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See detailNew insights into the origin of fine equiaxed microstructures in additively manufactured Inconel 718
Cazic, Ivan UL; Zollinger, Julien; Matthieu, Sandrine et al

in Scripta Materialia (2021)

Fine equiaxed grain regions are frequently observed in additively manufactured Inconel 718 alloy. Based on a grain-to-grain orientation analysis using EBSD, many assemblies of neighboring grains in these ... [more ▼]

Fine equiaxed grain regions are frequently observed in additively manufactured Inconel 718 alloy. Based on a grain-to-grain orientation analysis using EBSD, many assemblies of neighboring grains in these regions have been found to display multiple-twins orientation relationships sharing common 〈110〉directions and exhibiting 5-fold symmetry. This is an experimental proof that the grain refinement observed in inconel 718 is due to Icosahedral Short-Range Order (ISRO) mediated nucleation mechanism. This is the first report of ISRO-mediated nucleation of fcc nickel which widens the perspectives on the microstructures control in additive manufacturing of Ni-based superalloys. [less ▲]

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See detailIntergenerational wealth transfers and wealth inequality in rich countries: What do we learn from Gini decomposition?
Nolan, Brian; Palomino, Juan C.; van Kerm, Philippe UL et al

in Economics Letters (2021), 199

The role of intergenerational transfers of wealth via inheritance and gifts inter vivos in the accumulation of household wealth and the generation of wealth inequality has been hotly debated. This paper ... [more ▼]

The role of intergenerational transfers of wealth via inheritance and gifts inter vivos in the accumulation of household wealth and the generation of wealth inequality has been hotly debated. This paper uses data from household wealth surveys for six rich countries – Britain, France, Germany, Italy, Spain and the US – to assess the contribution of intergenerational wealth transfers to wealth inequality using decomposition methods for the Gini coefficient. The results show that transfer wealth is consistently a good deal more unequally distributed than non-transfer wealth and total wealth. Transfer wealth accounts for only about one-tenth of overall wealth inequality for the US compared to one-third for Germany and Italy. This mirrors the importance of transfer wealth in total wealth in each country, with differences in inequality in transfer wealth and its correlation with total wealth having only a modest impact. We find that a marginal percentage increase in all transfers reduces total wealth inequality in Britain, Germany and the US, while it would increase total wealth inequality in France, Italy and Spain. [less ▲]

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See detailNOMA-Enabled Multi-Beam Satellite Systems: Joint Optimization to Overcome Offered-Requested Data Mismatches
Wang, Anyue UL; Lei, Lei UL; Lagunas, Eva UL et al

in IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology (2021), 70(1), 900-913

Non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) has potentials to improve the performance of multi-beam satellite systems. The performance optimization in satellite-NOMA systems could be different from that in ... [more ▼]

Non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) has potentials to improve the performance of multi-beam satellite systems. The performance optimization in satellite-NOMA systems could be different from that in terrestrial-NOMA systems, e.g., considering distinctive channel models, performance metrics, power constraints, and limited flexibility in resource management. In this paper, we adopt a metric, offered capacity to requested traffic ratio (OCTR), to measure the requested-offered data rate mismatch in multi-beam satellite systems. In the considered system, NOMA is applied to mitigate intra-beam interference while precoding is implemented to reduce inter-beam interference. We jointly optimize power, decoding orders, and terminal-timeslot assignment to improve the max-min fairness of OCTR. The problem is inherently difficult due to the presence of combinatorial and non-convex aspects. We first fix the terminal-timeslot assignment, and develop an optimal fast-convergence algorithmic framework based on Perron-Frobenius theory (PF) for the remaining joint power-allocation and decoding-order optimization problem. Under this framework, we propose a heuristic algorithm for the original problem, which iteratively updates the terminal-timeslot assignment and improves the overall OCTR performance. Numerical results show that the proposed algorithm improves the max-min OCTR by 40.2% over orthogonal multiple access (OMA) in average. [less ▲]

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See detailCoverage Probability and Ergodic Capacity of Intelligent Reflecting Surface-Enhanced Communication Systems
Trinh, van Chien UL; Tu, Lam Thanh; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL et al

in IEEE Communications Letters (2021), 25(1), 69-73

This paper studies the performance of a single-input single-output (SISO) system enhanced by the assistance of an intelligent reflecting surface (IRS), which is equipped with a finite number of elements ... [more ▼]

This paper studies the performance of a single-input single-output (SISO) system enhanced by the assistance of an intelligent reflecting surface (IRS), which is equipped with a finite number of elements under Rayleigh fading channels. From the instantaneous channel capacity, we compute a closed-form expression of the coverage probability as a function of statistical channel information only. A scaling law of the coverage probability and the number of phase shifts is further obtained. The ergodic capacity is derived, then a simple upper bound to simplify matters of utilizing the symbolic functions and can be applied for a long period of time. Numerical results manifest the tightness and effectiveness of our closed-form expressions compared with Monte-Carlo simulations. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Second World War in the Twenty-first Century Museum: From Narrative, Memory, and Experience to Experientiality
Janz, Nina UL

in The Military History Journal (2021), 85(1), 293-94

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See detailModelling of residually stressed, extended and inflated cylinders with application to aneurysms
Font, Alejandro; Jha, Niraj Kumar; Dehghani, Hamidreza UL et al

in Mechanics Research Communications (2021), 111

The paper presents the localized bifurcation abnormal enlargement associated with certain human diseases such as abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA), among others. The constitutive framework herewith ... [more ▼]

The paper presents the localized bifurcation abnormal enlargement associated with certain human diseases such as abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA), among others. The constitutive framework herewith proposed is constructed relying on the modelling of non-linear elastic materials under the action of residual stresses. The suitable incorporation on the mechanical response of residual stresses in the analysis is regarded important for the formation of aneurysms in soft tissues. From a mechanical perspective, the onset of aneurysms formation can be interpreted through bifurcation conditions, whose localization is relatively sensitive to different material and geometrical parameters as it is shown here. In order to reduce the risk and interpret aneurysm formation, we perform a thorough sensitivity analysis of the effect of design parameters such as tube diameter, length, thickness and strength of the residual stress field on bifurcation of a tube under inflation and extesion. A consistent residually stressed material model is formulated in terms of invariants for a general elastic strain-energy function. The dependence of applied pressure, axial stretch and different geometrical and constitutive parameters on bulging and bending bifurcation is illustrated. The numerical procedure to analyse the bifurcation of the finite deformation boundary-value problem at hand is developed based on the modified Riks method. The proposed formulation is implemented in the general-purpose finite element code ABAQUS using user-defined material subroutines.For a given material model, bulging bifurcation is expected for sufficiently large values of the axial stretch while the onset of bifurcation is found to be the bending mode for small values of the axial stretch. This transition zone from bending bifurcation to bulging bifurcation is analyzed for the different parameters considered. [less ▲]

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See detailSpillovers to small business credit risk
Wolff, Christian UL

in Small Business Economics (2021), 57

Do large credit risk shocks spill over to small businesses and affect their real economic activity? Using information on small business credit risk, we find that small businesses show increased default ... [more ▼]

Do large credit risk shocks spill over to small businesses and affect their real economic activity? Using information on small business credit risk, we find that small businesses show increased default and bankruptcy rates following a shock to a customer industry. On an industry level, the shock to a customer industry is followed by a decrease in industry markups, disproportionate closure of firms, and cutbacks in inventories. Our analysis quantifies the elevated credit risk among small businesses and suggests a non-negligible 0.83% increase in expected losses on a diversified loan portfolio following a credit risk shock. This study provides banks and supervisors with greater clarity on timing and on the extent of elevated small business credit risk. It also allows them to assess the exposure of a bank portfolio to fluctuations in small business default rate. Such improved default prediction reduces credit rationing to the small business economy. [less ▲]

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See detailpatRoon: open source software platform for environmental mass spectrometry based non-target screening
Helmus, Rick; ter Laak, Thomas L.; van Wezel, Annemarie P. et al

in Journal of Cheminformatics (2021), 13(1), 1

Abstract Mass spectrometry based non-target analysis is increasingly adopted in environmental sciences to screen and identify numerous chemicals simultaneously in highly complex samples. However, current ... [more ▼]

Abstract Mass spectrometry based non-target analysis is increasingly adopted in environmental sciences to screen and identify numerous chemicals simultaneously in highly complex samples. However, current data processing software either lack functionality for environmental sciences, solve only part of the workflow, are not openly available and/or are restricted in input data formats. In this paper we present patRoon , a new R based open-source software platform, which provides comprehensive, fully tailored and straightforward non-target analysis workflows. This platform makes the use, evaluation and mixing of well-tested algorithms seamless by harmonizing various common (primarily open) software tools under a consistent interface. In addition patRoon offers various functionality and strategies to simplify and perform automated processing of complex (environmental) data effectively. patRoon implements several effective optimization strategies to significantly reduce computational times. The ability of patRoon to perform time-efficient and automated non-target data annotation of environmental samples is demonstrated with a simple and reproducible workflow using open-access data of spiked samples from a drinking water treatment plant study. In addition, the ability to easily use, combine and evaluate different algorithms was demonstrated for three commonly used feature finding algorithms. This article, combined with already published works, demonstrate that patRoon helps make comprehensive (environmental) non-target analysis readily accessible to a wider community of researchers. [less ▲]

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See detailHighly Multiplexed Targeted Proteomics Acquisition on a TIMS-QTOF
Lesur, Antoine; Schmit, Pierre-Olivier; Bernardin, François et al

in Analytical Chemistry (2021)

Targeted proteomics allows the highly sensitive detection of specific peptides and proteins in complex biological samples. Here, we describe a methodology for targeted peptide quantification using a ... [more ▼]

Targeted proteomics allows the highly sensitive detection of specific peptides and proteins in complex biological samples. Here, we describe a methodology for targeted peptide quantification using a trapped ion mobility quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer (timsTOF Pro). The prm-PASEF method exploits the multiplexing capability provided by the trapped ion mobility separation, allowing more than 200 peptides to be monitored over a 30 min liquid chromatography separation. Compared to conventional parallel reaction monitoring (PRM), precursor ions are accumulated in the trapped ion mobility spectrometry (TIMS) cells and separated according to their shape and charge before eluting into the quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) part of the mass spectrometer. The ion mobility trap allows measuring up to six peptides from a single 100 ms ion mobility separation with the current setup. Using these improved mass spectrometric capabilities, we detected and quantified 216 isotope-labeled synthetic peptides (AQUA peptides) spiked in HeLa human cell extract with limits of quantification of 17.2 amol for some peptides. The acquisition method is highly reproducible between injections and enables accurate quantification in biological samples, as demonstrated by quantifying KRas, NRas, and HRas as well as several Ras mutations in lung and colon cancer cell lines on fast 10 min gradient separations. [less ▲]

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See detailInvited Commentary: Death by Suicide among People with Autism: Beyond Zebrafish
South, Mikle; Pinto Coelho da Costa, Andreia UL; McMorris, Carly

in JAMA Network Open (2021), 4(1),

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See detailResource Allocation for AF Relaying Wireless-Powered Networks with Nonlinear Energy Harvester
Nguyen, Tien-Tung; Nguyen, van Dinh UL; Pham, Quoc-Viet et al

in IEEE Communications Letters (2021), 25(1), 1089-7798

This letter considers a relay-based wireless-powered communication network to assist wireless communication between a source and multiple users. In particular, the relay adopts a nonlinear energy model to ... [more ▼]

This letter considers a relay-based wireless-powered communication network to assist wireless communication between a source and multiple users. In particular, the relay adopts a nonlinear energy model to harvest energy from a power beacon and subsequently uses it for information transmission over timedivision multiple access. Aiming at the maximization of end-toend (e2e) sum throughput, we formulate a novel optimization problem that jointly optimizes the power and time fraction for energy and information transmission. For a simple yet efficient solution for the nonconvex problem, we first convert it to a more computationally tractable problem and then develop an iterative algorithm, in which closed-form solutions are obtained at each iteration. The effectiveness of our proposed approach is verified and demonstrated through simulation results. Moreover, the results reveal that the source should transmit with its maximum allowable power budget to obtain the optimal e2e sum throughput. [less ▲]

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See detailComputational Stem Cell Biology: Open Questions and Guiding Principles
Del Sol Mesa, Antonio UL

in Cell Stem Cell (2021)

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See detailTime dependent lyotropic chromonic textures in PDMS-based microfluidic confinements
Sharma, Anshul; Ong, Irvine UL; Sengupta, Anupam UL

in Crystals (2021), 11(1),

Nematic and columnar phases of lyotropic chromonic liquid crystals (LCLCs) have been long studiedfor their fundamental and applied prospects in material science and medical diagnostics. LCLC ... [more ▼]

Nematic and columnar phases of lyotropic chromonic liquid crystals (LCLCs) have been long studiedfor their fundamental and applied prospects in material science and medical diagnostics. LCLC phasesrepresent different self-assembled states of disc-shaped molecules, held together by noncovalentinteractions that lead to highly sensitive concentration and temperature dependent properties. Yet,microscale insights into confined LCLCs, specifically in the context of confinement geometry andsurface properties, are lacking. Here, we report the emergence of time dependent textures in staticdisodium chromoglycate (DSCG) solutions, confined in PDMS-based microfluidic devices. We use acombination of soft lithography, surface characterization and polarized optical imaging to generateand analyze the confinement-induced LCLC textures, and demonstrate that over time, herringboneand spherulite textures emerge due to spontaneous nematic (N) to columnar M-phase transition,propagating from the LCLC-PDMS interface into the LCLC bulk. By varying the confinementgeometry, anchoring conditions and the initial DSCG concentration, we can systematically tune thetemporal dynamics of the N to M-phase transition and textural behaviour of the confined LCLC. Sincestatic molecular states register the initial conditions for LC flows, the time dependent boundary andbulk conditions reported here suggest that the local surface-mediated dynamics could be central inunderstanding LCLC flows, and in turn, the associated transport properties of this versatile material. [less ▲]

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See detailThe impact of economic complexity on the formation of environmental culture
Zanaj, Skerdilajda UL

in Sustainability (2021), 1(1),

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See detailOpinion Statement ECJ-TF 3/2020 on the General Court Decisions of 15 July 2020 in Ireland v. Commission and Apple v. Commission (Joined Cases T-778/16 and T-892/16) on State Aid Granted under Tax Rulings Fixing the Attribution of Profits to Permanent Establishments in Ireland
Haslehner, Werner UL; García Prats, Alfredo; Heydt, Volker et al

in European Taxation (2021), 61(2/3), 109-116

This CFE Opinion Statement, submitted to the EU Institutions on 2 December 2020, addresses the General Court decisions in Ireland v. Commission and Apple v. Commission (Joined Cases T-778/16 and T-892/16 ... [more ▼]

This CFE Opinion Statement, submitted to the EU Institutions on 2 December 2020, addresses the General Court decisions in Ireland v. Commission and Apple v. Commission (Joined Cases T-778/16 and T-892/16) on 15 July 2020. [less ▲]

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See detailA critical review on the evaluation of automated program repair systems
Kui, Liu; Li, Li; Koyuncu, Anil UL et al

in Journal of Systems and Software (2021)

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See detailChronique de droit des marchés financiers
Conac, Pierre-Henri UL

in Revue des Sociétés (2021)

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See detailAggregated hold-out
Maillard, Guillaume UL; Arlot, Sylvain; Lerasle, Matthieu

in Journal of Machine Learning Research (2021), 22

Aggregated hold-out (agghoo) is a method which averages learning rules selected by hold-out (that is, cross-validation with a single split). We provide the first theoretical guarantees on agghoo, ensuring ... [more ▼]

Aggregated hold-out (agghoo) is a method which averages learning rules selected by hold-out (that is, cross-validation with a single split). We provide the first theoretical guarantees on agghoo, ensuring that it can be used safely: Agghoo performs at worst like the hold-out when the risk is convex. The same holds true in classification with the 0--1 risk, with an additional constant factor. For the hold-out, oracle inequalities are known for bounded losses, as in binary classification. We show that similar results can be proved, under appropriate assumptions, for other risk-minimization problems. In particular, we obtain an oracle inequality for regularized kernel regression with a Lipschitz loss, without requiring that the $Y$ variable or the regressors be bounded. Numerical experiments show that aggregation brings a significant improvement over the hold-out and that agghoo is competitive with cross-validation. [less ▲]

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See detailMeasuring impulsivity in Children: Adaptation and Validation of a Short Version of the UPPS-P Impulsive Behaviors Scale in Children and Investigation of Its Links with ADHD
Geurten, Marie; Catale, Corinne; Gay, Philippe et al

in Journal of Attention Disorders (2021), 25(1), 105-114

Objective: Impulsivity is a multifaceted construct known to play a crucial role in the development and maintenance of a wide range of problematic behaviors and psychological disorders in children. Method ... [more ▼]

Objective: Impulsivity is a multifaceted construct known to play a crucial role in the development and maintenance of a wide range of problematic behaviors and psychological disorders in children. Method: In this study, we adapted the short French adult version of the UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale for use with children (short UPPS-P-C) and tested its psychometric properties. Results: Confirmatory factor analyses conducted on a sample of 425 children (aged from 8 to 14 years) supported the five-factor structure of the scale. Additional analyses emphasized the good internal and test-retest reliability of the short UPPS-P-C. Furthermore, our results also revealed that lack of premeditation and urgency subscales were able to discriminate between children diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and their matched controls. Conclusion: These results suggest that the short UPPS-P-C may be considered as a promising time-saving tool to assess impulsivity traits in healthy children and in children with psychiatric disorders. [less ▲]

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See detailTime dependent lyotropic chromonic textures in PDMS-based microfluidic confinements
Sharma, Anshul; Ong, Irvine UL; Sengupta, Anupam UL

in Crystals (2021), 11(1), 35

Nematic and columnar phases of lyotropic chromonic liquid crystals (LCLCs) have been long studied for their fundamental and applied prospects in material science and medical diagnostics. LCLC phases ... [more ▼]

Nematic and columnar phases of lyotropic chromonic liquid crystals (LCLCs) have been long studied for their fundamental and applied prospects in material science and medical diagnostics. LCLC phases represent different self-assembled states of disc-shaped molecules, held together by noncovalent interactions that lead to highly sensitive concentration and temperature dependent properties. Yet, microscale insights into confined LCLCs, specifically in the context of confinement geometry and surface properties, are lacking. Here, we report the emergence of time dependent textures in static disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) solutions, confined in PDMS-based microfluidic devices. We use a combination of soft lithography, surface characterization, and polarized optical imaging to generate and analyze the confinement-induced LCLC textures and demonstrate that over time, herringbone and spherulite textures emerge due to spontaneous nematic (N) to columnar M-phase transition, propagating from the LCLC-PDMS interface into the LCLC bulk. By varying the confinement geometry, anchoring conditions, and the initial DSCG concentration, we can systematically tune the temporal dynamics of the N- to M-phase transition and textural behavior of the confined LCLC. Overall, the time taken to change from nematic to the characteristic M-phase textures decreased as the confinement aspect ratio (width/depth) increased. For a given aspect ratio, the transition to the M-phase was generally faster in degenerate planar confinements, relative to the transition in homeotropic confinements. Since the static molecular states register the initial conditions for LC flows, the time dependent textures reported here suggest that the surface and confinement effects—even under static conditions—could be central in understanding the flow behavior of LCLCs and the associated transport properties of this versatile materia [less ▲]

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See detailGas Storage Valuation in Incomplete Markets
Löhndorf, Nils UL; Wozabal, David

in European Journal of Operational Research (2021), 288(1), 318-330

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See detailWhy serve soup with a fork?: How policy coherence for development can link environmental impact assessment with the 2030 agenda for sustainable development
Koff, Harlan UL

in Environmental Impact Assessment Review (2021), 86

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) re-focused development cooperation on universal and transformative development aimed at improving the quality of life of people in all world regions, while ... [more ▼]

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) re-focused development cooperation on universal and transformative development aimed at improving the quality of life of people in all world regions, while simultaneously conserving natural resources. Critics, however, have correctly questioned whether appropriate policy methods and tools exist for the adequate implementation of transformative development. These challenges are even more significant given that the implementation of the SDGs falls to nation-states. This article asks “Can the transformative development promoted by the SDG’s be achieved through the policy tools presently utilized by nation-states, such as environmental impact assessment (EIA)?” The study responds to this question through a critical examination of EIA in Mexico in relation to mining. Empirical analysis focuses on the proposed Caballo Blanco open-pit mine in Veracruz state. The case can be considered critical because it is often presented as a success, given that a broad coalition of actors prevented the mine from opening through activities directed at EIA. This article questions this narrative because it shows how EIA actually can undermine transformative development through the use of cost-benefit logics. The article concludes that policy coherence for development (PCD) can potentially support EIA as a methodology through which transformative development can be promoted. PCD can improve the “normative effectiveness” of EIA when used as an evaluation criteria. Otherwise, EIA may undermine the implementation of the SDGs which would be comparable to serving soup with a fork. [less ▲]

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See detailWhy serve soup with a fork?: How policy coherence for development can link environmental impact assessment with the 2030 agenda for sustainable development
Koff, Harlan UL

in Environmental Impact Assessment Review (2021), 86

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) re-focused development cooperation on universal and transformative development aimed at improving the quality of life of people in all world regions, while ... [more ▼]

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) re-focused development cooperation on universal and transformative development aimed at improving the quality of life of people in all world regions, while simultaneously conserving natural resources. Critics, however, have correctly questioned whether appropriate policy methods and tools exist for the adequate implementation of transformative development. These challenges are even more significant given that the implementation of the SDGs falls to nation-states. This article asks “Can the transformative development promoted by the SDG’s be achieved through the policy tools presently utilized by nation-states, such as environmental impact assessment (EIA)?” The study responds to this question through a critical examination of EIA in Mexico in relation to mining. Empirical analysis focuses on the proposed Caballo Blanco open-pit mine in Veracruz state. The case can be considered critical because it is often presented as a success, given that a broad coalition of actors prevented the mine from opening through activities directed at EIA. This article questions this narrative because it shows how EIA actually can undermine transformative development through the use of cost-benefit logics. The article concludes that policy coherence for development (PCD) can potentially support EIA as a methodology through which transformative development can be promoted. PCD can improve the “normative effectiveness” of EIA when used as an evaluation criteria. Otherwise, EIA may undermine the implementation of the SDGs which would be comparable to serving soup with a fork. [less ▲]

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See detailMultimodal Interaction Analysis: a Powerful Tool for Examining Plurilingual Students’ Engagement in Science Practices Proposed Contribution to
Wilmes, Sara UL; Siry, Christina UL

in Research in Science Education (2021)

Science teaching and learning are discursive practices, yet analysis of these practices has frequently been grounded in theorizations that place language at the forefront of interaction and meaning-making ... [more ▼]

Science teaching and learning are discursive practices, yet analysis of these practices has frequently been grounded in theorizations that place language at the forefront of interaction and meaning-making. Such language-centric analytic approaches risk overlooking key embodied, enacted aspects of students’ engagement in science practices. This manuscript presents a case of a plurilingual student’s participation in science inquiry to demonstrate how multimodal interaction analysis can be used to examine the highly diverse array of communicative resources that she draws upon while participating in science, including gestures, facial expressions, vocal intonations, and languages. Grounded in dialogic theorizations of language, we first detail the multimodal interaction approach, and second, we show how multimodal interaction analysis beginning first with her embodied engagement, then coupled with her subsequent written and spoken engagement, reveals robust views of her engagement in science practices. Key to this methodological approach is multilayered analysis that backgrounds verbal or spoken communication to allow for an identification of embodied interaction resources employed. We emphasize how this analytical method allows us to conceptualize science as a practice that unfolds through and in interaction, as compared to a static body of concepts to be learned. [less ▲]

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See detailMapping between number notations in kindergarten and the role of home numeracy
Marinova, Mila UL; Reynvoet, Bert; Sasanguie, Delphine

in Cognitive Development (2021)

Two recent studies investigated how children learn to map between digits, number words, and dots (Hurst, Anderson, & Cordes, 2017; Jim´enez Lira, Carver, Douglas, & LeFevre, 2017). In the current study we ... [more ▼]

Two recent studies investigated how children learn to map between digits, number words, and dots (Hurst, Anderson, & Cordes, 2017; Jim´enez Lira, Carver, Douglas, & LeFevre, 2017). In the current study we aimed to replicate these previous findings by examining a much larger sample (N = 195 kindergarteners, aged 2 years 6 months to 5 years 2 months) and taking into account home numeracy activities, that is, daily parent-child interactions with numerical content. In line with previous studies, the results showed that children first learn to map number words onto dots, and number words onto digits, and only afterwards – to map digits onto dots. Furthermore, number words ↔ digits mapping was a better mediator of the relation between digits ↔ dots and the dots ↔ number words mapping tasks, than the dots ↔ number words, suggesting that children rely on their symbolic number knowledge to learn the relation between digits and dots. Finally, both basic and advanced home numeracy activities were positively related to children’s mappings skills. Furthermore, we observed that with increasing the children’s age a shift from basic to advanced activities was present. These results emphasize the importance of tailoring the home numeracy activities according to children’s age. [less ▲]

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See detailLoss of Ambra1 promotes melanoma growth and invasion.
Di Leo, Luca; Bodemeyer, Valérie; Bosisio, Francesca M. et al

in Nature communications (2021), 12(1), 2550

Melanoma is the deadliest skin cancer. Despite improvements in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying melanoma biology and in defining new curative strategies, the therapeutic needs for ... [more ▼]

Melanoma is the deadliest skin cancer. Despite improvements in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying melanoma biology and in defining new curative strategies, the therapeutic needs for this disease have not yet been fulfilled. Herein, we provide evidence that the Activating Molecule in Beclin-1-Regulated Autophagy (Ambra1) contributes to melanoma development. Indeed, we show that Ambra1 deficiency confers accelerated tumor growth and decreased overall survival in Braf/Pten-mutated mouse models of melanoma. Also, we demonstrate that Ambra1 deletion promotes melanoma aggressiveness and metastasis by increasing cell motility/invasion and activating an EMT-like process. Moreover, we show that Ambra1 deficiency in melanoma impacts extracellular matrix remodeling and induces hyperactivation of the focal adhesion kinase 1 (FAK1) signaling, whose inhibition is able to reduce cell invasion and melanoma growth. Overall, our findings identify a function for AMBRA1 as tumor suppressor in melanoma, proposing FAK1 inhibition as a therapeutic strategy for AMBRA1 low-expressing melanoma. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate and Its Relation to Cell Shape and Rigidity of Red Blood Cells from Chorea-Acanthocytosis Patients in an Off-Label Treatment with Dasatinib.
Rabe, Antonia; Kihm, Alexander; Darras, Alexis et al

in Biomolecules (2021), 11(5),

BACKGROUND: Chorea-acanthocytosis (ChAc) is a rare hereditary neurodegenerative disease with deformed red blood cells (RBCs), so-called acanthocytes, as a typical marker of the disease. Erythrocyte ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Chorea-acanthocytosis (ChAc) is a rare hereditary neurodegenerative disease with deformed red blood cells (RBCs), so-called acanthocytes, as a typical marker of the disease. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) was recently proposed as a diagnostic biomarker. To date, there is no treatment option for affected patients, but promising therapy candidates, such as dasatinib, a Lyn-kinase inhibitor, have been identified. METHODS: RBCs of two ChAc patients during and after dasatinib treatment were characterized by the ESR, clinical hematology parameters and the 3D shape classification in stasis based on an artificial neural network. Furthermore, mathematical modeling was performed to understand the contribution of cell morphology and cell rigidity to the ESR. Microfluidic measurements were used to compare the RBC rigidity between ChAc patients and healthy controls. RESULTS: The mechano-morphological characterization of RBCs from two ChAc patients in an off-label treatment with dasatinib revealed differences in the ESR and the acanthocyte count during and after the treatment period, which could not directly be related to each other. Clinical hematology parameters were in the normal range. Mathematical modeling indicated that RBC rigidity is more important for delayed ESR than cell shape. Microfluidic experiments confirmed a higher rigidity in the normocytes of ChAc patients compared to healthy controls. CONCLUSIONS: The results increase our understanding of the role of acanthocytes and their associated properties in the ESR, but the data are too sparse to answer the question of whether the ESR is a suitable biomarker for treatment success, whereas a correlation between hematological and neuronal phenotype is still subject to verification. [less ▲]

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See detailHyperbolic dispersion metasurfaces for molecular biosensing
Palermo, Giovanna; Sreekanth, Kandammathe Valiyaveedu; Maccaferri, Nicolò UL et al

in Nanophotonics (2021), 10(1), 295314

Sensor technology has become increasingly crucial in medical research and clinical diagnostics to directly detect small numbers of low-molecular-weight biomolecules relevant for lethal diseases. In recent ... [more ▼]

Sensor technology has become increasingly crucial in medical research and clinical diagnostics to directly detect small numbers of low-molecular-weight biomolecules relevant for lethal diseases. In recent years, various technologies have been developed, a number of them becoming core label-free technologies for detection of cancer biomarkers and viruses. However, to radically improve early disease diagnostics, tracking of disease progression and evaluation of treatments, today’s biosensing techniques still require a radical innovation to deliver high sensitivity, specificity, diffusion-limited transport, and accuracy for both nucleic acids and proteins. In this review, we discuss both scientific and technological aspects of hyperbolic dispersion metasurfaces for molecular biosensing. Optical metasurfaces have offered the tantalizing opportunity to engineer wavefronts while its intrinsic nanoscale patterns promote tremendous molecular interactions and selective binding. Hyperbolic dispersion metasurfaces support high-k modes that proved to be extremely sensitive to minute concentrations of ultralow-molecular-weight proteins and nucleic acids. [less ▲]

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See detailAstrocyte-Neuron Metabolic Crosstalk in Neurodegeneration: A Mitochondrial Perspective.
Mulica, Patrycja UL; Grünewald, Anne UL; Pereira, Sandro L.

in Frontiers in endocrinology (2021), 12

Converging evidence made clear that declining brain energetics contribute to aging and are implicated in the initiation and progression of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's ... [more ▼]

Converging evidence made clear that declining brain energetics contribute to aging and are implicated in the initiation and progression of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. Indeed, both pathologies involve instances of hypometabolism of glucose and oxygen in the brain causing mitochondrial dysfunction, energetic failure and oxidative stress. Importantly, recent evidence suggests that astrocytes, which play a key role in supporting neuronal function and metabolism, might contribute to the development of neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, exploring how the neuro-supportive role of astrocytes may be impaired in the context of these disorders has great therapeutic potential. In the following, we will discuss some of the so far identified features underlining the astrocyte-neuron metabolic crosstalk. Thereby, special focus will be given to the role of mitochondria. Furthermore, we will report on recent advancements concerning iPSC-derived models used to unravel the metabolic contribution of astrocytes to neuronal demise. Finally, we discuss how mitochondrial dysfunction in astrocytes could contribute to inflammatory signaling in neurodegenerative diseases. [less ▲]

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See detailRed blood cell phenotyping from 3D confocal images using artificial neural networks.
Simionato, Greta; Hinkelmann, Konrad; Chachanidze, Revaz et al

in PLoS computational biology (2021), 17(5), 1008934

The investigation of cell shapes mostly relies on the manual classification of 2D images, causing a subjective and time consuming evaluation based on a portion of the cell surface. We present a dual-stage ... [more ▼]

The investigation of cell shapes mostly relies on the manual classification of 2D images, causing a subjective and time consuming evaluation based on a portion of the cell surface. We present a dual-stage neural network architecture for analyzing fine shape details from confocal microscopy recordings in 3D. The system, tested on red blood cells, uses training data from both healthy donors and patients with a congenital blood disease, namely hereditary spherocytosis. Characteristic shape features are revealed from the spherical harmonics spectrum of each cell and are automatically processed to create a reproducible and unbiased shape recognition and classification. The results show the relation between the particular genetic mutation causing the disease and the shape profile. With the obtained 3D phenotypes, we suggest our method for diagnostics and theragnostics of blood diseases. Besides the application employed in this study, our algorithms can be easily adapted for the 3D shape phenotyping of other cell types and extend their use to other applications, such as industrial automated 3D quality control. [less ▲]

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See detailIn Vitro Red Blood Cell Segregation in Sickle Cell Anemia
Claveria, Viviana; Connes, Philippe; Lanotte, Luca et al

in FRONTIERS IN PHYSICS (2021), 9

Red blood cells in sickle cell anemia (sRBC) are more heterogeneous in their physical properties than healthy red blood cells, spanning adhesiveness, rigidity, density, size, and shape. sRBC with ... [more ▼]

Red blood cells in sickle cell anemia (sRBC) are more heterogeneous in their physical properties than healthy red blood cells, spanning adhesiveness, rigidity, density, size, and shape. sRBC with increased adhesiveness to the vascular wall would trigger vaso-occlusive like complications, a hallmark of sickle cell anemia. We investigated whether segregation occurs among sRBC flowing in micron-sized channels and tested the impact of aggregation on segregation. Two populations of sRBC of different densities were separated, labeled, and mixed again. The mixed suspension was flowed within glass capillary tubes at different pressure-drops, hematocrit, and suspending media that promoted or not cell aggregation. Observations were made at a fixed channel position. The mean flow velocity was obtained by using the cells as tracking particles, and the cell depleted layer (CDL) by measuring the distance from the cell core border to the channel wall. The labeled sRBC were identified by stopping the flow and scanning the cells within the channel section. The tube hematocrit was estimated from the number of fluorescence cells identified in the field of view. In non-aggregating media, our results showed a heterogeneous distribution of sRBC according to their density: low-density sRBC population remained closer to the center of the channel, while the densest cells segregated towards the walls. There was no impact of the mean flow velocity and little impact of hematocrit. This segregation heterogeneity could influence the ability of sRBC to adhere to the vascular wall and slow down blood flow. However, promoting aggregation inhibited segregation while CDL thickness was enhanced by aggregation, highlighting a potential protective role against vaso-occlusion in patients with sickle cell anemia. [less ▲]

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See detailKulturen des Reparierens und die Lebensdauer der Dinge (Teil 2)
Krebs, Stefan UL; Schabacher, Gabriele; Weber, Heike

in TU: Zeitschrift für Technik im Unterricht (2021), 46(3), 5-13

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See detailNo Voice, No Choice: Assessing Danish Active Labour Market Policies Using Sen’s Capability Approach.
Fernandez Urbano, Roger UL; Orton, Michael

in Work, Employment and Society (2021), 35(1), 178-188

Active Labour Market Policies (ALMPs) are the subject of ongoing interest, which has included the framing of ALMPs as the re-commodification of labour. It has also been argued that Sen’s Capability ... [more ▼]

Active Labour Market Policies (ALMPs) are the subject of ongoing interest, which has included the framing of ALMPs as the re-commodification of labour. It has also been argued that Sen’s Capability Approach (CA) offers the potential to reconsider ALMPs from a more progressive viewpoint – so, is this the case and to what extent is, or can, the CA be a helpful research and analytical tool with which to study ALMPs? These questions are addressed through a reflexive examination of a study of Danish ALMPs, which utilized the CA and key themes of capabilities promotion, voice and choice. The CA influenced all aspects of the research design, methods and analysis. It is argued that the CA is a helpful methodology in bringing a new perspective to studying ALMPs. Additionally, the study raised concerns about the trajectory of the Danish ALMPs studied and possible alternatives to current approaches. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Impact of Parental Presence on their Children during Painful Medical Procedures:A Systematic Review
Rheel, Emma; Malfliet, Anneleen; van Ryckeghem, Dimitri UL et al

in Pain Medicine (2021), 28

Objective: Whether parental presence during their children's painful medical procedures is advantageous with regard to child's pain-related outcomes is questionable. Research regarding this topic is ... [more ▼]

Objective: Whether parental presence during their children's painful medical procedures is advantageous with regard to child's pain-related outcomes is questionable. Research regarding this topic is equivocal and additional questions, such as whether levels of parental involvement may play a role as well, remain to be assessed. The purpose of this systematic review is to summarize and critically appraise the literature regarding the impact of parental presence versus absence during their children's painful medical procedures on the child's pain-related outcomes. Methods: The review protocol was registered on Prospero (ID CRD42018116614). A systematic search in PubMed, Web of Science, and PsycArticles resulted in 22 eligible studies incorporating 2157 participants. Studies were considered eligible if they included children (≤ 18 years old) undergoing a painful medical procedure and compared parental presence and/or involvement with parental absence during the procedure. Results: The children's pain-related outcomes included self-reported pain intensity, self-reported fear, anxiety and distress, observed pain-related behavior, and physiological parameters. Overall, evidence points in the direction of beneficial effects of parental presence versus absence with regard to children's self-reported pain intensity and physiological parameters, whereas mixed findings were recorded for children's self-reported fears, anxiety and distress, and observed pain-related behaviors. Conclusions: : In order to provide clear recommendations on how to involve the parent during the procedure, as well as for which type of children and parents parental presence has the best effects, further research is needed, as indicated in this review. [less ▲]

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See detailPromoting physical activity for mental health in a refugee camp: the Skaramagas project
Adamakis, Emmanouil UL

in British Journal of Sports Medicine (2021)

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See detailFunctional and Molecular Properties of DYT-SGCE Myoclonus-Dystonia Patient-Derived Striatal Medium Spiny Neurons.
Kutschenko, Anna; Staege, Selma; Grütz, Karen et al

in International journal of molecular sciences (2021), 22(7),

Myoclonus-dystonia (DYT-SGCE, formerly DYT11) is characterized by alcohol-sensitive, myoclonic-like appearance of fast dystonic movements. It is caused by mutations in the SGCE gene encoding ε-sarcoglycan ... [more ▼]

Myoclonus-dystonia (DYT-SGCE, formerly DYT11) is characterized by alcohol-sensitive, myoclonic-like appearance of fast dystonic movements. It is caused by mutations in the SGCE gene encoding ε-sarcoglycan leading to a dysfunction of this transmembrane protein, alterations in the cerebello-thalamic pathway and impaired striatal plasticity. To elucidate underlying pathogenic mechanisms, we investigated induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) from two myoclonus-dystonia patients carrying a heterozygous mutation in the SGCE gene (c.298T>G and c.304C>T with protein changes W100G and R102X) in comparison to two matched healthy control lines. Calcium imaging showed significantly elevated basal intracellular Ca(2+) content and lower frequency of spontaneous Ca(2+) signals in SGCE MSNs. Blocking of voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels by verapamil was less efficient in suppressing KCl-induced Ca(2+) peaks of SGCE MSNs. Ca(2+) amplitudes upon glycine and acetylcholine applications were increased in SGCE MSNs, but not after GABA or glutamate applications. Expression of voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels and most ionotropic receptor subunits was not altered. SGCE MSNs showed significantly reduced GABAergic synaptic density. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings displayed elevated amplitudes of miniature postsynaptic currents and action potentials in SGCE MSNs. Our data contribute to a better understanding of the pathophysiology and the development of novel therapeutic strategies for myoclonus-dystonia. [less ▲]

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See detailCrowdsourced COVID-19 Collections: A brief overview
Zumthurm, Tizian UL

in International Public History (2021)

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See detailVortical flow structures induced by red blood cells in capillaries.
Yaya, François; Römer, Johannes; Guckenberger, Achim et al

in Microcirculation (New York, N.Y. : 1994) (2021), 28(5), 12693

OBJECTIVE: Knowledge about the flow field of the plasma around the red blood cells in capillary flow is important for a physical understanding of blood flow and the transport of micro- and nanoparticles ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: Knowledge about the flow field of the plasma around the red blood cells in capillary flow is important for a physical understanding of blood flow and the transport of micro- and nanoparticles and molecules in the flowing plasma. We conducted an experimental study on the flow field around red blood cells in capillary flow that is complemented by simulations of vortical flow between red blood cells. METHODS: Red blood cells were injected in a 10 × 12 µm rectangular microchannel at a low hematocrit, and the flow field around one or two cells was captured by a high-speed camera that tracked 250 nm nanoparticles in the flow field, acting as tracers. RESULTS: While the flow field around a steady "croissant" shape is found to be similar to that of a rigid sphere, the flow field around a "slipper" shape exhibits a small vortex at the rear of the red blood cell. Even more pronounced are vortex-like structures observed in the central region between two neighboring croissants. CONCLUSIONS: The rotation frequency of the vortices is to a good approximation, inversely proportional to the distance between the cells. Our experimental data are complemented by numerical simulations. [less ▲]

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See detailStein's method of exchangeable pairs in multivariate functional approximations
Döbler, Christian UL; Kasprzak, Mikolaj UL

in Electronic Journal of Probability (2021), 26

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See detailThe TRPV2 channel mediates Ca2+ influx and the Delta 9-THC-dependent decrease in osmotic fragility in red blood cells
Belkacemi, Anouar; Fecher-Trost, Claudia; Tinschert, Rene et al

in HAEMATOLOGICA (2021), 106(8), 2246-2250

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See detailSchnëssen. Surveying language dynamics in Luxembourgish with a mobile research app
Entringer, Nathalie UL; Gilles, Peter UL; Martin, Sara UL et al

in Linguistics Vanguard (2021), 7(s1),

The mobile app Schnëssen is intended to establish a state-of-the-art digital platform to collect data on the present-day language situation of Luxembourgish by means of crowd-sourcing and to document and ... [more ▼]

The mobile app Schnëssen is intended to establish a state-of-the-art digital platform to collect data on the present-day language situation of Luxembourgish by means of crowd-sourcing and to document and present results to a broader public. Users can participate in a large set of audio recordings tasks and in sociolinguistic surveys. By presenting all audio recordings via an interactive map, participants can explore the language variation of their language. In the first year of data collection, around 210.000 recordings could be collected for numerous variation phenomena from all linguistic levels and over 2800 sociolinguistic questionnaires have been filled out. The app allowed us to compile thus the largest systematic spoken language corpus of Luxembourgish. [less ▲]

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See detailA deep learning-based concept for high throughput image flow cytometry
Martin-Wortham, Julie; Recktenwald, Steffen M.; Lopes, Marcelle G. M. et al

in APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS (2021), 118(12),

We propose a flow cytometry concept that combines a spatial optical modulation scheme and deep learning for lensless cell imaging. Inspired by auto-encoder techniques, an artificial neural network mimics ... [more ▼]

We propose a flow cytometry concept that combines a spatial optical modulation scheme and deep learning for lensless cell imaging. Inspired by auto-encoder techniques, an artificial neural network mimics the optical transfer function of a particular microscope and camera for certain types of cells once trained and reconstructs microscope images from simple waveforms that are generated by cells in microfluidic flow. This eventually enables the label-free detection of cells at high throughput while simultaneously providing their corresponding brightfield images. The present work focuses on the computational proof of concept of this method by mimicking the waveforms. Our suggested approach would require a minimum set of optical components such as a collimated light source, a slit mask, and a light sensor and could be easily integrated into a ruggedized lab-on-chip device. The method is benchmarked with a well-investigated dataset of red blood cell images. [less ▲]

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See detailLow-Temperature Growth of AlN Films on Magnetostrictive Foils for High-Magnetoelectric-Response Thin-Film Composites
Nguyen, T.; Fleming, Y.; Bender, P. et al

in ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces (2021), 13

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See detailRare Anemias: Are Their Names Just Smoke and Mirrors?
Simionato, Greta; van Wijk, Richard; Quint, Stephan et al

in Frontiers in physiology (2021), 12

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See detailFailing forward in Economic and Monetary Union: explaining weak Eurozone financial support mechanisms
Howarth, David UL; Quaglia, Lucia

in Journal of European Public Policy (2021), 28(10), 1555-1572

In this article, we apply the ‘failing forward’ approach to analyse the negotiations on and design of reforms to Eurozone economic governance to tackle the Covid-19-related crisis of Economic and Monetary ... [more ▼]

In this article, we apply the ‘failing forward’ approach to analyse the negotiations on and design of reforms to Eurozone economic governance to tackle the Covid-19-related crisis of Economic and Monetary Union (EMU). This crisis highlights both spill-overs from major asymmetries in EMU and weaknesses in the incomplete economic governance of the Eurozone. We focus on the financial support mechanisms agreed upon after intergovernmental negotiations in major crisis situations. These reforms represent compromise solutions that reflect well-entrenched disagreements among member states. We explain why more far-reaching reforms to Eurozone economic governance – notably, the adoption of mutualized Euro-denominated debt and the generalized use of grants over loans – have not been adopted, despite the severity of the Covid-19-related crisis. These reforms – notably the Next Generation European Union (NGEU) financial package adopted in July 2020 – fail to address and, rather, contribute to existing asymmetries, thus sowing the seeds of future crises. [less ▲]

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See detailPreface of the special issue ‘Logic, argumentation and AI’ in JLC
Dong, Huimin; Pang, Jun UL; Wang, Yi

in Journal of Logic and Computation (2021), 31(8), 1901-1902

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See detailStochastic Thermodynamics of Nonlinear Electronic Circuits: A Realistic Framework for Computing Around kT
Freitas, Nahuel; Delvenne, Jean-Charles; Esposito, Massimiliano UL

in Phys. Rev. X (2021), 11(3), 031064

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See detailOptimizing pressure-driven pulsatile flows in microfluidic devices.
Recktenwald, Steffen M.; Wagner, Christian UL; John, Thomas

in Lab on a chip (2021), 21(13), 2605-2613

Unsteady and pulsatile flows receive increasing attention due to their potential to enhance various microscale processes. Further, they possess significant relevance for microfluidic studies under ... [more ▼]

Unsteady and pulsatile flows receive increasing attention due to their potential to enhance various microscale processes. Further, they possess significant relevance for microfluidic studies under physiological flow conditions. However, generating a precise time-dependent flow field with commercial, pneumatically operated pressure controllers remains challenging and can lead to significant deviations from the desired waveform. In this study, we present a method to correct such deviations and thus optimize pulsatile flows in microfluidic experiments using two commercial pressure pumps. Therefore, we first analyze the linear response of the systems to a sinusoidal pressure input, which allows us to predict the time-dependent pressure output for arbitrary pulsatile input signals. Second, we explain how to derive an adapted input signal, which significantly reduces deviations between the desired and actual output pressure signals of various waveforms. We demonstrate that this adapted pressure input leads to an enhancement of the time-dependent flow of red blood cells in microchannels. The presented method does not rely on any hardware modifications and can be easily implemented in standard pressure-driven microfluidic setups to generate accurate pulsatile flows with arbitrary waveforms. [less ▲]

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See detailSatellite Communications in the New Space Era: A Survey and Future Challenges
Kodheli, Oltjon UL; Lagunas, Eva UL; Maturo, Nicola UL et al

in IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials (2021), 23(1), 70-109

Satellite communications (SatComs) have recently entered a period of renewed interest motivated by technological advances and nurtured through private investment and ventures. The present survey aims at ... [more ▼]

Satellite communications (SatComs) have recently entered a period of renewed interest motivated by technological advances and nurtured through private investment and ventures. The present survey aims at capturing the state of the art in SatComs, while highlighting the most promising open research topics. Firstly, the main innovation drivers are motivated, such as new constellation types, on-board processing capabilities, nonterrestrial networks and space-based data collection/processing. Secondly, the most promising applications are described i.e. 5G integration, space communications, Earth observation, aeronautical and maritime tracking and communication. Subsequently, an in-depth literature review is provided across five axes: i) system aspects, ii) air interface, iii) medium access, iv) networking, v) testbeds & prototyping. Finally, a number of future challenges and the respective open research topics are described. [less ▲]

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See detailDesigning Pareto optimal electricity retail rates when utility customers are prosumers
Saumweber, Andrea; Wederhake, Lars; Cardoso, Gonçalo et al

in Energy Policy (2021), 156

Electric retail rate design is relevant to utilities, customers, and regulators as retail rates impact the utility's revenue as well as the customers' electricity bills. In California, regulators approve ... [more ▼]

Electric retail rate design is relevant to utilities, customers, and regulators as retail rates impact the utility's revenue as well as the customers' electricity bills. In California, regulators approve rate proposals by privately owned vertical integrated utilities. Approval, however, is subject to compliance with multiple, potentially conflicting objectives such as economic or environmental objectives. Additionally, retail rates are price signals that affect how customers use electricity services. When utility customers change their usage, they also impact the ratemaking objectives to which rates have been designed. This suggests a feedback loop, which is particularly pronounced with prosumers, as they can systematically optimize their interactions with the electricity system. Prevalent ratemaking methods may not deliver retail rates that are optimal for multiple objectives when customers are prosumers. We propose a novel ratemaking method that formalizes the problem of designing retail rates as a multi-criteria optimization problem and accounts for prosumer reactions through a simulation-based optimization approach. Through a fictive case study, we found that the resulting Pareto frontiers are useful in recognizing and balancing tradeoffs among conflicting ratemaking objectives. Additionally, our results indicate that prevailing retail rates in California are not Pareto optimal. [less ▲]

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See detailRosy or blue? Change in recall bias of students’ affective experiences during early adolescence
Zurbriggen, Carmen UL; Jendryczko, David; Nussbeck, Fridtjof W.

in Emotion (2021)

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See detailPrecoding for Satellite Communications: Why, How and What next?
Mysore Rama Rao, Bhavani Shankar UL; Lagunas, Eva UL; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL et al

in IEEE Communications Letters (2021)

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See detailEuropean Embeddedness and the Founding of Luxembourg’s 21st Century Research University
Braband, Gangolf; Powell, Justin J W UL

in European Journal of Higher Education (2021)

At the heart of Western Europe and culturally embedded in the “Greater Region,” Luxembourg for centuries sent its youth abroad for tertiary education, without its own national university. Evolving ... [more ▼]

At the heart of Western Europe and culturally embedded in the “Greater Region,” Luxembourg for centuries sent its youth abroad for tertiary education, without its own national university. Evolving provisions of postsecondary education after 1945 followed construction of several teaching and research institutes that did not offer full-fledged tertiary education certification. With global higher education expansion and European developments providing a window of opportunity, the critical juncture occurred in 2003, with the founding of the national flagship University of Luxembourg (uni.lu)—since leading to an extraordinary case of university institutionalization. Traditions were explicitly maintained, but reshaped, in the new university, with student mobility continuing to bolster the national elite’s pan-European networks and internationalization. Reflecting its hyper-diversity and multilingual culture as well as porous national borders, Luxembourg’s investments in higher education capacity-building, via a 21st century research university, have been thoroughly European. Today, Luxembourg has the highest proportion of workers with tertiary attainment and of internationally mobile students, testament to its maintained mobility tradition and national policy change facilitated by global models and European norms. [less ▲]

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See detailBisimulations for Verifying Strategic Abilities with an Application to the ThreeBallot Voting Protocol
Belardinelli, Francesco; Condurache, Rodica; Dima, Catalin et al

in Information and Computation (2021), 276

We propose a notion of alternating bisimulation for strategic abilities under imperfect information. The bisimulation preserves formulas of ATL$^*$ for both the {\em objective} and {\em subjective ... [more ▼]

We propose a notion of alternating bisimulation for strategic abilities under imperfect information. The bisimulation preserves formulas of ATL$^*$ for both the {\em objective} and {\em subjective} variants of the state-based semantics with imperfect information, which are commonly used in the modeling and verification of multi-agent systems. Furthermore, we apply the theoretical result to the verification of coercion-resistance in the ThreeBallot voting system, a voting protocol that does not use cryptography. In particular, we show that natural simplifications of an initial model of the protocol are in fact bisimulations of the original model, and therefore satisfy the same ATL$^*$ properties, including coercion-resistance. These simplifications allow the model-checking tool MCMAS to terminate on models with a larger number of voters and candidates, compared with the initial model. [less ▲]

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See detailMeasurement Invariance of Test Anxiety Across Four School Subjects
Schneider, Rebecca; Sparfeldt, Jörn R; Niepel, Christoph UL et al

in European Journal of Psychological Assessment (2021)

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See detailA Remote Carrier Synchronization Technique for Coherent Distributed Remote Sensing Systems
Merlano Duncan, Juan Carlos UL; Martinez Marrero, Liz UL; Querol, Jorge UL et al

in IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing (2021), 14

Phase, frequency, and time synchronization are crucial requirements for many applications, such as multi-static remote sensing and communication systems. Moreover, the synchronization solution becomes ... [more ▼]

Phase, frequency, and time synchronization are crucial requirements for many applications, such as multi-static remote sensing and communication systems. Moreover, the synchronization solution becomes even more challenging when the nodes are orbiting or flying on airborne or spaceborne platforms. This paper compares the available technologies used for the synchronization and coordination of nodes in distributed remote sensing applications. Additionally, this paper proposes a general system model and identifies preliminary guidelines and critical elements for implementing the synchronization mechanisms exploiting the inter-satellite communication link. The distributed phase synchronization loop introduced in this work deals with the self-interference in a full-duplex point to point scenario by transmitting two carriers at each node. All carriers appear with different frequency offsets around a central frequency, called the application central-frequency or the beamforming frequency. This work includes a detailed analysis of the proposed algorithm and the required simulations to verify its performance for different phase noise, AWGN, and Doppler shift scenarios. [less ▲]

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See detailTowards optimal decomposition of Boolean networks
Su, Cui; Pang, Jun UL; Paul, Soumya

in IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics (2021), 18(6), 2167-2176

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See detailQuality of life among adult patients living with diabetes in Rwanda: a cross-sectional study in outpatient clinics
Lygidakis, Charilaos; Uwizihiwe, Jean Paul; Bia, Michela Gianna UL et al

in BMJ Open (2021), 11

Objectives To report on the disease-related quality of life of patients living with diabetes mellitus in Rwanda and identify its predictors. Design Cross-sectional study, part of the baseline assessment ... [more ▼]

Objectives To report on the disease-related quality of life of patients living with diabetes mellitus in Rwanda and identify its predictors. Design Cross-sectional study, part of the baseline assessment of a cluster-randomised controlled trial. Setting Outpatient clinics for non-communicable diseases of nine hospitals across Rwanda. Participants Between January and August 2019, 206 patients were recruited as part of the clinical trial. Eligible participants were those aged 21–80 years and with a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus for at least 6 months. Illiterate patients, those with severe hearing or visual impairments, those with severe mental health conditions, terminally ill, and those pregnant or in the postpartum period were excluded Primary and secondary outcome measures Disease-specific quality of life was measured with the Kinyarwanda version of the Diabetes-39 (D-39) questionnaire. A glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) test was performed on all patients. Sociodemographic and clinical data were collected, including medical history, disease-related complications and comorbidities. Results The worst affected dimensions of the D-39 were ‘anxiety and worry’ (mean=51.63, SD=25.51), ‘sexual functioning’ (mean=44.58, SD=37.02), and ‘energy and mobility’ (mean=42.71, SD=20.69). Duration of the disease and HbA1c values were not correlated with any of the D-39 dimensions. A moderating effect was identified between use of insulin and achieving a target HbA1c of 7% in the ‘diabetes control’ scale. The most frequent comorbidity was hypertension (49.0% of participants), which had a greater negative effect on the ‘diabetes control’ and ‘social burden’ scales in women. Higher education was a predictor of less impact on the ‘social burden’ and ‘energy and mobility’ scales. Conclusions Several variables were identified as predictors for the five dimensions of quality of life that were studied, providing opportunities for tailored preventive programmes. Further prospective studies are needed to determine causal relationships. [less ▲]

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See detailLa proposta di direttiva sui salari minimi adeguati nella prospettiva di contrasto all’in-work poverty
Ratti, Luca UL

in Diritto delle Relazioni Industriali (2021)

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See detailDCcov: Repositioning of drugs and drug combinations for SARS-CoV-2 infected lung through constraint-based modeling.
Kishk, Ali UL; Pires Pacheco, Maria Irene UL; Sauter, Thomas UL

in iScience (2021), 24(11), 103331

The 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) became a worldwide pandemic with currently no approved effective antiviral drug. Flux balance analysis (FBA) is an efficient method to analyze metabolic networks ... [more ▼]

The 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) became a worldwide pandemic with currently no approved effective antiviral drug. Flux balance analysis (FBA) is an efficient method to analyze metabolic networks. Here, FBA was applied on human lung cells infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) to reposition metabolic drugs and drug combinations against the virus replication within the host tissue. Making use of expression datasets of infected lung tissue, genome-scale COVID-19-specific metabolic models were reconstructed. Then, host-specific essential genes and gene pairs were determined through in silico knockouts that permit reducing the viral biomass production without affecting the host biomass. Key pathways that are associated with COVID-19 severity in lung tissue are related to oxidative stress, ferroptosis, and pyrimidine metabolism. By in silico screening of Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs on the putative disease-specific essential genes and gene pairs, 85 drugs and 52 drug combinations were predicted as promising candidates for COVID-19 (https://github.com/sysbiolux/DCcov). [less ▲]

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See detailWaste- and Cd-Free Inkjet-Printed Zn(O,S) Buffer for Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 Thin-Film Solar Cells
Chu, van Ben UL; Siopa, Daniel UL; Debot, Alice UL et al

in ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces (2021), 13

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See detailLiving in the Shadow of the Past: Financial Profiles and Well-Being
d'ambrosio, Conchita UL; Clark, Andrew; Zhu, Rong

in Scandinavian Journal of Economics (2021), 123

We here consider the link between individual financial profiles over time and well-being, as measured by life satisfaction. We in particular look at annual self-reported financial worsening and ... [more ▼]

We here consider the link between individual financial profiles over time and well-being, as measured by life satisfaction. We in particular look at annual self-reported financial worsening and improvement information for over 25,000 individuals in Australian panel data from 2002 to 2017. We first find that satisfaction falls (rises) with a contemporaneous major financial worsening (improvement), with the the largest correlation being with financial worsening. Second, the experience of these financial events in the past continues to be linked to current well-being. Last, only the order of financial-improvement spells relates to well-being: a given number of past years where finances deteriorated has the same association with current well-being whether the deterioration occurred in one continuous spell or was interrupted. We last show that these associations are heterogeneous over the distribution of well-being. [less ▲]

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See detailInstitutional characteristics of education systems and inequalities—Introduction II. International Journal of Comparative Sociology
Gross, Christiane; Zapfe, Laura; Hadjar, Andreas UL

in International Journal of Comparative Sociology (2021), early online

The second special issue of International Journal of Comparative Sociology (IJCS) on the role of education systems as institutional settings on the reproduction of inequalities includes three papers that ... [more ▼]

The second special issue of International Journal of Comparative Sociology (IJCS) on the role of education systems as institutional settings on the reproduction of inequalities includes three papers that focus on stratification of the education system as key driver of educational inequalities, the role of digital inequalities in the school and beyond, as well as how students navigate through the institutional setting of the Taiwanese education system. While we already elaborated on the research program, conceptual framework, and methodological challenges in the first introduction (published in January 2021), we will deal with the current state-of-research in this second introduction. [less ▲]

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See detailCOBREXA.jl: constraint-based reconstruction and exascale analysis
Kratochvil, Miroslav UL; Heirendt, Laurent UL; Wilken, St Elmo et al

in Bioinformatics (2021)

COBREXA.jl is a Julia package for scalable, high-performance constraint-based reconstruction and analysis of very large-scale biological models. Its primary purpose is to facilitate the integration of ... [more ▼]

COBREXA.jl is a Julia package for scalable, high-performance constraint-based reconstruction and analysis of very large-scale biological models. Its primary purpose is to facilitate the integration of modern high performance computing environments with the processing and analysis of large-scale metabolic models of challenging complexity. We report the architecture of the package, and demonstrate how the design promotes analysis scalability on several use-cases with multi-organism community models.https://doi.org/10.17881/ZKCR-BT30.Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. [less ▲]

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See detailA robust protocol for the generation of human midbrain organoids
Zagare, Alise UL; Gobin, Matthieu UL; Monzel, Anna et al

in STAR Protocols (2021)

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See detailSubjective Well-Being of Adolescents in Luxembourg, Germany, and Brazil During the COVID-19 Pandemic
Engel de Abreu, Pascale UL; Neumann, Sascha; Wealer, Cyril UL et al

in Journal of Adolescent Health (2021)

Purpose: This study explores adolescent well-being during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in two high-income countries from Europe and one middle-income country from South America. The aim is to ... [more ▼]

Purpose: This study explores adolescent well-being during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in two high-income countries from Europe and one middle-income country from South America. The aim is to investigate the correlates of different dimensions of subjective well- being in 10- to 16-year-olds from different cultural contexts. Methods: An online, self-report questionnaire was completed by 1,613 adolescents in Luxembourg, Germany, and Brazil between May and July 2020. The outcome variables were measures of life satisfaction and emotional well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic. The study included a range of sociodemographic, interpersonal, and intrapersonal covariates. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and latent variable structural equational modeling. Results: A two-factor model of subjective well-being, consisting of life satisfaction and emotional well-being latent constructs, fitted well with this sample data for Luxembourg, Germany, and Brazil. Results showed that gender, socioeconomic status, intrapersonal factors, quantity and type of schoolwork, and relationships with adults were important common predictors of individual differences in subjective well-being during COVID-19. Fear of illness emerged as the strongest correlate of emotional well-being across the three countries. Conclusions: This study indicates that girls and adolescents from low-income homes may be especially vulnerable to negative secondary impacts of COVID-19 that can affect mental health. It identified several common correlates of subjective well-being in adolescents from different cultural settings, including factors that may be changeable, such as the following: the way adults listen to adolescents, schoolwork during distant learning, and fear of illness. Findings can inform the development of quality interventions for promoting the well-being of adolescents during a global pandemic. [less ▲]

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See detailBücherschau
Steveker, Lena UL; Laqué, Stephan

in Shakekespeare Jahrbuch (2021), 157

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See detailL’Union européenne de la santé : perspectives d’action extérieure
Neframi, Eleftheria UL

in Revue des Affaires Européennes (2021)

The European Union’s role in international health issues is of particular importance in the context of the Covid-19 pandemic. The Union aims to strengthen global health policy, in order to build a ... [more ▼]

The European Union’s role in international health issues is of particular importance in the context of the Covid-19 pandemic. The Union aims to strengthen global health policy, in order to build a European Health Union and consolidate its role in the international scene. Article 168 TFEU enables the Union to collaborate with international organisations and partner countries and to participate in the WHO governing bodies despite the absence of full party status. The alignment of internal policies with the objective of protection and improvement of human health gives the Union the implied external competence to participate in international agreements and envisage its active role in the elaboration of an international pandemic treaty. Besides, the Union has recourse to international trade measures in order to preserve the level of human health protection. The global approach of its external action objectives enables the Union to promote human health protection as a value in the conduct of its external policies and to support partner countries in their response to health threats. The Union gradually becomes a unified actor in global health security preparedness and response capacity. [less ▲]

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See detailUps & Downs. Reception histories in architecture
Van Gerrewey, Christophe; Peleman, David UL; Agyin, Justin et al

in OASE Journal for Architecture (2021), (108), 1-6

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See detailLa pratique luxembourgeoise en matière de droit international public 2019
Kinsch, Patrick UL; Friden, Georges

in Annales de droit luxembourgeois (2021), 30

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See detailInterdisziplinarität als Programm: Kindheitsforschung in der ZSE
Honig, Michael-Sebastian UL

in Zeitschrift für Soziologie der Erziehung und Sozialisation (2021), 41(2), 222-227

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See detailSociétés civiles, associations et autres groupements
Hiez, David UL

in Revue Trimestrielle de Droit Commercial et de Droit Economique (2021), 1

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See detailAnterior cingulate cortex activity during rest is related to alterations in pain perception in aging
Terrasa, Juan L.; Montoya, Pedro; Sitges, Carolina et al

in Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience (2021)

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See detailCharacterization of DNA Methylomic signatures in induced pluripotent stem cells during neuronal differentiation
Imm, Jennifer; Pishva, Ehsan; Ali, Muhammad et al

in Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology (2021)

In development, differentiation from a pluripotent state results in global epigenetic changes, although the extent to which this occurs in induced pluripotent stem cell based neuronal models has not been ... [more ▼]

In development, differentiation from a pluripotent state results in global epigenetic changes, although the extent to which this occurs in induced pluripotent stem cell based neuronal models has not been extensively characterized. In the present study, induced pluripotent stem cell colonies (33Qn1 line) were differentiated and collected at four time-points, with DNA methylation assessed using the Illumina Infinium Human Methylation EPIC BeadChip array. Dynamic changes in DNA methylation occurring during differentiation were investigated using a data-driven trajectory inference method. We identified a large number of Bonferroni-significant loci that showed progressive alterations in DNA methylation during neuronal differentiation. A gene-gene interaction network analysis identified 60 densely connected genes that were influential in the differentiation of neurons, with STAT3 being the gene with the highest connectivity. [less ▲]

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See detailEntre mode et religion, un corps à corps riche de sens
Roelens, Nathalie UL

in The Conversation (2021)

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See detailChanges in prevalence of cognitive impairment and associated risk factors 2000–2015 in São Paulo, Brazil
Ribeiro, Fabiana UL; Duarte, Yeda Aparecida de Oliveira; Santos, Jair Lício Ferreira et al

in BMC Geriatrics (2021)

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See detailIntegrated likelihood based inference for nonlinear panel data models with unobserved effects
Schumann, Martin; Severini, Thomas A.; Tripathi, Gautam UL

in Journal of Econometrics (2021), 223

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See detailRenewable electricity business models in a post feed-in tariff era
Rövekamp, Patrick; Schöpf, Michael; Wagon, Felix et al

in Energy (2021), 216

To expand intermittent renewable electricity sources (RESs), worldwide energy policy makers have introduced fixed feed-in tariffs (FITs). However, FITs typically expire after a limited time period. Due to ... [more ▼]

To expand intermittent renewable electricity sources (RESs), worldwide energy policy makers have introduced fixed feed-in tariffs (FITs). However, FITs typically expire after a limited time period. Due to the intermittent electricity supply of RES, market distortions, and insufficient flexibility options, exclusive participation in wholesale electricity markets might not be a viable business model for RES that no longer receive a FIT. Thus, it remains unclear which RES business models (RBMs) ensure a viable operation of RES in the post FIT era. To close this research gap, we present a typology encompassing five RBM archetypes: wholesale electricity market (1), physical power purchase agreements (2), nonphysical power purchase agreements (3), self-consumption (4), and on-site power-2-X (5). The typology includes three additional service layers, which may enhance the profitability of RBM archetypes by opening up additional revenue streams: infrastructure services (1), electricity storage services (2), and ancillary services (3). We highlight the need for new approaches to quantify the viability of RBM archetypes and services layers under different regulatory, technological, and market conditions. To prevent the imminent decommissioning of existing RESs, policy makers must shape the next era of the energy transition, weighting the implications of market-based and intervention-based energy policy approaches. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the Random Access Procedure of NB-IoT Non-Terrestrial Networks
Kodheli, Oltjon UL; Maturo, Nicola UL; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL et al

in IEEE Access (2021), 9

The standardization of the 5G systems has recently entered in an advanced phase, where non-terrestrial networks will be a new key feature in the upcoming releases. Narrowband Internet of Things (NB-IoT ... [more ▼]

The standardization of the 5G systems has recently entered in an advanced phase, where non-terrestrial networks will be a new key feature in the upcoming releases. Narrowband Internet of Things (NB-IoT) is one of the technologies that will address the massive machine type communication (mMTC) traf- fic of the 5G. To meet the demanding need for global connectivity, satellite communications can provide an essential support to complement and extend the NB-IoT terrestrial infrastructure. However, the presence of the satellite channel comes up with new demands for the NB-IoT procedures. In this paper, we investigate the main challenges introduced by the satellite channel in the NB-IoT random access procedure, while pointing out valuable solutions and research directions to overcome those challenges. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimization of the Return Link Carrier Planning for a Constant Coding and Modulation Satellite Network
Lacoste, Clément UL; Maturo, Nicola UL; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL et al

in Frontiers in Communications and Networks (2021), 2

In this paper, we propose an approach to optimize the frequency plan and associated bandwidth allocation in the return link of a broadband satellite network, by exploring several design techniques for ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we propose an approach to optimize the frequency plan and associated bandwidth allocation in the return link of a broadband satellite network, by exploring several design techniques for carrier allocation plans. Since bandwidth is a limited resource in satellite telecommunications, the minimization of bandwidth usage is a core issue that satellite communication service providers must solve, in particular for networks using a constant coding and modulation plan, which lacks the flexibility found in newer satellite communication products and can be subject to hardware constraints. This problematic led us to raise the following question: how can the long term bandwidth requirement of the network be minimized, given a set of ground terminals, of Modulations and Codings, and of discrete bandwidths. In this document we formally define the long-term carrier allocation problem and analyze current practical solutions. We subsequently investigate two other potential solutions, found to be more bandwidth-efficient: one based on heuristics and another based on integer linear programming. Finally, we look at the impact of several parameters on the performance of those three methods. Overall we observed marginal reductions in bandwidth, however significant gains were reached for networks with small return links with low committed information rate, a case in which some constant coding and modulation networks could fall. We concluded that those networks could benefit from our methods and see a significant reduction in bandwidth, and subsequently operational costs, at low implementation costs. [less ▲]

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See detailPolygenic scores for handedness and their association with asymmetries in brain structure
Ocklenburg, Sebastian; Metzen, Dorothea; Schlüter, Caroline et al

in Brain Structure and Function (2021)

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See detailNo Interface, No Problem: Gesture Recognition on Physical Objects Using Radar Sensing
Attygalle, Nuwan T.; Leiva, Luis A. UL; Kljun, Matjaž et al

in Sensors (2021), 21(17),

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See detailiPSC-Derived Microglia as a Model to Study Inflammation in Idiopathic Parkinson's Disease.
Badanjak, Katja UL; Mulica, Patrycja UL; Smajic, Semra UL et al

in Frontiers in cell and developmental biology (2021), 9

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease with unknown cause in the majority of patients, who are therefore considered "idiopathic" (IPD). PD predominantly affects dopaminergic neurons in ... [more ▼]

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease with unknown cause in the majority of patients, who are therefore considered "idiopathic" (IPD). PD predominantly affects dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc), yet the pathology is not limited to this cell type. Advancing age is considered the main risk factor for the development of IPD and greatly influences the function of microglia, the immune cells of the brain. With increasing age, microglia become dysfunctional and release pro-inflammatory factors into the extracellular space, which promote neuronal cell death. Accordingly, neuroinflammation has also been described as a feature of PD. So far, studies exploring inflammatory pathways in IPD patient samples have primarily focused on blood-derived immune cells or brain sections, but rarely investigated patient microglia in vitro. Accordingly, we decided to explore the contribution of microglia to IPD in a comparative manner using, both, iPSC-derived cultures and postmortem tissue. Our meta-analysis of published RNAseq datasets indicated an upregulation of IL10 and IL1B in nigral tissue from IPD patients. We observed increased expression levels of these cytokines in microglia compared to neurons using our single-cell midbrain atlas. Moreover, IL10 and IL1B were upregulated in IPD compared to control microglia. Next, to validate these findings in vitro, we generated IPD patient microglia from iPSCs using an established differentiation protocol. IPD microglia were more readily primed as indicated by elevated IL1B and IL10 gene expression and higher mRNA and protein levels of NLRP3 after LPS treatment. In addition, IPD microglia had higher phagocytic capacity under basal conditions-a phenotype that was further exacerbated upon stimulation with LPS, suggesting an aberrant microglial function. Our results demonstrate the significance of microglia as the key player in the neuroinflammation process in IPD. While our study highlights the importance of microglia-mediated inflammatory signaling in IPD, further investigations will be needed to explore particular disease mechanisms in these cells. [less ▲]

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See detailThe other model antiferroelectric: PbHfO3 thin films from ALD precursors
Hanrahan, Brendan; Milesi-Brault, Cosme; Leff, Asher et al

in APL MATERIALS (2021), 9(2),

Antiferroelectric PbHfO3 is grown from atomic layer deposition precursors lead bis(dimethylaminomethylpropanolate) and tetrakis dimethylamino hafnium with H2O and O-3 oxidizers in thicknesses from 20 nm ... [more ▼]

Antiferroelectric PbHfO3 is grown from atomic layer deposition precursors lead bis(dimethylaminomethylpropanolate) and tetrakis dimethylamino hafnium with H2O and O-3 oxidizers in thicknesses from 20 nm to 200 nm at a substrate temperature of 250 degrees C. X-ray analysis shows an as-grown crystalline PbO phase that diffuses into an amorphous HfO2 matrix upon annealing to form a randomly oriented, orthorhombic PbHfO3 thin film. Electrical characterization reveals characteristic double hysteresis loops with maximum polarizations of around 30 mu C/cm(2) and transition fields of 350 kV/cm-500 kV/cm depending on the thickness. Temperature-dependent permittivity and polarization testing show a phase transition at 185 degrees C, most probably to the paraelectric phase, but give no clear evidence for the intermediate phase known from bulk PbHfO3. The energy storage density for the films reaches 16 J/cm(3) at 2 MV/cm. A dielectric tunability of 221 is available within 1 V for the thinnest film. These results highlight the unique spectrum of properties available for thin film perovskite antiferroelectrics. [less ▲]

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See detailFAIR-ifying the Exposome Journal: Templates for Chemical Structures and Transformations
Schymanski, Emma UL; Bolton, Evan E.

in Exposome (2021)

Abstract The exposome, the totality of lifetime exposures, is a new and highly complex paradigm for health and disease. Tackling this challenge requires an effort well beyond single individuals or ... [more ▼]

Abstract The exposome, the totality of lifetime exposures, is a new and highly complex paradigm for health and disease. Tackling this challenge requires an effort well beyond single individuals or laboratories, where every piece of the puzzle will be vital. The launch of this new Exposome journal coincides with the evolution of the exposome through its teenage years and into a growing maturity in an increasingly open and FAIR (findable, accessible, interoperable, reusable) world. This letter discusses how both authors and the Exposome journal alike can help increase the FAIRness of the chemical structural information and the associated metadata in the journal, aiming to capture more details about the chemistry of exposomics. The proposed chemical structure template can serve as an interoperable supplementary format that is made accessible through the website and more findable by linking the DOI of this data file to the article DOI metadata, supporting further reuse. An additional Transformations template provides authors with a means to connect predecessor (parent, substrate) molecules to successor (transformation product, metabolite) molecules and thus provide FAIR connections between observed (i.e., experimental) chemical exposures and biological responses, to help improve the public knowledgebase on exposome-related transformations. These connections are vital to extend current biochemical knowledge and to fulfil the current Exposome definition of “the cumulative measure of environmental influences and associated biological responses throughout the lifespan including exposures from the environment, diet, behaviour, and endogenous processes”. [less ▲]

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See detailWegweisende Themen in Fort- und Weiterbildung
Andersen, Katja Natalie UL

in KiTa aktuell HRS - Fachzeitschrift für Leitungen, Fachkräfte und Träger der Kindertagesbetreuung (2021), 29(12), 281

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See detailDifferentiation of primary CNS lymphoma and glioblastoma using Raman spectroscopy and machine learning algorithms
Klamminger, Gilbert Georg; Klein, Karoline; Mombaerts, Laurent UL et al

in Free Neuropathology (2021), 2

Objective and Methods: Timely discrimination between primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL) and glioblastoma is crucial for diagnostics and therapy, but most importantly also determines the intraoperative surgical ... [more ▼]

Objective and Methods: Timely discrimination between primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL) and glioblastoma is crucial for diagnostics and therapy, but most importantly also determines the intraoperative surgical course. Advanced radiological methods allow this to a certain extent but ultimately, biopsy is still necessary for final diagnosis. As an upcoming method that enables tissue analysis by tracking changes in the vibrational state of molecules via inelastic scattered photons, we used Raman Spectroscopy (RS) as a label free method to examine specimens of both tumor entities intraoperatively, as well as postoperatively in formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) samples. Results: We applied and compared statistical performance of linear and nonlinear machine learning algorithms (Logistic Regression, Random Forest and XGBoost), and found that Random Forest classification distinguished the two tumor entities with a balanced accuracy of 82,4% in intraoperative tissue condition and with 94% using measurements of distinct tumor areas on FFPE tissue. Taking a deeper insight into the spectral properties of the tumor entities, we describe different tumor-specific Raman shifts of interest for classification. Conclusions: Due to our findings, we propose RS as an additional tool for fast and non-destructive, perioperative tumor tissue discrimination, which may augment treatment options at an early stage. RS may further serve as a useful additional tool for neuropathological diagnostics with little requirements for tissue integrity. [less ▲]

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See detailJeopardizing Democracy throughout History
Krakovsky, Christina; Seethaler, Josef; Schwarzenegger, Christian et al

in Medien & zeit (2021)

It is the goal of this issue of Medien & Zeit to provide a glimpse on the long history of how media in their many different forms and variations, served as either and amplifier or even accomplice (for ... [more ▼]

It is the goal of this issue of Medien & Zeit to provide a glimpse on the long history of how media in their many different forms and variations, served as either and amplifier or even accomplice (for reasons of profit, influence, power or ideology), or in the contrary acted as an adversary to populist and radical politics. The goal of this issue hence is to contribute to an understanding of the role media played as potential accomplices or carriers of populist agitation (e.g. in autocratic regimes and in absence of free media or out of commercial crookedness) or as amplifiers of extreme political positions or groups and populist sentiment (e.g. sensationalist and simplistic reporting or excessive coverage for populist tropes). Media and mediated communication can however also act as countering forces and adversaries of radical politics and aim to tame blatant populism or maintain forums for civilized debate (i.e., governance or self-regulation measures that may evolve through time). [less ▲]

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See detailChildren, Young People, and Borders: A Multidisciplinary Outlook
Venken, Machteld UL; Kaisto, Virpi; Brambilla, Chiara

in Journal of Borderlands Studies (2021), 36(2),

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See detailThe effects of age stereotypes on physical and mental health are mediated by self-perceptions of aging
Brothers, Allyson; Kornadt, Anna Elena UL; Nehrkorn-Bailey, Abigail et al

in Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences (2021), 76(5), 845-857

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See detailLingering Dynamics in Microvascular Blood Flow.
Kihm, Alexander; Quint, Stephan; Laschke, Matthias W. et al

in Biophysical journal (2021), 120(3), 432-439

The microvascular networks in the body of vertebrates consist of the smallest vessels such as arterioles, capillaries, and venules. The flow of red blood cells (RBCs) through these networks ensures the ... [more ▼]

The microvascular networks in the body of vertebrates consist of the smallest vessels such as arterioles, capillaries, and venules. The flow of red blood cells (RBCs) through these networks ensures the gas exchange in as well as the transport of nutrients to the tissues. Any alterations in this blood flow may have severe implications on the health state. Because the vessels in these networks obey dimensions similar to the diameter of RBCs, dynamic effects on the cellular scale play a key role. The steady progression in the numerical modeling of RBCs, even in complex networks, has led to novel findings in the field of hemodynamics, especially concerning the impact and the dynamics of lingering events when a cell meets a branch of the network. However, these results are yet to be matched by a detailed analysis of the lingering experiments in vivo. To quantify this lingering effect in in vivo experiments, this study analyzes branching vessels in the microvasculature of Syrian golden hamsters via intravital microscopy and the use of an implanted dorsal skinfold chamber. It also presents a detailed analysis of these lingering effects of cells at the apex of bifurcating vessels, affecting the temporal distribution of plasmatic zones of blood flow in the branches and even causing a partial blockage in severe cases. [less ▲]

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See detailRevealing Dynamic Relations Between Mathematics Self-Concept and Perceived Achievement From Lesson to Lesson: An Experience-Sampling Study
Niepel, Christoph UL; Marsh, Herbert W.; Guo, Jiesi et al

in Journal of Educational Psychology (2021)

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See detailHeartbeat evoked potentials in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder: an unaltered neurobiological regulation system?
Schmitz, Marius; Müller, Laura E.; Seitz, Katja I. et al

in European Journal of Psychotraumatology (2021), 12(1), 1987686

Background: Early life maltreatment is a risk factor for psychiatric disorders, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Posttraumatic stress disorder is a severe and heterogeneous disorder with ... [more ▼]

Background: Early life maltreatment is a risk factor for psychiatric disorders, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Posttraumatic stress disorder is a severe and heterogeneous disorder with fluctuating states of emotional over- and undermodulation including hypervigilance, dissociation, and emotion regulation deficits. The perception and regulation of emotions have been linked to interoception, the cortical representation and sensing of inner bodily processes. Although first therapeutic approaches targeting bodily sensations have been found effective in patients with PTSD, and deficits in interoceptive signal representation have been reported in other trauma-related disorders such as borderline personality disorder (BPD), the role of interoception remains largely unexplored for PTSD. Objective: The objective was to investigate the cortical representation of cardiac interoceptive signals in patients with PTSD and its associations with early life maltreatment, trait dissociation, and emotion dysregulation. Methods: Twenty-four medication-free patients with PTSD and 31 healthy controls (HC) completed a 5-min resting electrocardiogram (ECG) with parallel electroencephalogram (EEG). Heartbeat evoked potential (HEP) amplitudes as a measure for cortical representation of cardiac interoceptive signals were compared between groups and correlated with self-report questionnaires. Results: We did not find significantly different mean HEP amplitudes in patients with PTSD compared to HC, although HEPs of patients with PTSD were descriptively higher. No significant associations between mean HEP amplitudes and early life maltreatment, trait dissociation or emotion dysregulation were obtained within the groups. Conclusion: The current finding does not indicate deficits in interoceptive signal representation at rest in individuals with PTSD. Whether patients with PTSD show altered HEP modulations during emotion regulation tasks and might benefit from therapeutic approaches aiming at changing the perception of bodily signals, needs to be investigated in future studies. [less ▲]

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See detailLa BITD britannique
Zarkan, Laetitia UL

in Carnets de vols (2021), 140

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See detailDer Kalte Krieg und sein Wetter
Nanz, Tobias; Pause, Johannes UL

in Dritte Natur. Technik - Kapital - Umwelt (2021), 3

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See detailConstitutive Powers of Executive Bodies: a Functional Analysis of the Single Resolution Board
Mendes, Joana UL

in Modern Law Review (2021), 84(6), 13301359

Executive bodies can acquire constitutive powers,even if subject to detailed substantive strictures. Constitutive powers give executive bodies the possibility to transform normative understandings of the ... [more ▼]

Executive bodies can acquire constitutive powers,even if subject to detailed substantive strictures. Constitutive powers give executive bodies the possibility to transform normative understandings of the meaning of norms and of the goals of public action into legal forms. These bodies thus engage in a jurisgenerative process that enables them to progressively delimit their legal mandates in reaction to socio-economic and political realities. The article illustrates this argument by examining the power of the EU Single Resolution Board (SRB) to determine the resolution of a bank in crisis. It concludes that, in view of constitutive powers, the normative demands that the EU legal system places on executive and administrative bodies must be reconsidered. On that basis and to that effect, mechanisms of accountability should be reconceptualised and reoriented. [less ▲]

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See detailTests and estimation strategies associated to some loss functions
Baraud, Yannick UL

in Probability Theory and Related Fields (2021), 180(3), 799-846

We consider the problem of estimating the joint distribution of n independent random variables. Given a loss function and a family of candidate probabilities, that we shall call a model, we aim at ... [more ▼]

We consider the problem of estimating the joint distribution of n independent random variables. Given a loss function and a family of candidate probabilities, that we shall call a model, we aim at designing an estimator with values in our model that possesses good estimation properties not only when the distribution of the data belongs to the model but also when it lies close enough to it. The losses we have in mind are the total variation, Hellinger, Wasserstein and L_p-distances to name a few. We show that the risk of our estimator can be bounded by the sum of an approximation term that accounts for the loss between the true distribution and the model and a complexity term that corresponds to the bound we would get if this distribution did belong to the model. Our results hold under mild assumptions on the true distribution of the data and are based on exponential deviation inequalities that are non-asymptotic and involve explicit constants. Interestingly, when the model reduces to two distinct probabilities, our procedure results in a robust test whose errors of first and second kinds only depend on the losses between the true distribution and the two tested probabilities. [less ▲]

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