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See detailSecondary school principals and liminality in Polish Upper Silesia (1919-1939)
Venken, Machteld UL

in Journal of Modern European History (2021)

Establishing and implementing rules that would teach young people to become active citizens became a crucial technique for turning those spots on the map of Europe whose sovereignty had shifted after ... [more ▼]

Establishing and implementing rules that would teach young people to become active citizens became a crucial technique for turning those spots on the map of Europe whose sovereignty had shifted after World War I into lived social spaces. This article analyses how principals of borderland secondary schools negotiated transformation in Polish Upper Silesia with the help of Arnold Van Gennep’s notion that a shift in social statuses possessed a spatiality and temporality of its own. The article asks whether and how school principals were called on to offer elite training that would make Polish Upper Silesia more cohesive with the rest of Poland in terms of the social origins of pupils and the content of the history curriculum. In addition, it examines the extent to which borderland school principals accepted, refuted, or helped to shape that responsibility. The social origins of pupils are detected through a quantitative analysis of recruitment figures and the profiles of pupils’ parents. This analysis is combined with an exploration of how school principals provided a meaningful explanation of the recent past (World War I and the Silesian Uprisings). The article demonstrates that while school principals were historical actors with some room to make their own decisions when a liminal space was created, changed, and abolished, it was ultimately a priest operating in their shadows who possessed more possibilities to become a master of ceremonies leading elite education through its rites of passage. [less ▲]

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See detailNein to ‘Transfer Union’: the German brake on the construction of a European Union fiscal capacity
Howarth, David UL; Schild, Joachim

in Journal of European Integration (2021), 43(2), 207-224

This paper argues that, on the development of European Union (EU)/Eurozone fiscal capacity German governments have consistently engaged in foot-dragging. Few German state elites have ever supported ... [more ▼]

This paper argues that, on the development of European Union (EU)/Eurozone fiscal capacity German governments have consistently engaged in foot-dragging. Few German state elites have ever supported European fiscal capacity building beyond the EC budget. Following the outbreak of the Eurozone sovereign debt crisis, German governments agreed to the creation of financial support mechanisms only with reluctance. We see a case of continuity in German policy preferences driven by consistent ordoliberal and, specifically, moral hazard concerns. The important longterm change that we can observe relates to the growing importance for successive governments of avoiding audience costs driven by sceptical public opinion and the rise of a challenger party in German politics. German government support for a massive EU fiscal response to the economic crisis triggered by the COVID-19 pandemic demonstrates an exceptional policy position in favour of temporary financial mechanisms involving no fiscal transfers among member state governments. [less ▲]

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See detailWhat´s in a diagnosis: The Effect of Externalizing and Internalizing Students´ Behaviour on Pre-service Teachers' Classroom Management and Interaction Strategies
Glock, Sabine UL; Pit-Ten Cate, Ineke UL

in British Journal of Educational Psychology (2021), 91(4), 1185-1201

Background. All over the word, classrooms are getting more and more diverse and teachers are required to effectively manage these classes even when students have special education needs (SEN). Aims. The ... [more ▼]

Background. All over the word, classrooms are getting more and more diverse and teachers are required to effectively manage these classes even when students have special education needs (SEN). Aims. The study aimed to investigate classroom management strategies and interpersonal teacher behaviour in relation to students internalizing and externalizing behaviour, whereby we varied the diagnosis of special educational needs. Sample. Two hundred and fifty-four German pre-service teachers (143 female) with a mean age of 26.04 years participated in the study. Method. Using an experimental between-subjects design, a fictitious student was described as exhibiting either internalizing or externalizing behaviour. Additionally, we varied whether the student was diagnosed as having SEN or not. The participants were asked to indicate which strategies they would apply and how they would interact with students. Results. Results showed that teacher interaction in response to both students with internalizing and externalizing behaviour approached ideal interpersonal teacher behaviour (i.e. high level of cooperativeness with certain level of dominance), whereas pre-service teachers applied all classroom management strategies to minimize effects of student behaviour on learning time. Although pre-service teachers adapted their responses based on type of behaviour, they only made allowances for internalizing behaviour while their response to externalizing behaviour did not vary much as a function of a SEN diagnosis. Conclusions. Together, these findings highlight the importance of providing preservice teachers with the pedagogical knowledge concerning effective classroom management and flexible use of strategies in response to diverse student needs in inclusive classrooms. [less ▲]

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See detailLe retour du corps refoulé
Becker, Katrin UL

in Esprit (2021)

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See detailMobility-Driven and Energy-Efficient Deployment of Edge Data Centers in Urban Environments
Vitello, Piergiorgio UL; Capponi, Andrea UL; Fiandrino, Claudio UL et al

in IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Computing (2021)

Multi-access Edge Computing (MEC) brings storage and computational capabilities at the edge of the network into so-called Edge Data Centers (EDCs) to better support low-latency applications. In this paper ... [more ▼]

Multi-access Edge Computing (MEC) brings storage and computational capabilities at the edge of the network into so-called Edge Data Centers (EDCs) to better support low-latency applications. In this paper, we tackle the problem of EDC deployment in urban environments. Previous research on mobile phone data has exposed a strong correlation between the demand for mobile communications and the urban tissue. For example, joint analysis of mobile data and vehicle traffic can be extrapolated to estimate demand for transportation and human activities, thereby inferring the land use of the area where such activities take place. Our work takes into account the mobility of citizens and their spatial patterns to estimate the optimal placement of MEC EDCs in urban environments, in order to minimize outages while guaranteeing energy-efficiency. This is achieved by modeling both the energy consumption attributed to network components (e.g., base stations) and computing components (e.g., servers). We propose and compare three heuristics and show that mobility-aware deployments achieve superior performance. The results are obtained with a custom-designed simulator able to operate over large-scale realistic urban environments. [less ▲]

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See detailA Typical Case Report: Internet Gaming Disorder Psychotherapy Treatment in Private Practice
Niedermoser, Daryl Wayne; Hadjar, Andreas UL; Ankli, Vivian et al

in International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (2021), 18(4),

Background: Online or internet gaming disorder (IGD) is currently not recognized as a mental disorder in the actual Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), although it is an ... [more ▼]

Background: Online or internet gaming disorder (IGD) is currently not recognized as a mental disorder in the actual Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), although it is an emerging disease. Non-substance-related addictions often have similarities with substance addictions. It is therefore important to have a good understanding of the client but also to have a good endurance. Due to the rise of e-sports, there is an anticipated and therefore possible trend to have many more patients with a non-substance addiction. There are many parallels, for instance tolerance, withdrawal and social problems, resulting from an increasing investment of time spent on the internet. Case presentation: To reduce possible inhibition in treating a patient with IGD, we present a case of a 19-year-old adolescent man who exhibited IGD and showed social problems associated with his addiction. Conclusions: This paper shows the importance and the effects of treating a non-substance addiction with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). After having successfully coped with an addiction, several shifts in addiction were often reported. In this case, no shifts were reported. The absence of such shifts makes our case a distinct and unique case. This is not a multimorbidity case, and that is the reason why we think this is an excellent example to show what we achieved, how we achieved it, and what we could establish. Of course, additional research and manuals are urgently needed. [less ▲]

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See detailMood-induced changes in the cortical processing of food images in bulimia nervosa
Lutz, Annika UL; Dierolf, Angelika; van Dyck, Zoé UL et al

in Addictive Behaviors (2021), 113

Background Negative mood often triggers binge eating in bulimia nervosa (BN). We investigated motivational salience as a possible underlying mechanism using event-related potentials (ERPs) as indicators ... [more ▼]

Background Negative mood often triggers binge eating in bulimia nervosa (BN). We investigated motivational salience as a possible underlying mechanism using event-related potentials (ERPs) as indicators of motivated attention allocation (P300) and sustained processing (LPP). Methods We collected ERPs (P300: 350–400 ms; LPP: 600–1000 ms) from 21 women with full-syndrome or partially remitted BN and 21 healthy women (HC), matched for age and body mass index. Idiosyncratic negative and neutral situations were used to induce corresponding mood states (counterbalanced), before participants viewed images of high- and low-calorie foods and neutral objects, and provided ratings for pleasantness and desire to eat. Results P300 was larger for foods than objects; LPP was largest for high-calorie foods, followed by low-calorie foods, then objects. The BN group showed an increased desire to eat high-calorie foods under negative mood and stronger mood induction effects on ERPs than the HC group, with generally reduced P300 and a small increase in LPP for high-calorie foods. Effects were limited to circumscribed electrode positions. Exploratory analyses showed clearer effects when comparing high vs. low emotional eaters. Conclusion We argue that negative mood decreased the availability of cognitive resources (decreased P300) in BN, thereby facilitating disinhibition and food cravings (increased desire-to-eat ratings). Increased sustained processing might be linked to emotional eating tendencies rather than BN pathology per se, and reflect approach motivation, conflict, or regulatory processes. Negative mood appears to induce complex changes in food image processing, whose understanding may contribute to the development of tailored interventions in the future. [less ▲]

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See detailAdaptive Content Seeding for Information-Centric Networking under High Topology Dynamics: Where You Seed Matters
Turcanu, Ion UL; Engel, Thomas UL; Sommer, Christoph

in IEEE Vehicular Technology Magazine (2021), 16(2),

High-fidelity content distribution and other emerging applications of 5G and beyond-5G mobile broadband networking can put massive load on the core and Radio Access Network (RAN). To address this, direct ... [more ▼]

High-fidelity content distribution and other emerging applications of 5G and beyond-5G mobile broadband networking can put massive load on the core and Radio Access Network (RAN). To address this, direct Device to Device (D2D) communication has recently become a first-class citizen of these networks. While Information-Centric Vehicular Networking (ICVN) based on fog computing can indeed exploit such D2D links to alleviate the load on the RAN by proactively seeding content in the network, it has been shown that such seeding can cause even more load if performed where not needed. In addition, trying to determine where to seed content often causes additional load, negating the benefit of seeding. In this work, we therefore propose to adaptively seed fog nodes based on a purely virtual clustering approach. Here, vehicles are unaware of clustering decisions, thus no longer requiring an explicit exchange of control messages. We show that the benefit of such an adaptive approach goes beyond simply being able to flexibly trade off performance metrics versus each other: instead, it can consistently lower the load on the RAN link. We also show that this property even holds if node location information is only available as coarsely-grained as macro-scale grid cells. [less ▲]

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See detailDie Beteiligung privater Rundfunkveranstalter an einer staatlich veranlassten Finanzierung - Eine Untersuchung möglicher Unterstützungsmaßnahmen auf ihre Vereinbarkeit mit dem deutschen Rundfunkverfassungs- und EU-Beihilfenrecht
Cole, Mark David UL

in UFITA - Archiv für Medienrecht und Medienwissenschaft (2021), 84(2),

Die Corona-Pandemie hat wie in einem Brennglas zweierlei für den Mediensektor gezeigt: einerseits die Wichtigkeit der Medien für die Information der Bürger (was an deutlich gestiegenen Nutzungszahlen von ... [more ▼]

Die Corona-Pandemie hat wie in einem Brennglas zweierlei für den Mediensektor gezeigt: einerseits die Wichtigkeit der Medien für die Information der Bürger (was an deutlich gestiegenen Nutzungszahlen von Qualitätsmedien ablesbar ist) und andererseits, bedingt durch die erheblichen wirtschaftlichen Folgen etwa wegen ausbleibender Werbeeinnahmen, die Schwierigkeiten für bestimmte Inhalteanbieter eine nachhaltige finanzielle Stabilität aufzuweisen. Als Konsequenz wurden verschiedene Instrumentarien auf mitgliedstaatlicher und EU-Ebene eingeführt, um die negativen Folgen abzumildern. Solche Formen von Unterstützungsleistungen werden im Beitrag daraufhin untersucht, ob sie grundsätzlich mit rundfunkverfassungsrechtlichen Bedingungen in Deutschland sowie dem einschlägigen EU-Beihilfenrecht vereinbar sind. Der Beitrag basiert auf einem Gutachten, in dem die Autoren lange vor der Pandemie umfassend untersucht haben und zu einem bejahenden Ergebnis kommen, ob private Rundfunkveranstalter an einer staatlich veranlassten Finanzierung teilhaben könnten und wie bei der Einführung eines solchen Instrumentariums, das rundfunkverfassungsrechtlich möglich, aber de lege lata nach aktuellem Medienstaatsvertrag als Regelmaßnahme nicht durchführbar wäre, die Rahmenbedingungen auszugestalten wären. Neben der ausführlichen Anwendung der relevanten Urteile des Bundesverfassungsgerichts auf eine solche Konstellation, enthält der Beitrag aus akutellem Anlass auch eine kurze Darstellung der ersten medienbezogenen Beihilfeentscheidung der Kommission für ein Förderprogramm, das von Dänemark ausdrücklich zur Abwendung von Nachteilen eingeführt wurde, die der dortige Mediensektor als Resultat staatlicher Vorsorgemaßnahme erlitten hat. [less ▲]

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See detailLost in transition – Learning analytics on the transfer from knowledge acquisition to knowledge application in complex problem solving
Nicolay, Björn Fabrice UL; Krieger, Florian UL; Stadler, Matthias et al

in Computers in Human Behavior (2021), 115

Since Complex Problem Solving (CPS) skills represent a key competence for educational success, they are of great relevance for learning analytics. More specifically, CPS serves as a pertinent showcase for ... [more ▼]

Since Complex Problem Solving (CPS) skills represent a key competence for educational success, they are of great relevance for learning analytics. More specifically, CPS serves as a pertinent showcase for addressing a crucial existing gap contemporary education is facing, the gap between students' ability to acquire and subsequently apply knowledge in uncertain situations, which are increasingly important in the 21st century. While the CPS process incorporates both the acquisition and application of knowledge, many earlier studies have focused on identifying the factors relevant for success in knowledge acquisition. Given the dearth of existing research on factors influencing a successful transition between both CPS phases, we investigated the rates of successful and unsuccessful knowledge transition over the course of nine CPS items in a sample of N = 1151 students in 9th grade. Results showed that many participants were unable to transition their knowledge from the acquisition to the application phase, which was presumably due to an inefficient mental model transfer. Furthermore, the likelihood of students being ‘lost in transition’ was higher in more complex items. Implications are discussed in light of learning analytics, and particularly with regard to the factors to be taken into account by future CPS training programs. [less ▲]

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See detailA covalent calmodulin inhibitor as a tool to study cellular mechanisms of K-Ras-driven stemness
Okutachi, Sunday Ojochegbe UL; Manoharan, Ganesh Babu UL; Kiriazis, Alexandros et al

in Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology (2021)

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See detailAgency and the school-to-work transition of care leavers: A retrospective study of Luxembourgish young people
Göbel, Sabrina; Hadjar, Andreas UL; Karl, Ute et al

in Children and Youth Services Review (2021), early online

This article presents empirical results from a study (2015–2018) on young people leaving care in Luxembourg. A special focus deals with the processes of transitioning from care to work. Education appears ... [more ▼]

This article presents empirical results from a study (2015–2018) on young people leaving care in Luxembourg. A special focus deals with the processes of transitioning from care to work. Education appears to be crucial for a successful transition, as it determines life chances, such as labour market chances, but so far inequality studies have neither researched transitions from care nor have the theoretical concepts developed in inequality research been used to understand the situation of care leavers. They might help to explain the different mechanisms behind the disadvantages of students in foster and residential care and their educational attainment. This paper thus attempts to theorise leaving care from an inequality perspective and the interdependencies with concepts of relational agency, taking into account the heterogeneity among care leavers, their trajectories and achievements (see also Göbel, Hadjar, Karl, Peters, & Jäger, 2020). The main objective of our analysis is to investigate how agency is achieved in the transition from school to work among care leavers, taking into consideration institutional pathways (continuities and discontinuities) in the care and the educational system. [less ▲]

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See detailCity-states in relational urbanization: the case of Luxembourg and Singapore
Wong, Catherine; Hesse, Markus UL; Sigler, Thomas UL

in Urban Geography (2021)

Post-industrial global urbanisation has seen the rise of territorial economic development strategies predicated on reconfiguring the urban landscape to conform to novel forms of economic production, often ... [more ▼]

Post-industrial global urbanisation has seen the rise of territorial economic development strategies predicated on reconfiguring the urban landscape to conform to novel forms of economic production, often under the guise of ‘global city’ development. This paper reorients the conversation on global city development by highlighting the intermediary roles that particular cities play in brokering flows of global knowledge, goods, and capital through novel spatial-economic configurations. We identify a sub-set of city-states characterized by territorial economic development strategies that are exemplary of ‘relational’ processes. Luxembourg and Singapore serve as illustrative cases in which urban territorial development is guided almost entirely by an exogenous orientation benefitting from an intermediary positionality. They focus on intermediary services supported by technologically intensive infrastructures and niche economic strategies enables a relational competitive advantage. Although all cities are in some way ‘relational’ in their politico-economic orientation, these extraordinary cases highlight a number of novel concurrent socio-spatial processes. We conclude that a combination of forward-looking and unconventional ‘relational’ territorial development strategies including digital infrastructures and entrepreneurial legislation support the emergence of novel industrial configurations whose key advantages are conferred by their positionality in relation to regional and global flows. [less ▲]

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See detailAddressing COVID through PCD: policy coherence for vulnerability in development and its relationship to the coronavirus pandemic
Moldes-Anaya, Sergio; Koff, Harlan UL; da Porto, Angelica UL et al

in Equality, Diversity and Inclusion (2021)

This analysis frames vulnerability as a socially constructed condition and through implementation of a PCD approach, it indicates how policy strategies contribute to or mitigate vulnerabilities. In doing ... [more ▼]

This analysis frames vulnerability as a socially constructed condition and through implementation of a PCD approach, it indicates how policy strategies contribute to or mitigate vulnerabilities. In doing so, it intends to contribute conceptually to the literature on vulnerability by showing how policy incoherences contribute to the construction of this condition. Empirically, the originality of this article is its statistical analysis of regional variance of coronavirus risk and the qualitative analysis of policy strategies in representative cases and how they have affected vulnerabilities and coronavirus impacts. The research shows that significant regional variance exists in terms of coronavirus risk, based on statistical analysis of the INFORM COVID-19 Risk Report prepared by the European Commission. The PCD analysis highlights important relationships between public policy strategies and the construction of both underlying vulnerabilities and coronavirus impacts. [less ▲]

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See detailMachine Learning-Enabled Joint Antenna Selection and Precoding Design: From Offline Complexity to Online Performance
Vu, Thang Xuan UL; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL; Nguyen, van Dinh UL et al

in IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications (2021), 20(6), 3710-3722

We investigate the performance of multi-user multiple-antenna downlink systems in which a base station (BS) serves multiple users via a shared wireless medium. In order to fully exploit the spatial ... [more ▼]

We investigate the performance of multi-user multiple-antenna downlink systems in which a base station (BS) serves multiple users via a shared wireless medium. In order to fully exploit the spatial diversity while minimizing the passive energy consumed by radio frequency (RF) components, the BS is equipped with M RF chains and N antennas, where M < N. Upon receiving pilot sequences to obtain the channel state information (CSI), the BS determines the best subset of M antennas for serving the users. We propose a joint antenna selection and precoding design (JASPD) algorithm to maximize the system sum rate subject to a transmit power constraint and quality of service (QoS) requirements. The JASPD overcomes the non-convexity of the formulated problem via a doubly iterative algorithm, in which an inner loop successively optimizes the precoding vectors, followed by an outer loop that tries all valid antenna subsets. Although approaching the (near) global optimality, the JASPD suffers from a combinatorial complexity, which may limit its application in real-time network operations. To overcome this limitation, we propose a learning-based antenna selection and precoding design algorithm (L-ASPA), which employs a deep neural network (DNN) to establish underlaying relations between the key system parameters and the selected antennas. The proposed L-ASPD is robust against the number of users and their locations, BS's transmit power, as well as the small-scale channel fading. With a well-trained learning model, it is shown that the L-ASPD significantly outperforms baseline schemes based on the block diagonalization and a learning-assisted solution for broadcasting systems and achieves higher effective sum rate than that of the JASPA under limited processing time. In addition, we observed that the proposed L-ASPD can reduce the computation complexity by 95% while retaining more than 95% of the optimal performance. [less ▲]

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See detailZero-Rating ist nicht „netzneutral”
Cole, Mark David UL

in Neue Juristische Wochenschrift (2021), 74(4), 208-210

Nach der erheblichen politischen Diskussion vor Verabschiedung der sogenannten Netzneutralitäts-Verordnung der EU (NN-VO)1 und der seither leiser gewordenen Beschäftigung mit diesem ... [more ▼]

Nach der erheblichen politischen Diskussion vor Verabschiedung der sogenannten Netzneutralitäts-Verordnung der EU (NN-VO)1 und der seither leiser gewordenen Beschäftigung mit diesem telekommunikationsrechtlichen Regelungswerk hat der EuGH mit dem ersten Urteil zur NN-VO diese wieder ins Rampenlicht geholt. [less ▲]

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See detailEstimating worldwide effects of non‐pharmaceutical interventions on COVID‐19 incidence and population mobility patterns using a multiple‐event study
Askitas, Nikolaos; Tatsiramos, Konstantinos UL; Verheyden, Bertrand

in Scientific Reports (2021), 11(1972 (2021)), 1-13

Various non‐pharmaceutical interventions were adopted by countries worldwide in the fight against the COVID‐19 pandemic with adverse socioeconomic side effects, which raises the question about their ... [more ▼]

Various non‐pharmaceutical interventions were adopted by countries worldwide in the fight against the COVID‐19 pandemic with adverse socioeconomic side effects, which raises the question about their differential effectiveness. We estimate the average dynamic effect of each intervention on the incidence of COVID‐19 and on people’s whereabouts by developing a statistical model that accounts for the contemporaneous adoption of multiple interventions. Using daily data from 175 countries, we show that, even after controlling for other concurrent lockdown policies, cancelling public events, imposing restrictions on private gatherings and closing schools and workplaces had significant effects on reducing COVID‐19 infections. Restrictions on internal movement and public transport had no effects because the aforementioned policies, imposed earlier on average, had already de facto reduced human mobility. International travel restrictions, although imposed early, had a short‐lived effect failing to prevent the epidemic from turning into a pandemic because they were less stringent. We interpret the impact of each intervention on containing the pandemic using a conceptual framework which relies on their effects on human mobility behaviors in a manner consistent with time‐use and epidemiological factors. [less ▲]

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See detailHybrid automatic repeat request‐based intelligent reflecting surface‐assisted communication system
Ai, Yun; Mohamed, M.; Kong, Long UL et al

in Electronics Letters (2021)

The intelligent reflecting surface (IRS) is an emerging technique to extend wireless coverage. In this letter, the performance of the hybrid automatic repeat request (hybrid ARQ) for an IRS‐assisted ... [more ▼]

The intelligent reflecting surface (IRS) is an emerging technique to extend wireless coverage. In this letter, the performance of the hybrid automatic repeat request (hybrid ARQ) for an IRS‐assisted system is analysed. More specifically, the outage performance of the IRS‐aided system using hybrid ARQ protocol with chase combining is studied. The asymptotic analysis also shows that the outage performance is better and improves linearly by increasing the number of reflectors of the IRS‐aided system. The results also verify the potential of combining the ARQ scheme in the link layer of the IRS‐aided system and demonstrate that a very small change of path loss condition can impact the performance largely. [less ▲]

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See detailCompletion Time Minimization in NOMA Systems:Learning for Combinatorial Optimization
Wang, Anyue UL; Lei, Lei UL; Lagunas, Eva UL et al

in IEEE Networking Letters (2021)

In this letter, we study a completion-time minimization problem by jointly optimizing time slots (TSs) and power allocation for time-critical non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) systems. The original ... [more ▼]

In this letter, we study a completion-time minimization problem by jointly optimizing time slots (TSs) and power allocation for time-critical non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) systems. The original problem is non-linear/non-convex with discrete variables, leading to high computational complexity in conventional iterative methods. Towards an efficient solution, we train deep neural networks to perform fast and high-accuracy predictions to tackle the difficult combinatorial parts, i.e., determining the minimum consumed TSs and user-TS allocation. Based on the learning-based predictions, we develop a low-complexity post-process procedure to provide feasible power allocation. The numerical results demonstrate promising improvements of the proposed scheme compared to other baseline schemes in terms of computational efficiency, approximating optimum, and feasibility guarantee. [less ▲]

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See detailRobust Multidimensional Pricing: Separation without Regret
Kocyigit, Cagil UL; Rujeerapaiboon, Napat; Kuhn, Daniel

in Mathematical Programming (2021)

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See detailOptical conductivity of triple point fermions
Habibi, Alireza UL; Farajollahpour, Tohid; Jafari, S A

in Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter (2021), 33

As a low-energy effective theory on non-symmorphic lattices, we consider a generic triple point fermion Hamiltonian, which is parameterized by an angular parameter λ. We find strong λ dependence in both ... [more ▼]

As a low-energy effective theory on non-symmorphic lattices, we consider a generic triple point fermion Hamiltonian, which is parameterized by an angular parameter λ. We find strong λ dependence in both Drude and interband optical absorption of these systems. The deviation of the T2 coefficient of the Drude weight from Dirac/Weyl fermions can be used as a quick way to optically distinguish the triple point degeneracies from the Dirac/Weyl degeneracies. At the particular λ = π/6 point, we find that the 'helicity' reversal optical transition matrix element is identically zero. Nevertheless, deviating from this point, the helicity reversal emerges as an absorption channel. [less ▲]

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See detailRewealthization in twenty-first century Western countries: the defining trend of the socioeconomic squeeze of the middle class
Chauvel, Louis UL; Bar Haim, Eyal; Hartung, Anne et al

in Journal of Chinese Sociology (2021), 8

The wealth-to-income ratio (WIR) in many Western countries, particularly in Europe and North America, increased by a factor of two in the last three decades. This represents a defining empirical trend: a ... [more ▼]

The wealth-to-income ratio (WIR) in many Western countries, particularly in Europe and North America, increased by a factor of two in the last three decades. This represents a defining empirical trend: a rewealthization (from the French repatrimonialisation)—or the comeback of (inherited) wealth primacy since the mid-1990s. For the sociology of social stratification, “occupational classes” based on jobs worked must now be understood within a context of wealth-based domination. This paper first illustrates important empirical features of an era of rising WIR. We then outline the theory of rewealthization as a major factor of class transformations in relation to regimes stabilized in the post-WWII industrial area. Compared to the period where wealth became secondary to education and earnings for middle-class lifestyles, rewealthization steepens society's vertical structure; the "olive-shaped" Western society is replaced by a new one where wealth "abundance" at the top masks social reproduction and frustrations below. [less ▲]

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See detailCoulomb interactions between dipolar quantum fluctuations in van der Waals bound molecules and materials
Stoehr, Martin UL; Sadhukhan, Mainak; Al-Hamdani, Yasmine S. et al

in Nature Communications (2021), 12(1), 137

Mutual Coulomb interactions between electrons lead to a plethora of interesting physical and chemical effects, especially if those interactions involve many fluctuating electrons over large spatial scales ... [more ▼]

Mutual Coulomb interactions between electrons lead to a plethora of interesting physical and chemical effects, especially if those interactions involve many fluctuating electrons over large spatial scales. Here, we identify and study in detail the Coulomb interaction between dipolar quantum fluctuations in the context of van der Waals complexes and materials. Up to now, the interaction arising from the modification of the electron density due to quantum van der Waals interactions was considered to be vanishingly small. We demonstrate that in supramolecular systems and for molecules embedded in nanostructures, such contributions can amount to up to 6 kJ/mol and can even lead to qualitative changes in the long-range van der Waals interaction. Taking into account these broad implications, we advocate for the systematic assessment of so-called Dipole-Correlated Coulomb Singles in large molecular systems and discuss their relevance for explaining several recent puzzling experimental observations of collective behavior in nanostructured materials. [less ▲]

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See detailCo-evaporation of CH3NH3PbI3: How Growth Conditions Impact Phase Purity, Photostriction, and Intrinsic Stability
Gallet, Thibaut UL; Poeira, Ricardo G.; Lanzoni, Evandro M. et al

in ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces (2021), 13(2), 26422653

Hybrid organic–inorganic perovskites are highly promising candidates for the upcoming generation of single- and multijunction solar cells. Despite their extraordinarily good semiconducting properties ... [more ▼]

Hybrid organic–inorganic perovskites are highly promising candidates for the upcoming generation of single- and multijunction solar cells. Despite their extraordinarily good semiconducting properties, there is a need to increase the intrinsic material stability against heat, moisture, and light exposure. Understanding how variations in synthesis affect the bulk and surface stability is therefore of paramount importance to achieve a rapid commercialization on large scales. In this work, we show for the case of methylammonium lead iodide that a thorough control of the methylammonium iodide (MAI) partial pressure during co-evaporation is essential to limit photostriction and reach phase purity, which dictate the absorber stability. Kelvin probe force microscopy measurements in ultrahigh vacuum corroborate that off-stoichiometric absorbers prepared with an excess of MAI partial pressure exhibit traces of low-dimensional (two-dimensional, 2D) perovskites and stacking faults that have adverse effects on the intrinsic material stability. Under optimized growth conditions, time-resolved photoluminescence and work functions mapping corroborate that the perovskite films are less prone to heat and light degradation. [less ▲]

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See detailStrain effects on band structure and Dirac nodal-line morphology of ZrSiSe
Bernardus, Rendy; Hasdeo, Eddwi Hesky UL

in Journal of Applied Physics (2021), 129(1), 014306

The Dirac nodal-line semimetals are new promising materials for technological applications due to their exotic properties, which originate from band structure dispersion and nodal-line behavior. We report ... [more ▼]

The Dirac nodal-line semimetals are new promising materials for technological applications due to their exotic properties, which originate from band structure dispersion and nodal-line behavior. We report strain effects on the band structure of ZrSiSe Dirac nodal-line semimetal through the density functional theory calculations. We found that the kz=0 Dirac nodal-line of ZrSiSe is robust to all strains under reasonable magnitude although there are significant changes in the band oscillation amplitude, bandgap, and band occupancy due to orbital interactions and the Fermi energy shift upon strains. We also found that the effective strains to tune the nodal-line and band structure are equi-biaxial tensile, uniaxial (100) tensile, and xz-plane shear strains. [less ▲]

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See detailExperimental Evaluation of a Team of Multiple Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for Cooperative Construction
Real, Fran; Castaño, Angel; Torres-Gonzalez, Arturo et al

in IEEE Access (2021)

This article presents a team of multiple Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) to perform cooperative missions for autonomous construction. In particular, the UAVs have to build a wall made of bricks that need ... [more ▼]

This article presents a team of multiple Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) to perform cooperative missions for autonomous construction. In particular, the UAVs have to build a wall made of bricks that need to be picked and transported from different locations. First, we propose a novel architecture for multi-robot systems operating in outdoor and unstructured environments, where robustness and reliability play a key role. Then, we describe the design of our aerial platforms and grasping mechanisms to pick, transport and place bricks. The system was particularly developed for the Mohamed Bin Zayed International Robotics Challenge (MBZIRC), where Challenge 2 consisted of building a wall cooperatively with multiple UAVs. However, our approach is more general and extensible to other multi-UAV applications involving physical interaction, like package delivery. We present not only our results in the final stage of MBZIRC, but also our simulations and field experiments throughout the previous months to the competition, where we tuned our system and assessed its performance. [less ▲]

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See detailEVALUATION OF THE JOINT BASED ON DIFFERENT SURFACE CONDITIONS FOR ALUMINUM-POLYAMIDE LASER WELDING
Amne Elahi, Mahdi UL; Koch, Marcus; Plapper, Peter UL

in Journal of Laser Applications (2021)

Laser welding is one of the most promising joining techniques to realize hybrid joints between metals and polymers in order to achieve weight reduction and functionalization of the parts. The surface ... [more ▼]

Laser welding is one of the most promising joining techniques to realize hybrid joints between metals and polymers in order to achieve weight reduction and functionalization of the parts. The surface treatment of the metal has a decisive effect on the joint quality and thus on the mechanical properties. In the present study, different mechanical and laser-based surface treatments have been investigated to develop diverse surface conditions on aluminum. Abrasive blasting and laser ablation were used to increase the surface roughness, while abrasive polishing and laser polishing were applied to minimize the surface roughness. In contrast to abrasive surface treatments, laser-based ones were implemented to create artificial oxide layers on the aluminum surface. The surface structures of pretreated samples have been studied with scanning electron microscopy and roughness test. The laser welding of pretreated aluminum with polyamide was achieved with the heat conduction joining technique. To enlarge the welding area and control the heat input, spatial and temporal modulations of the laser beam were implemented. Finally, a single lap tensile-shear test, microscopic analysis of fractured surfaces, and welding cross sections were employed to evaluate the joints. Results show that the presence of an artificial aluminum oxide layer and low roughness are essential to achieve a superior joint between aluminum and polyamide (improvement of approximately 58% in the shear load of the joint compared to as-received welded samples). The cross section of the superior joint which is the laser-polished aluminum welded to polyamide is studied with transmission electron microscopy. [less ▲]

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See detailBrain mechanisms underlying prospective thinking of sustainable behaviours
Brevers, Damien UL; Baeken, Chris; Maurage, Pierre et al

in Nature Sustainability (2021)

The preservation of our environment requires sustainable ways of thinking and living. Here, we aimed to explore the core network of brain regions involved in the prospective thinking about (un)sustainable ... [more ▼]

The preservation of our environment requires sustainable ways of thinking and living. Here, we aimed to explore the core network of brain regions involved in the prospective thinking about (un)sustainable behaviours. Using a neuroimaging cue-exposure paradigm, we requested participants (n = 86) to report behaviours that were the most feasible for them to implement (sustainable behaviour) or diminish (unsustainable behaviour) in the future. We find that increasing sustainable behaviours was perceived to be more feasible than reducing unsustainable ones. Consistent with the role of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus in providing access to new representations of past behaviours, we observed stronger activation of these regions when picturing an increase in sustainable behaviours. Critically, simulating the reduction of unsustainable behaviours triggered activation within the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (a key region for inhibitory-control processes), which was negatively associated with hippocampal activation (a key region for memory). These findings suggest that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex downregulates brain regions that support memory retrieval of unsustainable behaviours. This mechanism could inhibit the access to episodic details associated with unsustainable behaviours and in turn allow for prospective thinking of sustainable behaviours. These findings provide an initial step towards a better understanding of the brain networks that are involved in the adoption of sustainable habits. [less ▲]

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See detailReview: Mapping Modern Jewish Cultures
Zaagsma, Gerben UL

in Reviews in Digital Humanities (2021), 2(1),

Review of the website Mapping Modern Jewish Cultures (https://richbrew.org/).

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See detailFeasible Point Pursuit and Successive Convex Approximation for Transmit Power Minimization in SWIPT-Multigroup Multicasting Systems
Gautam, Sumit UL; Lagunas, Eva UL; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL et al

in IEEE Transactions on Green Communications and Networking (2021)

We consider three wireless multi-group (MG) multicasting (MC) systems capable of handling heterogeneous user types viz., information decoding (ID) specific users with conventional receiver architectures ... [more ▼]

We consider three wireless multi-group (MG) multicasting (MC) systems capable of handling heterogeneous user types viz., information decoding (ID) specific users with conventional receiver architectures, energy harvesting (EH) only users with non-linear EH module, and users with joint ID and EH capabilities having separate units for the two operations, respectively. Each user is categorized under unique group(s), which can be of MC type specifically meant for ID users, and/or an energy group consisting of EH explicit users. The joint ID and EH users are a part of both EH group and single MC group. We formulate an optimization problem to minimize the total transmit power with optimal precoder designs for the three aforementioned scenarios, under certain quality-of-service constraints. The problem may be adapted to the well-known semidefinite program and solved via relaxation of rank-1 constraint. However, this process leads to performance degradation in some cases, which increases with the rank of solution obtained from the relaxed problem. Hence, we develop a novel technique motivated by the feasible-point pursuit successive convex approximation method in order to address the rank-related issue. The benefits of proposed method are illustrated under various operating conditions and parameter values, with comparison between the three above-mentioned scenarios. [less ▲]

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See detailNew insights into the origin of fine equiaxed microstructures in additively manufactured Inconel 718
Cazic, Ivan UL; Zollinger, Julien; Matthieu, Sandrine et al

in Scripta Materialia (2021)

Fine equiaxed grain regions are frequently observed in additively manufactured Inconel 718 alloy. Based on a grain-to-grain orientation analysis using EBSD, many assemblies of neighboring grains in these ... [more ▼]

Fine equiaxed grain regions are frequently observed in additively manufactured Inconel 718 alloy. Based on a grain-to-grain orientation analysis using EBSD, many assemblies of neighboring grains in these regions have been found to display multiple-twins orientation relationships sharing common 〈110〉directions and exhibiting 5-fold symmetry. This is an experimental proof that the grain refinement observed in inconel 718 is due to Icosahedral Short-Range Order (ISRO) mediated nucleation mechanism. This is the first report of ISRO-mediated nucleation of fcc nickel which widens the perspectives on the microstructures control in additive manufacturing of Ni-based superalloys. [less ▲]

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See detailIntergenerational wealth transfers and wealth inequality in rich countries: What do we learn from Gini decomposition?
Nolan, Brian; Palomino, Juan C.; van Kerm, Philippe UL et al

in Economics Letters (2021), 199

The role of intergenerational transfers of wealth via inheritance and gifts inter vivos in the accumulation of household wealth and the generation of wealth inequality has been hotly debated. This paper ... [more ▼]

The role of intergenerational transfers of wealth via inheritance and gifts inter vivos in the accumulation of household wealth and the generation of wealth inequality has been hotly debated. This paper uses data from household wealth surveys for six rich countries – Britain, France, Germany, Italy, Spain and the US – to assess the contribution of intergenerational wealth transfers to wealth inequality using decomposition methods for the Gini coefficient. The results show that transfer wealth is consistently a good deal more unequally distributed than non-transfer wealth and total wealth. Transfer wealth accounts for only about one-tenth of overall wealth inequality for the US compared to one-third for Germany and Italy. This mirrors the importance of transfer wealth in total wealth in each country, with differences in inequality in transfer wealth and its correlation with total wealth having only a modest impact. We find that a marginal percentage increase in all transfers reduces total wealth inequality in Britain, Germany and the US, while it would increase total wealth inequality in France, Italy and Spain. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Second World War in the Twenty-first Century Museum: From Narrative, Memory, and Experience to Experientiality
Janz, Nina UL

in The Military History Journal (2021), 85(1), 293-94

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See detailAutomated, Cost-effective, and Update-driven App Testing
Ngo, Chanh Duc UL; Pastore, Fabrizio UL; Briand, Lionel UL

in ACM Transactions on Software Engineering and Methodology (2021), 1

Apps’ pervasive role in our society led to the definition of test automation approaches to ensure their dependability. However, state-of-the-art approaches tend to generate large numbers of test inputs ... [more ▼]

Apps’ pervasive role in our society led to the definition of test automation approaches to ensure their dependability. However, state-of-the-art approaches tend to generate large numbers of test inputs and are unlikely to achieve more than 50% method coverage. In this paper, we propose a strategy to achieve significantly higher coverage of the code affected by updates with a much smaller number of test inputs, thus alleviating the test oracle problem. More specifically, we present ATUA, a model-based approach that synthesizes App models with static analysis, integrates a dynamically-refined state abstraction function, and combines complementary testing strategies, including (1) coverage of the model structure, (2) coverage of the App code, (3) random exploration, and (4) coverage of dependencies identified through information retrieval. Its model-based strategy enables ATUA to generate a small set of inputs that exercise only the code affected by the updates. In turn, this makes common test oracle solutions more cost-effective as they tend to involve human effort. A large empirical evaluation, conducted with 72 App versions belonging to nine popular Android Apps, has shown that ATUA is more effective and less effort-intensive than state-of-the-art approaches when testingApp updates. [less ▲]

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See detailMeasuring impulsivity in Children: Adaptation and Validation of a Short Version of the UPPS-P Impulsive Behaviors Scale in Children and Investigation of Its Links with ADHD
Geurten, Marie; Catale, Corinne; Gay, Philippe et al

in Journal of Attention Disorders (2021), 25(1), 105-114

Objective: Impulsivity is a multifaceted construct known to play a crucial role in the development and maintenance of a wide range of problematic behaviors and psychological disorders in children. Method ... [more ▼]

Objective: Impulsivity is a multifaceted construct known to play a crucial role in the development and maintenance of a wide range of problematic behaviors and psychological disorders in children. Method: In this study, we adapted the short French adult version of the UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale for use with children (short UPPS-P-C) and tested its psychometric properties. Results: Confirmatory factor analyses conducted on a sample of 425 children (aged from 8 to 14 years) supported the five-factor structure of the scale. Additional analyses emphasized the good internal and test-retest reliability of the short UPPS-P-C. Furthermore, our results also revealed that lack of premeditation and urgency subscales were able to discriminate between children diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and their matched controls. Conclusion: These results suggest that the short UPPS-P-C may be considered as a promising time-saving tool to assess impulsivity traits in healthy children and in children with psychiatric disorders. [less ▲]

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See detailSpillovers to small business credit risk
Wolff, Christian UL

in Small Business Economics (2021), 57

Do large credit risk shocks spill over to small businesses and affect their real economic activity? Using information on small business credit risk, we find that small businesses show increased default ... [more ▼]

Do large credit risk shocks spill over to small businesses and affect their real economic activity? Using information on small business credit risk, we find that small businesses show increased default and bankruptcy rates following a shock to a customer industry. On an industry level, the shock to a customer industry is followed by a decrease in industry markups, disproportionate closure of firms, and cutbacks in inventories. Our analysis quantifies the elevated credit risk among small businesses and suggests a non-negligible 0.83% increase in expected losses on a diversified loan portfolio following a credit risk shock. This study provides banks and supervisors with greater clarity on timing and on the extent of elevated small business credit risk. It also allows them to assess the exposure of a bank portfolio to fluctuations in small business default rate. Such improved default prediction reduces credit rationing to the small business economy. [less ▲]

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See detailHighly Multiplexed Targeted Proteomics Acquisition on a TIMS-QTOF
Lesur, Antoine; Schmit, Pierre-Olivier; Bernardin, François et al

in Analytical Chemistry (2021)

Targeted proteomics allows the highly sensitive detection of specific peptides and proteins in complex biological samples. Here, we describe a methodology for targeted peptide quantification using a ... [more ▼]

Targeted proteomics allows the highly sensitive detection of specific peptides and proteins in complex biological samples. Here, we describe a methodology for targeted peptide quantification using a trapped ion mobility quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer (timsTOF Pro). The prm-PASEF method exploits the multiplexing capability provided by the trapped ion mobility separation, allowing more than 200 peptides to be monitored over a 30 min liquid chromatography separation. Compared to conventional parallel reaction monitoring (PRM), precursor ions are accumulated in the trapped ion mobility spectrometry (TIMS) cells and separated according to their shape and charge before eluting into the quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) part of the mass spectrometer. The ion mobility trap allows measuring up to six peptides from a single 100 ms ion mobility separation with the current setup. Using these improved mass spectrometric capabilities, we detected and quantified 216 isotope-labeled synthetic peptides (AQUA peptides) spiked in HeLa human cell extract with limits of quantification of 17.2 amol for some peptides. The acquisition method is highly reproducible between injections and enables accurate quantification in biological samples, as demonstrated by quantifying KRas, NRas, and HRas as well as several Ras mutations in lung and colon cancer cell lines on fast 10 min gradient separations. [less ▲]

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See detailMapping between number notations in kindergarten and the role of home numeracy
Marinova, Mila UL; Reynvoet, Bert; Sasanguie, Delphine

in Cognitive Development (2021)

Two recent studies investigated how children learn to map between digits, number words, and dots (Hurst, Anderson, & Cordes, 2017; Jim´enez Lira, Carver, Douglas, & LeFevre, 2017). In the current study we ... [more ▼]

Two recent studies investigated how children learn to map between digits, number words, and dots (Hurst, Anderson, & Cordes, 2017; Jim´enez Lira, Carver, Douglas, & LeFevre, 2017). In the current study we aimed to replicate these previous findings by examining a much larger sample (N = 195 kindergarteners, aged 2 years 6 months to 5 years 2 months) and taking into account home numeracy activities, that is, daily parent-child interactions with numerical content. In line with previous studies, the results showed that children first learn to map number words onto dots, and number words onto digits, and only afterwards – to map digits onto dots. Furthermore, number words ↔ digits mapping was a better mediator of the relation between digits ↔ dots and the dots ↔ number words mapping tasks, than the dots ↔ number words, suggesting that children rely on their symbolic number knowledge to learn the relation between digits and dots. Finally, both basic and advanced home numeracy activities were positively related to children’s mappings skills. Furthermore, we observed that with increasing the children’s age a shift from basic to advanced activities was present. These results emphasize the importance of tailoring the home numeracy activities according to children’s age. [less ▲]

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See detailpatRoon: open source software platform for environmental mass spectrometry based non-target screening
Helmus, Rick; ter Laak, Thomas L.; van Wezel, Annemarie P. et al

in Journal of Cheminformatics (2021), 13(1), 1

Abstract Mass spectrometry based non-target analysis is increasingly adopted in environmental sciences to screen and identify numerous chemicals simultaneously in highly complex samples. However, current ... [more ▼]

Abstract Mass spectrometry based non-target analysis is increasingly adopted in environmental sciences to screen and identify numerous chemicals simultaneously in highly complex samples. However, current data processing software either lack functionality for environmental sciences, solve only part of the workflow, are not openly available and/or are restricted in input data formats. In this paper we present patRoon , a new R based open-source software platform, which provides comprehensive, fully tailored and straightforward non-target analysis workflows. This platform makes the use, evaluation and mixing of well-tested algorithms seamless by harmonizing various common (primarily open) software tools under a consistent interface. In addition patRoon offers various functionality and strategies to simplify and perform automated processing of complex (environmental) data effectively. patRoon implements several effective optimization strategies to significantly reduce computational times. The ability of patRoon to perform time-efficient and automated non-target data annotation of environmental samples is demonstrated with a simple and reproducible workflow using open-access data of spiked samples from a drinking water treatment plant study. In addition, the ability to easily use, combine and evaluate different algorithms was demonstrated for three commonly used feature finding algorithms. This article, combined with already published works, demonstrate that patRoon helps make comprehensive (environmental) non-target analysis readily accessible to a wider community of researchers. [less ▲]

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See detailInvited Commentary: Death by Suicide among People with Autism: Beyond Zebrafish
South, Mikle; Pinto Coelho da Costa, Andreia UL; McMorris, Carly

in JAMA Network Open (2021), 4(1),

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See detailAggregated hold-out
Maillard, Guillaume UL; Arlot, Sylvain; Lerasle, Matthieu

in Journal of Machine Learning Research (2021), 22

Aggregated hold-out (agghoo) is a method which averages learning rules selected by hold-out (that is, cross-validation with a single split). We provide the first theoretical guarantees on agghoo, ensuring ... [more ▼]

Aggregated hold-out (agghoo) is a method which averages learning rules selected by hold-out (that is, cross-validation with a single split). We provide the first theoretical guarantees on agghoo, ensuring that it can be used safely: Agghoo performs at worst like the hold-out when the risk is convex. The same holds true in classification with the 0--1 risk, with an additional constant factor. For the hold-out, oracle inequalities are known for bounded losses, as in binary classification. We show that similar results can be proved, under appropriate assumptions, for other risk-minimization problems. In particular, we obtain an oracle inequality for regularized kernel regression with a Lipschitz loss, without requiring that the $Y$ variable or the regressors be bounded. Numerical experiments show that aggregation brings a significant improvement over the hold-out and that agghoo is competitive with cross-validation. [less ▲]

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See detailTime dependent lyotropic chromonic textures in PDMS-based microfluidic confinements
Sharma, Anshul; Ong, Irvine UL; Sengupta, Anupam UL

in Crystals (2021), 11(1),

Nematic and columnar phases of lyotropic chromonic liquid crystals (LCLCs) have been long studiedfor their fundamental and applied prospects in material science and medical diagnostics. LCLC ... [more ▼]

Nematic and columnar phases of lyotropic chromonic liquid crystals (LCLCs) have been long studiedfor their fundamental and applied prospects in material science and medical diagnostics. LCLC phasesrepresent different self-assembled states of disc-shaped molecules, held together by noncovalentinteractions that lead to highly sensitive concentration and temperature dependent properties. Yet,microscale insights into confined LCLCs, specifically in the context of confinement geometry andsurface properties, are lacking. Here, we report the emergence of time dependent textures in staticdisodium chromoglycate (DSCG) solutions, confined in PDMS-based microfluidic devices. We use acombination of soft lithography, surface characterization and polarized optical imaging to generateand analyze the confinement-induced LCLC textures, and demonstrate that over time, herringboneand spherulite textures emerge due to spontaneous nematic (N) to columnar M-phase transition,propagating from the LCLC-PDMS interface into the LCLC bulk. By varying the confinementgeometry, anchoring conditions and the initial DSCG concentration, we can systematically tune thetemporal dynamics of the N to M-phase transition and textural behaviour of the confined LCLC. Sincestatic molecular states register the initial conditions for LC flows, the time dependent boundary andbulk conditions reported here suggest that the local surface-mediated dynamics could be central inunderstanding LCLC flows, and in turn, the associated transport properties of this versatile material. [less ▲]

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See detailGas Storage Valuation in Incomplete Markets
Löhndorf, Nils UL; Wozabal, David

in European Journal of Operational Research (2021), 288(1), 318-330

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See detailWhy serve soup with a fork?: How policy coherence for development can link environmental impact assessment with the 2030 agenda for sustainable development
Koff, Harlan UL

in Environmental Impact Assessment Review (2021), 86

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) re-focused development cooperation on universal and transformative development aimed at improving the quality of life of people in all world regions, while ... [more ▼]

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) re-focused development cooperation on universal and transformative development aimed at improving the quality of life of people in all world regions, while simultaneously conserving natural resources. Critics, however, have correctly questioned whether appropriate policy methods and tools exist for the adequate implementation of transformative development. These challenges are even more significant given that the implementation of the SDGs falls to nation-states. This article asks “Can the transformative development promoted by the SDG’s be achieved through the policy tools presently utilized by nation-states, such as environmental impact assessment (EIA)?” The study responds to this question through a critical examination of EIA in Mexico in relation to mining. Empirical analysis focuses on the proposed Caballo Blanco open-pit mine in Veracruz state. The case can be considered critical because it is often presented as a success, given that a broad coalition of actors prevented the mine from opening through activities directed at EIA. This article questions this narrative because it shows how EIA actually can undermine transformative development through the use of cost-benefit logics. The article concludes that policy coherence for development (PCD) can potentially support EIA as a methodology through which transformative development can be promoted. PCD can improve the “normative effectiveness” of EIA when used as an evaluation criteria. Otherwise, EIA may undermine the implementation of the SDGs which would be comparable to serving soup with a fork. [less ▲]

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See detailWhy serve soup with a fork?: How policy coherence for development can link environmental impact assessment with the 2030 agenda for sustainable development
Koff, Harlan UL

in Environmental Impact Assessment Review (2021), 86

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) re-focused development cooperation on universal and transformative development aimed at improving the quality of life of people in all world regions, while ... [more ▼]

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) re-focused development cooperation on universal and transformative development aimed at improving the quality of life of people in all world regions, while simultaneously conserving natural resources. Critics, however, have correctly questioned whether appropriate policy methods and tools exist for the adequate implementation of transformative development. These challenges are even more significant given that the implementation of the SDGs falls to nation-states. This article asks “Can the transformative development promoted by the SDG’s be achieved through the policy tools presently utilized by nation-states, such as environmental impact assessment (EIA)?” The study responds to this question through a critical examination of EIA in Mexico in relation to mining. Empirical analysis focuses on the proposed Caballo Blanco open-pit mine in Veracruz state. The case can be considered critical because it is often presented as a success, given that a broad coalition of actors prevented the mine from opening through activities directed at EIA. This article questions this narrative because it shows how EIA actually can undermine transformative development through the use of cost-benefit logics. The article concludes that policy coherence for development (PCD) can potentially support EIA as a methodology through which transformative development can be promoted. PCD can improve the “normative effectiveness” of EIA when used as an evaluation criteria. Otherwise, EIA may undermine the implementation of the SDGs which would be comparable to serving soup with a fork. [less ▲]

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See detailThe impact of economic complexity on the formation of environmental culture
Zanaj, Skerdilajda UL

in Sustainability (2021), 1(1),

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See detailOpinion Statement ECJ-TF 3/2020 on the General Court Decisions of 15 July 2020 in Ireland v. Commission and Apple v. Commission (Joined Cases T-778/16 and T-892/16) on State Aid Granted under Tax Rulings Fixing the Attribution of Profits to Permanent Establishments in Ireland
Haslehner, Werner UL; García Prats, Alfredo; Heydt, Volker et al

in European Taxation (2021), 61(2/3), 109-116

This CFE Opinion Statement, submitted to the EU Institutions on 2 December 2020, addresses the General Court decisions in Ireland v. Commission and Apple v. Commission (Joined Cases T-778/16 and T-892/16 ... [more ▼]

This CFE Opinion Statement, submitted to the EU Institutions on 2 December 2020, addresses the General Court decisions in Ireland v. Commission and Apple v. Commission (Joined Cases T-778/16 and T-892/16) on 15 July 2020. [less ▲]

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See detailModelling of residually stressed, extended and inflated cylinders with application to aneurysms
Font, Alejandro; Jha, Niraj Kumar; Dehghani, Hamidreza UL et al

in Mechanics Research Communications (2021), 111

The paper presents the localized bifurcation abnormal enlargement associated with certain human diseases such as abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA), among others. The constitutive framework herewith ... [more ▼]

The paper presents the localized bifurcation abnormal enlargement associated with certain human diseases such as abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA), among others. The constitutive framework herewith proposed is constructed relying on the modelling of non-linear elastic materials under the action of residual stresses. The suitable incorporation on the mechanical response of residual stresses in the analysis is regarded important for the formation of aneurysms in soft tissues. From a mechanical perspective, the onset of aneurysms formation can be interpreted through bifurcation conditions, whose localization is relatively sensitive to different material and geometrical parameters as it is shown here. In order to reduce the risk and interpret aneurysm formation, we perform a thorough sensitivity analysis of the effect of design parameters such as tube diameter, length, thickness and strength of the residual stress field on bifurcation of a tube under inflation and extesion. A consistent residually stressed material model is formulated in terms of invariants for a general elastic strain-energy function. The dependence of applied pressure, axial stretch and different geometrical and constitutive parameters on bulging and bending bifurcation is illustrated. The numerical procedure to analyse the bifurcation of the finite deformation boundary-value problem at hand is developed based on the modified Riks method. The proposed formulation is implemented in the general-purpose finite element code ABAQUS using user-defined material subroutines.For a given material model, bulging bifurcation is expected for sufficiently large values of the axial stretch while the onset of bifurcation is found to be the bending mode for small values of the axial stretch. This transition zone from bending bifurcation to bulging bifurcation is analyzed for the different parameters considered. [less ▲]

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See detailComputational Stem Cell Biology: Open Questions and Guiding Principles
Del Sol Mesa, Antonio UL

in Cell Stem Cell (2021)

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See detailResource Allocation for AF Relaying Wireless-Powered Networks with Nonlinear Energy Harvester
Nguyen, Tien-Tung; Nguyen, van Dinh UL; Pham, Quoc-Viet et al

in IEEE Communications Letters (2021), 25(1), 1089-7798

This letter considers a relay-based wireless-powered communication network to assist wireless communication between a source and multiple users. In particular, the relay adopts a nonlinear energy model to ... [more ▼]

This letter considers a relay-based wireless-powered communication network to assist wireless communication between a source and multiple users. In particular, the relay adopts a nonlinear energy model to harvest energy from a power beacon and subsequently uses it for information transmission over timedivision multiple access. Aiming at the maximization of end-toend (e2e) sum throughput, we formulate a novel optimization problem that jointly optimizes the power and time fraction for energy and information transmission. For a simple yet efficient solution for the nonconvex problem, we first convert it to a more computationally tractable problem and then develop an iterative algorithm, in which closed-form solutions are obtained at each iteration. The effectiveness of our proposed approach is verified and demonstrated through simulation results. Moreover, the results reveal that the source should transmit with its maximum allowable power budget to obtain the optimal e2e sum throughput. [less ▲]

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See detailChronique de droit des marchés financiers
Conac, Pierre-Henri UL

in Revue des Sociétés (2021)

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See detailMultimodal Interaction Analysis: a Powerful Tool for Examining Plurilingual Students’ Engagement in Science Practices Proposed Contribution to
Wilmes, Sara UL; Siry, Christina UL

in Research in Science Education (2021)

Science teaching and learning are discursive practices, yet analysis of these practices has frequently been grounded in theorizations that place language at the forefront of interaction and meaning-making ... [more ▼]

Science teaching and learning are discursive practices, yet analysis of these practices has frequently been grounded in theorizations that place language at the forefront of interaction and meaning-making. Such language-centric analytic approaches risk overlooking key embodied, enacted aspects of students’ engagement in science practices. This manuscript presents a case of a plurilingual student’s participation in science inquiry to demonstrate how multimodal interaction analysis can be used to examine the highly diverse array of communicative resources that she draws upon while participating in science, including gestures, facial expressions, vocal intonations, and languages. Grounded in dialogic theorizations of language, we first detail the multimodal interaction approach, and second, we show how multimodal interaction analysis beginning first with her embodied engagement, then coupled with her subsequent written and spoken engagement, reveals robust views of her engagement in science practices. Key to this methodological approach is multilayered analysis that backgrounds verbal or spoken communication to allow for an identification of embodied interaction resources employed. We emphasize how this analytical method allows us to conceptualize science as a practice that unfolds through and in interaction, as compared to a static body of concepts to be learned. [less ▲]

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See detailTime dependent lyotropic chromonic textures in PDMS-based microfluidic confinements
Sharma, Anshul; Ong, Irvine UL; Sengupta, Anupam UL

in Crystals (2021), 11(1), 35

Nematic and columnar phases of lyotropic chromonic liquid crystals (LCLCs) have been long studied for their fundamental and applied prospects in material science and medical diagnostics. LCLC phases ... [more ▼]

Nematic and columnar phases of lyotropic chromonic liquid crystals (LCLCs) have been long studied for their fundamental and applied prospects in material science and medical diagnostics. LCLC phases represent different self-assembled states of disc-shaped molecules, held together by noncovalent interactions that lead to highly sensitive concentration and temperature dependent properties. Yet, microscale insights into confined LCLCs, specifically in the context of confinement geometry and surface properties, are lacking. Here, we report the emergence of time dependent textures in static disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) solutions, confined in PDMS-based microfluidic devices. We use a combination of soft lithography, surface characterization, and polarized optical imaging to generate and analyze the confinement-induced LCLC textures and demonstrate that over time, herringbone and spherulite textures emerge due to spontaneous nematic (N) to columnar M-phase transition, propagating from the LCLC-PDMS interface into the LCLC bulk. By varying the confinement geometry, anchoring conditions, and the initial DSCG concentration, we can systematically tune the temporal dynamics of the N- to M-phase transition and textural behavior of the confined LCLC. Overall, the time taken to change from nematic to the characteristic M-phase textures decreased as the confinement aspect ratio (width/depth) increased. For a given aspect ratio, the transition to the M-phase was generally faster in degenerate planar confinements, relative to the transition in homeotropic confinements. Since the static molecular states register the initial conditions for LC flows, the time dependent textures reported here suggest that the surface and confinement effects—even under static conditions—could be central in understanding the flow behavior of LCLCs and the associated transport properties of this versatile materia [less ▲]

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See detailA critical review on the evaluation of automated program repair systems
Kui, Liu; Li, Li; Koyuncu, Anil UL et al

in Journal of Systems and Software (2021)

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See detailUncertainty-aware Specification and Analysis for Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing of Cyber Physical Systems
Shin, Seung Yeob UL; Chaouch, Karim UL; Nejati, Shiva UL et al

in Journal of Systems and Software (2021)

Hardware-in-the-loop (HiL) testing is important for developing cyber physical systems (CPS). HiL test cases manipulate hardware, are time-consuming and their behaviors are impacted by the uncertainties in ... [more ▼]

Hardware-in-the-loop (HiL) testing is important for developing cyber physical systems (CPS). HiL test cases manipulate hardware, are time-consuming and their behaviors are impacted by the uncertainties in the CPS environment. To mitigate the risks associated with HiL testing, engineers have to ensure that (1) test cases are well-behaved, e.g., they do not damage hardware, and (2) test cases can execute within a time budget. Leveraging the UML profile mechanism, we develop a domain-specific language, HITECS, for HiL test case specification. Using HITECS, we provide uncertainty-aware analysis methods to check the well-behavedness of HiL test cases. In addition, we provide a method to estimate the execution times of HiL test cases before the actual HiL testing. We apply HITECS to an industrial case study from the satellite domain. Our results show that: (1) HITECS helps engineers define more effective assertions to check HiL test cases, compared to the assertions defined without any systematic guidance; (2) HITECS verifies in practical time that HiL test cases are well-behaved; (3) HITECS is able to resolve uncertain parameters of HiL test cases by synthesizing conditions under which test cases are guaranteed to be well-behaved; and (4) HITECS accurately estimates HiL test case execution times. [less ▲]

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See detailA human stem cell-derived test system for agents modifying neuronal N-methyl-d-aspartate-type glutamate receptor Ca2+-signalling
Klima, Stefanie; Brüll, Markus; Spreng, Anna-Sophie et al

in Archives of Toxicology (2021)

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See detailData-driven Precoded MIMO Detection Robust to Channel Estimation Errors
Mayouche, Abderrahmane UL; Alves Martins, Wallace UL; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL et al

in IEEE Open Journal of the Communications Society (2021)

We study the problem of symbol detection in downlink coded multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems with precoding and without the explicit knowledge of the channel-state information (CSI) at the ... [more ▼]

We study the problem of symbol detection in downlink coded multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems with precoding and without the explicit knowledge of the channel-state information (CSI) at the receiver. In this context, we investigate the impact of imperfect CSI at the transmitter (CSIT) on the detection performance. We first model the CSIT degradation based on channel estimation errors to investigate its impact on the detection performance at the receiver. To mitigate the effect of CSIT deterioration at the latter, we propose learning based techniques for hard and soft detection that use downlink precoded pilot symbols as training data. We note that these pilots are originally intended for signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) estimation. We validate the approach by proposing a lightweight implementation that is suitable for online training using several state-of-the-art classifiers. We compare the bit error rate (BER) and the runtime complexity of the proposed approaches where we achieve superior detection performance in harsh channel conditions while maintaining low computational requirements. Specifically, numerical results show that severe CSIT degradation impedes the correct detection when a conventional detector is used. However, the proposed learning-based detectors can achieve good detection performance even under severe CSIT deterioration, and can yield 4-8 dB power gain for BER values lower than 10-4 when compared to the classic linear minimum mean square error (MMSE) detector. [less ▲]

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See detailHarmonic amplitude summation for frequency-tagging analysis
Retter, Talia UL; Rossion, Bruno; Schiltz, Christine UL

in Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience (2021)

In the approach of frequency tagging, stimuli that are presented periodically generate periodic responses of the brain. Following a transformation into the frequency domain, the brain’s response is often ... [more ▼]

In the approach of frequency tagging, stimuli that are presented periodically generate periodic responses of the brain. Following a transformation into the frequency domain, the brain’s response is often evident at the frequency of stimulation, F, and its higher harmonics (2F, 3F, etc.). This approach is increasingly used in neuroscience, as it affords objective measures to characterize brain function. However, whether these specific harmonic frequency responses should be combined for analysis, and if so, how, remains an outstanding issue. In most studies, higher harmonic responses have not been described or were described only individually; in other studies, harmonics have been combined with various approaches, e.g., averaging and root mean squared summation. A rationale for these approaches in the context of frequency-based analysis principles, and understanding of how they relate to the brain’s response amplitudes in the time domain, has been missing. Here, with these elements addressed, the summation of (baseline-corrected) harmonic amplitude is recommended. [less ▲]

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See detailCross-border mobility in European countries: associations between cross-border worker status and health outcomes
Nonnenmacher, Lucas UL; Baumann, Michèle UL; Le Bihan, Etienne UL et al

in BMC Public Health (2021)

Mobility of workers living in one country and working in a different country has increased in the European Union. Exposed to commuting factors, cross-border workers (CBWs) constitute a potential high-risk ... [more ▼]

Mobility of workers living in one country and working in a different country has increased in the European Union. Exposed to commuting factors, cross-border workers (CBWs) constitute a potential high-risk population. But the relationships between health and commuting abroad are under-documented. Our aims were to: (1) measure the prevalence of the perceived health status and the physical health outcomes (activity limitation, chronic diseases, disability and no leisure activities), (2) analyse their associations with commuting status as well as (3) with income and health index among CBWs. Based on the ‘Enquête Emploi’, the French cross-sectional survey segment of the European Labour Force Survey (EU LFS), the population was composed of 2,546,802 workers. Inclusion criteria for the samples were aged between 20 and 60 years and living in the French cross-border departments of Germany, Belgium, Switzerland and Luxembourg. The Health Index is an additional measure obtained with five health variables. A logistic model was used to estimate the odds ratios of each group of CBWs, taking non-cross border workers (NCBWs) as the reference group, controlling by demographic background and labour status variables. A sample of 22,828 observations (2456 CBWs vs. 20,372 NCBWs) was retained. The CBW status is negatively associated with chronic diseases and disability. A marginal improvement of the health index is correlated with a wage premium for both NCBWs and CBWs. Commuters to Luxembourg have the best health outcomes, whereas commuters to Germany the worst. CBWs are healthier and have more income. Interpretations suggest (1) a healthy cross-border phenomenon steming from a social selection and a positive association between income and the health index is confirmed; (2) the existence of major health disparities among CBWs; and (3) the rejection of the spillover phenomenon assumption for CBWs. The newly founded European Labour Authority (ELA) should take into account health policies as a promising way to support the cross-border mobility within the European Union. [less ▲]

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See detailSocioeconomic and behavioural factors associated with access to and use of Personal Health Records
Paccoud, Ivana UL; Baumann, Michèle UL; Le Bihan, Etienne UL et al

in BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making (2021), 21

Background: Access to and use of digital technology are more common among people of higher socioeconomic status. These differences might be due to lack of interest, not having physical access or having ... [more ▼]

Background: Access to and use of digital technology are more common among people of higher socioeconomic status. These differences might be due to lack of interest, not having physical access or having lower intentions to use this technology. By integrating the digital divide approach and the User Acceptance of Information Technology (UTAUT) model, this study aims to further our understanding of socioeconomic factors and the mechanisms linked to different stages in the use of Personal Health Records (PHR): desire, intentions and physical access to PHR. Methods: A cross-sectional online and in-person survey was undertaken in the areas of Lorraine (France), Luxembourg, Rhineland-Palatinate and Saarland (Germany), and Wallonia (Belgium). Exploratory factor analysis was performed to group items derived from the UTAUT model. We applied linear and logistic regressions controlling for country-level heterogeneity, health and demographic factors. Results: A total of 829 individuals aged over 18 completed the questionnaire. Socioeconomic inequalities were present in the access to and use of PHR. Education and income played a significant role in individuals' desire to access their PHR. Being older than 65 years, and migrant, were negatively associated with desire to access PHR. An income gradient was found in having a physical access to PHR, while for the subgroup of respondents who expressed desire to have access, higher educational level was positively associated with intentions to regularly use PHR. In fully adjusted model testing the contribution of UTAUT-derived factors, individuals who perceived PHRs to be useful and had the necessary digital skills were more inclined to use their PHR regularly. Social influence, support and lack of anxiety in using technology were strong predictors of regular PHR use. Conclusion: The findings highlight the importance of considering all stages in PHR use: desire to access, physical access and intention to regularly use PHRs, while paying special attention to migrants and people with lower socioeconomic backgrounds who may feel financial constraints and are not able to exploit the potential of PHRs. As PHR use is expected to come with health benefits, facilitating access and regular use for those less inclined could reduce health inequalities and advance health equity. [less ▲]

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See detailEtude experimentale et numerique du comportement mecanique d'une solution innovante de pourte mixte Acier-Beton en forme de U
Turetta, Maxime; Martin, Pierre-Oliver; Khelil, Abdelouahab et al

in Revue construction métallique (2021), 1

Pour conquérir de nouvelles parts de marché ou simplement défendre ses positions sur un marché très concurrentiel, il faut sans cesse améliorer la compétitivité des procédés constructifs utilisés. La ... [more ▼]

Pour conquérir de nouvelles parts de marché ou simplement défendre ses positions sur un marché très concurrentiel, il faut sans cesse améliorer la compétitivité des procédés constructifs utilisés. La prise en compte de la réglementation incendie s’avère avoir une grande influence sur les matériaux constructifs et peut remettre en cause certains avantages de la filière métallique. Les solutions mixtes acier-béton constituent un très bon compromis, permettant d’optimiser la consommation des matériaux, de réduire les temps de montage tout en répondant aux exigences réglementaires en matière de sécurité incendie même les plus contraignantes notamment pour des établissements recevant du public (ERP), des sites sensibles ou encore des immeubles de grande hauteur (IGH). [less ▲]

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See detailPolygenic scores for handedness and their association with asymmetries in brain structure
Ocklenburg, Sebastian; Metzen, Dorothea; Schlüter, Caroline et al

in Brain Structure and Function (2021)

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See detailDigitalisierung im Kontext von COVID-19
Andersen, Katja Natalie UL

in KiTa aktuell HRS - Fachzeitschrift für Leitungen, Fachkräfte und Träger der Kindertagesbetreuung (2021), 29(4), 85

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See detailDas Unterrichtsthema „Dinge im Wasser“ in Österreichs Schulbüchern: Empirische Ergebnisse
Neuböck-Hubinger, Brigitte; Peschel, Markus; Andersen, Katja Natalie UL

in GDSU-Journal (2021), 10

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See detailSchnëssen. Surveying language dynamics in Luxembourgish with a mobile research app
Entringer, Nathalie UL; Gilles, Peter UL; Martin, Sara UL et al

in Linguistics Vanguard (2021), 7(s1),

The mobile app Schnëssen is intended to establish a state-of-the-art digital platform to collect data on the present-day language situation of Luxembourgish by means of crowd-sourcing and to document and ... [more ▼]

The mobile app Schnëssen is intended to establish a state-of-the-art digital platform to collect data on the present-day language situation of Luxembourgish by means of crowd-sourcing and to document and present results to a broader public. Users can participate in a large set of audio recordings tasks and in sociolinguistic surveys. By presenting all audio recordings via an interactive map, participants can explore the language variation of their language. In the first year of data collection, around 210.000 recordings could be collected for numerous variation phenomena from all linguistic levels and over 2800 sociolinguistic questionnaires have been filled out. The app allowed us to compile thus the largest systematic spoken language corpus of Luxembourgish. [less ▲]

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See detailSmartphone-based interventions for physical activity promotion: scoping review of the evidence over the last 10-years.
Domin, Alex UL; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Theisen, Daniel UL et al

in Journal of Medical Internet Research (2021), 9(7), 24308

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See detailDer Kalte Krieg und sein Wetter
Nanz, Tobias; Pause, Johannes UL

in Dritte Natur. Technik - Kapital - Umwelt (2021), 3

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See detailMarcel Smets. Fundamenten van het stadsontwerp
Peleman, David UL

in De Witte Raaf (2021), 35(210), 41

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See detailStudying Chinese Foreign Policy Narratives: Introducing the Ministry of Foreign Affairs Press Conferences Corpus
Mochtak, Michal UL; Turcsanyi, Richard Q.

in Journal of Chinese Political Science (2021), 26(Dec), 743761

The paper presents an original corpus of the Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs press conferences. The dataset is a unique source of information on official positions and diplomatic narratives of China ... [more ▼]

The paper presents an original corpus of the Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs press conferences. The dataset is a unique source of information on official positions and diplomatic narratives of China mapping almost two decades of its foreign policy discourse. The corpus contains almost 23 000 question – answer dyads from 2002 to 2020 ready to be used for analytical purposes. We argue the dataset is an important contribution to the scholarship on Chinese foreign policy stimulating further research using corpus based methods while employing both qualitative and quantitative strategies. We demonstrate possible applications of the corpus with two case studies: first maps the diplomatic discourse towards the US under the presidency of Hu Jintao and Xi Jinping (employing quantitative tools), while second analyzes narratives concerning the South China Sea disputes (employing more qualitative approach). [less ▲]

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See detailSociétés civiles, associations et autres groupements
Hiez, David UL

in Revue Trimestrielle de Droit Commercial et de Droit Economique (2021), 1

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See detailJérôme Denis, Le Travail invisible des données. Éléments pour une sociologie des infrastructures scripturales Paris, Presses des Mines, 2018, 206 pages
Schafer, Valerie UL

in Questions de Communication (2021), 38

Recension de Jérôme Denis, Le Travail invisible des données. Éléments pour une sociologie des infrastructures scripturales, Paris, Presses des Mines, 2018, 206 pages

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See detailClimate change and epilepsy: Insights from clinical and basic science studies
Gulcebi, Medine I.; Bartolini, Emanuele; Lee, Omay et al

in Epilepsy and Behavior (2021), 116

Climate change is with us. As professionals who place value on evidence-based practice, climate change is something we cannot ignore. The current pandemic of the novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, has ... [more ▼]

Climate change is with us. As professionals who place value on evidence-based practice, climate change is something we cannot ignore. The current pandemic of the novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, has demonstrated how global crises can arise suddenly and have a significant impact on public health. Global warming, a chronic process punctuated by acute episodes of extreme weather events, is an insidious global health crisis needing at least as much attention. Many neurological diseases are complex chronic conditions influenced at many levels by changes in the environment. This review aimed to collate and evaluate reports from clinical and basic science about the relationship between climate change and epilepsy. The keywords climate change, seasonal variation, temperature, humidity, thermoregulation, biorhythm, gene, circadian rhythm, heat, and weather were used to search the published evidence. A number of climatic variables are associated with increased seizure frequency in people with epilepsy. Climate change-induced increase in seizure precipitants such as fevers, stress, and sleep deprivation (e.g. as a result of more frequent extreme weather events) or vector-borne infections may trigger or exacerbate seizures, lead to deterioration of seizure control, and affect neurological, cerebrovascular, or cardiovascular comorbidities and risk of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy. Risks are likely to be modified by many factors, ranging from individual genetic variation and temperature-dependent channel function, to housing quality and global supply chains. According to the results of the limited number of experimental studies with animal models of seizures or epilepsy, different seizure types appear to have distinct susceptibility to seasonal influences. Increased body temperature, whether in the context of fever or not, has a critical role in seizure threshold and seizure-related brain damage. Links between climate change and epilepsy are likely to be multifactorial, complex, and often indirect, which makes predictions difficult. We need more data on possible climate-driven altered risks for seizures, epilepsy, and epileptogenesis, to identify underlying mechanisms at systems, cellular, and molecular levels for better understanding of the impact of climate change on epilepsy. Further focussed data would help us to develop evidence for mitigation methods to do more to protect people with epilepsy from the effects of climate change. [less ▲]

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See detailJeopardizing Democracy throughout History
Krakovsky, Christina; Seethaler, Josef; Schwarzenegger, Christian et al

in Medien & zeit (2021)

It is the goal of this issue of Medien & Zeit to provide a glimpse on the long history of how media in their many different forms and variations, served as either and amplifier or even accomplice (for ... [more ▼]

It is the goal of this issue of Medien & Zeit to provide a glimpse on the long history of how media in their many different forms and variations, served as either and amplifier or even accomplice (for reasons of profit, influence, power or ideology), or in the contrary acted as an adversary to populist and radical politics. The goal of this issue hence is to contribute to an understanding of the role media played as potential accomplices or carriers of populist agitation (e.g. in autocratic regimes and in absence of free media or out of commercial crookedness) or as amplifiers of extreme political positions or groups and populist sentiment (e.g. sensationalist and simplistic reporting or excessive coverage for populist tropes). Media and mediated communication can however also act as countering forces and adversaries of radical politics and aim to tame blatant populism or maintain forums for civilized debate (i.e., governance or self-regulation measures that may evolve through time). [less ▲]

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See detailThe OECD and Higher Education Policy: Agenda-Setting, Organizational Dynamics and the Construction of Convening Authority
Harmsen, Robert UL; Braband, Gangolf

in Higher Education Policy (2021), 34(3), 582-602

The article examines the engagement of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) with the higher education sector. Detailed empirical case studies probe the ultimate failure to ... [more ▼]

The article examines the engagement of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) with the higher education sector. Detailed empirical case studies probe the ultimate failure to launch of the OECD’s Assessment of Higher Education Learning Outcomes (AHELO) initiative, as well as the recent demise of the long-established Institutional Management in Higher Education (IMHE) programme and the development of a new initiative on the evaluation of higher education system performance. The analysis is informed by a theoretical framework drawn from the wider international organization literature, focusing on internal organizational dynamics and the manner in which international organizations seek to construct their external authority. A complex portrait of the OECD as a policy actor correspondingly emerges, focused on agenda-setting within the organization in terms which highlight the interplay of organizational, governmental and stakeholder interests. This is further suggestive of a broader research agenda exploring emerging international-level policy processes in higher education. [less ▲]

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See detailRisk disclosure and firm operational efficiency
Derouiche, Imen UL; Manita, riadh; Muessig, Anke UL

in Annals of Operations Research (2021), 297

This paper examines the effect of risk disclosure on firm operational efficiency using a unique database of nonfinancial, and non-utility French firms belonging to the SBF 120 index over the period ... [more ▼]

This paper examines the effect of risk disclosure on firm operational efficiency using a unique database of nonfinancial, and non-utility French firms belonging to the SBF 120 index over the period 2007–2015. In a first step, we use a data envelopment analysis output-oriented variable returns to scale model to determine firm operational efficiency scores based on one output (i.e., sales revenue) and three inputs (i.e., net property, plant, and equipment; cost of goods sold; and selling, general, and administrative costs). These scores are used in a second step to estimate the effect of risk disclosure on operational efficiency after controlling for a set of other factors. The empirical results show a statistically significant positive relation between risk disclosure and operational efficiency, suggesting that firms tend to be relatively more efficient when they disclose more about their risk exposure. Overall, we provide evidence that firms with greater risk disclosure are seen by stakeholders as more credible and trustworthy, leading them to conduct better transactions and, consequently, to improve their operational efficiency. This result is consistent with the notion that stakeholders perceive transparent firms positively, particularly those revealing bad news. [less ▲]

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See detailLIPAD (LRRK2/Luebeck International Parkinson's Disease) Study Protocol: Deep Phenotyping of an International Genetic Cohort
Usnich, Tatiana; Vollstedt, Eva-Juliane; Schell, Nathalie et al

in Frontiers in Neurology (2021), 12

Background: Pathogenic variants in the Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 ( LRRK2) gene are the most common known monogenic cause of Parkinson's disease (PD). LRRK2 -linked PD is clinically indistinguishable ... [more ▼]

Background: Pathogenic variants in the Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 ( LRRK2) gene are the most common known monogenic cause of Parkinson's disease (PD). LRRK2 -linked PD is clinically indistinguishable from idiopathic PD and inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion with reduced penetrance and variable expressivity that differ across ethnicities and geographic regions. Objective: To systematically assess clinical signs and symptoms including non-motor features, comorbidities, medication and environmental factors in PD patients, unaffected LRRK2 pathogenic variant carriers, and controls. A further focus is to enable the investigation of modifiers of penetrance and expressivity of LRRK2 pathogenic variants using genetic and environmental data. Methods: Eligible participants are invited for a personal or online examination which comprises completion of a detailed eCRF and collection of blood samples (to obtain DNA, RNA, serum/plasma, immune cells), urine as well as household dust. We plan to enroll 1,000 participants internationally: 300 with LRRK2 -linked PD, 200 with LRRK2 pathogenic variants but without PD, 100 PD patients with pathogenic variants in the GBA or PRKN genes, 200 patients with idiopathic PD, and 200 healthy persons without pathogenic variants. Results: The eCRF consists of an investigator-rated (1 h) and a self-rated (1.5 h) part. The first part includes the Movement Disorder Society Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating, Hoehn \&Yahr, and Schwab \& England Scales, the Brief Smell Identification Test, and Montreal Cognitive Assessment. The self-rating part consists of a PD risk factor, food frequency, autonomic dysfunction, and quality of life questionnaires, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Inventory, and the Epworth Sleepiness as well as the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales. The first 15 centers have been initiated and the first 150 participants enrolled (as of March 25th, 2021). Conclusions: LIPAD is a large-scale international scientific effort focusing on deep phenotyping of LRRK2 -linked PD and healthy pathogenic variant carriers, including the comparison with additional relatively frequent genetic forms of PD, with a future perspective to identify genetic and environmental modifiers of penetrance and expressivity Clinical Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov , NCT04214509. [less ▲]

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See detailRèglement Bruxelles Ibis et compétence internationale pour connaître d’une action en responsabilité civile intentée contre un arbitre (Tribunal judiciaire de Paris, 31 mars 2021, No RG 19/00795)
Cuniberti, Gilles UL

in LA LEY Mediación y Arbitraje (2021), 7

The judgment under review rules for the first time in France on the international jurisdiction to hear a liability action brought against an arbitrator. The decision is very interesting in that it raises ... [more ▼]

The judgment under review rules for the first time in France on the international jurisdiction to hear a liability action brought against an arbitrator. The decision is very interesting in that it raises the questions of the scope of the exclusion of arbitration from the Brussels Ibis Regulation and of the qualification of the action under European judicial law. [less ▲]

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See detailCardiovascular RNA markers and artificial intelligence may improve COVID-19 outcome: a position paper from the EU-CardioRNA COST Action CA17129
Badimon, Lina; Robinson, Emma L.; Jusic, Amela et al

in Cardiovascular Research (2021)

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has been as unprecedented as unexpected, affecting more than 105 million people worldwide as of 8 February 2020 and causing more than 2.3 million deaths ... [more ▼]

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has been as unprecedented as unexpected, affecting more than 105 million people worldwide as of 8 February 2020 and causing more than 2.3 million deaths according to the World Health Organization (WHO). Not only affecting the lungs but also provoking acute respiratory distress, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is able to infect multiple cell types including cardiac and vascular cells. Hence a significant proportion of infected patients develop cardiac events, such as arrhythmias and heart failure. Patients with cardiovascular comorbidities are at highest risk of cardiac death. To face the pandemic and limit its burden, health authorities have launched several fast-track calls for research projects aiming to develop rapid strategies to combat the disease, as well as longer-term projects to prepare for the future. Biomarkers have the possibility to aid in clinical decision-making and tailoring healthcare in order to improve patient quality of life. The biomarker potential of circulating RNAs has been recognized in several disease conditions, including cardiovascular disease. RNA biomarkers may be useful in the current COVID-19 situation. The discovery, validation, and marketing of novel biomarkers, including RNA biomarkers, require multi-centre studies by large and interdisciplinary collaborative networks, involving both the academia and the industry. Here, members of the EU-CardioRNA COST Action CA17129 summarize the current knowledge about the strain that COVID-19 places on the cardiovascular system and discuss how RNA biomarkers can aid to limit this burden. They present the benefits and challenges of the discovery of novel RNA biomarkers, the need for networking efforts, and the added value of artificial intelligence to achieve reliable advances. [less ▲]

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See detailUnerhört anders oder »wenn nur der Geist neu ist«. Interkulturalität und Novelle
Heimböckel, Dieter UL

in Zeitschrift für Interkulturelle Germanistik (2021), 12(1), 23-40

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See detailTesting associations between global and specific levels of student academic motivation and engagement in the classroom
Dierendonck, Christophe UL; Tóth-Király, István; Morin, Alexandre et al

in Journal of Experimental Education (2021)

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See detail1918, 1945, 1989: Childhood in Times of Political Transformation: Part I
Kind-Kovács, Friederike; Venken, Machteld UL

in Journal of Modern European History (2021), 19(2),

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See detailPoetiken der Interkulturalität. Einführung in das Thema
Heimböckel, Dieter UL; Patrut, Iulia-Karin

in Zeitschrift für Interkulturelle Germanistik (2021), 12(1), 9-21

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See detailSelf-Efficacy in Habit Building: How General and Habit-Specific Self-Efficacy Influ-ence Behavioral Automatization and Motivational Interference
Stojanovic, Marco; Grund, Axel UL; Fries, Stefan

in Frontiers in Psychology (2021)

In this paper, we investigate the role of self-efficacy in intentional habit building. We analyzed event sampling data from a habit building app we created that helps define and track habit data. We used ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we investigate the role of self-efficacy in intentional habit building. We analyzed event sampling data from a habit building app we created that helps define and track habit data. We used hierarchical growth curve modeling and multilevel mediation to test our hypotheses. In a first study, N = 91 university students built new study habits over a period of 6 weeks in a controlled study. We found that the trait-like (Level 2) general self-efficacy (GSE) predicted automaticity (i.e. habit strength) but not the experience of motivational interference (MI). In a second study with real user data, N = 265 idiographic habits have been analyzed. The specific self-efficacy associated with these habits - habit-specific self-efficacy (Level 1, HSE) - was measured during habit formation. We found that lagged HSE predicted automaticity and that lagged automaticity predicted HSE, indicating a positive feedback mechanism in habit building. Furthermore, we found that lagged HSE predicted less MI during habit performance. A multilevel mediation analysis showed significant effects of lagged HSE (Level 1) and aggregated HSE (Level 2) on MI, which were both partially mediated by automaticity. These results show the importance of defining the specificity of self-efficacy beliefs and how they interact with automaticity in the habit building process. [less ▲]

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See detailApplication of Raman Spectroscopy for Detection of Histologically Distinct Areas in Formalin-fixed Paraffin-embedded (FFPE) Glioblastoma
Klamminger, Gilbert Georg; Gerardy, Jean-Jacques UL; Jelke, Finn et al

in Neuro-Oncology Advances (2021)

Background Although microscopic assessment is still the diagnostic gold standard in pathology, non-light microscopic methods such as new imaging methods and molecular pathology have considerably ... [more ▼]

Background Although microscopic assessment is still the diagnostic gold standard in pathology, non-light microscopic methods such as new imaging methods and molecular pathology have considerably contributed to more precise diagnostics. As an upcoming method, Raman spectroscopy (RS) offers a "molecular fingerprint" which could be used to differentiate tissue heterogeneity or diagnostic entities. RS has been successfully applied on fresh and frozen tissue, however more aggressively, chemically treated tissue such as formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples are challenging for RS. Methods To address this issue, we examined FFPE samples of morphologically highly heterogeneous glioblastoma (GBM) using RS in order to classify histologically defined GBM areas according to RS spectral properties. We have set up a SVM (support vector machine)-based classifier in a training cohort and corroborated our findings in a validation cohort. Results Our trained classifier identified distinct histological areas such as tumor core and necroses in GBM with an overall accuracy of 70.5% based on spectral properties of RS. With an absolute misclassification of 21 out of 471 Raman measurements, our classifier has the property of precisely distinguishing between normal appearing brain tissue and necrosis. When verifying the suitability of our classifier system in a second independent dataset, very little overlap between necrosis and normal appearing brain tissue can be detected. Conclusion These findings show that histologically highly variable samples such as GBM can be reliably recognized by their spectral properties using RS. As a conclusion, we propose that RS may serve useful as a future method in the pathological toolbox. [less ▲]

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See detailPrecoding with Received-Interference Power Control for Multibeam Satellite Communication Systems
Lagunas, Eva UL; Perez-Neira, Ana Isabel; Martinez, Marc et al

in Frontiers in Space Technologies (2021)

Zero-Forcing (ZF) and Regularized Zero-Forcing (RZF) precoding are low-complexity sub-optimal solutions widely accepted in the satellite communications community to mitigate the resulting co-channel ... [more ▼]

Zero-Forcing (ZF) and Regularized Zero-Forcing (RZF) precoding are low-complexity sub-optimal solutions widely accepted in the satellite communications community to mitigate the resulting co-channel interference caused by aggressive frequency reuse. However, both are sensitive to the conditioning of the channel matrix, which can greatly reduce the achievable gains. This paper brings the attention to the benefits of a design that allows some residual received interference power at the co-channel users. The motivation behind this approach is to relax the dependence on the matrix inversion procedure involved in conventional precoding schemes. In particular, the proposed scheme aims to be less sensitive to the user scheduling, which is one of the key limiting factors for the practical implementation of precoding. Furthermore, the proposed technique can also cope with more users than satellite beams. In fact, the proposed precoder can be tuned to control the interference towards the co-channel beams, which is a desirable feature that is not met by the existing RZF solutions. The design is formulated as a non-convex optimization and we study various algorithms in order to obtain a practical solution. Supporting results based on numerical simulations show that the proposed precoding implementations are able to outperform the conventional ZF and RZF schemes. [less ▲]

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See detailA fault detector/classifier for closed-ring power generators using machine learning
Quintanilha, Igor M.; Elias, Vitor R. M.; Silva, Felipe B. et al

in Reliability Engineering and System Safety (2021)

Condition-based monitoring of power-generation systems is naturally becoming a standard approach in industry due to its inherent capability of fast fault detection, thus improving system efficiency and ... [more ▼]

Condition-based monitoring of power-generation systems is naturally becoming a standard approach in industry due to its inherent capability of fast fault detection, thus improving system efficiency and reducing operational costs. Most such systems employ expertise-reliant rule-based methods. This work proposes a different framework, in which machine-learning algorithms are used for detecting and classifying several fault types in a power-generation system of dynamically positioned vessels. First, principal component analysis is used to extract relevant information from labeled data. A random-forest algorithm then learns hidden patterns from faulty behavior in order to infer fault detection from unlabeled data. Results on fault detection and classification for the proposed approach show significant improvement on accuracy and speed when compared to results from rule-based methods over a comprehensive database. [less ▲]

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See detailOlder adults show a higher heartbeat-evoked potential than young adults and a negative association with everyday metacognition
Kamp, Siri-Maria; Schulz, André UL; Forester, Glen et al

in Brain Research (2021), 1752(1), 147238

The ability to monitor internal bodily and cognitive processes is essential for everyday functioning and independence in older adults, because it allows for adjustments when lapses in performance are ... [more ▼]

The ability to monitor internal bodily and cognitive processes is essential for everyday functioning and independence in older adults, because it allows for adjustments when lapses in performance are imminent. In the present study, age-related morphological changes to the heartbeat evoked potential (HEP), an electrophysiological cortical representation of cardiac signals, and its association with self-reported everyday cognition were examined. A community sample of older adults showed an increased HEP amplitude, which could reflect a stronger representation of early stages of cardiac interoception, and a more anterior scalp distribution of the HEP, suggesting a more widespread configuration of the underlying neural generators, compared to a group of young adults. Furthermore, in older adults, HEP amplitude was negatively correlated with self-estimated everyday cognitive functioning. Older adults with pronounced cortical representations of peripheral signals may thus be more likely to take note of lapses in their own bodily and cognitive function, leading to lower estimates of their cognitive abilities. These results provide novel insights into age-related changes in interoceptive processing and their association with metacognitive judgments, with potentially far-reaching implications for cognitive aging and age-related cognitive decline. [less ▲]

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See detailStochastic petropolitics: The dynamics of institutions in resource-dependent economies
Boucekkine, Raouf; Prieur, Fabien; Vasilakis, Chrysovalantis et al

in European Economic Review (2021)

We investigate the link between resource revenues volatility and institutions. We build a stochastic differential game with two players (conservatives vs . liberals) lobbying for changing the institutions ... [more ▼]

We investigate the link between resource revenues volatility and institutions. We build a stochastic differential game with two players (conservatives vs . liberals) lobbying for changing the institutions in their preferred directions. First, uncertainty surrounds the dynamics of institutions and the resource revenues. Second, the lobbying power is asymmetric, the conservatives’ power being increasing with resource revenues. We show the existence of a unique equilibrium in the set of affine strategies. We then examine to which extent uncertainty leads to more liberal institutions in the long run, compared to the deterministic case. We finally explore the institutional impact of volatility using a database covering 91 countries over the period 1973–2005. Focusing on financial liberalization, we find that as oil revenue volatility increases, liberalization goes down. This result is robust to different specifications and sample distinctions. [less ▲]

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See detailDifferentiation of primary CNS lymphoma and glioblastoma using Raman spectroscopy and machine learning algorithms
Klamminger, Gilbert Georg; Klein, Karoline; Mombaerts, Laurent UL et al

in Free Neuropathology (2021), 2

Objective and Methods: Timely discrimination between primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL) and glioblastoma is crucial for diagnostics and therapy, but most importantly also determines the intraoperative surgical ... [more ▼]

Objective and Methods: Timely discrimination between primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL) and glioblastoma is crucial for diagnostics and therapy, but most importantly also determines the intraoperative surgical course. Advanced radiological methods allow this to a certain extent but ultimately, biopsy is still necessary for final diagnosis. As an upcoming method that enables tissue analysis by tracking changes in the vibrational state of molecules via inelastic scattered photons, we used Raman Spectroscopy (RS) as a label free method to examine specimens of both tumor entities intraoperatively, as well as postoperatively in formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) samples. Results: We applied and compared statistical performance of linear and nonlinear machine learning algorithms (Logistic Regression, Random Forest and XGBoost), and found that Random Forest classification distinguished the two tumor entities with a balanced accuracy of 82,4% in intraoperative tissue condition and with 94% using measurements of distinct tumor areas on FFPE tissue. Taking a deeper insight into the spectral properties of the tumor entities, we describe different tumor-specific Raman shifts of interest for classification. Conclusions: Due to our findings, we propose RS as an additional tool for fast and non-destructive, perioperative tumor tissue discrimination, which may augment treatment options at an early stage. RS may further serve as a useful additional tool for neuropathological diagnostics with little requirements for tissue integrity. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Comprehensive Mindfulness Experience: A Typological Approach to the Potential Benefits of Mindfulness for Dealing with Motivational Conflicts
Grund, Axel UL; Senker, Kerstin; Dietrich, Julia et al

in Motivation Science (2021)

We wanted to address two critical limitations of research on mindfulness and motivational conflict, by (a) distinguishing between conflict experiences and conflict reactivity and (b) by applying a ... [more ▼]

We wanted to address two critical limitations of research on mindfulness and motivational conflict, by (a) distinguishing between conflict experiences and conflict reactivity and (b) by applying a typological approach, exploring natural combinations of two core qualities of (state) mindfulness: present moment awareness and a nonjudgmental stance. Using an experience-sampling (ES) design (N = 107 on the personal and 3862 at the observational level) with baseline and posttest measures of general affective wellbeing, we found that between-person differences in everyday conflict reactivity (i.e., perseverative and self-evaluative reactions toward conflict experiences) but not in conflict experiences per se (i.e., feeling that one wants to or should do something else) predicted impaired affective well-being after the ES period. Furthermore, multilevel latent profile analysis showed that momentary conflict reactivity was lowest when participants reported to be both momentarily aware and nonjudgmental, mirroring the comprehensive mindfulness experience. These effects existed while controlling for baseline and accompanying affect as well as for conflict intensity, strengthening the idea that motivational conflict itself is not a critical instance of self-regulation failure and that being mindful may contribute to remain functionally efficient and psychological well-adjusted. [less ▲]

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See detailRedéfinition de la territorialité des saisies sur créances
Cuniberti, Gilles UL

in Revue Critique de Droit International Privé (2021), (2), 371

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See detailAustrian Limited: Die Pläne zur flexiblen Kapitalgesellschaft und die Reform des Gesellschaftsrechts
Conac, Pierre-Henri UL

in Der Gesellschafter (2021)

Der vorliegende Beitrag widmet sich der von der Regierung geplanten neuen Kapitalgesellschaftsform einer Austrian Limited.

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See detailThermodynamics of Active Field Theories: Energetic Cost of Coupling to Reservoirs
Markovich, Tomer; Fodor, Etienne UL; Tjhung, Elsen et al

in PHYSICAL REVIEW X (2021), 11(2),

The hallmark of active matter is the autonomous directed motion of its microscopic constituents driven by consumption of energy resources. This motion leads to the emergence of large-scale dynamics and ... [more ▼]

The hallmark of active matter is the autonomous directed motion of its microscopic constituents driven by consumption of energy resources. This motion leads to the emergence of large-scale dynamics and structures without any equilibrium equivalent. Though active field theories offer a useful hydrodynamic description, it is unclear how to properly quantify the energetic cost of the dynamics from such a coarse-grained description. We provide a thermodynamically consistent framework to identify the energy exchanges between active systems and their surrounding thermostat at the hydrodynamic level. Based on linear irreversible thermodynamics, we determine how active fields couple with the underlying reservoirs at the basis of nonequilibrium driving. This approach leads to evaluating the rate of heat dissipated in the thermostat, as a measure of the cost to sustain the system away from equilibrium, which is related to the irreversibility of the active field dynamics. We demonstrate the applicability of our approach in two popular active field theories: (i) the dynamics of a conserved density field reproducing active phase separation and (ii) the coupled dynamics of density and polarization describing motile deformable droplets. Combining numerical and analytical approaches, we provide spatial maps of dissipated heat, compare them with the irreversibility measure of the active field dynamics, and explore how the overall dissipated heat varies with the emerging order. [less ▲]

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See detailReturn migration and self-employment: is there a 'jack-of-all-trades' effect?
Mahe, Clotilde UL

in Oxford Economic Papers (2021)

With reference to Lazear’s jack-of-all-trades hypothesis, I examine whether migrants are more likely to be self-employed upon return because of the diverse work experience they gained abroad. The ... [more ▼]

With reference to Lazear’s jack-of-all-trades hypothesis, I examine whether migrants are more likely to be self-employed upon return because of the diverse work experience they gained abroad. The endogeneity between migration, human capital investment, and self-employment is addressed by exploiting exogenous cohort and regional variation in the decision to migrate in the context of Egypt, and parental labour market information. Return migrants’ higher propensity to be self-employed is shown to proceed from participating in significantly more occupations over their work history than non-migrants. In line with Lazear’s framework, estimates confirm that entrepreneurship can be learnt, and that exposure to multiple occupations matters for entrepreneurship. [less ▲]

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