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See detailTask-Oriented Communication Design in Cyber-Physical Systems: A Survey on Theory and Applications
Mostaani, Arsham UL; Vu, Thang Xuan UL; Sharma, Shree Krishna UL et al

in IEEE Access (2022)

Communication system design has been traditionally guided by task-agnostic principles, which aim at efficiently transmitting as many correct bits as possible through a given channel. However, in the era ... [more ▼]

Communication system design has been traditionally guided by task-agnostic principles, which aim at efficiently transmitting as many correct bits as possible through a given channel. However, in the era of cyber-physical systems, the effectiveness of communications is not dictated simply by the bit rate, but most importantly by the efficient completion of the task in hand, e.g., controlling remotely a robot, automating a production line or collaboratively sensing through a drone swarm. In parallel, it is projected that by 2023, half of the worldwide network connections will be among machines rather than humans. In this context, it is crucial to establish a new paradigm for designing communication strategies for multi-agent cyber-physical systems. This is a daunting task, since it requires a combination of principles from information, communication, control theories and computer science in order to formalize a general framework for task-oriented communication designs. In this direction, this paper reviews and structures the relevant theoretical work across a wide range of scientific communities. Subsequently, it proposes a general conceptual framework for task-oriented communication design, along with its specializations according to targeted use cases. Furthermore, it provides a survey of relevant contributions in dominant applications, such as industrial internet of things, multi-unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) systems, autonomous vehicles, distributed learning systems, smart manufacturing plants, 5G and beyond self-organizing networks, and tactile internet. Finally, this paper also highlights the most important open research topics from both the theoretical framework and application points of view. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison theorems for Kan, faintly universal and strongly universal derived functors
Govzmann, Alisa UL; Pistalo, Damjan UL; Poncin, Norbert UL

in Surveys in Mathematics and its Applications (2022), 17

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See detailEin Blick zurück ins 16. Jahrhundert – Die erste Kartierung des Erzstifts Trier durch Arnold Mercator
Solchenbach, Karl UL

in Jahrbuch für westdeutsche Landesgeschichte (2022), 48(2022), 61-84

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See detailOn the weightwise nonlinearity of weightwise perfectly balanced functions
Gini, Agnese UL; Meaux, Pierrick UL

in Discrete Applied Mathematics (2022), 322

In this article we perform a general study on the criterion of weightwise nonlinearity for the functions which are weightwise perfectly balanced (WPB). First, we investigate the minimal value this ... [more ▼]

In this article we perform a general study on the criterion of weightwise nonlinearity for the functions which are weightwise perfectly balanced (WPB). First, we investigate the minimal value this criterion can take over WPB functions, deriving theoretic bounds, and exhibiting the first values. We emphasize the link between this minimum and weightwise affine functions, and we prove that for n≥8 no n-variable WPB function can have this property. Then, we focus on the distribution and the maximum of this criterion over the set of WPB functions. We provide theoretic bounds on the latter and algorithms to either compute or estimate the former, together with the results of our experimental studies for n up to 8. Finally, we present two new constructions of WPB functions obtained by modifying the support of linear functions for each set of fixed Hamming weight. This provides a large corpus of WPB function with proven weightwise nonlinearity, and we compare the weightwise nonlinearity of these constructions to the average value, and to the parameters of former constructions in 8 and 16 variables. [less ▲]

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See detail« Il faut concourir au grand œuvre ». La pratique collaborative de l'écriture polémique dans le Groupe de Coppet
Saintes, Laetitia UL

in Cahiers Staëliens (2022), 71-72

Inherent to the creation of the Coppet group, collaboration also characterizes its practice of polemical writing. As the First French Empire began to decline, Germaine de Staël, Benjamin Constant and ... [more ▼]

Inherent to the creation of the Coppet group, collaboration also characterizes its practice of polemical writing. As the First French Empire began to decline, Germaine de Staël, Benjamin Constant and Auguste Schlegel began to write propaganda in defense of Bernadotte's cause. This article explores, in the light of these writings and Constant's Journaux intimes, the auctorial and editorial perspectives that this collaborative practice of polemical writing calls for. [less ▲]

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See detailData-driven historical characterization of epilepsy-associated genes.
Macnee, Marie; Perez-Palma, Eduardo; Lopez-Rivera, Javier A. et al

in European Journal of Paediatric Neurology (2022)

Many epilepsy-associated genes have been identified over the last three decades, revealing a remarkable molecular heterogeneity with the shared outcome of recurrent seizures. Information about the genetic ... [more ▼]

Many epilepsy-associated genes have been identified over the last three decades, revealing a remarkable molecular heterogeneity with the shared outcome of recurrent seizures. Information about the genetic landscape of epilepsies is scattered throughout the literature and answering the simple question of how many genes are associated with epilepsy is not straightforward. Here, we present a computationally driven analytical review of epilepsy-associated genes using the complete scientific literature in PubMed. Based on our search criteria, we identified a total of 738 epilepsy-associated genes. We further classified these genes into two Tiers. A broad gene list of 738 epilepsy-associated genes (Tier 2) and a narrow gene list composed of 143 epilepsy-associated genes (Tier 1). Our search criteria do not reflect the degree of association. The average yearly number of identified epilepsy-associated genes between 1992 and 2021 was 4.8. However, most of these genes were only identified in the last decade (2010–2019). Ion channels represent the largest class of epilepsy-associated genes. For many of these, both gain- and loss-of-function effects have been associated with epilepsy in recent years. We identify 28 genes frequently reported with heterogenous variant effects which should be considered for variant interpretation. Overall, our study provides an updated and manually curated list of epilepsy-related genes together with additional annotations and classifications reflecting the current genetic landscape of epilepsy. [less ▲]

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See detailAn algorithm to classify homologous series within compound datasets
Lai, Adelene UL; Schaub, Jonas; Steinbeck, Christoph et al

in Journal of Cheminformatics (2022), 14(85),

Homologous series are groups of related compounds that share the same core structure attached to a motif that repeats to different degrees. Compounds forming homologous series are of interest in multiple ... [more ▼]

Homologous series are groups of related compounds that share the same core structure attached to a motif that repeats to different degrees. Compounds forming homologous series are of interest in multiple domains, including natural products, environmental chemistry, and drug design. However, many homologous compounds remain unannotated as such in compound datasets, which poses obstacles to understanding chemical diversity and their analytical identification via database matching. To overcome these challenges, an algorithm to detect homologous series within compound datasets was developed and implemented using the RDKit. The algorithm takes a list of molecules as SMILES strings and a monomer (i.e., repeating unit) encoded as SMARTS as its main inputs. In an iterative process, substructure matching of repeating units, molecule fragmentation, and core detection lead to homologous series classification through grouping of identical cores. Three open compound datasets from environmental chemistry (NORMAN Suspect List Exchange, NORMAN-SLE), exposomics (PubChemLite for Exposomics), and natural products (the COlleCtion of Open NatUral producTs, COCONUT) were subject to homologous series classification using the algorithm. Over 2000, 12,000, and 5000 series with CH2 repeating units were classified in the NORMAN-SLE, PubChemLite, and COCONUT respectively. Validation of classified series was performed using published homologous series and structure categories, including a comparison with a similar existing method for categorising PFAS compounds. The OngLai algorithm and its implementation for classifying homologues are openly available at: https://github.com/adelenelai/onglai-classify-homologues. [less ▲]

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See detailMarchés captifs et marchés concurrentiels dans la concurrence judiciaire franco-britannique
Cuniberti, Gilles UL

in Semaine Juridique. Édition Générale (2022)

Les chambres commerciales internationales de Paris (CCIP) ont été établies dans l'espoir de détourner une partie du contentieux commercial porté devant la juridiction commerciale londonienne. Cet article ... [more ▼]

Les chambres commerciales internationales de Paris (CCIP) ont été établies dans l'espoir de détourner une partie du contentieux commercial porté devant la juridiction commerciale londonienne. Cet article propose une étude empirique de l'activité de cette dernière afin de déterminer lesquels des contentieux dont elle connaît sont captifs, et hors de portée du juge français, et lesquels sont concurrentiels et susceptibles d'être attirés par une offre judiciaire plus attractive. Il analyse ensuite l'activité des CCIP pour déterminer dans quelle mesure la juridiction commerciale parisienne se montre attractive et peut espérer entrer en concurrence avec la justice anglaise. [less ▲]

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See detailMiRNAs from serum-derived extracellular vesicles as biomarkers for uveal melanoma progression
Wroblewska, Joanna Patrycja UL; Lach, Michał Stefan; Rucinski, Marcin et al

in Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology (2022)

Uveal melanoma (UM) is a rare type of malignancy that originates from melanocytes located in the choroid, iris and the ciliary body of the eye. UM has a very high mortality upon metastatic spread to the ... [more ▼]

Uveal melanoma (UM) is a rare type of malignancy that originates from melanocytes located in the choroid, iris and the ciliary body of the eye. UM has a very high mortality upon metastatic spread to the liver, the prime target organ for UM metastasis. The lack of effective therapies for advanced stages of the disease aggravate the prognosis further. Moreover, biomarkers for early detection and progression of UM, especially the molecular traits governing the development of metastasis, are still not available in clinical practice. One extensively studied components of liquid biopsies are exosomes, a subtype of extracellular vesicle. Due to their unique molecular cargo, they could be used as carriers of early markers of cancer development and progression. For characterisation of the miRNA profiles present in circulating serum-derived exosomes of patients with diagnosed primary and metastatic UM, we have analysed the miRNA cargos using next-generation sequencing followed by RT-qPCR validation in a cohort of patients (control n=20; primary n=9; metastatic n=11). Nine miRNAs clearly differentiating these patient groups have been established. We show that hsa-miR-223 and hsa-miR-203a are the most promising biomarker candidates, allowing categorization of patients into local and advanced UM. Additionally, the comparison of miRNA expression levels in exosomes derived from UM patients with those derived from healthy donors, revealed that hsa-miR-144 has the potential to be used as an early marker for presence of UM. Taken together, this pilot study reveals that miRNAs extracted from circulating exosomes could be exploited as potential biomarkers in UM diagnosis and, more importantly, for indicating metastatic spread. [less ▲]

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See detailMisunderstanding translanguaging in preschoolers
Aleksic, Gabrijela UL

in Research Outreach (2022), 134

https://researchoutreach.org/articles/misunderstanding-translanguaging-preschoolers/

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See detailContinuous Flow Microfluidic Production of Arbitrarily Long Tubular Liquid Crystal Elastomer Peristaltic Pump Actuators
Najiya, Najiya UL; Popov, Nikolay UL; Jampani, Venkata Subba Rao et al

in Small (2022)

While liquid crystal elastomers (LCEs) are ideal materials for soft-robotic actuators, filling the role of muscle and shape-defining material simultaneously, it is non-trivial to give them ground state ... [more ▼]

While liquid crystal elastomers (LCEs) are ideal materials for soft-robotic actuators, filling the role of muscle and shape-defining material simultaneously, it is non-trivial to give them ground state shapes beyond simple sheets or fibers. Here tubular LCE actuators scalable to arbitrary length are produced using a continuous three-phase coaxial flow microfluidic process. By pumping an oligomeric precursor solution between inner and outer aqueous phases in a cylindrically symmetric nested capillary set-up, and by reducing the interfacial tension to negligible values using surfactants adapted to each phase, the tubular liquid flow is stabilized over distances more than 200 times the diameter or 2000 times the thickness. In situ photocrosslinking of the middle phase turns it into an LCE network that is flow-aligned by the shear gradient over the phase. The reversible actuation of the tubes upon heating yields a reduction of the interior space, pumping out enclosed fluid, and the relaxation upon cooling leads to the fluid being sucked back in. By moving a local heat source along the tube, it acts as a peristaltic pump. It is proposed that the tubes could, pending functionalization for light-triggered actuation, function as active synthetic vasculature in biological contexts. [less ▲]

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See detailJoint Communication and Computation Offloading for Ultra-Reliable and Low-Latency with Multi-tier Computing
Huynh, Dang Van; Nguyen, Van-Dinh; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL et al

in IEEE Journal on Selected Areas In Communications (2022)

In this paper, we study joint communication and computation offloading (JCCO) for hierarchical edge-cloud systems with ultra-reliable and low latency communications (URLLC). We aim to minimize the end-to ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we study joint communication and computation offloading (JCCO) for hierarchical edge-cloud systems with ultra-reliable and low latency communications (URLLC). We aim to minimize the end-to-end (e2e) latency of computational tasks among multiple industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) devices by jointly optimizing offloading probabilities, processing rates, user association policies and power control subject to their service delay and energy consumption requirements as well as queueing stability conditions. The formulated JCCO problem belongs to a difficult class of mixed-integer non-convex optimization problem, making it computationally intractable. In addition, a strong coupling between binary and continuous variables and the large size of hierarchical edge-cloud systems make the problem even more challenging to solve optimally. To address these challenges, we first decompose the original problem into two subproblems based on the unique structure of the underlying problem and leverage the alternating optimization (AO) approach to solve them in an iterative fashion by developing newly convex approximate functions. To speed up optimal user association searching, we incorporate a penalty function into the objective function to resolve uncertainties of a binary nature. Two sub-optimal designs for given user association policies based on channel conditions and random user associations are also investigated to serve as state-of-the-art benchmarks. Numerical results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms in terms of the e2e latency and convergence speed. [less ▲]

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See detailSteel-fibre reinforced concrete in compo-site structures as a mean to increase re-sistance and ductility
Zanon, Riccardo; Schäfer, Markus UL; Ruiz, Gonzalo et al

in Stahlbau (2022), 91(12), 801-811

Steel-fibre reinforced concrete is a well-known material used for decades for industrial floorings, shot-crete, or other specific applications. Its use is now spreading in structural applications as a ... [more ▼]

Steel-fibre reinforced concrete is a well-known material used for decades for industrial floorings, shot-crete, or other specific applications. Its use is now spreading in structural applications as a complement or a substitute for conventional bar-reinforced concrete since the normative framework is ready to provide design approaches for several concrete applications. Nevertheless, some adaptations are needed for implementing steel-fibre reinforced concrete in the design approach for steel-concrete composite struc-tures whereby complementary aspects need to be considered. In this field, besides the increase of tensile properties and durability of the concrete member, a very important contribution may be given by the in-crease of the concrete ductility in compression. This property is conferred by the steel fibres which pro-vide a confinement effect increasing the plastic damage that the concrete matrix can absorb. If this prop-erty is widely accepted, its benefits are limited for the design of conventional concrete sections. Con-versely, for composite sections, the possibility to reach higher strains in compression means ensuring full exploitation of the strength capacity of structural steel. Besides reaching an optimization of already in-use cross-sections, this new material combination enhances the use of higher structural steel strengths in composite structures. [less ▲]

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See detailTowards an Efficient and Coherent Regulatory Framework on Cybersecurity in the EU: The Proposals for a NIS 2.0 Directive and a Cyber Resilience Act
Cole, Mark David UL; Schmitz, Sandra UL

in Applied Cybersecurity & Internet Governance (2022), 1(1),

Cybersecurity regulation in the EU has long been implemented in a piece- meal fashion resulting in a fragmented regulatory landscape. Recent developments triggered the EU to review its approach which has ... [more ▼]

Cybersecurity regulation in the EU has long been implemented in a piece- meal fashion resulting in a fragmented regulatory landscape. Recent developments triggered the EU to review its approach which has not resulted in the envisaged high level of cyber resilience across the Union. The paper addresses the EU’s limited mandate to regulate cybersecurity and outlines how the internal market rationale serves as a basis to harmonise cybersecurity legislation in the EU Member States. In that regard, the recent Proposal for a NIS 2.0 Directive (adopted by the European Parliament in November 2022) and the Proposal for a Cyber Resilience Act (published in September 2022) highlight how the EU seeks to align legislation and reduce complexity between different, often sectoral regulatory approaches to cybersecurity, while at the same time extending regulation in a view to achieve a high level of cybersecurity across the EU. As regards the latter, the paper also outlines how the Cyber Resilience Act will complement the NIS 2.0 Directive in order to close existing regulatory gaps. [less ▲]

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See detailVers des réparations au titre du colonialisme?
Erpelding, Michel UL

in Annuaire français de droit international (2022), 67

Noting the changes that have occurred in recent years in Western official discourses regarding the legacy of colonialism, this article examines the potential legal consequences of these changes in the ... [more ▼]

Noting the changes that have occurred in recent years in Western official discourses regarding the legacy of colonialism, this article examines the potential legal consequences of these changes in the field of international state responsibility. The first part of the article consists of a survey of recent Western state practice. It observes that while some Western states have lately acknowledged the unjustifiable character of certain acts related to colonialism and have taken measures to repare the consequences of these acts, these measures have, with one exception, assumed an ex gratia character. The second part of the article is dedicated to the intertemporal law principle, which constitutes the main argument used to defend this position. Western states invoke this principle to deny the internationally wrongful character of their past colonial policies and rule out any general obligation to make reparation for the damage caused by these policies. However, the principle of intertemporal law has become subject to various reassessments, which challenge the legal postulates inherited from the past. [less ▲]

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See detailStructure of soliton bound states in the parametrically driven and damped nonlinear systems
Bogdan, M.M.; Charkina, Oksana UL

in Low Temperature Physics (2022), 48

Static soliton bound states in nonlinear systems are investigated analytically and numerically in the framework of the parametrically driven and damped nonlinear Schrödinger equation. We find that the ... [more ▼]

Static soliton bound states in nonlinear systems are investigated analytically and numerically in the framework of the parametrically driven and damped nonlinear Schrödinger equation. We find that the ordinary differential equations, which determine bound soliton solutions, can be transformed into the form resembling the Schrödinger-like equations for eigenfunctions with fixed eigenvalues. We assume that a nonlinear part of the equations is close to the reflectionless potential well occurring in the scattering problem associated with the integrable equations. We show that symmetric two-hump soliton solution is quite well described analytically by the three-soliton formula with the fixed soliton parameters, depending on the strength of parametric pumping and the dissipation constant. [less ▲]

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See detailMitochondrial DNA heteroplasmy distinguishes disease manifestation in PINK1/PRKN-linked Parkinson’s disease
Trinh, Joanne; Hicks, Andrew A.; König, Inke R. et al

in Brain (2022)

Biallelic mutations in PINK1/PRKN cause recessive Parkinson’s disease. Given the established role of PINK1/Parkin in regulating mitochondrial dynamics, we explored mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) integrity and ... [more ▼]

Biallelic mutations in PINK1/PRKN cause recessive Parkinson’s disease. Given the established role of PINK1/Parkin in regulating mitochondrial dynamics, we explored mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) integrity and inflammation as disease modifiers in carriers of mutations in these genes. MtDNA integrity was investigated in a large collection of biallelic (n = 84) and monoallelic (n = 170) carriers of PINK1/PRKN mutations, idiopathic Parkinson’s disease patients (n = 67) and controls (n = 90). In addition, we studied global gene expression and serum cytokine levels in a subset. Affected and unaffected PINK1/PRKN monoallelic mutation carriers can be distinguished by heteroplasmic mtDNA variant load (AUC = 0.83, CI:0.74-0.93). Biallelic PINK1/PRKN mutation carriers harbor more heteroplasmic mtDNA variants in blood (p = 0.0006, Z = 3.63) compared to monoallelic mutation carriers. This enrichment was confirmed in iPSC-derived (controls, n = 3; biallelic PRKN mutation carriers, n = 4) and postmortem (control, n = 1; biallelic PRKN mutation carrier, n = 1) midbrain neurons. Lastly, the heteroplasmic mtDNA variant load correlated with IL6 levels in PINK1/PRKN mutation carriers (r = 0.57, p = 0.0074). PINK1/PRKN mutations predispose individuals to mtDNA variant accumulation in a dose- and disease-dependent manner. [less ▲]

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See detailHarmonizing sensitive data exchange and double-spending prevention through blockchain and digital wallets: The case of e-prescription management
Schlatt, Vincent; Sedlmeir, Johannes UL; Traue, Janina et al

in Distributed Ledger Technologies: Research and Practice (2022)

The digital transformation of the medical sector requires solutions that are convenient and efficient for all stakeholders while protecting patients’ sensitive data. One example that has already attracted ... [more ▼]

The digital transformation of the medical sector requires solutions that are convenient and efficient for all stakeholders while protecting patients’ sensitive data. One example that has already attracted design-oriented research are medical prescriptions. However, current implementations of electronic prescription management systems typically create centralized data silos, leaving user data vulnerable to cybersecurity incidents and impeding interoperability. Research has also proposed decentralized solutions based on blockchain technology, but privacy-related challenges have often been ignored. We conduct design science research to develop and implement a system for the exchange of electronic prescriptions that builds on two blockchains and a digital wallet app. Our solution combines the bilateral, verifiable, and privacy-focused exchange of information between doctors, patients, and pharmacies through verifiable credentials with a token-based, anonymized double-spending check. Our qualitative and quantitative evaluations as well as a security analysis suggest that this architecture can improve existing approaches to electronic prescription management by offering patients control over their data by design, a high level of security, sufficient performance and scalability, and interoperability with emerging digital identity management solutions for users, businesses, and institutions. We also derive principles on how to design decentralized, privacy-oriented information systems that require both the exchange of sensitive information and double-usage protection. [less ▲]

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See detailDelorme’s intertwining conditions for sections of homogeneous vector bundles on two- and three-dimensional hyperbolic spaces
Palmirotta, Guendalina UL; Olbrich, Martin UL

in Annals of Global Analysis and Geometry (2022), 63(9),

The description of the Paley-Wiener space for compactly supported smooth functions C_c^∞(G) on a semi-simple Lie group G involves certain intertwining conditions that are difficult to handle. In the ... [more ▼]

The description of the Paley-Wiener space for compactly supported smooth functions C_c^∞(G) on a semi-simple Lie group G involves certain intertwining conditions that are difficult to handle. In the present paper, we make them completely explicit for G = SL(2, R)^d (d ∈ N) and G = SL(2, C). Our results are based on a defining criterion for the Paley-Wiener space, valid for general groups of real rank one, that we derive from Delorme’s proof of the Paley-Wiener theorem. In a forthcoming paper, we will show how these results can be used to study solvability of invariant differential operators between sections of homogeneous vector bundles over the corresponding symmetric spaces. [less ▲]

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See detailCurvature in Biological Systems: Its quantification, Emergence and Implications Across the Scales
Schamberger, Barbara; Roschger, Andreas; Sengupta, Anupam UL et al

in Advanced Materials (2022)

Surface curvature both emerges from, and influences the behavior of, living objects at length scales ranging from cell membranes to single cells to tissues and organs. The relevance of surface curvature ... [more ▼]

Surface curvature both emerges from, and influences the behavior of, living objects at length scales ranging from cell membranes to single cells to tissues and organs. The relevance of surface curvature in biology has been supported by numerous recent experimental and theoretical investigations in recent years. In this review, we first give a brief introduction to the key ideas of surface curvature in the context of biological systems and discuss the challenges that arise when measuring surface curvature. Giving an overview of the emergence of curvature in biological systems, its significance at different length scales becomes apparent. On the other hand, summarizing current findings also shows that both single cells and entire cell sheets, tissues or organisms respond to curvature by modulating their shape and their migration behavior. Finally, we address the interplay between the distribution of morphogens or micro-organisms and the emergence of curvature across length scales with examples demonstrating these key mechanistic principles of morphogenesis. Overall, this review highlights that curved interfaces are not merely a passive by-product of the chemical, biological and mechanical processes but that curvature acts also as a signal that co-determines these processes. [less ▲]

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See detailDoes a short-term deadline extension affect participation rates of an online survey? Experimental evidence from an online panel
Decieux, Jean Philippe Pierre UL; Heinz, Andreas UL

in International Journal of Social Research Methodology (2022)

In times of decreasing response rates and survey participation, many ‘best-practices’ have been developed for increasing survey recruitment. However, most of these have never been adequately and ... [more ▼]

In times of decreasing response rates and survey participation, many ‘best-practices’ have been developed for increasing survey recruitment. However, most of these have never been adequately and experimentally scrutinized for their efficacy. Therefore, in this research note, we draw on probability-based data of an online panel and experimentally examine whether it is possible to increase survey participation behavior by communicating a deadline extension. Overall, our results show that it is possible to influence participation behavior by deadline communication. While overall response speed was significantly faster when a deadline extension was communicated, the overall response rate was slightly lower, compared to scenarios in which no deadline extension was communicated. Thus, we refrain from recommending a deadline extension unless there are specific reasons to do so. [less ▲]

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See detailPhysical Layer Security in AF-Based Cooperative SWIPT Sensor Networks
Nguyen, Tan N.; Tran, Dinh-Hieu; Chien, Trinh Van et al

in IEEE Sensors Journal (2022)

Physical layer security (PLS) with radio-frequency (RF) energy harvesting (EH) in wireless sensor networks has received significant interest as a technology for secure information transmission and ... [more ▼]

Physical layer security (PLS) with radio-frequency (RF) energy harvesting (EH) in wireless sensor networks has received significant interest as a technology for secure information transmission and prolonging the network lifetime as well as improving energy efficiency. This paper investigates PLS for a simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) cooperative network, which consists of multiple sensor sources, one EH relay (R), and one destination (D) in the presence of one eavesdropper (E). Further, a low-complexity, suboptimal, yet efficient sensor source selection scheme is proposed. Specifically, one sensor source is chosen to transmit information to the relay and destination such that it obtains the best channel from sensor sources to the relay. Then, by considering two relaying strategies, termed the direct link plus static power splitting-based relaying (SPSR) and direct link plus optimal dynamic power splitting-based relaying (ODPSR), the performance analysis in terms of intercept probability (IP) and outage probability (OP) are carried out for each one. Notably, the eavesdropper and destination utilize maximal ratio combining (MRC) to incorporate the received signals from the selected sensor source and the relay, which poses new challenges in obtaining the analytical expressions. In this context, we derive analytical expressions for the OP (for SPSR and ODPSR) at the destination and the IP (for SPSR) at the eavesdropper by adopting the series representation of the modified Bessel function. Finally, Monte Carlo simulations are conducted to validate the theoretical analysis and the proposed schemes’ effectiveness. Simulation results show the superiority of our scheme compared to the benchmarks. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimal User Pairing Approach for NOMA-based Cell-free Massive MIMO Systems
Dang, Xuan-Toan; Le, Mai T. P.; Nguyen, Hieu V. et al

in IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology (2022)

This study investigates a non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA)-assisted cell-free massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system, considering the impact of both individual and linear-combination ... [more ▼]

This study investigates a non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA)-assisted cell-free massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system, considering the impact of both individual and linear-combination channel estimations. To make the best use of NOMA as an enabler for cell-free massive MIMO systems, user pairing should be employed effectively. Random user pairing naturally leads to a non-optimal solution, whereas an exhaustive search approach is unfavorable for practical systems owing to the high complexity. In this study, we propose an optimal user pairing strategy to group users that jointly optimize the minimum downlink rate per user and power allocation at an acceptable cost of complexity. To address this problem, we first relax the binary variables to continuous variables and then develop an iterative algorithm based on the inner approximation method, yielding at least one locally optimal solution. Numerical results show that the proposed user pairing algorithm outperforms existing counterparts, such as conventional beamforming, random pairing, far pairing, and close-pairing strategies, while it can be performed dynamically, that is, two arbitrary users satisfying the formulated problem can be paired regardless of geographical distance. Finally, our approach demonstrates that the combination channel estimation-based NOMA-assisted cell-free massive MIMO achieves the best result in terms of the downlink rate per user when associated with the proposed algorithm. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Latest Amendment to the German Law on Patent Injunctions: The New Statutory Disproportionality Exception and Third-Party Interests
Stierle, Martin UL; Hofmann, Franz

in Gewerblicher Rechtsschutz und Urheberrecht. Internationaler Teil (2022)

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See detailValues-based territorial food networks Qualifying sustainable and ethical transitions of alternative food networks.
Reckinger, Rachel UL

in Regions & Cohesion (2022), 12(3, Winter 2022), 78-109

This comparative literature review of local food systems, short food supply chains, and civic food networks, subsumed under alternative food networks (AFN), suggests converging them into the novel ... [more ▼]

This comparative literature review of local food systems, short food supply chains, and civic food networks, subsumed under alternative food networks (AFN), suggests converging them into the novel umbrella-term values-based territorial food networks (VTFN). Based on the analysis of specificities and shortcomings in the four concepts, VTFN aims to enhance conceptual clarity, while the current coexistence conceals structural and systemic commonalities—relevant for understanding pathways to ethical and sustainable food system transformations. Taking stock of issues in the four concepts, VTFN strives to be overarching and pragmatic. It qualifi es AFN’s “alternativeness” through social, economic, environmental and governance “sustainability values” and through the co-construction of “territoriality” in varying constellations. Thus, it fosters integrated scientific dialogue about conceptual determinations of emerging networks of food system transitions worldwide. [less ▲]

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See detailInkommunikabilität. Medienpädagogische Praktiken der Entnetzung
Pause, Johannes UL

in merzWissenschaft (2022), (6), 60-72

In the network society, the sovereign subject of classical education theory is revealed as a result of multi-layered forms of subjectivation. Networks, however, always also produce the experience of the ... [more ▼]

In the network society, the sovereign subject of classical education theory is revealed as a result of multi-layered forms of subjectivation. Networks, however, always also produce the experience of the constitutive limitations of communication. This article therefore proposes the systematic integration of the concept of incommunicability into the theory of media education. If we focus on the Other of connectivity that resonates in every networking operation, then a virtual, passive subject emerges, with contours that cannot be reduced to the evidence of its participation in the network. [less ▲]

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See detailCompressive behaviour of steel-fibre reinforced concrete in Anne2605-1729x L of new Eurocode 2
Ruiz, Gonzalo; de la Rosa, Angel; Poveda, Elisa et al

in Hormigon y Acero (2022)

This paper describes the model for the compressive stress-strain behaviourof steel-fibre reinforced concrete (SFRC) in Annex L of the new Eurocode 2(CEN, Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures. Part 1 ... [more ▼]

This paper describes the model for the compressive stress-strain behaviourof steel-fibre reinforced concrete (SFRC) in Annex L of the new Eurocode 2(CEN, Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures. Part 1-1: General rules– Rules for buildings, bridges and civil structures, prEN 1992-1-1: 2022;EC2 in short), developed within CEN TC250/SC2/WG1/TG2 – Fiber rein-forced concrete. The model uses functions obtained from correlations withan extensive database comprised of 197 well-documented SFRC compres-sive tests and 484 flexural tests. We detailedly explain the model and derive the strain values for the parabola-rectangle model for ULS of SFRC in An-nex L. In addition, we also use the model and the correlations with thedatabase to provide a link between the compressive and the flexural perfor-mance classes in EC2, which allows a complete definition of any particularSFRC. Likewise, we derive parabola-rectangle strain values for each flexuralperformance class, which is mainly advantageous for the stronger flexuralperformance classes. Finally, we give an example showing the enhancementin strength and ductility of a composite steel-SFRC section endorsed withthe new model, which results of 15% and 100%, respectively. [less ▲]

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See detail« Never gonna give you up ». Historiciser la viralité numérique
Pailler, Fred UL; Schafer, Valerie UL

in Revue d'histoire culturelle du XVIIIe-XXIe siècles (2022), 5

Les « phénomènes Internet » (mèmes, challenges, etc.), qu’ils s’incarnent dans des figures célèbres, des animaux, des manifestations de peoplelisation rapides, ou encore des anonymes sont difficiles à ... [more ▼]

Les « phénomènes Internet » (mèmes, challenges, etc.), qu’ils s’incarnent dans des figures célèbres, des animaux, des manifestations de peoplelisation rapides, ou encore des anonymes sont difficiles à saisir dans le temps, même court, de l’histoire du Web, qu’ils traversent pourtant dès l’origine. Sous l’effet des évolutions rapides du Web, des pratiques numériques (de production comme de consommation des contenus), ces phénomènes comptent des déclinaisons multiples et deviennent des artefacts culturels reconnus, faisant l’objet d’une patrimonialisation. Des plateformes dédiées entreprennent un travail d’inventaire, de contextualisation, de conservation, d’éditorialisation et de publication (une des plus célèbres est Know Your Meme), tandis qu’en parallèle les acteurs institutionnels de l’archivage du Web se trouvent aussi confrontés à la difficulté de préserver ces traces. Étudier les phénomènes de viralité offre l’occasion d’observer l’évolution des plateformes et les circulations trans-plateformes et transmédiatiques, tout autant que les continuités de pratiques telles que le trolling, la participation et le remix. Cela permet aussi de penser l’interdisciplinarité nécessaire à son étude, ainsi que les sources, méthodologies, outils et périmètres à convoquer, et ce afin de rendre compte d’un phénomène total, à la fois technique, médiatique, culturel, économique et politique. [less ▲]

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See detailPréservation et distorsion : l’espace-temps des réseaux socio-numériques et du web archivé
Clavert, Frédéric UL; Schafer, Valerie UL; Mahroug, Sophia UL

in Revue d'Histoire Culturelle (2022), (5),

Massive data, also known as Big Data - originating from websites and digital social networks, in the form of text, images, videos or metadata -, constitute significant sources for recent and future ... [more ▼]

Massive data, also known as Big Data - originating from websites and digital social networks, in the form of text, images, videos or metadata -, constitute significant sources for recent and future research in cultural history. These “digital traces”, collected by researchers or institutions, require further methodological thoughts - from their archiving to their development, in order to analyse them at different scales (scalable reading). Indeed, they allow researchers to identify new spatiotemporal boundaries, but also asymmetries and distortions between the theoretical scope of Big Data (from the millisecond to the long term, from the meter to the globe) and its practical scope (regional inequalities in collection, noise and silences within the archives). Based on several research projects and institutional initiatives, this article aims at thinking about the space-time of born-digital heritage, from the standpoint of data, collections and research, in order to grasp both the consequences of this massive archiving on the shaping of history and the profession of historian, and to identify the ongoing issues of these historical sources for academic research. [less ▲]

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See detailHigh Altitude Platform Stations Aided Cloud-Computing Solution for Rural-Environment IoT Applications
Monzon Baeza, Victor UL; Alvarez Marban, Manuel

in Frontiers in Communications and Networks (2022)

This work proposes a flexible and scalable Smart Rural (SR) system for gathering and processing IoT data from remote rural areas with no traditional communication coverage as a handicap. We offer an ... [more ▼]

This work proposes a flexible and scalable Smart Rural (SR) system for gathering and processing IoT data from remote rural areas with no traditional communication coverage as a handicap. We offer an architecture structured in distinct segments using emerging technologies such as IoT, 5G, Cloud and High Altitude Platform Station (HAPS). This proposal is applied to the rural environment to cover thus all the needs of the system in the collection of IoT data from these remote rural areas, its coverage by space vehicles and its processing and storage through 5G terrestrial networks and cloud services. The proposal includes the deployment of IoT sensors and the development of Amazon Web Services (AWS). On the other hand, the part of the space segment considered by HAPS has been simulated for different space channels. This way offers a complete and automated SR system that allows access to these IoT data from remote rural areas through the Internet. [less ▲]

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See detailLe CD-Rom, une histoire à graver
Schafer, Valerie UL

in Le Temps des Médias (2022), 39

This article looks back at the history of the CD-ROM in France by replacing it in the context of the development of optical disks in the 1980s-1990s. It enlightens the convergence between media and ... [more ▼]

This article looks back at the history of the CD-ROM in France by replacing it in the context of the development of optical disks in the 1980s-1990s. It enlightens the convergence between media and information technology and underlines its role as a missing link in the history of the digital, at a time of transition from Minitel to the Web. The CD-Rom has received less historiographical interest than other technological artefacts. Its multimedia character, the new forms of digital writing it induces, and the issues its use raised (piracy, copyright, etc.) remind us that the CD-Rom occupies a place in a history that goes beyond data and information storage. It also sheds light on the computerization and digitalization of both individual and professional practices in France. [less ▲]

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See detailAttractor landscapes: a unifying conceptual model for understanding behaviour change across scales of observation
Heino, Matti; Proverbio, Daniele UL; Marchand, Gwen et al

in Health Psychology Review (2022)

Models and theories in behaviour change science are not in short supply, but they almost exclusively pertain to a particular facet of behaviour, such as automaticity or reasoned action, or to a single ... [more ▼]

Models and theories in behaviour change science are not in short supply, but they almost exclusively pertain to a particular facet of behaviour, such as automaticity or reasoned action, or to a single scale of observation such as individuals or communities. We present a highly generalisable conceptual model which is widely used in complex systems research from biology to physics, in an accessible form to behavioural scientists. The proposed model of attractor landscapes can be used to understand human behaviour change on different levels, from individuals to dyads, groups and societies. We use the model as a tool to present neglected ideas in contemporary behaviour change science, such as hysteresis and nonlinearity. The model of attractor landscapes can deepen understanding of well-known features of behaviour change (research), including short-livedness of intervention effects, problematicity of focusing on behavioural initiation while neglecting behavioural maintenance, continuum and stage models of behaviour change understood within a single accommodating framework, and the concept of resilience. We also demonstrate potential methods of analysis and outline avenues for future research. [less ▲]

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See detailUnsupervised network embedding beyond homophily
Zhong, Zhiqiang; Gonzalez, Guadalupe; Grattarola, Daniele et al

in Transactions on Machine Learning Research (2022)

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See detailCrex: Predicting patch correctness in automated repair of C programs through transfer learning of execution semantics
Yan, Dapeng; Liu, Kui; Niu, Yuqing et al

in Information and Software Technology (2022), 152

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See detailFunctional observability and subspace reconstruction in nonlinear systems
Montanari, Arthur; Freitas, Leandro; Proverbio, Daniele UL et al

in Physical Review Research (2022), 4

Time-series analysis is fundamental for modeling and predicting dynamical behaviors from time- ordered data, with applications in many disciplines such as physics, biology, finance, and engineering ... [more ▼]

Time-series analysis is fundamental for modeling and predicting dynamical behaviors from time- ordered data, with applications in many disciplines such as physics, biology, finance, and engineering. Measured time-series data, however, are often low dimensional or even univariate, thus requiring embedding methods to reconstruct the original system’s state space. The observability of a system establishes fundamental conditions under which such reconstruction is possible. However, complete observability is too restrictive in applications where reconstructing the entire state space is not necessary and only a specific subspace is relevant. Here, we establish the theoretic condition to reconstruct a nonlinear functional of state variables from measurement processes, generalizing the concept of functional observability to nonlinear systems. When the functional observability condition holds, we show how to construct a map from the embedding space to the desired functional of state variables, characterizing the quality of such reconstruction. The theoretical results are then illustrated numerically using chaotic systems with contrasting observability properties. By exploring the presence of functionally unobservable regions in embedded attractors, we also apply our theory for the early warning of seizure-like events in simulated and empirical data. The studies demonstrate that the proposed functional observability condition can be assessed a priori to guide time-series analysis and experimental design for the dynamical characterization of complex systems. [less ▲]

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See detailAlterations of oral microbiota and impact on the gut microbiome in type 1 diabetes mellitus revealed by integrated multi-omic analyses
Kunath, Benoît UL; Hickl, Oskar UL; Teixeira Queiros, Pedro UL et al

in Microbiome (2022)

Background: Alterations to the gut microbiome have been linked to multiple chronic diseases. However, the drivers of such changes remain largely unknown. The oral cavity acts as a major route of exposure ... [more ▼]

Background: Alterations to the gut microbiome have been linked to multiple chronic diseases. However, the drivers of such changes remain largely unknown. The oral cavity acts as a major route of exposure to exogenous factors including pathogens, and processes therein may affect the communities in the subsequent compartments of the gastrointestinal tract. Here, we perform strain‑resolved, integrated meta‑genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic analyses of paired saliva and stool samples collected from 35 individuals from eight families with multiple cases of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Results: We identified distinct oral microbiota mostly reflecting competition between streptococcal species. More specifically, we found a decreased abundance of the commensal Streptococcus salivarius in the oral cavity of T1DM individuals, which is linked to its apparent competition with the pathobiont Streptococcus mutans. The decrease in S. salivarius in the oral cavity was also associated with its decrease in the gut as well as higher abundances in facultative anaerobes including Enterobacteria. In addition, we found evidence of gut inflammation in T1DM as reflected in the expression profiles of the Enterobacteria as well as in the human gut proteome. Finally, we were able to follow transmitted strain‑variants from the oral cavity to the gut at the individual omic levels, highlighting not only the transfer, but also the activity of the transmitted taxa along the gastrointestinal tract. Conclusions: Alterations of the oral microbiome in the context of T1DM impact the microbial communities in the lower gut, in particular through the reduction of “mouth‑to‑gut” transfer of Streptococcus salivarius. Our results indicate that the observed oral‑cavity‑driven gut microbiome changes may contribute towards the inflammatory processes involved in T1DM. Through the integration of multi‑omic analyses, we resolve strain‑variant “mouth‑to‑gut” transfer in a disease context. [less ▲]

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See detailMagnetic neutron scattering from spherical nanoparticles with Néel surface anisotropy: atomistic simulations
Adams, Michael Philipp UL; Michels, Andreas UL; Kachkachi, Hamid

in Journal of Applied Crystallography (2022), 55(6), 1488-1499

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See detailDie inoffizielle Version. Besprechung von Dogan Akhanlis "Medea 38/Stimmen" am Schauspielhaus Bonn
Bloch, Natalie UL

in Theater heute (2022), 63(12), 59-60

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See detailAssessing the opportunity of combining state-of-the-art Android malware detectors
Daoudi, Nadia UL; Allix, Kévin; Bissyande, Tegawendé François D Assise UL et al

in Empirical Software Engineering (2022), 28

Research on Android malware detection based on Machine learning has been prolific in recent years. In this paper, we show, through a large-scale evaluation of four state-of-the-art approaches that their ... [more ▼]

Research on Android malware detection based on Machine learning has been prolific in recent years. In this paper, we show, through a large-scale evaluation of four state-of-the-art approaches that their achieved performance fluctuates when applied to different datasets. Combining existing approaches appears as an appealing method to stabilise performance. We therefore proceed to empirically investigate the effect of such combinations on the overall detection performance. In our study, we evaluated 22 methods to combine feature sets or predictions from the state-of-the-art approaches. Our results showed that no method has significantly enhanced the detection performance reported by the state-of-the-art malware detectors. Nevertheless, the performance achieved is on par with the best individual classifiers for all settings. Overall, we conduct extensive experiments on the opportunity to combine state-of-the-art detectors. Our main conclusion is that combining state-of-theart malware detectors leads to a stabilisation of the detection performance, and a research agenda on how they should be combined effectively is required to boost malware detection. All artefacts of our large-scale study (i.e., the dataset of ∼0.5 million apks and all extracted features) are made available for replicability. [less ▲]

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See detailCorporate Managers, Price Noise and the Investment Factor
Lehnert, Thorsten UL

in Financial Innovation (2022), 8(61),

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See detailMagnetic neutron scattering from spherical nanoparticles with Néel surface anisotropy: analytical treatment
Adams, Michael Philipp UL; Michels, Andreas UL; Kachkachi, Hamid

in Journal of Applied Crystallography (2022), 55(6), 1475-1487

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See detailChronique semestrielle de jurisprudence - 2e partie : Infractions du Code pénal
Delhaise, Elise UL; Colette-Basecqz, Nathalie; Nederlandt, Olivia

in Revue de Droit Pénal et de Criminologie (2022), 2022/12

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See detailThe multi-scale analysis of dynamic transmission volatility of carbon prices
Nsouadi, Ange; Terraza, Virginie UL

in Economics Bulletin (2022)

The implementation of the EU ETS in 2005 led to the establishment of a price that enables manufacturers to realize the impact of their activities on the environment clean. There are no items this day ... [more ▼]

The implementation of the EU ETS in 2005 led to the establishment of a price that enables manufacturers to realize the impact of their activities on the environment clean. There are no items this day, since the creation of the European carbon market, which has focused on analyzing volatility transmission between different investment horizons. The purpose of this paper is to fill this gap in the literature. we analyze the volatility of the price of carbon quota (EUA), by studying linear and nonlinear causal relationships of wavelet components between the different volatilities we captured at different time scales. we initially decomposed the EUA price volatility at different time-frequency intervals using a wavelet approach. Our study will be to examine whether the volatility is transmitted from the high-frequency structure of the carbon price in the low frequency. Our results show an intra-structural dependence on carbon price volatility. We detect instability in the volatility of carbon and observe the existence of a bidirectional relationship from high-frequency traders to low-frequency traders. Our study showed that high-frequency shocks yield carbon price can have a significant impact beyond their Frontiers and touch the low-frequency structure associated with long-term traders Keywords: Carbon market, EU ETS, Wavelet, time-scale, Granger Causality. [less ▲]

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See detailIntelligent and Secure Radio Environments for 6G Vehicular Aided HetNets: Key Opportunities and Challenges
Khan, Wali Ullah UL; Javed, Muhammad Awais; Zeadally, Sherali et al

in IEEE Communications standards Magazine (2022)

Reconfigurable meta-surfaces are emerging as a novel and revolutionizing technology to enable intelligent wireless environments. Due to the low cost, improved efficiency, and passive nature of reflecting ... [more ▼]

Reconfigurable meta-surfaces are emerging as a novel and revolutionizing technology to enable intelligent wireless environments. Due to the low cost, improved efficiency, and passive nature of reflecting elements, it is becoming possible to program and control the wireless environment. Since wireless physical layer technologies can generally adapt to the wireless environment, their combination with reconfigurable surfaces and deep learning approaches can open new avenues for achieving secure 6G vehicular aided heterogeneous networks (HetNets). Motivated by these appealing advantages, this work provides an intelligent and secure radio environment (ISRE) paradigm for 6G vehicular aided HetNets. We present an overview of enabling technologies for ISRE-based 6G vehicular aided HetNets. We discuss features, design goals, and applications of such networks. Next, we outline new opportunities provided by ISRE-based 6G vehicular HetNets and we present a case study using the contextual bandit approach in terms of best IRS for secure communications. Finally, we discuss some future research opportunities. [less ▲]

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See detailQuantum friction between metals in the hydrodynamic regime
Wu, Kunmin UL; Schmidt, Thomas UL; Farias, Maria Belen UL

in Physical Review. A. (2022), 106

We study the phenomenon of quantum friction in a system consisting of a polarizable atom moving at a constant speed parallel to a metallic plate. The metal is described using a charged hydrodynamic model ... [more ▼]

We study the phenomenon of quantum friction in a system consisting of a polarizable atom moving at a constant speed parallel to a metallic plate. The metal is described using a charged hydrodynamic model for the electrons. This model featuring long-range interactions is appropriate for a clean metal in a temperature range where scattering due to Coulomb interactions dominates over the scattering of electron by impurities. We find that a quantum friction force between the atom and the metal surface exists even in the absence of intrinsic damping in the metal, but that it only starts once the velocity of the atom exceeds the effective speed of sound in the metal. We argue that this condition can be fulfilled most easily in metals with nearly empty or nearly filled bands. We make quantitative predictions for the friction force to the second and fourth order in the atomic polarizability, and show that the threshold behavior persists to all orders of the perturbation theory. [less ▲]

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See detailBehind the last line of defense: Surviving SoC faults and intrusions
Pinto-Gouveia, Ines; Volp, Marcus UL; Esteves-Verissimo, Paulo

in Computers & Security (2022), 123

Today, leveraging the enormous modular power, diversity and flexibility of manycore systems-on-a-chip (SoCs) requires careful orchestration of complex and heterogeneous resources, a task left to low-level ... [more ▼]

Today, leveraging the enormous modular power, diversity and flexibility of manycore systems-on-a-chip (SoCs) requires careful orchestration of complex and heterogeneous resources, a task left to low-level software, e.g., hypervisors. In current architectures, this software forms a single point of failure and worthwhile target for attacks: once compromised, adversaries can gain access to all information and full control over the platform and the environment it controls. This article proposes Midir, an enhanced manycore architecture, effecting a paradigm shift from SoCs to distributed SoCs. Midir changes the way platform resources are controlled, by retrofitting tile-based fault containment through well known mechanisms, while securing low-overhead quorum-based consensus on all critical operations, in particular privilege management and, thus, management of containment domains. Allowing versatile redundancy management, Midir promotes resilience for all software levels, including at low level. We explain this architecture, its associated algorithms and hardware mechanisms and show, for the example of a Byzantine fault tolerant microhypervisor, that it outperforms the highly efficient MinBFT by one order of magnitude. [less ▲]

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See detailCormenin et l’hystérisation de la joute parlementaire sous la monarchie de Juillet
Saintes, Laetitia UL

in Savoirs en lien (2022), 1

Under the July Monarchy, parliamentary debate was marked by the sometimes unheard-of verbal violence of the exchanges that Louis de Cormenin, MP and pamphleteer, described in his Livre des orateurs (1836 ... [more ▼]

Under the July Monarchy, parliamentary debate was marked by the sometimes unheard-of verbal violence of the exchanges that Louis de Cormenin, MP and pamphleteer, described in his Livre des orateurs (1836). In the face of this hysterisation of parliamentary debate, did Cormenin plead for moderation? Did he advocate a debate that allowed room for verbal violence against the immobilism of ministerial policy? Or did he call for a middle way? This contribution seeks to answer this question in the light of the Livre des orateurs and the Lettres sur la liste civile. [less ▲]

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See detailDemystifying Hidden Sensitive Operations in Android apps
Sun, Xiaoyu; Chen, Xiao; Li, Li et al

in ACM Transactions on Software Engineering and Methodology (2022)

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See detailscFASTCORMICS: A Contextualization Algorithm to Reconstruct Metabolic Multi-Cell Population Models from Single-Cell RNAseq Data
Pires Pacheco, Maria Irene UL; Ji, Jimmy; Prohaska, Tessy et al

in Metabolites (2022)

Tumours are composed of various cancer cell populations with different mutation profiles, phenotypes and metabolism that cause them to react to drugs in diverse manners. Increasing the resolution of ... [more ▼]

Tumours are composed of various cancer cell populations with different mutation profiles, phenotypes and metabolism that cause them to react to drugs in diverse manners. Increasing the resolution of metabolic models based on single-cell expression data will provide deeper insight into such metabolic differences and improve the predictive power of the models. scFASTCORMICS is a network contextualization algorithm that builds multi-cell population genome-scale models from single-cell RNAseq data. The models contain a subnetwork for each cell population in a tumour, allowing to capture metabolic variations between these clusters. The subnetworks are connected by a union compartment that permits to simulate metabolite exchanges between cell populations in the microenvironment. scFASTCORMICS uses Pareto optimization to simultaneously maximise the compactness, completeness and specificity of the reconstructed metabolic models. scFASTCORMICS is implemented in MATLAB and requires the installation of the COBRA toolbox, rFASTCORMICS and the IBM CPLEX solver. [less ▲]

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See detailA Learning Based Framework for Enhancing Physical Layer Security in Cooperative D2D Network
Ahmad, Noman; Sardar Sidhu, Guftaar Ahmad; Khan, Wali Ullah UL

in Electronics (2022)

Next-generation wireless communication networks demand high spectrum efficiency to serve the requirements of an enormous number of devices over a limited available frequency spectrum. Device-to-device ... [more ▼]

Next-generation wireless communication networks demand high spectrum efficiency to serve the requirements of an enormous number of devices over a limited available frequency spectrum. Device-to-device (D2D) communication with spectrum reuse offers a potential solution to spectrum scarcity. On the other hand, non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) as a multiple-access approach has emerged as a key technology to re-use a spectrum among multiple users. A cellular users (CUs) can share their spectrum with D2D users (DUs) and in response, the D2D network can help relay the CU signal to achieve better secrecy from an eavesdropper. Power optimization is known to be a promising technique to enhance system performance in challenging communication environments. This work aimed to enhance the secrecy rate of the CUs where the D2D transmitter (DT) helps in relaying the CU’s message under the amplify and forward (AF) protocol. A power optimization problem is considered under the quality of service constraints in terms of minimum rate requirements at the receivers and maximum power budgets at the transmitters. The problem is a non-convex complex optimization. A deep learning-based solution is proposed and promising results are obtained in terms of the secrecy rate of CU and the rate of D2D users. [less ▲]

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See detailVirtual Network Embedding for NGSO Systems: Algorithmic Solution and SDN-Testbed Validation
Minardi, Mario UL; Vu, Thang Xuan UL; Lei, Lei UL et al

in IEEE Transactions on Network and Service Management (2022)

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See detailOn the use of sì? (‘yes?’) as invariant follow-up in Italian: A historical corpus-based account of pragmatic language change
Viola, Lorella UL

in Journal of Historical Pragmatics (2022)

Follow-ups are elliptical interrogative forms typically constituting an utterance in their own right. They are used to signal attention to the interlocutor, to encourage them to continue or as a reply to ... [more ▼]

Follow-ups are elliptical interrogative forms typically constituting an utterance in their own right. They are used to signal attention to the interlocutor, to encourage them to continue or as a reply to a call. This paper investigates the invariant follow-up sì? (‘yes?’) in Italian and it argues that it represents a case of pragmatic language change. To this end, it investigates the diachronic distribution, collocation and contexts of usage of sì? in a variety of language sources in relation to plausible, equivalent expressions (i.e., dimmi and dica [‘tell me’]). The analysis will show that since its earliest record of use in films in 1960, the frequency of occurrence of this form has dramatically increased to the point that, today, it is the preferred device. The study will also provide solid evidence of positive correlations between the use of yes? in English language audio-visual products and the use of sì? in scripted and real-use Italian, strongly suggesting that the marker would in fact be a case of pragmatic borrowing from English. [less ▲]

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See detailVisual SLAM: What Are the Current Trends and What to Expect?
Tourani, Ali UL; Bavle, Hriday UL; Sanchez Lopez, Jose Luis UL et al

in Sensors (2022), 22(23), 9297

In recent years, Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) systems have shown significant performance, accuracy, and efficiency gain. In this regard, Visual Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (VSLAM ... [more ▼]

In recent years, Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) systems have shown significant performance, accuracy, and efficiency gain. In this regard, Visual Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (VSLAM) methods refer to the SLAM approaches that employ cameras for pose estimation and map reconstruction and are preferred over Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR)-based methods due to their lighter weight, lower acquisition costs, and richer environment representation. Hence, several VSLAM approaches have evolved using different camera types (e.g., monocular or stereo), and have been tested on various datasets (e.g., Technische Universität München (TUM) RGB-D or European Robotics Challenge (EuRoC)) and in different conditions (i.e., indoors and outdoors), and employ multiple methodologies to have a better understanding of their surroundings. The mentioned variations have made this topic popular for researchers and have resulted in various methods. In this regard, the primary intent of this paper is to assimilate the wide range of works in VSLAM and present their recent advances, along with discussing the existing challenges and trends. This survey is worthwhile to give a big picture of the current focuses in robotics and VSLAM fields based on the concentrated resolutions and objectives of the state-of-the-art. This paper provides an in-depth literature survey of fifty impactful articles published in the VSLAMs domain. The mentioned manuscripts have been classified by different characteristics, including the novelty domain, objectives, employed algorithms, and semantic level. The paper also discusses the current trends and contemporary directions of VSLAM techniques that may help researchers investigate them. [less ▲]

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See detailProvisional Measures and the Risk of Patent Invalidity – “Phoenix Contact” and the German Approach to Interlocutory Injunctions
Stierle, Martin UL

in Journal of Intellectual Property Law and Practice (2022), 17(11), 962-971

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See detailExperimental separation of the onset of slip and sharkskin melt instabilities during the extrusion of silica‑filled, styrene–butadiene rubber compounds
Gansen, Alex UL; Řehoř, Martin; Sill, Clemens et al

in Rheologica Acta (2022)

The flow curves of polymers often reveal the onset of melt instabilities such as sharkskin, stick–slip, or gross melt fracture, in order of increasing shear rates. The focus of this work lies in the ... [more ▼]

The flow curves of polymers often reveal the onset of melt instabilities such as sharkskin, stick–slip, or gross melt fracture, in order of increasing shear rates. The focus of this work lies in the application of the Göttfert sharkskin option to the investigation of flow curves of styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) compounds. The sharkskin option consists of highly sensitive pressure transducers located inside a slit die of a capillary rheometer. This tool allows the detection of in-situ pressure fluctuation characteristics of different melt instabilities. It is shown that the change of slope of the transition region in the flow curves is only linked to slip. Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) measurements furthermore show that the shear rate at which the change of slope can be observed shows the same temperature dependency as the viscous and elastic properties of the compounds. [less ▲]

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See detailIntronic enhancers of the human SNCA gene predominantly regulate its expression in brain in vivo.
Cheng, Fubo; Zheng, Wenxu; Liu, Chang et al

in Science advances (2022), 8(47), 6324

Evidence from patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and our previously reported α-synuclein (SNCA) transgenic rat model support the idea that increased SNCA protein is a substantial risk factor of PD ... [more ▼]

Evidence from patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and our previously reported α-synuclein (SNCA) transgenic rat model support the idea that increased SNCA protein is a substantial risk factor of PD pathogenesis. However, little is known about the transcription control of the human SNCA gene in the brain in vivo. Here, we identified that the DYT6 gene product THAP1 (THAP domain-containing apoptosis-associated protein 1) and its interaction partner CTCF (CCCTC-binding factor) act as transcription regulators of SNCA. THAP1 controls SNCA intronic enhancers' activities, while CTCF regulates its enhancer-promoter loop formation. The SNCA intronic enhancers present neurodevelopment-dependent activities and form enhancer clusters similar to "super-enhancers" in the brain, in which the PD-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms are enriched. Deletion of the SNCA intronic enhancer clusters prevents the release of paused RNA polymerase II from its promoter and subsequently reduces its expression drastically in the brain, which may provide new therapeutic approaches to prevent its accumulation and thus related neurodegenerative diseases defined as synucleinopathies. [less ▲]

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See detailMeatless masculinity: Examining profiles of male veg*n eating motives and their relation to gendered self-concepts
Kakoschke, Kim; Hale, Miriam-Linnea UL; Sischka, Philipp UL et al

in Current Psychology (2022)

Meat is a food item that is often associated with masculinity. Considering this gender stereotype, research on vegan and vegetarian (veg*n) eating motives has focused on how distinct motives relate to ... [more ▼]

Meat is a food item that is often associated with masculinity. Considering this gender stereotype, research on vegan and vegetarian (veg*n) eating motives has focused on how distinct motives relate to stereotypes of masculinity and femininity. Quantitative studies examining how masculinity and femininity are integrated into the self-concept of these eaters are lacking to date. Moreover, investigators have largely tested the effects of motives in isolation, neglecting the possibility of different motivational profiles that relate differently to gendered self-concepts. The current study adopted a person-centred approach using cluster analysis to identify motivational profiles of self-identified veg*n males, thereby testing whether these profiles differ on dimensions of positive and negative masculinity and femininity. Self-reported data were collected via an online survey among people self-identifying as male and following a vegan or vegetarian dietary pattern (N = 738; 79.8% vegans). A k-means cluster analysis revealed three motivational profiles (n1= 439, 59.5%, ‘equally-balanced’; n2 = 254, 34.4%, ‘ethical-environmental’; n3= 45, 6.1%, ‘moderately-health’). Unique differences emerged in gendered self-concepts tied to all veg*n eating motive profile memberships: Equally-balanced motivated eaters perceived themselves to possess the most positive stereotypical feminine attributes, while moderately-health motivated eaters described themselves with the least of these attributes. Veg*n eaters did not differ on any of the other dimensions of femininity and masculinity. The present study demonstrates that a cluster analysis supplies important information on what combinations of eating motives veg*n males report and how those relate to differences in gendered self-concepts of veg*n eaters. [less ▲]

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See detailModular Orders on Defaults in Formal Argumentation
Pardo Ventura, Pere UL; Strasser, Christian

in Journal of Logic and Computation (2022)

Default logic and formal argumentation are paradigmatic methods in the study of nonmonotonic inference. Defeasible information often comes in different strengths stemming from different degrees of ... [more ▼]

Default logic and formal argumentation are paradigmatic methods in the study of nonmonotonic inference. Defeasible information often comes in different strengths stemming from different degrees of reliability in epistemic applications or from varying strengths of authorities issuing norms in deontic applications. In both paradigms methods have been developed to deal with prioritized knowledge bases and normative systems. Questions of comparability of these methods therefore naturally arise. Argumentation theory has been developed with a strong emphasis on unification. It is therefore a desideratum to obtain natural representations of various approaches to (prioritized) default logic within frameworks of structured argumentation, such as ASPIC. Important steps in this direction have been presented in Liao et al. (2016, 2018). In this work we identify and address some problems in earlier translations, we broaden the focus from total to modular orderings of defaults, and we consider non-normal defaults. [less ▲]

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See detailElectronic and thermal signatures of phosphorene grain boundaries under uniaxial strain
Rodríguez Méndez, Alvaro; Medrano Sandonas, Leonardo UL; Dianat, Arezoo et al

in Physical Review Materials (2022), 6(114003),

Two-dimensional materials have great potential for applications as high-performance electronic devices and efficient thermal rectificators. Among them, pristine phosphorene, a single layer of black ... [more ▼]

Two-dimensional materials have great potential for applications as high-performance electronic devices and efficient thermal rectificators. Among them, pristine phosphorene, a single layer of black phosphorus, has shown promising properties such as ultrahigh charge mobility, a tunable band gap, and mechanical flexibility. However, the introduction of extended structural defects such as grain boundaries (GBs) has, in general, a detrimental influence on the electronic and thermal transport properties by causing additional scattering events. In this computational study, based on a combination of a density-functional parametrized tight-binding approach with the Landauer theory of quantum transport, we show that applying a strain can help to partially counteract this effect. We exemplify this by addressing the electronic and phononic transmission of two specific grain boundaries containing 5|7 (GB1) and 4|8 (GB2) defects, respectively. Under uniaxial strain, the electronic band gaps can be reduced for both types of GB, while the respective thermal conductance is only weakly affected despite rather strong changes in the frequency-resolved phonon transmission. The combination of both effects mainly produces an increase of about a factor of 2 in the thermoelectric figure of merit ZT for a GB2 system. Hence, our results provide insights into the manipulation of transport properties as well as the generation of potential thermoelectric materials based on phosphorene. [less ▲]

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See detailReliability of Spectrum-Efficient Mixed Satellite-Underwater Systems
Gamal, Christina; Elsayed, Mohamed; Samir, Ahmed et al

in IEEE Open Journal of the Communications Society (2022), 3

The combination of radio-frequency (RF) communication and underwater optical wireless communication (UOWC) plays a vital role in the underwater Internet of Things (UIoT). This correspondence proposes a ... [more ▼]

The combination of radio-frequency (RF) communication and underwater optical wireless communication (UOWC) plays a vital role in the underwater Internet of Things (UIoT). This correspondence proposes a dual-hop hybrid satellite underwater system that exploits non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) as a spectrum-efficient access technique. The RF link from the satellite to the relay on an oil platform is presumptively subject to a Shadowed-Rician (SR) fading, while the UOWC channels from the relay to the underwater destinations are suggested to follow Exponential-Generalized Gamma (EGG) distributions. The reliability of the system is characterized in terms of both underwater destinations and system outage probabilities (OPs). We derive new closed-form expressions for the OPs under imperfect successive interference cancellation (SIC) conditions. Furthermore, the asymptotic OP and the diversity order (DO) are obtained to learn more about the system’s performance. The results are verified through an extensive representative Monte-Carlo simulation. Also, we investigate the performance against the turbulence of the salty water, air bubbles level (BL), temperature gradients (TG), shadowing parameters, and satellite pointing errors due to satellite motion, even if the beam is pointed at the center of the directive antenna relay, the beam will randomly oscillate. Finally, we contrast our approach with the conventional orthogonal multiple access (OMA) scheme to demonstrate its superiority. [less ▲]

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See detailRent, sell, and remanufacture: The manufacturer’s choice when remanufacturing can be outsourced
liu, Jian; Mantin, Binyamin UL; Song, Xuefeng

in European Journal of Operational Research (2022), 303(1), 184-200

Manufacturers have increasingly started offering rental options for the products they sell. Renting products offers an opportunity: segmenting consumers. However, this also raises a challenge: what to do ... [more ▼]

Manufacturers have increasingly started offering rental options for the products they sell. Renting products offers an opportunity: segmenting consumers. However, this also raises a challenge: what to do with the returned products? One solution is to remanufacture these products and then rent or resell them. Subsequently, should remanufacturing be outsourced to a third-party firm that can remanufacture at a lower cost? Here, we use a multi-period setting and examine the optimal decisions for different selling and renting constellations. Importantly, we allow the manufacturing costs of the sales and rental products to differ, as they seem to be critical in determining the manufacturer's renting and selling decisions and remanufacturing strategies. For example, under integrated (i.e. in-house) remanufacturing, when the new rental product's manufacturing cost is sufficiently high, no remanufacturing happens. Under both remanufacturing strategies—integrated and outsourced—the manufacturer does not rent new products in the second period if the manufacturing costs of the sales and rental products are identical. If the rental product's manufacturing cost is either sufficiently low or high, then integrated remanufacturing is more profitable; when this manufacturing cost is within a moderate range, the manufacturer outsources remanufacturing to an independent remanufacturer. Surprisingly, in some situations, the production quantity of the new sales product may even increase with its manufacturing cost. This is because the manufacturer may extract an even higher margin compared with the new rental product. Finally, we also consider several extensions such as uncertainty regarding the quality of the returned goods, simultaneous selling and renting of remanufactured goods, and longer horizons and the product's life cycle. [less ▲]

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See detailStructural stability despite increased fragmentation: The 2021 county elections in Croatia
Glaurdic, Josip UL; Fel, Leo UL

in Regional and Federal Studies (2022)

The 2021 county elections in Croatia were the perfect example of political change amidst continuity. Relatively new parties and independent candidates made significant inroads against the dominant players ... [more ▼]

The 2021 county elections in Croatia were the perfect example of political change amidst continuity. Relatively new parties and independent candidates made significant inroads against the dominant players of the center-right and the center-left, most notably in the capital city of Zagreb, where a novel leftist political platform won the elections conclusively. The rise of new and credible alternatives resulted in increased fragmentation of the county assemblies and likely more unstable regional governments in the near future. On the other hand, the party that has dominated Croatian politics since independence, Croatian Democratic Union (HDZ), continued that dominance on the county-level by winning 15 out of 21 offices of county prefects. More important, the determinants of electoral support for the principal political blocs have remained unchanged from the pattern observed in all national elections since the end of Croatia’s War of Independence more than two and a half decades ago. [less ▲]

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See detailPrivacy-preserving federated learning for residential short-term load forecasting
Delgado Fernandez, Joaquin UL; Potenciano Menci, Sergio UL; Lee, Chul Min UL et al

in Applied Energy (2022), 326

With high levels of intermittent power generation and dynamic demand patterns, accurate forecasts for residential loads have become essential. Smart meters can play an important role when making these ... [more ▼]

With high levels of intermittent power generation and dynamic demand patterns, accurate forecasts for residential loads have become essential. Smart meters can play an important role when making these forecasts as they provide detailed load data. However, using smart meter data for load forecasting is challenging due to data privacy requirements. This paper investigates how these requirements can be addressed through a combination of federated learning and privacy preserving techniques such as differential privacy and secure aggregation. For our analysis, we employ a large set of residential load data and simulate how different federated learning models and privacy preserving techniques affect performance and privacy. Our simulations reveal that combining federated learning and privacy preserving techniques can secure both high forecasting accuracy and near-complete privacy. Specifically, we find that such combinations enable a high level of information sharing while ensuring privacy of both the processed load data and forecasting models. Moreover, we identify and discuss challenges of applying federated learning, differential privacy and secure aggregation for residential short-term load forecasting. [less ▲]

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See detailTopological origin of the protein folding transition
di Cairano, Loris UL; Capelli, Riccardo; Bel-Hadj-Aissa, Ghofrane et al

in Physical Review. E. (2022), 106

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See detailOverlap of parafermionic zero modes at a finite distance
Teixeira, Raphael L. R. C.; Haller, Andreas UL; Singh, Roshni et al

in Physical Review Research (2022)

Parafermion bound states (PBSs) are generalizations of Majorana bound states (MBSs) and have been predicted to exist as zero-energy eigenstates in proximitized fractional quantum Hall edge states ... [more ▼]

Parafermion bound states (PBSs) are generalizations of Majorana bound states (MBSs) and have been predicted to exist as zero-energy eigenstates in proximitized fractional quantum Hall edge states. Similarly to MBSs, a finite distance between the PBS can split the ground state degeneracy. However, parafermionic modes have a richer exchange statistics than MBSs, so several interaction terms are allowed by the underlying $\mathbb{Z}_{2n}$ symmetry, rendering the effective Hamiltonian governing a pair of PBSs at a finite distance nontrivial. Here, we use a combination of analytical techniques (semiclassical instanton approximation) and numerical techniques (quantum Monte Carlo simulations) to determine the effective coupling Hamiltonian. For this purpose, we go beyond the dilute one-instanton gas approximation and show how finite-size effects can give rise to higher-order parafermion interactions. We find excellent agreement between the analytical results and Monte Carlo simulations. We estimate that these finite-size corrections should be observable in some of the recently proposed experiments to observe PBSs in strongly correlated systems. [less ▲]

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See detailMultifunctional Properties of Polyvinylidene-Fluoride-Based Materials: From Energy Harvesting to Energy Storage
Fricaudet, Matthieu; Ziberna, Katarina; Salmanov, Samir et al

in ACS Applied Electronic Materials (2022), 4(11), 54295436

Organic ferroelectrics are increasingly important due to their complementary properties to classical, inorganic ferroelectrics. Flexibility, chemical resistance, scalability, high breakdown fields, and ... [more ▼]

Organic ferroelectrics are increasingly important due to their complementary properties to classical, inorganic ferroelectrics. Flexibility, chemical resistance, scalability, high breakdown fields, and biocompatibility are attractive for many applications like energy harvesting and storage. The most known energy harvesting methods are piezoelectric, pyroelectric, and triboelectric. Here, we apply the well-established material's figures of merit to five polyvinylidene-fluoride-based compositions ranging from ferroelectric to relaxor-like behavior to emphasize the importance of several key material parameters contributing to the maximal power output of energy harvesting devices. Afterward, we discuss the possibility of the same functional material storing the output energy for the development of scalable multifunctional devices. [less ▲]

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See detailMultiuser-MISO Precoding under Channel Phase Uncertainty in Satellite Communication Systems
Martinez Marrero, Liz UL; Haqiqatnejad, Alireza UL; Merlano Duncan, Juan Carlos UL et al

in IEEE Open Journal of Vehicular Technology (2022)

Linear and symbol-level precoding in satellite communications have received increasing research attention thanks to their ability to tackle inter-beam interference, allowing the use of spectral resources ... [more ▼]

Linear and symbol-level precoding in satellite communications have received increasing research attention thanks to their ability to tackle inter-beam interference, allowing the use of spectral resources more efficiently. However, there are still challenges and open questions regarding the implementation of practical precoding systems taking the phase uncertainties in estimating the channel state information into account. This work assesses the impact of phase variations and uncertainties inherent to the satellite communication system operating a precoded forward link. Specifically, we address the inability to measure at the user terminal, the absolute phase rotation introduced by the channel, and the transponder local oscillator phase noise effects on the precoding operations considering the use of frequency division multiplexing in the forward-uplink transmission. We formally demonstrate that the system performance for linear and non-linear precoding operations is not affected by the uncertainty in the phase measurements at the user terminal. Additionally, we show that using a single frequency reference for all the local oscillators at the transponder does not avoid the phase variations related to the frequency division multiplexing in the forward-uplink. This work demonstrates that these phase variations would not affect the system performance for an ideal zero-delay precoding loop. However, this is not feasible in practical scenarios, where the phase noise of the frequency reference at the transponder and the loop delay determine the impact on the system performance. We validate our results by simulations considering three frequency references with different stability levels in a typical GEO satellite system. Our results suggest that practical implementations of multiuser-MISO precoding systems must include a differential phase synchronization loop to compensate for this performance degradation. [less ▲]

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See detailTranslanguaging stance of preschool teachers working with multilingual children in Luxembourg
Aleksic, Gabrijela UL; Bebic-Crestany, Dzoen

in International Journal of Multilingualism (2022)

In today’s linguistically and culturally diverse schools, it is important that teachers use inclusive pedagogies, such as translanguaging. This pedagogy assumes that teachers have positive attitudes ... [more ▼]

In today’s linguistically and culturally diverse schools, it is important that teachers use inclusive pedagogies, such as translanguaging. This pedagogy assumes that teachers have positive attitudes towards children’s home languages and cultures (translanguaging stance), which we explored in our study with 40 preschool teachers in Luxembourg. The teachers participated in the professional development course on translanguaging over six months. To identify teachers’ stance before and after the course, they completed questionnaires and participated in focus groups, and after completing the course, teacher–child interactions in the classroom were videotaped and analysed. Empirical findings of the questionnaires demonstrate that teachers’ attitudes towards children’s multilingualism and home languages increased significantly after participating in the course. In the focus groups, the majority of teachers expressed a mild translanguaging stance, meaning that they were afraid that the inclusion of children’s home languages will hinder children’s development of the school language, Luxembourgish. Finally, in the videotaped observations, the foci teachers demonstrated their positive stance in one activity and a negative stance in another. Following the study's multi-method approach, we conclude that teachers’ attitudes were ambivalent and paradoxical, which depicts a rather realistic picture of preschool teachers’ attitudes in Luxembourg. [less ▲]

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See detailDefect Formation and Healing at Grain Boundaries in Lead-Halide Perovskites
Kaiser, Waldemar; Hussain, Kashif; Singh, Ajay UL et al

in Journal of Materials Chemistry A (2022)

Polycrystalline perovskite solar cells show high power conversion efficiencies despite the presence of grain boundaries (GBs). The benign nature of GBs on the electronic properties and structural ... [more ▼]

Polycrystalline perovskite solar cells show high power conversion efficiencies despite the presence of grain boundaries (GBs). The benign nature of GBs on the electronic properties and structural stability in metal-halide perovskites contradicts their propensity for point defect formation, a controversy that is far from being understood. In this work, we combine ab initio molecular dynamics and density functional theory calculations on the S5[130] GB of cesium lead iodide, CsPbI3, to shed light on the structural and electronic properties of such GBs. Our results present the first evidence of structural healing of GBs driven by the facile migration of iodine ions, resulting in stabilized GB structures with reduced hole trap states and shallow electron trap states by strain-induced Pb–Pb dimers. Drift-diffusion simulations reveal that shallow electron trap states in GB mainly lower open-circuit voltage by enhanced non-radiative recombination. Finally, we observe the spontaneous formation of iodine Frenkel defects with reduced formation energies compared to the perovskite bulk. Overall, our study reveals a controversy of GBs showing a moderate impact on the electronic properties by structural healing but a detrimental impact on the point defect densities, both being connected to the facile migration of iodine ions in GBs. [less ▲]

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See detailDas Versprechen der Zirkularität
Hild, Paula UL; Schulz, Christian UL

in Standort (2022)

Against the backdrop of the recent political dynamics in the EU and in many of its member states regarding the Circular Economy, the present article discusses the impact of the concept so far and the ... [more ▼]

Against the backdrop of the recent political dynamics in the EU and in many of its member states regarding the Circular Economy, the present article discusses the impact of the concept so far and the challenges related to its implementation. In particular, it sheds a critical light on the following three aspects: first, the selective reception of the approach by key actors in industry and politics; second, the obvious implementation problems in trade and industry; and third, the underlying, growth-fixated economic model. Results from our own empirical work on the Luxembourg construction industry illustrate the reasoning. The article argues for a holistic and growth-critical understanding of circularity that not only gives space to orientation of efficiency and consistency but above all also to considerations of sufficiency. [less ▲]

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See detailLes applications pratiques de la fiducie en droit des affaires luxembourgeois
Prüm, André UL

in Semaine Juridique. Notariale et Immobilière (2022), 45

Le succès que connaît la fiducie luxembourgeoise depuis près de quarante ans tient avant tout à la sécurité que lui procure l’intervention obligatoire, en qualité de fiduciaire, d’un professionnel des ... [more ▼]

Le succès que connaît la fiducie luxembourgeoise depuis près de quarante ans tient avant tout à la sécurité que lui procure l’intervention obligatoire, en qualité de fiduciaire, d’un professionnel des secteurs financier ou des assurances. Une enquête de terrain menée en début d’année montre qu’elle sert principalement comme support à la gestion de portefeuilles de valeurs mobilières, à des programmes d’émission de « fiduciary notes » par des établissements de crédit et des organismes de titrisation et à de dépôts de liquidités de fonds d’investissements. [less ▲]

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See detailA Legal Study of the Future of Chinese Infrastructure Development in the Western Balkans in the Light of the EU Rebuilding of Ukraine
Gubenko, Stanislav UL

in China, Law and Development (2022), (7),

The paper seeks to find out whether the successful EU rebuilding of Ukraine according to European standards can become a game-changer in the competition between Chinese and European infrastructure ... [more ▼]

The paper seeks to find out whether the successful EU rebuilding of Ukraine according to European standards can become a game-changer in the competition between Chinese and European infrastructure development initiatives in the Western Balkans. [less ▲]

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See detailActive reconfiguration of cytoplasmic lipid droplets governs migration of nutrient-limited phytoplankton
Sengupta, Anupam UL; Dhar, Jayabrata UL; Danza, Francesco UL et al

in Science Advances (2022), 8(44), 1-16

Nutrient availability, along with light and temperature, drives marine primary production. The ability to migrate vertically, a critical trait of motile phytoplankton, allows species to optimize nutrient ... [more ▼]

Nutrient availability, along with light and temperature, drives marine primary production. The ability to migrate vertically, a critical trait of motile phytoplankton, allows species to optimize nutrient uptake, storage, and growth. However, this traditional view discounts the possibility that migration in nutrient-limited waters may be actively modulated by the emergence of energy-storing organelles. Here, we report that bloom-forming raphidophytes harness energy-storing cytoplasmic lipid droplets (LDs) to biomechanically regulate vertical migration in nutrient-limited settings. LDs grow and translocate directionally within the cytoplasm, steering strain-specific shifts in the speed, trajectory, and stability of swimming cells. Nutrient reincorporation restores their swimming traits, mediated by an active reconfiguration of LD size and coordinates. A mathematical model of cell mechanics establishes the mechanistic coupling between intracellular changes and emergent migratory behavior. Amenable to the associated photophysiology, LD-governed behavioral shift highlights an exquisite microbial strategy toward niche expansion and resource optimization in nutrient-limited oceans. [less ▲]

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See detailAbelianization and fixed point properties of units in integral group rings
Bächle, Andreas; Janssens, Geoffrey; Jespers, Eric et al

in Mathematische Nachrichten (2022)

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See detailLong time series of absolute gravity observations in Kulusuk, southeast Greenland
Francis, Olivier UL

in Geoscience Data Journal (2022), n/a(n/a),

Abstract This report contains terrestrial absolute gravity measurements performed near the village of Kulusuk in southeast Greenland. It represents an exceptionally long time series of nearly two decades ... [more ▼]

Abstract This report contains terrestrial absolute gravity measurements performed near the village of Kulusuk in southeast Greenland. It represents an exceptionally long time series of nearly two decades. The measurements began in July 1996 until July 2015. The station is located a few meters beside a permanent GNSS station. The final gravity values (g-values), more precisely the accelerations due to gravity, are listed along their associated uncertainties. A description of the station, a short explanation on the absolute gravimeter, and the data processing are presented. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Cyber Resilience Act: the EU Commission’s proposal for a horizontal regulation on cybersecurity for products with digital elements. An introduction
Chiara, Pier Giorgio UL

in International Cybersecurity Law Review (2022)

The EU Commission presented on 15 September 2022 the proposal for a ‘Regulation on horizontal cybersecurity requirements for products with digital elements amending Regulation (EU) 2019/1020’ (Cyber ... [more ▼]

The EU Commission presented on 15 September 2022 the proposal for a ‘Regulation on horizontal cybersecurity requirements for products with digital elements amending Regulation (EU) 2019/1020’ (Cyber Resilience Act, CRA). This long-awaited piece of legislation would complement EU cybersecurity acquis by laying down horizontal cybersecurity requirements for all products with digital elements. This article sheds light on the ‘horizontal’ character of the CRA proposal by highlighting its main pillars. In particular, the contribution takes into account the new set of obligations placed on economic operators, the conformity assessment procedures as well as the market surveillance framework and the interplay with other legislative initiatives, both in the policy area and outside EU cybersecurity law. Against the backdrop of the sectoral regulatory approach adopted thus far by the Commission vis-à-vis cybersecurity requirements for products, horizontal intervention is needed to ensure legal certainty, avoiding duplicative obligations and further market fragmentation. [less ▲]

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See detailEFFECTIVE CONTRACTION OF SKINNING MAPS
Cremaschi, Tommaso UL; Dello Schiavo, Lorenzo

in Proceedings of the American Mathematical Society, Series B (2022), 9

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See detailEditorial
Cole, Mark David UL; Klass, Nadine

in UFITA - Archiv für Medienrecht und Medienwissenschaft (2022), 86(1), 3-5

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See detailElectricity powered by blockchain: A review with a European perspective
Roth, Tamara UL; Utz, Manuel; Baumgarte, Felix et al

in Applied Energy (2022), 325

Blockchain is no longer just a hype technology, and effective blockchain applications exist in many industries. Yet, few blockchain projects have been successful in Europe’s energy systems. To identify ... [more ▼]

Blockchain is no longer just a hype technology, and effective blockchain applications exist in many industries. Yet, few blockchain projects have been successful in Europe’s energy systems. To identify the reasons for this slow progress, we reviewed the recent energy literature regarding the use of blockchain, analyzed industry reports, and interviewed experts who have conducted blockchain projects in Europe’s energy systems. Our analysis reveals eight common use cases, their expected benefits, and the challenges encountered. We find that the expected benefits are often little more than generic hopes, largely outweighed by technological, organizational, and regulatory challenges. The identified challenges are significant and numerous, especially for peer-to-peer trading and microgrid use cases. The fact that few projects have yet provided robust evidence for profitable use suggests there is still a rocky road ahead. Moreover, many use cases appear to require more than just blockchain technology to succeed. In particular, privacy and scalability requirements often call for systems in which blockchains only take a backseat. This realization may be essential for the future use of blockchain technology in energy systems – in Europe and beyond. [less ▲]

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See detailSecurity–Reliability Tradeoff Analysis for SWIPT- and AF-Based IoT Networks With Friendly Jammers
Nguyen, Tan N.; Tran, Dinh-Hieu; Chien, Trinh Van et al

in IEEE Internet of Things Journal (2022), 9(21), 21662-21675

Radio-frequency (RF) energy harvesting (EH) in wireless relaying networks has attracted considerable recent interest, especially for supplying energy to relay nodes in the Internet of Things (IoT) systems ... [more ▼]

Radio-frequency (RF) energy harvesting (EH) in wireless relaying networks has attracted considerable recent interest, especially for supplying energy to relay nodes in the Internet of Things (IoT) systems to assist the information exchange between a source and a destination. Moreover, limited hardware, computational resources, and energy availability of IoT devices have raised various security challenges. To this end, physical-layer security (PLS) has been proposed as an effective alternative to cryptographic methods for providing information security. In this study, we propose a PLS approach for simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT)-based half-duplex (HD) amplify-and-forward (AF) relaying systems in the presence of an eavesdropper. Furthermore, we take into account both static power splitting relaying (SPSR) and dynamic power splitting relaying (DPSR) to thoroughly investigate the benefits of each one. To further enhance secure communication, we consider multiple friendly jammers to help prevent wiretapping attacks from the eavesdropper. More specifically, we provide a reliability and security analysis by deriving closed-form expressions of outage probability (OP) and intercept probability (IP), respectively, for both the SPSR and DPSR schemes. Then, simulations are also performed to validate our analysis and the effectiveness of the proposed schemes. Specifically, numerical results illustrate the nontrivial tradeoff between reliability and security of the proposed system. In addition, we conclude from the simulation results that the proposed DPSR scheme outperforms the SPSR-based scheme in terms of OP and IP under the influences of different parameters on system performance. [less ▲]

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See detailAmbient intelligence approach: Internet of Things based decision performance analysis for intrusion detection
Nagarajan, Senthil Murugan UL

in Computer Communications (2022), 195

In recent infrastructures, Internet of Things (IoT) have become an important technology for connecting various actuators and sensors over wireless networks. Due to increase in mission-critical ... [more ▼]

In recent infrastructures, Internet of Things (IoT) have become an important technology for connecting various actuators and sensors over wireless networks. Due to increase in mission-critical infrastructures, we make use of these new technologies for reliable communication but their security is always not promising in terms of availability, confidentiality, integrity, and privacy of network services. Users can be compromised and vulnerable by a motivated malicious opponent unless they are not adequately protected by a robust defense. Due to this reason, an ambient intelligence approach for Intrusion Detection System (IDS) is required. In this research, ww proposed Ambient Approach based on Reinforcement Learning Integrated Deep Q-Neural Network (RL-DQN) model for WSNs and IoT in which it leverages the Markov decision process (MDP) formalism to enhance the decision performance in IDS. We deploy RL-DQN-IDS over Edge-cloud intrusion detection infrastructure in which binary attack classification of the network traffic is performed at the edge network while multi-attack classification is performed at the cloud network. To identify intrusions, we use a two-phase process that includes an initial learning phase that relies on RL, followed by a detection and classification phase that relies on DQN. We used four datasets namely UNSW-NB-15, BoTNeTIoT-L01, CICIDS2017 and IoTID20 with a smart house simulation environment configured with WSN and IoT technologies to evaluate performance. Accuracy, precision, and recall were all considered while assessing the dataset under consideration. When compared to five other machine learning models, the RL-DQN model method has demonstrated superior performance. This model outperforms the other five that were tested. [less ▲]

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See detailReSQ: Reinforcement Learning-Based Queue Allocation in Software-Defined Queuing Framework
Maity, Ilora UL; Taleb, Tarik

in Journal of Networking and Network Applications (2022), 2(4), 143152

With the evolution of 5G networks, the demand for Ultra-Reliable Low Latency Communications (URLLC) services is increasing. Software-Defined Networking (SDN) offers flexible network management to ... [more ▼]

With the evolution of 5G networks, the demand for Ultra-Reliable Low Latency Communications (URLLC) services is increasing. Software-Defined Networking (SDN) offers flexible network management to prioritize URLLC services coexisting with best-effort traffic. Utilizing the network programmability feature of SDN, Software-Defined Queueing (SDQ) framework selects the optimal output port queue on forwarding devices and routing path for incoming traffic flows to provide deterministic Quality of Service (QoS) support required for URLLC traffic. However, in the existing SDQ framework, the selections of optimal queue and path are done manually by observing the traffic type of each incoming flow, the available bandwidth of each potential routing path, and the status of output port queues of each forwarding device on each potential routing path. The static allocations of path and queue for each flow are inefficient to provide a deterministic QoS guarantee for a high volume of incoming traffic which is typical in 5G networks. The limited buffer availability on the forwarding devices is another constraint regarding optimal queue allocation that ensures an end-to-end (E2E) delay guarantee. To address these challenges, in this paper, we extend the SDQ framework by automating queue management with a reinforcement learning (RL)-based approach. The proposed queue management approach considers diverse QoS demands as well as a limited buffer on the forwarding devices and performs prioritized queue allocation. Our approach also includes a hash-based flow grouping to handle a high volume of traffic having diverse latency demands and a path selection mechanism based on available bandwidth and hop count. The simulation result shows that the proposed scheme ReSQ reduces the QoS violation ratio by 10.45% as compared to the baseline scheme that selects queues randomly. [less ▲]

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See detailMezinárodní soft law jako koncept v judikatuře správních soudů
Hubkova, Pavlina UL

in Jurisprudence (2022), (5), 1-10

International soft law as a concept encompasses a large number of diverse international acts that are not legally binding but still are capable to produce legal effects. For national courts, international ... [more ▼]

International soft law as a concept encompasses a large number of diverse international acts that are not legally binding but still are capable to produce legal effects. For national courts, international soft law presents a foreign element because it is adopted beyond the state and it defies the traditional binary concept of law, according to which legal norms are binding, otherwise they are not law. Nevertheless, this foreign element finds its way into the decision-making of Czech administrative courts. The article maps how and in which situations the administrative courts work with the concept of soft law and what consequences they draw from soft law. [less ▲]

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See detailOn reliability in the performance analysis of cognitive radio networks
Khan, Abd Ullah; Tanveer, Muhammad; Khan, Wali Ullah UL

in Journal of King Saud University - Computer and Information Sciences (2022)

Satisfying the quality of service (QoS) requirements of users in the form of channel availability and service retainability within the resource limited environment has been a major problem in cognitive ... [more ▼]

Satisfying the quality of service (QoS) requirements of users in the form of channel availability and service retainability within the resource limited environment has been a major problem in cognitive radio networks. In this connection, several research studies have been carried out in the literature to improve the QoS of users by proposing dynamic channel reservation algorithms. However, the studies have a number of limitations in their conceptual and mathematical modeling of channel availability and service retainability, which render their performance evaluation unreliable. In this paper, we address these limitations for leading to more realistic, reliable, and practically valid modeling. For conceptual modeling, we use connection availability in place of channel availability, motivated by the fact that the latter does not necessarily lead to a successful establishment of connection and, thus, is not a suitable performance indicator. For instance, obtaining a channel for transmission is of no avail if the intended receiver is inaccessible. Similarly, we consider service retainability with accessibility/inaccessibility of the intended receiver incorporated. For mathematical modeling, we use CTMC and the resultant closed from expressions to include all the required states of channel availability yet unsuccessful connection establishment. Additionally, we derive closed form equations for channel availability and service retainability that are in exact conformance with the CTMC model. Results confirm that considering the impact of receiver’s accessibility leads to performance difference for the channel availability and service retainability presented in the sate-of-the-art. [less ▲]

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See detailRevealing the landscape of privacy-enhancing technologies in the context of data markets for the IoT: A systematic literature review
Garrido, Gonzalo Munilla; Sedlmeir, Johannes UL; Uludag, Ömer et al

in Journal of Network and Computer Applications (2022), 207

IoT data markets in public and private institutions have become increasingly relevant in recent years because of their potential to improve data availability and unlock new business models. However ... [more ▼]

IoT data markets in public and private institutions have become increasingly relevant in recent years because of their potential to improve data availability and unlock new business models. However, exchanging data in markets bears considerable challenges related to disclosing sensitive information. Despite considerable research focused on different aspects of privacy-enhancing data markets for the IoT, none of the solutions proposed so far seems to find a practical adoption. Thus, this study aims to organize the state-of-the-art solutions, analyze and scope the technologies that have been suggested in this context, and structure the remaining challenges to determine areas where future research is required. To accomplish this goal, we conducted a systematic literature review on privacy enhancement in data markets for the IoT, covering 50 publications dated up to July 2020, and provided updates with 24 publications dated up to May 2022. Our results indicate that most research in this area has emerged only recently, and no IoT data market architecture has established itself as canonical. Existing solutions frequently lack the required combination of anonymization and secure computation technologies. Furthermore, there is no consensus on the appropriate use of blockchain technology for IoT data markets and a low degree of leveraging existing libraries or reusing generic data market architectures. We also identified significant challenges remaining, such as the copy problem and the recursive enforcement problem that - while solutions have been suggested to some extent - are often not sufficiently addressed in proposed designs. We conclude that privacy-enhancing technologies need further improvements to positively impact data markets so that, ultimately, the value of data is preserved through data scarcity and users' privacy and businesses-critical information are protected. [less ▲]

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See detailThe conformal group of a compact simply connected Lorentzian manifold
Melnick, Karin; Pecastaing, Vincent UL

in Journal of the American Mathematical Society (2022), 35(1), 81122

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See detailPerceptual Content, Phenomenal Contrasts, and Externalism
Raleigh, Thomas UL

in Journal of Philosophy (2022), 119(11), 602-627

According to Sparse views of perceptual content, the phenomenal character of perceptual experience is exhausted by the experiential presentation of ‘low-level’ properties such as (in the case of vision ... [more ▼]

According to Sparse views of perceptual content, the phenomenal character of perceptual experience is exhausted by the experiential presentation of ‘low-level’ properties such as (in the case of vision) shapes, colors, and textures Whereas, according to Rich views of perceptual content, the phenomenal character of perceptual experience can also sometimes involve experiencing ‘high-level’ properties such as natural kinds, artefactual kinds, causal relations, linguistic meanings, and moral properties. An important dialectical tool in the debate between Rich and Sparse theorists is the so-called ‘method of phenomenal contrast’. I explore how this method of phenomenal contrast interacts with the sort of content-externalism made familiar by Putnam. I show that the possibility of Twin Earth style cases places important restrictions on the range of properties that the method of phenomenal contrast could plausibly apply to. Moreover, these restrictions would apply to some paradigmatically low-level properties as well as to some of the frequently advanced high-level properties. I also draw some general lessons about the different ways one might conceive of the relation between phenomenal character and representational content. [less ▲]

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See detailAn in-depth investigation of the performance characteristics of Hyperledger Fabric
Guggenberger, Tobias; Sedlmeir, Johannes UL; Fridgen, Gilbert UL et al

in Computers and Industrial Engineering (2022), 173

Private permissioned blockchains are deployed in ever greater numbers to facilitate cross-organizational processes in various industries, particularly in supply chain management. One popular example of ... [more ▼]

Private permissioned blockchains are deployed in ever greater numbers to facilitate cross-organizational processes in various industries, particularly in supply chain management. One popular example of this trend is Hyperledger Fabric. Compared to public permissionless blockchains, it promises improved performance and provides certain features that address key requirements of enterprises. However, also permissioned blockchains are still not as scalable as centralized systems, and due to the scarcity of theoretical results and empirical data, their real-world performance cannot be predicted with the necessary precision. We intend to address this issue by conducting an in-depth performance analysis of Hyperledger Fabric. The paper presents a detailed compilation of various performance characteristics using an enhanced version of the Distributed Ledger Performance Scan (DLPS). Researchers and practitioners alike can use the various performance properties identified and discussed as guidelines to better configure and implement their Hyperledger Fabric network. Likewise, they are encouraged to use the DLPS framework to conduct their measurements. [less ▲]

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See detailWavelet methods to study the pointwise regularity of the generalized Rosenblatt process
Daw, Lara UL; Loosveldt, Laurent UL

in Electronic Journal of Probability (2022), 27

We identify three types of pointwise behaviour in the regularity of the (generalized) Rosenblatt process. This extends to a non Gaussian setting previous results known for the (fractional) Brownian motion ... [more ▼]

We identify three types of pointwise behaviour in the regularity of the (generalized) Rosenblatt process. This extends to a non Gaussian setting previous results known for the (fractional) Brownian motion. On this purpose, fine bounds on the increments of the Rosenblatt process are needed. Our analysis is essentially based on various wavelet methods. [less ▲]

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See detailNOMA-Enabled Optimization Framework for Next-Generation Small-Cell IoV Networks Under Imperfect SIC Decoding
Khan, Wali Ullah UL; Li, Xingwang; Ihsan, Asim et al

in IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems (2022)

To meet the demands of massive connections, diverse quality of services (QoS), ultra-reliable and low latency in the future sixth-generation (6G) Internet-of-vehicle (IoV) communications, we propose non ... [more ▼]

To meet the demands of massive connections, diverse quality of services (QoS), ultra-reliable and low latency in the future sixth-generation (6G) Internet-of-vehicle (IoV) communications, we propose non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA)-enabled small-cell IoV network (SVNet). We aim to investigate the trade-off between system capacity and energy efficiency through a joint power optimization framework. In particular, we formulate a nonlinear multi-objective optimization problem under imperfect successive interference cancellation (SIC) detecting. Thus, the objective is to simultaneously maximize the sum-capacity and minimize the total transmit power of NOMA-enabled SVNet subject to individual IoV QoS, maximum transmit power and efficient signal detecting. To solve the nonlinear problem, we first exploit a weighted-sum method to handle the multi-objective optimization and then adopt a new iterative Sequential Quadratic Programming (SQP)-based approach to obtain the optimal solution. The proposed optimization framework is compared with Karush-Kuhn-Tucker (KKT)-based NOMA framework, average power NOMA framework, and conventional OMA framework. Monte Carlo simulation results unveil the validness of our derivations. The presented results also show the superiority of the proposed optimization framework over other benchmark frameworks in terms of system sum-capacity and total energy efficiency. [less ▲]