state-of-the-art solutions, analyze and scope the technologies that have been suggested in this context, and structure the remaining challenges to determine areas where future research is required. To accomplish this goal, we conducted a systematic literature review on privacy enhancement in data markets for the IoT, covering 50 publications dated up to July 2020, and provided updates with 24 publications dated up to May 2022. Our results indicate that most research in this area has emerged only recently, and no IoT data market architecture has established itself as canonical. Existing solutions frequently lack the required combination of anonymization and secure computation technologies. Furthermore, there is no consensus on the appropriate use of blockchain technology for IoT data markets and a low degree of leveraging existing libraries or reusing generic data market architectures. We also identified significant challenges remaining, such as the copy problem and the recursive enforcement problem that - while solutions have been suggested to some extent - are often not sufficiently addressed in proposed designs. We conclude that privacy-enhancing technologies need further improvements to positively impact data markets so that, ultimately, the value of data is preserved through data scarcity and users' privacy and businesses-critical information are protected. [less ▲]

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See detailReSQ: Reinforcement Learning-Based Queue Allocation in Software-Defined Queuing Framework
Maity, Ilora UL; Taleb, Tarik

in Journal of Networking and Network Applications (2022), 2(4), 143152

With the evolution of 5G networks, the demand for Ultra-Reliable Low Latency Communications (URLLC) services is increasing. Software-Defined Networking (SDN) offers flexible network management to ... [more ▼]

With the evolution of 5G networks, the demand for Ultra-Reliable Low Latency Communications (URLLC) services is increasing. Software-Defined Networking (SDN) offers flexible network management to prioritize URLLC services coexisting with best-effort traffic. Utilizing the network programmability feature of SDN, Software-Defined Queueing (SDQ) framework selects the optimal output port queue on forwarding devices and routing path for incoming traffic flows to provide deterministic Quality of Service (QoS) support required for URLLC traffic. However, in the existing SDQ framework, the selections of optimal queue and path are done manually by observing the traffic type of each incoming flow, the available bandwidth of each potential routing path, and the status of output port queues of each forwarding device on each potential routing path. The static allocations of path and queue for each flow are inefficient to provide a deterministic QoS guarantee for a high volume of incoming traffic which is typical in 5G networks. The limited buffer availability on the forwarding devices is another constraint regarding optimal queue allocation that ensures an end-to-end (E2E) delay guarantee. To address these challenges, in this paper, we extend the SDQ framework by automating queue management with a reinforcement learning (RL)-based approach. The proposed queue management approach considers diverse QoS demands as well as a limited buffer on the forwarding devices and performs prioritized queue allocation. Our approach also includes a hash-based flow grouping to handle a high volume of traffic having diverse latency demands and a path selection mechanism based on available bandwidth and hop count. The simulation result shows that the proposed scheme ReSQ reduces the QoS violation ratio by 10.45% as compared to the baseline scheme that selects queues randomly. [less ▲]

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See detailSpectral Efficiency Analysis of Hybrid Relay-Reflecting Intelligent Surface-Assisted Cell-Free Massive MIMO Systems
Nguyen, Nhan Thanh; Nguyen, Van-Dinh; Nguyen, Hieu Van et al

in IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications (2022)

A cell-free (CF) massive multiple-input-multiple-output (mMIMO) system can provide uniform spectral efficiency (SE) with simple signal processing. On the other hand, a recently introduced technology ... [more ▼]

A cell-free (CF) massive multiple-input-multiple-output (mMIMO) system can provide uniform spectral efficiency (SE) with simple signal processing. On the other hand, a recently introduced technology called hybrid relay-reflecting intelligent surface (HR-RIS) can customize the physical propagation environment by simultaneously reflecting and amplifying radio waves in preferred directions. Thus, it is natural that incorporating HR-RIS into CF mMIMO can be a symbiotic convergence of these two technologies for future wireless communications. This motivates us to consider an HR-RIS-aided CF mMIMO system to utilize their combined benefits. We first model the uplink/downlink channels and derive the minimum-mean-square-error estimate of the effective channels. We then present a comprehensive analysis of SE performance of the considered system. Specifically, we derive closed-form expressions for the uplink and downlink SE. The results reveal important observations on the performance gains achieved by HR-RISs compared to conventional systems. The presented analytical results are also valid for conventional CF mMIMO systems and those aided by passive reconfigurable intelligent surfaces. Such results play an important role in designing new transmission strategies and optimizing HR-RIS-aided CF mMIMO systems. Finally, we provide extensive numerical results to verify the analytical derivations and the effectiveness of the proposed system design under various settings. [less ▲]

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See detailAdapting to Dynamic LEO-B5G Systems: Meta-Critic Learning Based Efficient Resource Scheduling
Yuan, Yaxiong; Lei, Lei; Vu, Thang Xuan UL et al

in IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications (2022), 21(11), 9582-9595

Low earth orbit (LEO) satellite-assisted communications have been considered as one of the key elements in beyond 5G systems to provide wide coverage and cost-efficient data services. Such dynamic space ... [more ▼]

Low earth orbit (LEO) satellite-assisted communications have been considered as one of the key elements in beyond 5G systems to provide wide coverage and cost-efficient data services. Such dynamic space-terrestrial topologies impose an exponential increase in the degrees of freedom in network management. In this paper, we address two practical issues for an over-loaded LEO-terrestrial system. The first challenge is how to efficiently schedule resources to serve a massive number of connected users, such that more data and users can be delivered/served. The second challenge is how to make the algorithmic solution more resilient in adapting to dynamic wireless environments. We first propose an iterative suboptimal algorithm to provide an offline benchmark. To adapt to unforeseen variations, we propose an enhanced meta-critic learning algorithm (EMCL), where a hybrid neural network for parameterization and the Wolpertinger policy for action mapping are designed in EMCL. The results demonstrate EMCL’s effectiveness and fast-response capabilities in over-loaded systems and in adapting to dynamic environments compare to previous actor-critic and meta-learning methods. [less ▲]

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See detailThe conformal group of a compact simply connected Lorentzian manifold
Melnick, Karin; Pecastaing, Vincent UL

in Journal of the American Mathematical Society (2022), 35(1), 81122

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See detailMezinárodní soft law jako koncept v judikatuře správních soudů
Hubkova, Pavlina UL

in Jurisprudence (2022), (5), 1-10

International soft law as a concept encompasses a large number of diverse international acts that are not legally binding but still are capable to produce legal effects. For national courts, international ... [more ▼]

International soft law as a concept encompasses a large number of diverse international acts that are not legally binding but still are capable to produce legal effects. For national courts, international soft law presents a foreign element because it is adopted beyond the state and it defies the traditional binary concept of law, according to which legal norms are binding, otherwise they are not law. Nevertheless, this foreign element finds its way into the decision-making of Czech administrative courts. The article maps how and in which situations the administrative courts work with the concept of soft law and what consequences they draw from soft law. [less ▲]

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See detailNOMA-Enabled Optimization Framework for Next-Generation Small-Cell IoV Networks Under Imperfect SIC Decoding
Khan, Wali Ullah UL; Li, Xingwang; Ihsan, Asim et al

in IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems (2022)

To meet the demands of massive connections, diverse quality of services (QoS), ultra-reliable and low latency in the future sixth-generation (6G) Internet-of-vehicle (IoV) communications, we propose non ... [more ▼]

To meet the demands of massive connections, diverse quality of services (QoS), ultra-reliable and low latency in the future sixth-generation (6G) Internet-of-vehicle (IoV) communications, we propose non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA)-enabled small-cell IoV network (SVNet). We aim to investigate the trade-off between system capacity and energy efficiency through a joint power optimization framework. In particular, we formulate a nonlinear multi-objective optimization problem under imperfect successive interference cancellation (SIC) detecting. Thus, the objective is to simultaneously maximize the sum-capacity and minimize the total transmit power of NOMA-enabled SVNet subject to individual IoV QoS, maximum transmit power and efficient signal detecting. To solve the nonlinear problem, we first exploit a weighted-sum method to handle the multi-objective optimization and then adopt a new iterative Sequential Quadratic Programming (SQP)-based approach to obtain the optimal solution. The proposed optimization framework is compared with Karush-Kuhn-Tucker (KKT)-based NOMA framework, average power NOMA framework, and conventional OMA framework. Monte Carlo simulation results unveil the validness of our derivations. The presented results also show the superiority of the proposed optimization framework over other benchmark frameworks in terms of system sum-capacity and total energy efficiency. [less ▲]

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See detailWavelet methods to study the pointwise regularity of the generalized Rosenblatt process
Daw, Lara UL; Loosveldt, Laurent UL

in Electronic Journal of Probability (2022), 27

We identify three types of pointwise behaviour in the regularity of the (generalized) Rosenblatt process. This extends to a non Gaussian setting previous results known for the (fractional) Brownian motion ... [more ▼]

We identify three types of pointwise behaviour in the regularity of the (generalized) Rosenblatt process. This extends to a non Gaussian setting previous results known for the (fractional) Brownian motion. On this purpose, fine bounds on the increments of the Rosenblatt process are needed. Our analysis is essentially based on various wavelet methods. [less ▲]

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See detailAmbient backcom in beyond 5G NOMA networks: A multi-cell resource allocation framework
Khan, Wali Ullah UL; Memon, Fida Hussain; Dev, Kapal et al

in Digital Communications and Networks (2022)

The research of Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access (NOMA) is extensively used to improve the capacity of networks beyond the fifth-generation. The recent merger of NOMA with ambient Backscatter Communication ... [more ▼]

The research of Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access (NOMA) is extensively used to improve the capacity of networks beyond the fifth-generation. The recent merger of NOMA with ambient Backscatter Communication (BackCom), though opening new possibilities for massive connectivity, poses several challenges in dense wireless networks. One of such challenges is the performance degradation of ambient BackCom in multi-cell NOMA networks under the effect of inter-cell interference. Driven by providing an efficient solution to the issue, this article proposes a new resource allocation framework that uses a duality theory approach. Specifically, the sum rate of the multi-cell network with backscatter tags and NOMA user equipments is maximized by formulating a joint optimization problem. To find the efficient base station transmit power and backscatter reflection coefficient in each cell, the original problem is first divided into two subproblems, and then the closed form solution is derived. A comparison with the Orthogonal Multiple Access (OMA) ambient BackCom and pure NOMA transmission has been provided. Simulation results of the proposed NOMA ambient BackCom indicate a significant improvement over the OMA ambient BackCom and pure NOMA in terms of sum-rate gains. [less ▲]

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See detailA model-based framework for inter-app Vulnerability analysis of Android applications
Nirumand, Atefeh; Zamani, Bahman; Tork-Ladani, Behrouz et al

in Software: Practice and Experience (2022)

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See detailOn reliability in the performance analysis of cognitive radio networks
Khan, Abd Ullah; Tanveer, Muhammad; Khan, Wali Ullah UL

in Journal of King Saud University - Computer and Information Sciences (2022)

Satisfying the quality of service (QoS) requirements of users in the form of channel availability and service retainability within the resource limited environment has been a major problem in cognitive ... [more ▼]

Satisfying the quality of service (QoS) requirements of users in the form of channel availability and service retainability within the resource limited environment has been a major problem in cognitive radio networks. In this connection, several research studies have been carried out in the literature to improve the QoS of users by proposing dynamic channel reservation algorithms. However, the studies have a number of limitations in their conceptual and mathematical modeling of channel availability and service retainability, which render their performance evaluation unreliable. In this paper, we address these limitations for leading to more realistic, reliable, and practically valid modeling. For conceptual modeling, we use connection availability in place of channel availability, motivated by the fact that the latter does not necessarily lead to a successful establishment of connection and, thus, is not a suitable performance indicator. For instance, obtaining a channel for transmission is of no avail if the intended receiver is inaccessible. Similarly, we consider service retainability with accessibility/inaccessibility of the intended receiver incorporated. For mathematical modeling, we use CTMC and the resultant closed from expressions to include all the required states of channel availability yet unsuccessful connection establishment. Additionally, we derive closed form equations for channel availability and service retainability that are in exact conformance with the CTMC model. Results confirm that considering the impact of receiver’s accessibility leads to performance difference for the channel availability and service retainability presented in the sate-of-the-art. [less ▲]

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See detailThickness and relative hyperbolicity for graphs of multicurves
Russell, Jacob; Vokes, Kate UL

in Journal of Topology (2022), 15(4), 2317-2351

We prove that any graph of multicurves satisfying certain natural properties is either hyperbolic, relatively hyperbolic, or thick. Further, this geometric characterization is determined by the set of ... [more ▼]

We prove that any graph of multicurves satisfying certain natural properties is either hyperbolic, relatively hyperbolic, or thick. Further, this geometric characterization is determined by the set of subsurfaces that intersect every vertex of the graph. This extends previously established results for the pants graph and the separating curve graph to a broad family of graphs associated to surfaces. [less ▲]

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See detailBlack hole mirages: electron lensing and Berry curvature effects in inhomogeneously tilted Weyl semimetals
Haller, Andreas UL; Hegde, Suraj; Xu, Chen et al

in arXiv (2022)

We study electronic transport in Weyl semimetals with spatially varying nodal tilt profiles. We find that the flow of electrons can be guided precisely by judiciously chosen tilt profiles. In a wide ... [more ▼]

We study electronic transport in Weyl semimetals with spatially varying nodal tilt profiles. We find that the flow of electrons can be guided precisely by judiciously chosen tilt profiles. In a wide regime of parameters, we show that electron flow is described well by semiclassical equations of motion similar to the ones governing gravitational attraction. This analogy provides a physically transparent tool for designing tiltronic devices, such as electronic lenses. The analogy to gravity circumvents the notoriously difficult full-fledged description of inhomogeneous solids, but a comparison to microscopic lattice simulations shows that it is only valid for trajectories sufficiently far from analogue black holes. We finally comment on the Berry curvature-driven transverse motion, and relate the latter to spin precession physics. [less ▲]

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See detailUnclonable human-invisible machine vision markers leveraging the omnidirectional chiral Bragg diffraction of cholesteric spherical reflectors
Agha, Hakam UL; Geng, Yong UL; Ma, Xu UL et al

in Light: Science and Applications (2022), 11(309), 10103841377-022-01002-4

The seemingly simple step of molding a cholesteric liquid crystal into spherical shape, yielding a Cholesteric Spherical Reflector (CSR), has profound optical consequences that open a range of ... [more ▼]

The seemingly simple step of molding a cholesteric liquid crystal into spherical shape, yielding a Cholesteric Spherical Reflector (CSR), has profound optical consequences that open a range of opportunities for potentially transformative technologies. The chiral Bragg diffraction resulting from the helical self-assembly of cholesterics becomes omnidirectional in CSRs. This turns them into selective retroreflectors that are exceptionally easy to distinguish— regardless of background—by simple and low-cost machine vision, while at the same time they can be made largely imperceptible to human vision. This allows them to be distributed in human-populated environments, laid out in the form of QR-code-like markers that help robots and Augmented Reality (AR) devices to operate reliably, and to identify items in their surroundings. At the scale of individual CSRs, unpredictable features within each marker turn them into Physical Unclonable Functions (PUFs), of great value for secure authentication. Via the machines reading them, CSR markers can thus act as trustworthy yet unobtrusive links between the physical world (buildings, vehicles, packaging,...) and its digital twin computer representation. This opens opportunities to address pressing challenges in logistics and supply chain management, recycling and the circular economy, sustainable construction of the built environment, and many other fields of individual, societal and commercial importance. [less ▲]

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See detailCalcGraph: taming the high costs of deep learning using models
Lorentz, Joe UL; Hartmann, Thomas UL; Moawad, Assaad UL et al

in Software and Systems Modeling (2022)

Models based on differential programming, like deep neural networks, are well established in research and able to outperform manually coded counterparts in many applications. Today, there is a rising ... [more ▼]

Models based on differential programming, like deep neural networks, are well established in research and able to outperform manually coded counterparts in many applications. Today, there is a rising interest to introduce this flexible modeling to solve real-world problems. A major challenge when moving from research to application is the strict constraints on computational resources (memory and time). It is difficult to determine and contain the resource requirements of differential models, especially during the early training and hyperparameter exploration stages. In this article, we address this challenge by introducing CalcGraph, a model abstraction of differentiable programming layers. CalcGraph allows to model the computational resources that should be used and then CalcGraph’s model interpreter can automatically schedule the execution respecting the specifications made. We propose a novel way to efficiently switch models from storage to preallocated memory zones and vice versa to maximize the number of model executions given the available resources. We demonstrate the efficiency of our approach by showing that it consumes less resources than state-of-the-art frameworks like TensorFlow and PyTorch for single-model and multi-model execution. [less ▲]

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See detailEnergy-Efficient Backscatter-Assisted Coded Cooperative-NOMA for B5G Wireless Communications
Asif, Muhammad; Ihsan, Asim; Khan, Wali Ullah UL et al

in IEEE Transactions on Green Communications and Networking (2022)

In this manuscript, we propose an alternating optimization framework to maximize the energy efficiency of a backscatter-enabled cooperative Non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) system by optimizing the ... [more ▼]

In this manuscript, we propose an alternating optimization framework to maximize the energy efficiency of a backscatter-enabled cooperative Non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) system by optimizing the transmit power of the source, power allocation coefficients (PAC), and power of the relay node under imperfect successive interference cancellation (SIC) decoding. A three-stage low-complexity energy-efficient alternating optimization algorithm is introduced which optimizes the transmit power, PAC, and relay power by considering the quality of service (QoS), power budget, and cooperation constraints. Subsequently, a joint channel coding framework is introduced to enhance the performance of far user which has no direct communication link with the base station (BS) and has bad channel conditions. In the destination node, the far user data is jointly decoded using a Sum-product algorithm (SPA) based joint iterative decoder realized by jointly-designed Quasi-cyclic Low-density parity-check (QC-LDPC) codes. Simulation results evince that the proposed backscatter-enabled cooperative NOMA system outperforms its counterpart by providing an efficient performance in terms of energy efficiency. Also, proposed jointly-designed QC-LDPC codes provide an excellent bit-error-rate (BER) performance by jointly decoding the far user data for considered BSC cooperative NOMA system with only a few decoding iterations. [less ▲]

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See detailMARL based resource allocation scheme leveraging vehicular cloudlet in automotive-industry 5.0
Ahmed, Manzoor; Liu, Jinshi; Mirza, Muhammad Ayzed et al

in Journal of King Saud University - Computer and Information Sciences (2022)

Automotive-Industry 5.0 will use Beyond Fifth-Generation (B5G) communications to provide robust, abundant computation resources and energy-efficient data sharing among various Intelligent Transportation ... [more ▼]

Automotive-Industry 5.0 will use Beyond Fifth-Generation (B5G) communications to provide robust, abundant computation resources and energy-efficient data sharing among various Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) entities. Based on the vehicle communication network, the Internet of Vehicles (IoV) is created, where vehicles’ resources, including processing, storage, sensing, and communication units, can be leveraged to construct Vehicular Cloudlet (VC) to realize resource sharing. As Connected and Autonomous Vehicles (CAV) onboard computing is becoming more potent, VC resources (comprising stationary and moving vehicles’ idle resources) seems a promising solution to tackle the incessant computing requirements of vehicles. Furthermore, such spare computing resources can significantly reduce task requests’ delay and transmission costs. In order to maximize the utility of task requests in the system under the maximum time constraint, this paper proposes a Secondary Resource Allocation (SRA) mechanism based on a dual time scale. The request service process is regarded as M/M/1 queuing model and considers each task request in the same time slot as an agent. A Partially Observable Markov Decision Process (POMDP) is constructed and combined with the Multi-Agent Reinforcement Learning (MARL) algorithm known as QMix, which exploits the overall vehicle state and queue state to reach effective computing resource allocation decisions. There are two main performance metrics: the system’s total utility and task completion rate. Simulation results reveal that the task completion rate is increased by 13%. Furthermore, compared with the deep deterministic policy optimization method, our proposed algorithm can improve the overall utility value by 70% and the task completion rate by 6%. [less ▲]

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See detailEmbedding intelligence in materials for responsive built environment: A topical review on Liquid Crystal Elastomer actuators and sensors
Schwartz, Mathew; Lagerwall, Jan UL

in Building and Environment (2022), 226

Liquid Crystal Elastomers (LCEs) are an exciting category of material that has tremendous application potential across a variety of fields, owing to their unique properties that enable both sensing and ... [more ▼]

Liquid Crystal Elastomers (LCEs) are an exciting category of material that has tremendous application potential across a variety of fields, owing to their unique properties that enable both sensing and actuation. To some, LCEs are simply another type of Shape Memory Polymer, while to others they are an interesting on-going scientific experiment. In this visionary article, we bring an interdisciplinary discussion around creative and impactful ways that LCEs can be applied in the Built Environment to support kinematic and kinetic buildings and situational awareness. We focus particularly on the autonomy made possible by using LCEs, potentially removing needs for motors, wiring and tubing, and even enabling fully independent operation in response to natural environment variations, requiring no power sources. To illustrate the potential, we propose a number of concrete application scenarios where LCEs could offer innovative solutions to problems of great societal importance, such as autonomous active ventilation, heliotropic solar panel systems which can also remove snow or sand autonomously, and invisible coatings with strain mapping functionality, alerting residents in case of dangerous (static or dynamic) loads on roofs or windows, as well as assisting building safety inspection teams after earthquakes. [less ▲]

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See detailSwarm of UAVs for Network Management in 6G: A Technical Review
Khan, Muhammad Asghar; Kumar, Neeraj; Mohsan, Syed Agha Hassnain et al

in IEEE Transactions on Network and Service Management (2022)

Fifth-generation (5G) cellular networks have led to the implementation of beyond 5G (B5G) networks, which are capable of incorporating autonomous services to swarm of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). They ... [more ▼]

Fifth-generation (5G) cellular networks have led to the implementation of beyond 5G (B5G) networks, which are capable of incorporating autonomous services to swarm of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). They provide capacity expansion strategies to address massive connectivity issues and guarantee ultra-high throughput and low latency, especially in extreme or emergency situations where network density, bandwidth, and traffic patterns fluctuate. On the one hand, 6G technology integrates AI/ML, IoT, and blockchain to establish ultra-reliable, intelligent, secure, and ubiquitous UAV networks. 6G networks, on the other hand, rely on new enabling technologies such as air interface and transmission technologies, as well as a unique network design, posing new challenges for the swarm of UAVs.Keeping these challenges in mind, this article focuses on the security and privacy, intelligence, and energy-efficiency issues faced by swarms of UAVs operating in 6G mobile network. In this state-of-the-art review, we integrated blockchain and AI/ML with UAV networks utilizing the 6G ecosystem. The key findings are then presented, and potential research challenges are identified. We conclude the review by shedding light on future research in this emerging field of research. [less ▲]

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See detailDelineation of functionally essential protein regions for 242 neurodevelopmental genes
Iqbal, Sumaiya; Brünger, Tobias; Pérez-Palma, Eduardo et al

in Brain (2022), awac381

Neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs), including severe pediatric epilepsy, autism, and intellectual disabilities are heterogeneous conditions in which clinical genetic testing can often identify a ... [more ▼]

Neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs), including severe pediatric epilepsy, autism, and intellectual disabilities are heterogeneous conditions in which clinical genetic testing can often identify a pathogenic variant. For many of them, genetic therapies will be tested in this or the coming years in clinical trials. In contrast to first-generation symptomatic treatments, the new disease-modifying precision medicines require a genetic test-informed diagnosis before a patient can be enrolled in a clinical trial. However, even in 2022, most identified genetic variants in NDD genes are ‘Variants of Uncertain Significance’. To safely enroll patients in precision medicine clinical trials, it is important to increase our knowledge about which regions in NDD-associated proteins can ‘tolerate’ missense variants and which ones are ‘essential’ and will cause a NDD when mutated. In addition, knowledge about functionally indispensable regions in the three-dimensional (3D) structure context of proteins can also provide insights into the molecular mechanisms of disease variants. We developed a novel consensus approach that overlays evolutionary, and population based genomic scores to identify 3D essential sites (Essential3D) on protein structures. After extensive benchmarking of AlphaFold predicted and experimentally solved protein structures, we generated the currently largest expert curated protein structure set for 242 NDDs and identified 14,377 Essential3D sites across 189 gene disorders associated proteins. We demonstrate that the consensus annotation of Essential3D sites improves prioritization of disease mutations over single annotations. The identified Essential3D sites were enriched for functional features such as intermembrane regions or active sites and discovered key inter-molecule interactions in protein complexes that were otherwise not annotated. Using the currently largest autism, developmental disorders, and epilepsies exome sequencing studies including >360,000 NDD patients and population controls, we found that missense variants at Essential3D sites are 8-fold enriched in patients. In summary, we developed a comprehensive protein structure set for 242 neurodevelopmental disorders and identified 14,377 Essential3D sites in these. All data are available at https://es-ndd.broadinstitute.org for interactive visual inspection to enhance variant interpretation and development of mechanistic hypotheses for 242 NDDs genes. The provided resources will enhance clinical variant interpretation and in silico drug target development for NDD-associated genes and encoded proteins. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Occupational Structure of England and Wales: the 1939 National Register
Calabrese, Matteo UL

in Research Data Journal for the Humanities and Social Sciences (2022)

A gap in the census surveys for England and Wales between 1921 and 1951 hinders the analysis of their labour structure for the interwar years. The present article uses a dataset containing occupational ... [more ▼]

A gap in the census surveys for England and Wales between 1921 and 1951 hinders the analysis of their labour structure for the interwar years. The present article uses a dataset containing occupational titles from the National Register – a census-like enumeration of 1939, recently digitised by the genealogy service ‘Find My Past’ – which was previously assigned numerical codes (the pst system). The study expands the existing data analysis on the occupational structure of England and Wales by introducing three further variables: the gender of the surveyed individuals, their age, and the shares of the inactive population per gender and age groups. [less ▲]

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See detailNon-stationary 3-D GBSM channel model for V2Vcommunications
Xu, Yan; Saleem, Asad; Asif, Muhammad et al

in IET Communications (2022)

The spatial characteristics of the propagation channel have a considerable impact onthe applicability of multi-antenna systems. In this paper, a non-stationary 3-D GBSMvehicle-to-vehicle channel model is ... [more ▼]

The spatial characteristics of the propagation channel have a considerable impact onthe applicability of multi-antenna systems. In this paper, a non-stationary 3-D GBSMvehicle-to-vehicle channel model is proposed in the tunnel environment based on massivemultiple-input multiple-output antenna arrays. Instead of the plane wavefront assumptionsutilized in traditional multiple-input multiple-output systems, the proposed channel modelfor vehicle-to-vehicle communications uses spherical wavefront assumptions. Initially, thechannel impulse response and closed-form expression for the probability density func-tion of angle-of-departure and angle-of-arrival are derived in the elevation and azimuthplanes. Following that, due to the mobility of transmitting and receiving antenna arrays,expressions for the delay spread (DS), Doppler power spectrum density, temporal cross-correlation function, and channel capacity are extracted by examining line of sight andthe non line of sight propagation paths. The influence of numerous model parameterson the temporal cross-correlation function is also investigated, including antenna arrayspacing,K-factor, movement velocity, and time separation. The proposed 3-D model’s sta-tistical characteristics are verified through measurements, simulations, and analytical results,revealing its adaptability and effectiveness in the high-speed-train environment. [less ▲]

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See detailDBSegment: Fast and robust segmentation of deep brain structures considering domain generalisation
Baniasadi, Mehri UL; Petersen, Mikkel V.; Goncalves, Jorge UL et al

in Human Brain Mapping (2022)

Segmenting deep brain structures from magnetic resonance images is important for patient diagnosis, surgical planning, and research. Most current state-of-the-art solutions follow a segmentation-by ... [more ▼]

Segmenting deep brain structures from magnetic resonance images is important for patient diagnosis, surgical planning, and research. Most current state-of-the-art solutions follow a segmentation-by-registration approach, where subject magnetic resonance imaging (MRIs) are mapped to a template with well-defined segmentations. However, registration-based pipelines are time-consuming, thus, limiting their clinical use. This paper uses deep learning to provide a one-step, robust, and efficient deep brain segmentation solution directly in the native space. The method consists of a preprocessing step to conform all MRI images to the same orientation, followed by a convolutional neural network using the nnU-Net framework. We use a total of 14 datasets from both research and clinical collections. Of these, seven were used for training and validation and seven were retained for testing. We trained the network to segment 30 deep brain structures, as well as a brain mask, using labels generated from a registration-based approach. We evaluated the generalizability of the network by performing a leave-one-dataset-out cross-validation, and independent testing on unseen datasets. Furthermore, we assessed cross-domain transportability by evaluating the results separately on different domains. We achieved an average dice score similarity of 0.89 ± 0.04 on the test datasets when compared to the registration-based gold standard. On our test system, the computation time decreased from 43 min for a reference registration-based pipeline to 1.3 min. Our proposed method is fast, robust, and generalizes with high reliability. It can be extended to the segmentation of other brain structures. It is publicly available on GitHub, and as a pip package for convenient usage. [less ▲]

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See detailbinny: an automated binning algorithm to recover high-quality genomes from complex metagenomic datasets
Hickl, Oskar UL; Queirós, Pedro; Wilmes, Paul UL et al

in Briefings in Bioinformatics (2022)

The reconstruction of genomes is a critical step in genome-resolved metagenomics and for multi-omic data integration from microbial communities. Here, we present binny, a binning tool that produces high ... [more ▼]

The reconstruction of genomes is a critical step in genome-resolved metagenomics and for multi-omic data integration from microbial communities. Here, we present binny, a binning tool that produces high-quality metagenome-assembled genomes (MAG) from both contiguous and highly fragmented genomes. Based on established metrics, binny outperforms or is highly competitive with commonly used and state-of-the-art binning methods and finds unique genomes that could not be detected by other methods. binny uses k-mer-composition and coverage by metagenomic reads for iterative, nonlinear dimension reduction of genomic signatures as well as subsequent automated contig clustering with cluster assessment using lineage-specific marker gene sets. When compared with seven widely used binning algorithms, binny provides substantial amounts of uniquely identified MAGs and almost always recovers the most near-complete (⁠>95% pure, >90% complete) and high-quality (⁠>90% pure, >70% complete) genomes from simulated datasets from the Critical Assessment of Metagenome Interpretation initiative, as well as substantially more high-quality draft genomes, as defined by the Minimum Information about a Metagenome-Assembled Genome standard, from a real-world benchmark comprised of metagenomes from various environments than any other tested method. [less ▲]

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See detailAn Evolutionary Algorithm to Optimise a Distributed UAV Swarm Formation System
Stolfi Rosso, Daniel UL; Danoy, Grégoire UL

in Applied Sciences (2022), 12(20),

In this article, we present a distributed robot 3D formation system optimally parameterised by a hybrid evolutionary algorithm (EA) in order to improve its efficiency and robustness. To achieve that, we ... [more ▼]

In this article, we present a distributed robot 3D formation system optimally parameterised by a hybrid evolutionary algorithm (EA) in order to improve its efficiency and robustness. To achieve that, we first describe the novel distributed formation algorithm3 (DFA3), the proposed EA, and the two crossover operators to be tested. The EA hyperparameterisation is performed by using the irace package and the evaluation of the three case studies featuring three, five, and ten unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) is performed through realistic simulations by using ARGoS and ten scenarios evaluated in parallel to improve the robustness of the configurations calculated. The optimisation results, reported with statistical significance, and the validation performed on 270 unseen scenarios show that the use of a metaheuristic is imperative for such a complex problem despite some overfitting observed under certain circumstances. All in all, the UAV swarm self-organised itself to achieve stable formations in 95% of the scenarios studied with a plus/minus ten percent tolerance. [less ▲]

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See detailMindfulness extends the trans-contextual model for autonomous motivation in physical education and leisuretime
Hutmacher, Djenna; Eckelt, Melanie; Bund, Andreas UL et al

in International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (2022), 19(20),

Mindfulness is assumed to foster the ability to consistently act in line with one’s authentic self; a skill which has been found to enhance students’ autonomous motivated behavior in the educational ... [more ▼]

Mindfulness is assumed to foster the ability to consistently act in line with one’s authentic self; a skill which has been found to enhance students’ autonomous motivated behavior in the educational context. However, evidence regarding how mindfulness can be integrated into existing conceptual frameworks such as the trans-contextual model is scarce. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the role of mindfulness in students’ autonomous motivation in the school and leisure time contexts. Overall, N = 1877 students (M = 14.74 years, SD = 2.63) indicated their self-reported mindfulness, their perceived need for support in physical education, their autonomous motivation during physical education and leisure time, as well as their perceived behavioral control, attitude, subjective norm, and intention toward physical activity. Physical activity was additionally measured physiologically for n = 240 students using accelerometers. Path model analyses revealed that the inclusion of mindfulness substantially improved the trans-contextual model fit. Perceived autonomy support positively predicted mindfulness, which, in turn, predicted autonomous motivation in physical education and leisure time, attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control. Furthermore, mediation analyses revealed the significant indirect effects of mindfulness on physiological and self-reported physical activity. Based on these results, mindfulness can be considered a key factor in fostering students’ motivation to become physically active. [less ▲]

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See detailLocality of spontaneous symmetry breaking and universal spacing distribution of topological defects formed across a phase transition
Del Campo Echevarria, Adolfo UL; Gómez-Ruiz, Fernando Javier; Zhang, Hai-Qing

in Physical Review. B (2022)

The crossing of a continuous phase transition results in the formation of topological defects with a density predicted by the Kibble-Zurek mechanism (KZM). We characterize the spatial distribution of ... [more ▼]

The crossing of a continuous phase transition results in the formation of topological defects with a density predicted by the Kibble-Zurek mechanism (KZM). We characterize the spatial distribution of pointlike topological defects in the resulting nonequilibrium state and model it using a Poisson point process in arbitrary spatial dimensions with KZM density. Numerical simulations in a one-dimensional φ4 theory unveil short-distance defect-defect corrections stemming from the kink excluded volume, while in two spatial dimensions, our model accurately describes the vortex spacing distribution in a strongly coupled superconductor indicating the suppression of defect-defect spatial correlations. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the Performance of Cache-Free/Cache-Aided STBC-NOMA in Cognitive Hybrid Satellite-Terrestrial Networks
Singh, Vibhum UL; Solanki, Sourabh UL; Eappen, Geoffrey UL et al

in IEEE Wireless Communications Letters (2022), 11(12), 2655-2659

Future wireless networks pose several challenges such as high spectral efficiency, wide coverage massive connectivity, low receiver complexity, etc. To this end, this letter investigates an overlay based ... [more ▼]

Future wireless networks pose several challenges such as high spectral efficiency, wide coverage massive connectivity, low receiver complexity, etc. To this end, this letter investigates an overlay based cognitive hybrid satellite-terrestrial network (CHSTN) combining non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) and conventional Alamouti space-time block coding (STBC) techniques. Herein, a decode-and-forward based secondary terrestrial network cooperates with a primary satellite network for dynamic spectrum access. Further, for reliable content delivery and low latency requirements, wireless caching is employed, whereby the secondary network can store the most popular contents of the primary network. Considering the relevant heterogeneous fading channel models and the NOMA-based imperfect successive interference cancellation, we examine the performance of CHSTN for the cache-free (CF) STBC-NOMA and the cache-aided (CA) STBC-NOMA schemes. We assess the outage probability expressions for primary and secondary networks and further, highlight the corresponding achievable diversity orders. Indicatively, the proposed CF/CA STBC-NOMA schemes for CHSTN perform significantly better than the benchmark standalone NOMA and OMA schemes. [less ▲]

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See detailRole of boundary conditions in the full counting statistics of topological defects after crossing a continuous phase transition
Gómez-Ruiz, Fernando J.; Subires, David; Del Campo Echevarria, Adolfo UL

in Physical Review. B, Condensed Matter and Materials Physics (2022)

In a scenario of spontaneous symmetry breaking in finite time, topological defects are generated at a density that scales with the driving time according to the Kibble-Zurek mechanism (KZM). Signatures of ... [more ▼]

In a scenario of spontaneous symmetry breaking in finite time, topological defects are generated at a density that scales with the driving time according to the Kibble-Zurek mechanism (KZM). Signatures of universality beyond the KZM have recently been unveiled: The number distribution of topological defects has been shown to follow a binomial distribution, in which all cumulants inherit the universal power-law scaling with the quench rate, with cumulant rations being constant. In this work, we analyze the role of boundary conditions in the statistics of topological defects. In particular, we consider a lattice system with nearest-neighbor interactions subject to soft antiperiodic, open, and periodic boundary conditions implemented by an energy penalty term. We show that for fast and moderate quenches, the cumulants of the kink number distribution present a universal scaling with the quench rate that is independent of the boundary conditions except for an additive term, which becomes prominent in the limit of slow quenches, leading to the breaking of power-law behavior. We test our theoretical predictions with a one-dimensional scalar theory on a lattice. [less ▲]

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See detail„Ich will mein altes Leben zurück“ – Einblicke in die veränderten Beziehungen, Aktivitäten und das Wohlbefinden luxemburgischer Kinder in der Pandemie
Kirsch, Claudine UL; Neumann, Sascha

in Diskurs Kindheits- und Jugendforschung (2022)

The Covid-19 pandemic has changed children's lives. This paper presents the changes during the pandemic of children’s well-being, relationships and everyday activities from the perspective of six to ... [more ▼]

The Covid-19 pandemic has changed children's lives. This paper presents the changes during the pandemic of children’s well-being, relationships and everyday activities from the perspective of six to twelve-year-olds in Luxembourg. The data draw on interviews carried out in 2020 and standardised surveys in 2020 and 2021. The results show that all children were affected by the pandemic but experienced it differently. Many children expressed fears and worries right at the beginning of the pandemic and these emotions intensified over time. Their leisure time activities shifted from more outside to more domestic activities during the pandemic which in our view corresponds to an intermediate “domestication of childhood”. The survey in the summer of 2021 confirms that many of these changes remained or intensified. [less ▲]

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See detailA Conjecture on Primes in Arithmetic Progressions and Geometric Intervals
Barthel, Jim Jean-Pierre UL; Müller, Volker UL

in American Mathematical Monthly (2022), 129(10), 979-983

Dirichlet’s theorem on primes in arithmetic progressions states that for any positive integer q and any coprime integer a, there are infinitely many primes in the arithmetic progression a + nq (n ∈ N ... [more ▼]

Dirichlet’s theorem on primes in arithmetic progressions states that for any positive integer q and any coprime integer a, there are infinitely many primes in the arithmetic progression a + nq (n ∈ N). Unfortunately, the theorem does not predict the gap between those primes. Several renowned open questions such as the size of Linnik’s constant try to say more about the distribution of such primes. This manuscript postulates a weak, but explicit, generalization of Linnik’s theorem, namely that each geometric interval [q^t, q^(t+1)] contains a prime from each coprime congruence class modulo q ∈ N≥2. Subsequently, it proves the conjecture theoretically for all sufficiently large t, as well as computationally for all sufficiently small q. Finally, the impact of this conjecture on a result of Pomerance related to Carmichael’s conjecture is outlined. [less ▲]

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See detailTask-Oriented Data Compression for Multi-Agent Communications Over Bit-Budgeted Channels
Mostaani, Arsham UL; Vu, Thang Xuan UL; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL et al

in IEEE Open Journal of the Communications Society (2022)

Various applications for inter-machine communications are on the rise. Whether it is for autonomous driving vehicles or the internet of everything, machines are more connected than ever to improve their ... [more ▼]

Various applications for inter-machine communications are on the rise. Whether it is for autonomous driving vehicles or the internet of everything, machines are more connected than ever to improve their performance in fulfilling a given task. While in traditional communications the goal has often been to reconstruct the underlying message, under the emerging task-oriented paradigm, the goal of communication is to enable the receiving end to make more informed decisions or more precise estimates/computations. Motivated by these recent developments, in this paper, we perform an indirect design of the communications in a multi-agent system (MAS) in which agents cooperate to maximize the averaged sum of discounted one-stage rewards of a collaborative task. Due to the bit-budgeted communications between the agents, each agent should efficiently represent its local observation and communicate an abstracted version of the observations to improve the collaborative task performance. We first show that this problem can be approximated as a form of data-quantization problem which we call task-oriented data compression (TODC). We then introduce the state-aggregation for information compression algorithm (SAIC) to solve the formulated TODC problem. It is shown that SAIC is able to achieve near-optimal performance in terms of the achieved sum of discounted rewards. The proposed algorithm is applied to a geometric consensus problem and its performance is compared with several benchmarks. Numerical experiments confirm the promise of this indirect design approach for task-oriented multi-agent communications. [less ▲]

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See detailA Deep Learning Approach for Reconstruction in Millimeter-Wave Imaging Systems
Rostami Abendansari, Peyman UL

in IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation (2022)

In millimeter-wave (MMW) imaging, the objects of interest are oftentimes modeled as 2D binary (black and white) shapes with white pixels representing the reflecting interior of the object. However, due to ... [more ▼]

In millimeter-wave (MMW) imaging, the objects of interest are oftentimes modeled as 2D binary (black and white) shapes with white pixels representing the reflecting interior of the object. However, due to propagation of the scattered waves, the continuous-domain binary images are convolved with a so-called point-spread function (PSF) before being digitized by means of sampling. As the 2D PSF is both non-separable and non-vanishing in the case of MMW imaging, exact recovery is quite complicated. In this paper, we propose a deep learning approach for image reconstruction. We should highlight that the wave scatterings are suitably represented with complex-valued quantities, while standard deep neural networks (DNN) accept real-valued inputs. To overcome this challenge, we separate the real and imaginary parts as if we had two imaging modalities and concatenate them to form a real-valued input with larger size. Fortunately, the network automatically learns how to combine the mutual information between these modalities to reconstruct the final image. Among the advantages of the proposed method are improved robustness against additive noise and mismatch errors of imaging frequency and object to antenna distance; indeed, the method works well in wide-band imaging scenarios over a wide range of object to antenna distances even in presence of high noise levels without requiring a separate calibration stage. We test the method with synthetic data simulated with software as well as real recordings in the laboratory. [less ▲]

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See detailRecent Developments and Overview of the Country and Practitioners Reports
Cole, Mark David UL

in European Data Protection Law Review (2022), 8(3), 386-390

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See detailCambridge hybrid closed-loop system in very young children with type 1 diabetes reduces caregivers’ fear of hypoglycemia and improves their well-being
de Beaufort, Carine UL; Schierloh, Ulrike; Thankamony, A. et al

in Diabetes Care (2022), 45

Objective To evaluate the impact of CamAPS FX hybrid closed-loop automated insulin delivery (HCL) in very young children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) on caregivers’ well-being, fear of hypoglycemia and ... [more ▼]

Objective To evaluate the impact of CamAPS FX hybrid closed-loop automated insulin delivery (HCL) in very young children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) on caregivers’ well-being, fear of hypoglycemia and sleepiness. Research Design Multinational, open label, randomized crossover study. Children (1-7years) with T1D received treatment for two 4-month periods in random order, comparing HCL with sensor augmented pump (SAP) (control). At baseline and after each treatment period, caregivers were invited to complete WHO-5, Hypoglycemia Fear Survey (HFS) and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Results Caregivers of 74 children (mean±SD: age 5±2 years; 42% female, baseline HbA1c 7.3±0.7%) participated. Results revealed significantly lower scores for hypoglycemia fear (p<.001) and higher for well-being (p<.001) after HCL treatment. A trend towards a reduction in sleepiness score was observed (p=0.09). Conclusion Our results suggest a better well-being and less hypoglycemia fear in caregivers of very young children with T1D on CamAPS FX HCL. [less ▲]

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See detailIntegrative systems analysis identifies genetic and dietary modulators of bile acid homeostasis
Li, Hao; Perino, Alessia; Huang, Qingyao et al

in Cell Metabolism (2022), 34(10), 1594-1610

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See detailOne-Dimensional Quantum Systems with Ground State of Jastrow Form Are Integrable
Yang, Jing UL; Del Campo Echevarria, Adolfo UL

in Physical Review Letters (2022)

Exchange operator formalism describes many-body integrable systems using phase-space variables involving an exchange operator that acts on any pair of particles. We establish an equivalence between models ... [more ▼]

Exchange operator formalism describes many-body integrable systems using phase-space variables involving an exchange operator that acts on any pair of particles. We establish an equivalence between models described by exchange operator formalism and the complete infinite family of parent Hamiltonians describing quantum many-body models with ground states of Jastrow form. This makes it possible to identify the invariants of motion for any model in the family and establish its integrability, even in the presence of an external potential. Using this construction we establish the integrability of the long-range Lieb-Liniger model, describing bosons in a harmonic trap and subject to contact and Coulomb interactions in one dimension.We further identify a variety of models exemplifying the integrability of Hamiltonians in this family. [less ▲]

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See detailOpportunities for Intelligent Reflecting Surfaces in 6G-Empowered V2X Communications
Khan, Wali Ullah UL; Mahmood, Asad UL; Bozorgchenani, Arash et al

in Bulletin. Cornell University Libraries (2022)

The applications of upcoming sixth generation (6G)-empowered vehicle-to-everything (V2X) communications depend heavily on large-scale data exchange with high throughput and ultra-low latency to ensure ... [more ▼]

The applications of upcoming sixth generation (6G)-empowered vehicle-to-everything (V2X) communications depend heavily on large-scale data exchange with high throughput and ultra-low latency to ensure system reliability and passenger safety. However, in urban and suburban areas, signals can be easily blocked by various objects. Moreover, the propagation of signals with ultra-high frequencies such as millimeter waves and terahertz communication is severely affected by obstacles. To address these issues, the Intelligent Reflecting Surface (IRS), which consists of nearly passive elements, has gained popularity because of its ability to intelligently reconfigure signal propagation in an energy-efficient manner. Due to the promise of ease of deployment and low cost, IRS has been widely acknowledged as a key technology for both terrestrial and non-terrestrial networks to improve signal strength, physical layer security, positioning accuracy, and reduce latency. This paper first describes the introduction of 6G-empowered V2X communications and IRS technology. Then it discusses different use case scenarios of IRS enabled V2X communications and reports recent advances in the existing literature. Next, we focus our attention on the scenario of vehicular edge computing involving IRS enabled drone communications in order to reduce vehicle computational time via optimal computational and communication resource allocation. At the end, this paper highlights current challenges and discusses future perspectives of IRS enabled V2X communications in order to improve current work and spark new ideas. [less ▲]

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See detailSine-skewed toroidal distributions and their application in protein bioinformatics
Ley, Christophe UL; Ameijeiras-Alonso, Jose

in Biostatistics (2022), 23(3), 685704

In the bioinformatics field, there has been a growing interest in modeling dihedral angles of amino acids by viewing them as data on the torus. This has motivated, over the past years, new proposals of ... [more ▼]

In the bioinformatics field, there has been a growing interest in modeling dihedral angles of amino acids by viewing them as data on the torus. This has motivated, over the past years, new proposals of distributions on the torus. The main drawback of most of these models is that the related densities are (pointwise) symmetric, despite the fact that the data usually present asymmetric patterns. This motivates the need to find a new way of constructing asymmetric toroidal distributions starting from a symmetric distribution. We tackle this problem in this article by introducing the sine-skewed toroidal distributions. The general properties of the new models are derived. Based on the initial symmetric model, explicit expressions for the shape and dependence measures are obtained, a simple algorithm for generating random numbers is provided, and asymptotic results for the maximum likelihood estimators are established. An important feature of our construction is that no extra normalizing constant needs to be calculated, leading to more flexible distributions without increasing the complexity of the models. The benefit of employing these new sine-skewed toroidal distributions is shown on the basis of protein data, where, in general, the new models outperform their symmetric antecedents. [less ▲]

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See detailWhich Factors Play a Role in Coco Issuance? Evidence from European Banks.
Wolff, Christian UL

in Journal of Derivatives (2022), (Fall),

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See detailOne Step Closer to Space Security: The Role of Multilateral Discussions
Zarkan, Laetitia UL

in Global Policy - Observer Research Foundation (ORF) Series (2022)

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See detailCreating active urban environments: insights from expert interviews
van Renswouw, Loes; Lallemand, Carine UL; van Wesemael, Pieter et al

in Cities & Health (2022)

Urban planning and design offer opportunities to nudge people towards more active behavior. This is a popular topic among urbanists and health professionals, with several guidelines and best practices ... [more ▼]

Urban planning and design offer opportunities to nudge people towards more active behavior. This is a popular topic among urbanists and health professionals, with several guidelines and best practices already developed. However, a gap exists between theory and practice and the complex realization process of such active environments is rarely documented. In this study, we investigated the process of designing, implementing, and evaluating active urban environments through semi-structured interviews with 11 European practitioner experts in the field of active environment design and development. We additionally analyzed 51 examples of active environments they provided. We discuss definitions of active environments and their added value to encourage active behavior and provide an overview of the spectrum of design strategies, elements and boundaries used to create them. We also describe typical steps in the design and realization process, including types of stakeholders, main gaps, and points of friction in this practice [less ▲]

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See detailBeam Squint-Aware Integrated Sensing and Communications for Hybrid Massive MIMO LEO Satellite Systems
You, Li; Qiang, Xiaoyu; Tsinos, Christos UL et al

in IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications (2022), 40(10), 2994-3009

The space-air-ground-sea integrated network (SAGSIN) plays an important role in offering global coverage. To improve the efficient utilization of spectral and hardware resources in the SAGSIN, integrated ... [more ▼]

The space-air-ground-sea integrated network (SAGSIN) plays an important role in offering global coverage. To improve the efficient utilization of spectral and hardware resources in the SAGSIN, integrated sensing and communications (ISAC) has drawn extensive attention. Most existing ISAC works focus on terrestrial networks and cannot be straightforwardly applied in satellite systems due to the significantly different electromagnetic wave propagation properties. In this work, we investigate the application of ISAC in massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) low earth orbit (LEO) satellite systems. We first characterize the statistical wave propagation properties by considering beam squint effects. Based on this analysis, we propose a beam squint-aware ISAC technique for hybrid analog/digital massive MIMO LEO satellite systems exploiting statistical channel state information. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed scheme can operate both the wireless communications and the target sensing simultaneously with satisfactory performance, and the beam-squint effects can be efficiently mitigated with the proposed method in typical LEO satellite systems. [less ▲]

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See detail„Denken-wie-üblich“: Eine Herausforderung für die kulturelle Vielfalt
Nonoa, Koku Gnatuloma UL

in JOURNAL geroRESEARCH (2022), 7

Der vorliegende Beitrag analysiert zunächst das Verhältnis zwischen dem „Denken-wie-üblich“ und dem klassischen Kulturbegriff mit Blick auf Repräsentations- und Identitätspolitik. Dann geht die Analyse ... [more ▼]

Der vorliegende Beitrag analysiert zunächst das Verhältnis zwischen dem „Denken-wie-üblich“ und dem klassischen Kulturbegriff mit Blick auf Repräsentations- und Identitätspolitik. Dann geht die Analyse auf die Herausforderungen des „Denkens-wie-üblich“ in der kulturellen Vielfalt ein. Schlie.lich wird herausgearbeitet, wie dies inDiskursen, Sprechakten und Narrativen zum Ausdruck kommt. [less ▲]

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See detailRethinking commonality in refugee status determination in Europe: Legal geographies of asylum appeals
Gill, Nick; Hoellerer, Nicole; Allsopp, Jennifer et al

in Political Geography (2022), 98

The Common European Asylum System aims to establish common standards for refugee status determination among EU Member States. Combining insights from legal and political geography we bring the depth and ... [more ▼]

The Common European Asylum System aims to establish common standards for refugee status determination among EU Member States. Combining insights from legal and political geography we bring the depth and scale of this challenge into sharp relief. Drawing on interviews and a detailed ethnography of asylum adjudication involving over 850 in-person asylum appeal observations, we point towards practical differences in the spatio-temporality, materiality and logistics of asylum appeal processes as they are operationalised in seven European countries. Our analysis achieves three things. Firstly, we identify a key zone of differences at the level of concrete, everyday implementation that has largely escaped academic attention, which allows us to critically assess the notion of harmonisation of asylum policies in new ways. Secondly, drawing on legal- and political-geographical concepts, we offer a way to conceptualise this zone by paying attention to the spatio-temporality, materiality and logistics it involves. Thirdly, we offer critical legal logistics as a new direction for scholarship in legal geography and beyond that promises to prise open the previously obscured mechanics of contemporary legal systems. [less ▲]

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See detailAutomated, Cost-effective, and Update-driven App Testing
Ngo, Chanh Duc UL; Pastore, Fabrizio UL; Briand, Lionel UL

in ACM Transactions on Software Engineering and Methodology (2022), 31(4), 61

Apps’ pervasive role in our society led to the definition of test automation approaches to ensure their dependability. However, state-of-the-art approaches tend to generate large numbers of test inputs ... [more ▼]

Apps’ pervasive role in our society led to the definition of test automation approaches to ensure their dependability. However, state-of-the-art approaches tend to generate large numbers of test inputs and are unlikely to achieve more than 50% method coverage. In this paper, we propose a strategy to achieve significantly higher coverage of the code affected by updates with a much smaller number of test inputs, thus alleviating the test oracle problem. More specifically, we present ATUA, a model-based approach that synthesizes App models with static analysis, integrates a dynamically-refined state abstraction function, and combines complementary testing strategies, including (1) coverage of the model structure, (2) coverage of the App code, (3) random exploration, and (4) coverage of dependencies identified through information retrieval. Its model-based strategy enables ATUA to generate a small set of inputs that exercise only the code affected by the updates. In turn, this makes common test oracle solutions more cost-effective as they tend to involve human effort. A large empirical evaluation, conducted with 72 App versions belonging to nine popular Android Apps, has shown that ATUA is more effective and less effort-intensive than state-of-the-art approaches when testingApp updates. [less ▲]

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See detailA multilingual dataset of COVID-19 vaccination attitudes on Twitter
Chen, Ninghan UL; Chen, Xihui UL; Pang, Jun UL

in Data in Brief (2022), 44

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See detailValidation and verification in domain-specific modeling method engineering: an integrated life-cycle view
Ma, Qin UL; Kaczmarek-Heß, Monika; de Kinderen, Sybren

in Software and Systems Modeling (2022)

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See detailThe Devil is in the Details: Unwrapping the Cryptojacking Malware Ecosystem on Android
Adjibi, Boladji Vinny; Mbodji, Fatou Ndiaye UL; Allix, Kevin et al

in 2022 IEEE 22nd International Working Conference on Source Code Analysis and Manipulation (SCAM) (2022)

This paper investigates the various technical and non-technical tools and techniques that software developers use to build and disseminate crypto mining apps on Android devices. Our study of 346 potential ... [more ▼]

This paper investigates the various technical and non-technical tools and techniques that software developers use to build and disseminate crypto mining apps on Android devices. Our study of 346 potential Android mining apps, collected between April 2019 and May 2022, has revealed the presence of more than ten mining apps on the Google Play Store, with at least half of those still available at the time of writing this (June 2022). We observed that many of those mining apps do not conceal their usage of the device’s resource for mining which is considered a violation of the store’s policies for developers. We estimate that more than ten thousand users have run mining apps downloaded directly from the Google Play Store, which puts the supposedly ”stringent” vetting process into question. Furthermore, we prove that covert mining apps tend to be embedded into supposedly free versions of premium apps or pose as utility apps that provide valuable features to users. Finally, we empirically demonstrate that cryptojacking apps’ resource consumption and malicious behavior could be insignificant. We presume that typical users, even though they might be running a mobile antivirus solution, could execute a mining app for an extended period without being alerted. We expect our results to inform the various actors involved in the security of Android devices against the lingering threat of cryptojacking and help them better assess the problem. [less ▲]

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See detailFrequency-Packed Faster-Than-Nyquist Signaling via Symbol-Level Precoding for Multiuser MISO Redundant Transmissions
Alves Martins, Wallace UL; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL; Ottersten, Björn UL

in IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications (2022), 21(10), 8660-8674

This work addresses the issue of interference generated by co-channel users in downlink multi-antenna multicarrier systems with frequency-packed faster-than-Nyquist (FTN) signaling. The resulting ... [more ▼]

This work addresses the issue of interference generated by co-channel users in downlink multi-antenna multicarrier systems with frequency-packed faster-than-Nyquist (FTN) signaling. The resulting interference stems from an aggressive strategy for enhancing the throughput via frequency reuse across different users and the squeezing of signals in the time-frequency plane beyond the Nyquist limit. The spectral efficiency is proved to be increasing with the frequency packing and FTN acceleration factors. The lower bound for the FTN sampling period that guarantees information losslesness is derived as a function of the transmitting-filter roll-off factor, the frequency-packing factor, and the number of subcarriers. Space-time-frequency symbol-level precoders (SLPs) that trade off constructive and destructive interblock interference (IBI) at the single-antenna user terminals are proposed. Redundant elements are added as guard interval to cope with vestigial destructive IBI effects. The proposals can handle channels with delay spread longer than the multicarrier-symbol duration. The receiver architecture is simple, for it does not require digital multicarrier demodulation. Simulations indicate that the proposed SLP outperforms zero-forcing precoding and achieves a target balance between spectral and energy efficiencies by controlling the amount of added redundancy from zero (full IBI) to half (destructive IBI-free) the group delay of the equivalent channel. [less ▲]

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See detailLearning-Based Resource Allocation for Backscatter-Aided Vehicular Networks
Khan, Wali Ullah UL; Nguyen, Tu N.; Jameel, Furqan et al

in IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems (2022)

Heterogeneous backscatter networks are emerging as a promising solution to address the proliferating coverage and capacity demands of next-generation vehicular networks. However, despite its rapid ... [more ▼]

Heterogeneous backscatter networks are emerging as a promising solution to address the proliferating coverage and capacity demands of next-generation vehicular networks. However, despite its rapid evolution and significance, the optimization aspect of such networks has been overlooked due to their complexity and scale. Motivated by this discrepancy in the literature, this work sheds light on a novel learning-based optimization framework for heterogeneous backscatter vehicular networks. More specifically, the article presents a resource allocation and user association scheme for large-scale heterogeneous backscatter vehicular networks by considering a collaboration centric spectrum sharing mechanism. In the considered network setup, multiple network service providers (NSPs) own the resources to serve several legacy and backscatter vehicular users in the network. For each NSP, the legacy vehicle user operates under the macro cell, whereas, the backscatter vehicle user operates under small private cells using leased spectrum resources. A joint power allocation, user association, and spectrum sharing problem has been formulated with an objective to maximize the utility of NSPs. In order to overcome challenges of high dimensionality and non-convexity, the problem is divided into two subproblems. Subsequently, a reinforcement learning and a supervised deep learning approach have been used to solve both subproblems in an efficient and effective manner. To evaluate the benefits of the proposed scheme, extensive simulation studies are conducted and a comparison is provided with benchmark techniques. The performance evaluation demonstrates the utility of the presented system architecture and learning-based optimization framework. [less ▲]

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See detailSimplifying Node Classification on Heterophilous Graphs with Compatible Label Propagation
Zhong, Zhiqiang; Ivanov, Sergey; Pang, Jun UL

in Transactions on Machine Learning Research (2022)

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See detailThe Wasserstein Impact Measure (WIM): A practical tool for quantifying prior impact in Bayesian statistics
Ley, Christophe UL; Ghaderinezhad, Fatemeh; Serrien, Ben

in Computational Statistics and Data Analysis (2022), 174

The prior distribution is a crucial building block in Bayesian analysis, and its choice will impact the subsequent inference. It is therefore important to have a convenient way to quantify this impact, as ... [more ▼]

The prior distribution is a crucial building block in Bayesian analysis, and its choice will impact the subsequent inference. It is therefore important to have a convenient way to quantify this impact, as such a measure of prior impact will help to choose between two or more priors in a given situation. To this end a new approach, the Wasserstein Impact Measure (WIM), is introduced. In three simulated scenarios, the WIM is compared to two competitor prior impact measures from the literature, and its versatility is illustrated via two real datasets. [less ▲]

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See detailStriving for Less: Minimally-Supervised Pseudo-Label Generation for Monocular Road Segmentation
Robinet, François UL; Akl, Yussef UL; Ullah, Kaleem UL et al

in IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters (2022), 7(4), 10628-10634

Identifying traversable space is one of the most important problems in autonomous robot navigation and is primarily tackled using learning-based methods. To alleviate the prohibitively high annotation ... [more ▼]

Identifying traversable space is one of the most important problems in autonomous robot navigation and is primarily tackled using learning-based methods. To alleviate the prohibitively high annotation-cost associated with labeling large and diverse datasets, research has recently shifted from traditional supervised methods to focus on unsupervised and semi-supervised approaches. This work focuses on monocular road segmentation and proposes a practical, generic, and minimally-supervised approach based on task-specific feature extraction and pseudo-labeling. Building on recent advances in monocular depth estimation models, we process approximate dense depth maps to estimate pixel-wise road-plane distance maps. These maps are then used in both unsupervised and semi-supervised road segmentation scenarios. In the unsupervised case, we propose a pseudo-labeling pipeline that reaches state-of-the-art Intersection-over-Union (IoU), while reducing complexity and computations compared to existing approaches. We also investigate a semi-supervised extension to our method and find that even minimal labeling efforts can greatly improve results. Our semi-supervised experiments using as little as 1% and 10% of ground truth data, yield models scoring 0.9063 and 0.9332 on the IoU metric respectively. These results correspond to a comparative performance of 95.9% and 98.7% of a fully-supervised model's IoU score, which motivates a pragmatic approach to labeling. [less ▲]

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See detailEnhancing Rover Teleoperation on the Moon With Proprioceptive Sensors and Machine Learning Techniques
Coloma Chacon, Sofia UL; Martinez Luna, Carol UL; Yalcin, Baris Can UL et al

in IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters (2022)

Geological formations, environmental conditions, and soil mechanics frequently generate undesired effects on rovers’ mobility, such as slippage or sinkage. Underestimating these undesired effects may ... [more ▼]

Geological formations, environmental conditions, and soil mechanics frequently generate undesired effects on rovers’ mobility, such as slippage or sinkage. Underestimating these undesired effects may compromise the rovers’ operation and lead to a premature end of the mission. Minimizing mobility risks becomes a priority for colonising the Moon and Mars. However, addressing this challenge cannot be treated equally for every celestial body since the control strategies may differ; e.g. the low latency EarthMoon communication allows constant monitoring and controls, something not feasible on Mars. This letter proposes a Hazard Information System (HIS) that estimates the rover’s mobility risks (e.g. slippage) using proprioceptive sensors and Machine Learning (supervised and unsupervised). A Graphical User Interface was created to assist human-teleoperation tasks by presenting mobility risk indicators. The system has been developed and evaluated in the lunar analogue facility (LunaLab) at the University of Luxembourg. A real rover and eight participants were part of the experiments. Results demonstrate the benefits of the HIS in the decision-making processes of the operator’s response to overcome hazardous situations. [less ▲]

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See detailChronique de droit européen de la consommation 2021 – 2022
Poillot, Elise UL

in Journal de Droit Européen (2022)

Overview and critical analysis of relevant political decisions, newly passed legislation and all jugements rendered by the CJEU in the field of European consumer law.

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See detailMutation Analysis for Cyber-Physical Systems: Scalable Solutions and Results in the Space Domain
Cornejo Olivares, Oscar Eduardo UL; Pastore, Fabrizio UL; Briand, Lionel UL

in IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering (2022), 48(10), 39133939

On-board embedded software developed for spaceflight systems (space software) must adhere to stringent software quality assurance procedures. For example, verification and validation activities are ... [more ▼]

On-board embedded software developed for spaceflight systems (space software) must adhere to stringent software quality assurance procedures. For example, verification and validation activities are typically performed and assessed by third party organizations. To further minimize the risk of human mistakes, space agencies, such as the European Space Agency (ESA), are looking for automated solutions for the assessment of software testing activities, which play a crucial role in this context. Though space software is our focus here, it should be noted that such software shares the above considerations, to a large extent, with embedded software in many other types of cyber-physical systems. Over the years, mutation analysis has shown to be a promising solution for the automated assessment of test suites; it consists of measuring the quality of a test suite in terms of the percentage of injected faults leading to a test failure. A number of optimization techniques, addressing scalability and accuracy problems, have been proposed to facilitate the industrial adoption of mutation analysis. However, to date, two major problems prevent space agencies from enforcing mutation analysis in space software development. First, there is uncertainty regarding the feasibility of applying mutation analysis optimization techniques in their context. Second, most of the existing techniques either can break the real-time requirements common in embedded software or cannot be applied when the software is tested in Software Validation Facilities, including CPU emulators and sensor simulators. In this paper, we enhance mutation analysis optimization techniques to enable their applicability to embedded software and propose a pipeline that successfully integrates them to address scalability and accuracy issues in this context, as described above. Further, we report on the largest study involving embedded software systems in the mutation analysis literature. Our research is part of a research project funded by ESA ESTEC involving private companies (GomSpace Luxembourg and LuxSpace) in the space sector. These industry partners provided the case studies reported in this paper; they include an on-board software system managing a microsatellite currently on-orbit, a set of libraries used in deployed cubesats, and a mathematical library certified by ESA. [less ▲]

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See detailThermal drag effect in quantum Hall circuits
Idrisov, Edvin UL; Levkivskyi, Ivan; Sukhorukov, Eugene

in Physical Review. B, Condensed Matter (2022)

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See detailBetween universalism and cultural relativism The dilemma of consent to female genital mutilation in the Tatu Kamau case
Lichuma, Caroline Omari UL

in Kabarak Journal of Law and Ethics (2022), 6(1), 67-98

To date, almost 74 years since the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (the UDHR), the tensions between universalism and cultur-al relativism in the field of human rights, whose ... [more ▼]

To date, almost 74 years since the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (the UDHR), the tensions between universalism and cultur-al relativism in the field of human rights, whose provenance can be traced back to the debates surrounding the drafting and adoption of the UDHR, still linger on, playing out on the national stage in countries such as Kenya. At its core, universalism argues that all human rights inhere in all individ-uals without distinction, and that they must stand even when in when in opposition to established cultural practices. In contrast, cultural relativism holds that no particular culture is superior to another, and centers on the need for forbearance and respect towards each culture to avoid imperialist tendencies of imposing beliefs. This paper argues that these binary ideolog-ical viewpoints are magnified in the context of female genital mutilation. Through an analysis of the case of Tatu Kamau v Attorney General & 2 others; Equality Now & 9 others (Interested Parties);Katiba Institute & another (amicus curiae) [2021] eKLR, it is proposed that a cultural ap-proach is needed in addition to legal measures in place to combat the practice. [less ▲]

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See detailRobust cholesteric liquid crystal elastomer fibres for mechanochromic textiles
Geng, Yong UL; Kizhakidathazhath, Rijeesh UL; Lagerwall, Jan UL

in Nature Materials (2022), 21(12), 14411447

Mechanically responsive textiles have transformative potential in many areas from fashion to healthcare. Cholesteric liquid crystal elastomers have strong mechanochromic responses that offer attractive ... [more ▼]

Mechanically responsive textiles have transformative potential in many areas from fashion to healthcare. Cholesteric liquid crystal elastomers have strong mechanochromic responses that offer attractive opportunities for such applications. Nonetheless, making liquid crystalline elastomer fibres suitable for textiles is challenging since the Plateau–Rayleigh instability tends to break up precursor solutions into droplets. Here, we report a simple approach that balances the viscoelastic properties of the precursor solution to avoid this outcome and achieve long and mechanically robust cholesteric liquid crystal elastomer filaments. These filaments have fast, progressive and reversible mechanochromic responses, from red to blue (wavelength shift of 155 nm), when stretched up to 200%. Moreover, the fibres can be sewed into garments and withstand repeated stretching and regular machine washing. This approach and resulting fibres may be useful for applications in wearable technology and other areas benefiting from autonomous strain sensing or detection of critically strong deformations. [less ▲]

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See detailItem response theory and differential test functioning analysis of the HBSC-Symptom-Checklist across 46 countries
Heinz, Andreas UL; Sischka, Philipp UL; Catunda, Carolina UL et al

in BMC Medical Research Methodology (2022), 22(253),

Background The Symptom Checklist (SCL) developed by the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study is a non-clinical measure of psychosomatic complaints (e.g., headache and feeling low) that ... [more ▼]

Background The Symptom Checklist (SCL) developed by the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study is a non-clinical measure of psychosomatic complaints (e.g., headache and feeling low) that has been used in numerous studies. Several studies have investigated the psychometric characteristics of this scale; however, some psychometric properties remain unclear, among them especially a) dimensionality, b) adequacy of the Graded Response Model (GRM), and c) measurement invariance across countries. Methods Data from 229,906 adolescents aged 11, 13 and 15 from 46 countries that participated in the 2018 HBSC survey were analyzed. Adolescents were selected using representative sampling and surveyed by questionnaire in the classroom. Dimensionality was investigated using exploratory graph analysis. In addition, we investigated whether the GRM provided an adequate description of the data. Reliability over the latent variable continuum and differential test functioning across countries were also examined. Results Exploratory graph analyses showed that SCL can be considered as one-dimensional in 16 countries. However, a comparison of the unidimensional with a post-hoc bifactor GRM showed that deviation from a hypothesized one-dimensional structure was negligible in most countries. Multigroup invariance analyses supported configural and metric invariance, but not scalar invariance across 32 countries. Alignment analysis showed non-invariance especially for the items irritability, feeling nervous/bad temper and feeling low. Conclusion HBSC-SCL appears to represent a consistent and reliable unidimensional instrument across most countries. This bodes well for population health analyses that rely on this scale as an early indicator of mental health status. [less ▲]

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See detailStretching directions in cislunar space: Applications for departures and transfer design
Muralidharan, Vivek UL; Howell, Kathleen C.

in Astrodynamics (2022)

Stable or nearly stable orbits do not generally possess well-distinguished manifold structures that assist in designing trajectories for departing from or arriving onto a periodic orbit. For some ... [more ▼]

Stable or nearly stable orbits do not generally possess well-distinguished manifold structures that assist in designing trajectories for departing from or arriving onto a periodic orbit. For some potential missions, the orbits of interest are selected as nearly stable to reduce the possibility of rapid departure. However, the linearly stable nature of these orbits is also a drawback for their timely insertion into or departure from the orbit. Stable or nearly stable Near Rectilinear Halo Orbits (NRHOs), Distant Retrograde Orbits (DROs), and lunar orbits offer potential long-horizon trajectories for exploration missions and demand efficient operations. The current investigation focuses on leveraging stretching directions as a tool for departure and trajectory design applications. The magnitude of the state variations along the maximum stretching direction is expected to grow rapidly and, therefore, offers information for efficient departure from the orbit. Similarly, maximum stretching in reverse time enables arrival with a minimal maneuver magnitude. [less ▲]

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See detailHuman Rights Experimentalism in Action: The Potential of National Human Rights Institutions in Enhancing the Implementation and Monitoring of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities
Lichuma, Caroline Omari UL; Tatic, Damjan

in Journal of Human Rights Practice (2022), 14(1), 108-127

Article 33(2) of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities provides for the establishment and designation of independent monitor- ing mechanisms charged with the promotion ... [more ▼]

Article 33(2) of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities provides for the establishment and designation of independent monitor- ing mechanisms charged with the promotion, protection and monitoring of its im- plementation. In numerous States parties, National Human Rights Institutions have been designated as Article 33(2) institutions, either individually or in co-ordination with other bodies, and have consequently made effective contributions to the reporting and inquiry procedures of the Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. Drawing from experimentalist governance theory, this contribution interrogates whether, and to what extent, this dialogue between locally placed actors and institutions (such as National Human Rights Institutions) on the one hand, and internationally situated actors and institutions (such as the Committee) on the other, has the potential to bolster the implementation of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. At its core, experimentalism proffers a nor- matively attractive vision of how broadly agreed upon goals can be brought to life in a multi-level setting, such as the monitoring mechanism contemplated by the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities with its unique role and defini- tion for both international and national actors. By analysing Article 33 through an experimentalist governance lens, the contribution thus hopes to highlight a rou- tinely neglected or underestimated aspect of the human rights treaty system, that is, the iterative and dynamic interaction between locally situated actors and institutions and internationally situated actors and institutions, and bring to light what this por- tends for the Convention’s implementation in reality. [less ▲]

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See detailBirefringence induced by antiferroelectric switching in transparent polycrystalline PbZr0.95Ti0.05O3 film
Biswas, Pranab UL; Milesi-Brault, Cosme; Martínez, Alfredo Blázquez et al

in Physical Review Materials (2022), 6(9), 091403

The most characteristic functional property of antiferroelectric materials is the possibility to induce a phase transition from a nonpolar to a polar phase by an electric field. Here, we investigate the ... [more ▼]

The most characteristic functional property of antiferroelectric materials is the possibility to induce a phase transition from a nonpolar to a polar phase by an electric field. Here, we investigate the effect of this field-induced phase transition on the birefringence change of PbZr0.95Ti0.05O3. We use a transparent polycrystalline PbZr0.95Ti0.05O3 film grown on PbTiO3/HfO2/SiO2 with interdigitated electrodes to directly investigate changes in birefringence in a simple transmission geometry. In spite of the polycrystalline nature of the film and its moderate thickness, the field-induced transition produces a sizable effect observable under a polarized microscope. The film in its polar phase is found to behave like a homogeneous birefringent medium. The time evolution of this field-induced birefringence provides information about irreversibilities in the antiferroelectric switching process and its slow dynamics. The change in birefringence has two main contributions: One that responds briskly and a slower one that rises and saturates over a period of as long as 30 min. Possible origins for this long saturation and relaxation times are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailDigital History and the Politics of Digitization
Zaagsma, Gerben UL

in Digital Scholarship in the Humanities (2022)

Much has been made in recent years of the transformative potential of digital resources and historical data for historical research. Historians seem to be flooded with retro-digitized and born-digital ... [more ▼]

Much has been made in recent years of the transformative potential of digital resources and historical data for historical research. Historians seem to be flooded with retro-digitized and born-digital materials and tend to take these for granted, grateful for the opportunities they afford. In a research environment that increasingly privileges what is available online, the questions of why, where, and how we can access what we can access, and how it affects historical research have become ever more urgent. This article proposes a framework through which to contextualize the politics of (digital) heritage preservation, and a model to analyze its most important political dimensions, drawing upon literature from the digital humanities & history as well as archival, library and information science. The first part will outline the global dimensions of the politics of digital cultural heritage, focusing on developments between and within the Global North and South, framed within the broader context of the politics of heritage and its preservation. The second part surveys the history and current state of digitization and offers a structured analysis of the process of digitization and its political dimensions. Choices and decisions about selection for digitization, how to catalogue, classify and what metadata to add are all political in nature and have political consequences, and the same is true for access. The article concludes with several recommendations and a plea to acknowledge the importance of digital cataloguing in enabling access to the global human record. [less ▲]

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See detailThermodynamic Control of Activity Patterns in Cytoskeletal Networks
Lamtyugina, Alexandra; Qiu, Yuqing; Fodor, Etienne UL et al

in Physical Review Letters (2022)

Biological materials, such as the actin cytoskeleton, exhibit remarkable structural adaptability to various external stimuli by consuming different amounts of energy. In this Letter, we use methods from ... [more ▼]

Biological materials, such as the actin cytoskeleton, exhibit remarkable structural adaptability to various external stimuli by consuming different amounts of energy. In this Letter, we use methods from large deviation theory to identify a thermodynamic control principle for structural transitions in a model cytoskeletal network. Specifically, we demonstrate that biasing the dynamics with respect to the work done by nonequilibrium components effectively renormalizes the interaction strength between such components, which can eventually result in a morphological transition. Our work demonstrates how a thermodynamic quantity can be used to renormalize effective interactions, which in turn can tune structure in a predictable manner, suggesting a thermodynamic principle for the control of cytoskeletal structure and dynamics. [less ▲]

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See detailMobilome-driven segregation of the resistome in biological wastewater treatment
de Nies, Laura UL; Busi, Susheel Bhanu UL; Kunath, Benoît UL et al

in eLife (2022), 11

Biological wastewater treatment plants (BWWTP) are considered to be hotspots of evolution and subsequent spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Mobile genetic elements (MGEs) promote the mobilization ... [more ▼]

Biological wastewater treatment plants (BWWTP) are considered to be hotspots of evolution and subsequent spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Mobile genetic elements (MGEs) promote the mobilization and dissemination of antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) and are thereby critical mediators of AMR within the BWWTP microbial community. At present, it is unclear whether specific AMR categories are differentially disseminated via bacteriophages (phages) or plasmids. To understand the segregation of AMR in relation to MGEs, we analyzed meta-omic (metagenomic, metatranscriptomic and metaproteomic) data systematically collected over 1.5 years from a BWWTP. Our results showed a core group of fifteen AMR categories which were found across all timepoints. Some of these AMR categories were disseminated exclusively (bacitracin) or primarily (aminoglycoside, MLS and sulfonamide) via plasmids or phages (fosfomycin and peptide), whereas others were disseminated equally by both MGEs. Combined and timepoint-specific analyses of gene, transcript and protein abundances further demonstrated that aminoglycoside, bacitracin and sulfonamide resistance genes were expressed more by plasmids, in contrast to fosfomycin and peptide AMR expression by phages, thereby validating our genomic findings. In the analyzed communities, the dominant taxon Candidatus Microthrix parvicella was a major contributor to several AMR categories whereby its plasmids primarily mediated aminoglycoside resistance. Importantly, we also found AMR associated with ESKAPEE pathogens within the BWWTP, for which MGEs also contributed differentially to the dissemination of ARGs. Collectively our findings pave the way towards understanding the segmentation of AMR within MGEs, thereby shedding new light on resistome populations and their mediators, essential elements that are of immediate relevance to human health. [less ▲]

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See detailSnapShot: The Expobiome Map
Aho, Velma UL; Ostaszewski, Marek UL; Martin-Gallausiaux, Camille et al

in Cell Host and Microbe (2022), 30(9), 1340

The human gut microbiome is intricately connected to health and disease. Microbiome-derived molecules are implicated in many chronic diseases involving inflammation. Herein, we summarize the diverse ... [more ▼]

The human gut microbiome is intricately connected to health and disease. Microbiome-derived molecules are implicated in many chronic diseases involving inflammation. Herein, we summarize the diverse complex of such immunogenic molecules, including nucleic acids, (poly)peptides, structural molecules, and metabolites. The interactions between this “expobiome” and human immune pathways are specifically illustrated in the context of chronic diseases. [less ▲]

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See detailThe gut microbiome molecular complex in human health and disease
Wilmes, Paul UL; Martin-Gallausiaux, Camille; Ostaszewski, Marek UL et al

in Cell Host and Microbe (2022), 30(9), 1201-1206

The human gut microbiome produces a functional complex of biomolecules, including nucleic acids, (poly) peptides, structural molecules, and metabolites. This impacts human physiology in multiple ways ... [more ▼]

The human gut microbiome produces a functional complex of biomolecules, including nucleic acids, (poly) peptides, structural molecules, and metabolites. This impacts human physiology in multiple ways, especially by triggering inflammatory pathways in disease. At present, much remains to be learned about the identity of key effectors and their causal roles. [less ▲]

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See detailEfficient Matching-Based Parallel Task Offloading in IoT Networks
Malik, Usman Mahmood; Javed, Muhammad Awais; Frnda, Jaroslav et al

in Sensors (2022)

Fog computing is one of the major components of future 6G networks. It can provide fast computing of different application-related tasks and improve system reliability due to better decision-making ... [more ▼]

Fog computing is one of the major components of future 6G networks. It can provide fast computing of different application-related tasks and improve system reliability due to better decision-making. Parallel offloading, in which a task is split into several sub-tasks and transmitted to different fog nodes for parallel computation, is a promising concept in task offloading. Parallel offloading suffers from challenges such as sub-task splitting and mapping of sub-tasks to the fog nodes. In this paper, we propose a novel many-to-one matching-based algorithm for the allocation of sub-tasks to fog nodes. We develop preference profiles for IoT nodes and fog nodes to reduce the task computation delay. We also propose a technique to address the externalities problem in the matching algorithm that is caused by the dynamic preference profiles. Furthermore, a detailed evaluation of the proposed technique is presented to show the benefits of each feature of the algorithm. Simulation results show that the proposed matching-based offloading technique outperforms other available techniques from the literature and improves task latency by 52% at high task loads. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Sense of belonging in the context of migration: Development and trajectories regarding Portuguese migrants in Luxembourg
Afonso, Joyce D.; Barros, Stephanie; Albert, Isabelle UL

in Integrative Psychological and Behavioral Science (2022), online first

The sense of belonging can be defined as a highly subjective and dynamic feeling of acceptance, inclusion, and connectedness to a specific contextual entity. Perceiving belongingness to others is ... [more ▼]

The sense of belonging can be defined as a highly subjective and dynamic feeling of acceptance, inclusion, and connectedness to a specific contextual entity. Perceiving belongingness to others is positively related to psychological well-being, happiness, or higher self-esteem. The present contribution examined how the sense of belonging to spatial, social, and cultural entities evolves over the migration process of Portuguese first-generation migrants and their second-generation offspring residing in Luxembourg. The current study drew on the qualitative content analysis of ten semi-structured interviews, carried out with ten Portuguese migrant family dyads (one parent and one adult child per dyad). The results affirmed that the sense of belonging showed to be a complex and multi-faceted concept and highly shaped by specific contexts. The initially unfamiliar Luxembourgish context became a familiar setting and even a “home” over time. While the older generation presented noticeable belongingness to Luxembourg as a homeland, their affiliation to the Luxembourgish community and culture remained rather low. Simultaneously, they preserved a high connectedness to the Portuguese culture as well as to fellow Portuguese migrants living in the Grand Duchy. The younger generation expressed a much more pronounced attachment to Luxembourg, since they perceived belongingness to the Luxembourgish spatial, social, and (multi)cultural milieu. In addition to this, a certain affiliation to the Portuguese culture and language could be discerned. Although some factors, which might have contributed to this evolution, could be identified in the present study, one can assume that there are significantly more that have not been addressed yet. [less ▲]

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See detailGenotype-phenotype correlations in SCN8A-related disorders reveal prognostic and therapeutic implications
Johannesen, Katrine M.; Liu, Yuanyuan; Koko, Mahmoud et al

in Brain (2022)

We report detailed functional analyses and genotype-phenotype correlations in 392 individuals carrying disease-causing variants in SCN8A, encoding the voltage-gated Na+ channel NaV1.6, with the aim of ... [more ▼]

We report detailed functional analyses and genotype-phenotype correlations in 392 individuals carrying disease-causing variants in SCN8A, encoding the voltage-gated Na+ channel NaV1.6, with the aim of describing clinical phenotypes related to functional effects. Six different clinical subgroups could be identified: 1) Benign familial infantile epilepsy (BFIE) (n = 15, normal cognition, treatable seizures), 2) intermediate epilepsy (n = 33, mild ID, partially pharmaco-responsive), 3) developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE, n = 177, severe ID, majority pharmaco-resistant), 4) generalized epilepsy (n = 20, mild to moderate ID, frequently with absence seizures), 5) unclassifiable epilepsy (n = 127), and 6) neurodevelopmental disorder without epilepsy (n = 20, mild to moderate ID). Groups 1–3 presented with focal or multifocal seizures (median age of onset: four months) and focal epileptiform discharges, whereas the onset of seizures in group 4 was later (median: 42 months) with generalized epileptiform discharges. We performed functional studies expressing missense variants in ND7/23 neuroblastoma cells and primary neuronal cultures using recombinant tetrodotoxin-insensitive human NaV1.6 channels and whole-cell patch-clamping. Two variants causing DEE showed a strong gain-of-function (GOF, hyperpolarising shift of steady-state activation, strongly increased neuronal firing rate), and one variant causing BFIE or intermediate epilepsy showed a mild GOF (defective fast inactivation, less increased firing). In contrast, all three variants causing generalized epilepsy induced a loss-of-function (LOF, reduced current amplitudes, depolarising shift of steady-state activation, reduced neuronal firing). Including previous studies, functional effects were known for 170 individuals. All 136 individuals carrying a functionally tested GOF variant had either focal (97, groups 1–3), or unclassifiable epilepsy (39), whereas 34 with a LOF variant had either generalized (14), no (11) or unclassifiable (6) epilepsy; only three had DEE. Computational modeling in the GOF group revealed a significant correlation between the severity of the electrophysiological and clinical phenotypes. GOF variant carriers responded significantly better to sodium channel blockers (SCBs) than to other anti-seizure medications, and the same applied for all individuals of groups 1–3.In conclusion, our data reveal clear genotype-phenotype correlations between age at seizure onset, type of epilepsy and gain- or loss-of-function effects of SCN8A variants. Generalized epilepsy with absence seizures is the main epilepsy phenotype of LOF variant carriers and the extent of the electrophysiological dysfunction of the GOF variants is a main determinant of the severity of the clinical phenotype in focal epilepsies. Our pharmacological data indicate that SCBs present a treatment option in SCN8A-related focal epilepsy with onset in the first year of life. [less ▲]

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See detailSecurity and Reliability Analysis of Satellite-Terrestrial Multi-Relay Networks with Imperfect CSI
Nguyen, Tan N.; Tran, Dinh-Hieu; Chien, Trinh Van et al

in IEEE Systems Journal (2022)

This work investigates the security and reliabil- ity analysis for a novel satellite-terrestrial (SatTer) network. Specifically, a satellite attempts to transmit confidential infor- mation to a ground ... [more ▼]

This work investigates the security and reliabil- ity analysis for a novel satellite-terrestrial (SatTer) network. Specifically, a satellite attempts to transmit confidential infor- mation to a ground user (GU) via the support of multiple relay nodes in the presence of an eavesdropper that tries to overhear the information. A friendly jammer is deployed to improve the secure transmission between the satellite and the relays. Furthermore, satellite-to-relay generalized Rician fading channels and imperfect channel state information (CSI) are deployed to examine a general system model. In this context, the closed-formed expressions for the outage probability (OP) and intercept probability (IP) are derived corresponding to an amplify-and-forward (AF)-based relaying scheme, which is challenging and has not been studied before. Finally, the exactness of the mathematical analyses is validated through Monte Carlo simulations. Furthermore, the effects of various key parameters (e.g., channel estimation errors, satellite’s transmit power, relay’s transmit power, number of relays, and fading severity parameter) are examined [less ▲]

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See detailLoss-of-function variants in the KCNQ5 gene are implicated in genetic generalized epilepsies
Krüger, Johanna; Schubert, Julian; Kegele, Josua et al

in eBioMedicine (2022), 84

Summary Background De novo missense variants in KCNQ5, encoding the voltage-gated K+ channel KV7.5, have been described to cause developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE) or intellectual disability ... [more ▼]

Summary Background De novo missense variants in KCNQ5, encoding the voltage-gated K+ channel KV7.5, have been described to cause developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE) or intellectual disability (ID). We set out to identify disease-related KCNQ5 variants in genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE) and their underlying mechanisms. Methods 1292 families with GGE were studied by next-generation sequencing. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings, biotinylation and phospholipid overlay assays were performed in mammalian cells combined with homology modelling. Findings We identified three deleterious heterozygous missense variants, one truncation and one splice site alteration in five independent families with GGE with predominant absence seizures; two variants were also associated with mild to moderate ID. All missense variants displayed a strongly decreased current density indicating a loss-of-function (LOF). When mutant channels were co-expressed with wild-type (WT) KV7.5 or KV7.5 and KV7.3 channels, three variants also revealed a significant dominant-negative effect on WT channels. Other gating parameters were unchanged. Biotinylation assays indicated a normal surface expression of the variants. The R359C variant altered PI(4,5)P2-interaction. Interpretation Our study identified deleterious KCNQ5 variants in GGE, partially combined with mild to moderate ID. The disease mechanism is a LOF partially with dominant-negative effects through functional deficits. LOF of KV7.5 channels will reduce the M-current, likely resulting in increased excitability of KV7.5-expressing neurons. Further studies on network level are necessary to understand which circuits are affected and how this induces generalized seizures. Funding DFG/FNR Research Unit FOR-2715 (Germany/Luxemburg), BMBF rare disease network Treat-ION (Germany), foundation ‘no epilep’ (Germany). [less ▲]

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See detailGenetic stratification of motor and QoL outcomes in Parkinson's disease in the EARLYSTIM study
Weiss, Daniel; Landoulsi, Zied UL; May, Patrick UL et al

in Parkinsonism and Related Disorders (2022)

Purpose The decision for subthalamic deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) in Parkinson's disease (PD) relies on clinical predictors. Whether genetic variables could predict favourable or unfavourable ... [more ▼]

Purpose The decision for subthalamic deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) in Parkinson's disease (PD) relies on clinical predictors. Whether genetic variables could predict favourable or unfavourable decisions is under investigation. Objective First, we aimed to reproduce the previous observation that SNCA rs356220 was associated with favourable STN-DBS motor response. In additional exploratory analyses, we studied if other PD risk and progression variants from the latest GWAS are associated with therapeutic outcome. Further, we evaluated the predictive value of polygenic risk scores. Methods We comprehensively genotyped patients from the EarlyStim cohort using NeuroChip, and assessed the clinico-genetic associations with longitudinal outcome parameters. Results The SNCA rs356220 variant did not predict UPDRS III outcomes. However, it was associated with quality of life improvement in secondary analyses. Several polymorphisms from previously identified GWAS hits predicted motor or quality of life outcomes in DBS patients. Polygenic risk scores did not predict any outcome parameter. Conclusions Our findings support the hypothesis that different common genetic markers are associated with favourable quality of life outcomes of STN-DBS in PD. These findings can be the basis for further validation in larger and independent cohorts. [less ▲]

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See detailMetaphenotypes associated with recurrent genomic lineages of Campylobacter jejuni responsible for human infections in Luxembourg
Nennig, Morgane UL; Clément, Arnaud; Longueval, Emmanuelle et al

in Frontiers in Microbiology (2022)

Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of foodborne illnesses worldwide. Although considered fragile, this microaerophilic bacterium is able to survive in various challenging environments, which ... [more ▼]

Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of foodborne illnesses worldwide. Although considered fragile, this microaerophilic bacterium is able to survive in various challenging environments, which subsequently constitutes multiple sources of transmission for human infection. To test the assumption of acquiring specific features for adaption and survivals we established a workflow of phenotypic tests related to the survival and the persistence of recurrent and sporadic strains. A representative collection of 83 strains isolated over 13 years from human, mammal, poultry, and environmental sources in Luxembourg, representing different spreading patterns (endemic, epidemic, and sporadic), was screened for survival to oxidative stresses, for acclimating to aerobic conditions (AC), and for persistence on abiotic surfaces. Using the cgMLST Oxford typing scheme for WGS data, the collection was classified into genomic lineages corresponding to host-generalist strains (lineages A and D, CC ST-21), host-specific strains (lineages B, CC ST-257 and lineage C, CC ST-464) and sporadic strains. We established that when a strain survives concentrations beyond 0.25 mM superoxide stress, it is six times more likely to survive hyperoxide stress and that a highly adherent strain is 14 times more likely to develop a biofilm. Surprisingly, more than half of the strains could acclimate to AC but this capacity does not explain the difference between recurrent genomic lineages and sporadic strains and the survival to oxidative stresses, while recurrent strains have a significantly higher adhesion/biofilm formation capacity than sporadic ones. From this work, the genomic lineages with more stable genomes could be characterized by a specific combination of phenotypes, called metaphenotypes. From the functional genomic analyses, the presence of a potentially functional T6SS in the strains of lineage D might explain the propensity of these strains to be strong biofilm producers. Our findings support the hypothesis that phenotypical abilities contribute to the spatio-temporal adaptation and survival of stable genomic lineages. It suggests a selection of better-adapted and persistent strains in challenging stress environments, which could explain the prevalence of these lineages in human infections. [less ▲]

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See detailEnabling end-to-end digital carbon emission tracing with shielded NFTs
Babel, Matthias; Gramlich, Vincent; Körner, Marc-Fabian et al

in Energy Informatics (2022), 5

In the energy transition, there is an urgent need for decreasing overall carbon emissions. Against this background, the purposeful and verifiable tracing of emissions in the energy system is a crucial key ... [more ▼]

In the energy transition, there is an urgent need for decreasing overall carbon emissions. Against this background, the purposeful and verifiable tracing of emissions in the energy system is a crucial key element for promoting the deep decarbonization towards a net zero emission economy with a market-based approach. Such an effective tracing system requires end-to-end information flows that link carbon sources and sinks while keeping end consumers’ and businesses’ sensitive data confidential. In this paper, we illustrate how non-fungible tokens with fractional ownership can help to enable such a system, and how zero-knowledge proofs can address the related privacy issues associated with the fine-granular recording of stakeholders’ emission data. Thus, we contribute to designing a carbon emission tracing system that satisfies verifiability, distinguishability, fractional ownership, and privacy requirements. We implement a proof-of-concept for our approach and discuss its advantages compared to alternative centralized or decentralized architectures that have been proposed in the past. Based on a technical, data privacy, and economic analysis, we conclude that our approach is a more suitable technical backbone for end-to-end digital carbon emission tracing than previously suggested solutions. [less ▲]

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See detailSafeguarding the final frontier: Analyzing the legal and technical challenges to mega-constellations
Zarkan, Laetitia UL

in Journal of Space Safety Engineering (2022)

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See detailEconomic development, weather shocks and child marriage in South Asia: A machine learning approach
Dietrich, Stephan; Meysonnat, Aline; Rosales, Francisco et al

in PLoS ONE (2022), 17(9), 0271373

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See detailWho benefits from air service agreements? The case of international air cargo operations
Wu, You UL; Lange, Anne UL; Mantin, Benny UL

in Transportation Research Part B: Methodological (2022), 163

Air service agreements between countries spell out diverse provisions, such as reciprocal capacity allocations. We analyze how such agreements, which regulate total capacity in markets, affect total ... [more ▼]

Air service agreements between countries spell out diverse provisions, such as reciprocal capacity allocations. We analyze how such agreements, which regulate total capacity in markets, affect total welfare and its distribution. We consider the interactions between two competing cargo airlines, their end customers, logistics service providers—who serve as intermediaries between the former two agent types—as well as the policy makers. Accounting for demand uncertainty, we model this interaction as a two-stage game. In the first stage, the policy makers coordinate equal capacity allocations to the two asset providers, whereas in the second stage, the asset providers compete over prices in the spot market. Solving the model, we characterize the pricing strategies employed by the two competing capacity-constrained asset providers in the spot market when facing price sensitive demand from end customers. We further analyze the corresponding capacity decisions. We then compare this coordinated competitive setting with a collaborative setting where the two asset providers can (virtually) merge and act as a monopoly. We find that, compared with the monopoly setting, the coordinated duopoly results in lower capacity, lower profits to the asset providers, larger benefits to both end customers and logistics service providers, and overall lower total welfare. These results suggest that policy makers shall hold an open attitude towards a higher level of cooperation among the asset providers. We carry out robustness checks to verify our insights hold with three, rather than two, asset providers, with different demand distributions, when capacity is costly and when asymmetric capacities are allowed in the spot market. [less ▲]

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See detailRF Precoding for Cognitive Radio Systems
Tsinos, Christos UL; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL; Ottersten, Björn UL

in IEEE Wireless Communications Letters (2022), 11(9), 1845-1849

In this letter, a precoding framework in the radio-frequency (RF) domain is developed for the downlink of a multiuser multiple-input single-output underlay cognitive radio (CR) system. Firstly, a low ... [more ▼]

In this letter, a precoding framework in the radio-frequency (RF) domain is developed for the downlink of a multiuser multiple-input single-output underlay cognitive radio (CR) system. Firstly, a low hardware complexity analog multiantenna architecture is proposed for the system’s transmitter. The proposed analog architecture is based on a phase-shifting network driven by an variable gain amplifier and has low power consumption since it avoids the use of energy hungry components such as digital-to-analog converters (DACs). Secondly, a novel RF precoder for the design of the transmit signals is developed such that the performance of the CR system is optimized and the constraints related to both the system’s architecture and the employed underlay CR paradigm are satisfied. The corresponding nonconvex and difficult optimization problem is formulated and solved via a novel algorithmic solution based on the saddle point method. The convergence of the proposed algorithmic solution is theoretically studied. The proposed approach is shown to be much more energy efficient than existing approaches based on fully digital transceivers. [less ▲]

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See detailTarzan and chain: exploring the ICO jungle and evaluating design archetypes
Bachmann, Nina M.; Drasch, Benedict; Fridgen, Gilbert UL et al

in Electronic Markets (2022), 32

The phenomenon of a blockchain use case called initial coin offering (ICO) is drawing increasing attention as a novel funding mechanism. ICO is a crowdfunding type that utilizes blockchain tokens to allow ... [more ▼]

The phenomenon of a blockchain use case called initial coin offering (ICO) is drawing increasing attention as a novel funding mechanism. ICO is a crowdfunding type that utilizes blockchain tokens to allow for truly peer-to-peer investments. Although more than \$7bn has been raised globally via ICOs as at 2018, the concept and its implications are not yet entirely understood. The research lags behind in providing in-depth analyses of ICO designs and their long-term success. We address this research gap by developing an ICO taxonomy, applying a cluster analysis to identify prevailing ICO archetypes, and providing an outlook on the token value market performance for individual archetypes. We identify five ICO design archetypes and display their secondary market development from both a short-term and a long-term perspective. We contribute to an in-depth understanding of ICOs and their implications. Further, we offer practitioners tangible design and success indications for future ICOs. [less ▲]

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See detailEnergy-Efficient IRS-Aided NOMA Beamforming for 6G Wireless Communications
Ihsan, Asim; Chen, Wen; Asif, Muhammad et al

in IEEE Transactions on Green Communications and Networking (2022)

This manuscript presents an energy-efficient alternating optimization framework based on intelligent reflective surfaces (IRS) aided non-orthogonal multiple access beamforming (NOMA-BF) system for 6G ... [more ▼]

This manuscript presents an energy-efficient alternating optimization framework based on intelligent reflective surfaces (IRS) aided non-orthogonal multiple access beamforming (NOMA-BF) system for 6G wireless communications. Specifically, this work proposes a centralized IRS-enabled design for the NOMA-BF system to optimize the active beamforming and power allocation coefficient (PAC) of users at the transmitter in the first stage and passive beamforming at IRS in the 2nd stage to maximize the energy efficiency (EE) of the network. However, an increment in the number of supportable users with the NOMA-BF system will lead to NOMA user interference and inter-cluster interference (ICI). To mitigate the effect of ICI, first zero-forcing beamforming along with efficient user clustering algorithm is exploited and then NOMA user interference is tackled efficiently through a proposed iterative algorithm that computes PAC of NOMA user through simplified closed-form expression under the required system constraints. In the 2nd stage, the problem of passive beamforming is solved through a technique based on difference-of-convex (DC) programming and successive convex approximation (SCA). Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed alternating framework for energy-efficient IRS-assisted NOMA-BF system can achieve convergence within a few iterations and provide efficient performance in terms of EE of the system with low complexity. [less ▲]

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See detailLimites et enjeux du travail à distance en contexte transfrontalier
Pigeron-Piroth, Isabelle UL; Belkacem, Rachid

in Entreprises Magazine (2022), 115

Le télétravail imposé par la pandémie n’est pas sans soulever un certain nombre de questions (juridiques, sociales, fiscales notamment) liées à la présence de la frontière entre le lieu de résidence et le ... [more ▼]

Le télétravail imposé par la pandémie n’est pas sans soulever un certain nombre de questions (juridiques, sociales, fiscales notamment) liées à la présence de la frontière entre le lieu de résidence et le lieu de travail. Par ailleurs, dans un contexte tendu par les problèmes de mobilité et de congestion, une autre forme de travail à distance tend à se développer ces dernières années: les espaces de Coworking. [less ▲]

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