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See detailInformation thermodynamics for deterministic chemical reaction networks
Penocchio, Emanuele UL; Avanzini, Francesco UL; Esposito, Massimiliano UL

in Journal of Chemical Physics (2022), 157(3), 034110

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See detailLe criminel tient le civil en état à l’épreuve de l’article 6 de la Conv. EDH
Menetrey, Séverine UL

in Journal des Tribunaux Luxembourg (2022)

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See detailThe Never‐Ending Road Towards the CEAS: Utopia, Teleology, and Depoliticisation in EU Asylum Policies
Vianelli, Lorenzo UL

in Social Inclusion (2022), 10(3), 48-57

This article explores the temporal dimension of the Common European Asylum System (CEAS) by exposing its teleological character and the effects of the latter on the governance of asylum in the European ... [more ▼]

This article explores the temporal dimension of the Common European Asylum System (CEAS) by exposing its teleological character and the effects of the latter on the governance of asylum in the European Union. Drawing on EU policy documents, the article shows how the CEAS has been presented since its inception as a teleology, that is, a process that is inexorably unfolding towards a specific outcome to be reached in an indefinite time in the future. The outcome consists in the establishment of a common area of protection constituted by a level playing field in which asylum seekers and beneficiaries of international protection will be treated alike regardless of the place of residence. Such a teleological narrative informing the CEAS paves the way to overly optimistic expectations on the possibilities of implementation, which in turn result in an overestimation of the potential of harmonisation. By discussing the limitations of harmonisation in relation to the reception of asylum seekers, this article calls into question the possibility of a homogeneous area of protection where equivalent conditions are offered to all asylum seekers across the EU. Such a homogeneous space is utopian because harmonisation does not aim to eradicate differences but rather to mitigate them, thus tolerating diverse arrangements. The article, therefore, argues that the level playing field projected by the CEAS constitutes a promise that has two key effects: First, it depoliticises the CEAS itself by framing problems as technical issues, requiring technical solutions; second, it paves the way to further EU intervention in this field. [less ▲]

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See detailTransnational soldiering, burial and commemoration across borders. The case of Luxembourgers in the French Foreign Legion
Kolnberger, Thomas UL; Kmec, Sonja UL

in Francia: Forschungen zur Westeuropäischen Geschichte. 3, 19./20. Jahrhundert (2022), 49

To whom do the dead belong? The French Foreign Legion exemplifies a modern military conundrum: how to reconcile loyal and patriotic duty with mercenary service or, in neutral terms, military labour. This ... [more ▼]

To whom do the dead belong? The French Foreign Legion exemplifies a modern military conundrum: how to reconcile loyal and patriotic duty with mercenary service or, in neutral terms, military labour. This article investigates soldierly funeral culture in the long nineteenth century, with a focus on the entangled histories of Luxembourg and France. The Foreign Legion’s transnational recruitment makes this armed force a unique case study to explore military commemoration across state borders, honouring the dead and the living alike. Since its establishment to fight outside mainland France, rooted in the conquest of Algeria (1830–1857), the Legion has been the only branch of the French military whose members swear allegiance not to France, but to the corps itself: its motto is Legio Patria Nostra (»The Legion is our Homeland«). As a military parallel society and temporary »ersatz nation«, the Legion has elaborated a specific death cult, which has both a corporeal (body-centred, individual) and a sur-real (transcendent, communal) dimension. The two dimensions cannot be rigidly delimited: they clearly overlap and can be shared with other nations, as the case of Luxembourg demonstrates. [less ▲]

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See detailSmall-angle neutron scattering by spatially inhomogeneous ferromagnets with a nonzero average uniaxial anisotropy
Zaporozhets, V. D.; Oba, Y.; Michels, Andreas UL et al

in Journal of Applied Crystallography (2022), 55

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See detailDistributional Change: Assessing the Contribution of Household Income Sources
Kyzyma, Iryna; Fusco, Alessio; van Kerm, Philippe UL

in Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics (2022), n/a(n/a),

We develop a decomposition of changes in household income distributions by factor components to quantify the contribution of changes over time in the association between sources of income and changes in ... [more ▼]

We develop a decomposition of changes in household income distributions by factor components to quantify the contribution of changes over time in the association between sources of income and changes in their (marginal) distributions. The two components are broken down to isolate the contribution of specific income sources. An application to the change in the distribution of household incomes in Luxembourg between 2004 and 2013 reveals contrasted results: increased association between spouse earnings, public transfers and taxes depressed the income share of poor households while changes in marginal distributions increased incomes in the upper half of the distribution. [less ▲]

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See detailEditorial: Digital Innovation and Data-Driven Research in Neurodegenerative Diseases
Gu, Wei UL; Rong, Panying; Hofmann-Apitius, Martin et al

in Frontiers in Neurology (2022), 13

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See detailLearning GUI Completions with User-defined Constraints
Brückner, Lukas; Leiva, Luis A. UL; Oulasvirta, Antti

in ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems (2022), 12(1),

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See detailMicroglia phenotypes are associated with subregional patterns of concomitant tau, amyloid-β and α-synuclein pathologies in the hippocampus of patients with Alzheimer’s disease and dementia with Lewy bodies
Fixemer, Sonja UL; Ameli, Corrado UL; Hammer, Gaël et al

in Acta Neuropathologica Communications (2022), 10(1), 36

The cellular alterations of the hippocampus lead to memory decline, a shared symptom between Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) patients. However, the subregional deterioration ... [more ▼]

The cellular alterations of the hippocampus lead to memory decline, a shared symptom between Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) patients. However, the subregional deterioration pattern of the hippocampus differs between AD and DLB with the CA1 subfield being more severely affected in AD. The activation of microglia, the brain immune cells, could play a role in its selective volume loss. How subregional microglia populations vary within AD or DLB and across these conditions remains poorly understood. Furthermore, how the nature of the hippocampal local pathological imprint is associated with microglia responses needs to be elucidated. To this purpose, we employed an automated pipeline for analysis of 3D confocal microscopy images to assess CA1, CA3 and DG/CA4 subfields microglia responses in post-mortem hippocampal samples from late-onset AD (n = 10), DLB (n = 8) and age-matched control (CTL) (n = 11) individuals. In parallel, we performed volumetric analyses of hyperphosphorylated tau (pTau), amyloid-β (Aβ) and phosphorylated α-synuclein (pSyn) loads. For each of the 32,447 extracted microglia, 16 morphological features were measured to classify them into seven distinct morphological clusters. Our results show similar alterations of microglial morphological features and clusters in AD and DLB, but with more prominent changes in AD. We identified two distinct microglia clusters enriched in disease conditions and particularly increased in CA1 and DG/CA4 of AD and CA3 of DLB. Our study confirms frequent concomitance of pTau, Aβ and pSyn loads across AD and DLB but reveals a specific subregional pattern for each type of pathology, along with a generally increased severity in AD. Furthermore, pTau and pSyn loads were highly correlated across subregions and conditions. We uncovered tight associations between microglial changes and the subfield pathological imprint. Our findings suggest that combinations and severity of subregional pTau, Aβ and pSyn pathologies transform local microglia phenotypic composition in the hippocampus. The high burdens of pTau and pSyn associated with increased microglial alterations could be a factor in CA1 vulnerability in AD. [less ▲]

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See detailRisk of burnout in French entrepreneurs during the COVID-19 crisis
Torrès, Olivier; Benzari, Alexandre; Fisch, Christian UL et al

in Small Business Economics (2022), 58(2), 717-739

The COVID-19 crisis presents manifest threats for entrepreneurs since their business survival is often directly at stake given the alarming economic downturn. This existential threat, together with their ... [more ▼]

The COVID-19 crisis presents manifest threats for entrepreneurs since their business survival is often directly at stake given the alarming economic downturn. This existential threat, together with their crucial role in the economy, is the reason for the plethora of public financial support schemes being implemented throughout the entire world. However, support schemes for mental health are lacking. We aim to investigate, first, whether burnout levels have increased during the crisis and, second, whether burnout levels during the COVID-19 crisis depend on the threat of becoming ill, having to stay at home due to the lockdown, and/or having to file for bankruptcy due to the economic downturn. We do so using seven data sets of French entrepreneurs with a temporal comparison of averages and two data sets of French entrepreneurs with a cross-sectional analysis of individuals. Our findings show that indeed, the risks of burnout have increased during the pandemic and that the threat of bankruptcy is the dominant threat. As an increasing number of studies in the entrepreneurship literature indicate that entrepreneurs’ mental health influences their activities, as well as the growth and sustainability of their ventures, our study is important and timely in its contribution, as it takes a close look at the perception of burnout in general and more specifically during the COVID-19 pandemic. [less ▲]

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See detailЕВРОПЕЙСКОЕ ПОСТАНОВЛЕНИЕ О СОХРАНЕНИИ СЧЕТОВ
Cuniberti, Gilles UL

in Herald of Civil Procedure (2022)

Европейский ордер на сохранение счетов (далее – ЕОСС), установленный Регламен- том ЕС 655/20141, представляет собой единую европейскую процедуру, которая позволяет кредиторам защитить будущее исполнение ... [more ▼]

Европейский ордер на сохранение счетов (далее – ЕОСС), установленный Регламен- том ЕС 655/20141, представляет собой единую европейскую процедуру, которая позволяет кредиторам защитить будущее исполнение своих требований, не позво- ляя их должнику снимать или переводить средства, хранящиеся на банковских счетах. Средство является защитной мерой. Оно замораживает средства, хра- нящиеся на целевых банковских счетах. Это не принудительная мера. Положение о ЕОСС не регулирует преобразование обеспечительной меры в меру перехода пра- ва собственности на денежные средства к кредитору в целях удовлетворения его требования. Это полностью оставлено на усмотрение национального законода- тельства. Это всего лишь третья единая процедура, установленная в Европейском союзе, после Европейского платежного поручения2 и Процедуры мелких претензий3. Другие принятые постановления ЕС в основном направлены на улучшение координации национальных процедур государств-членов, например, путем установления единых правил юрисдикции и выбора права и упрощения признания судебных реше- ний между государствами-членами1. Основная цель Регламента ЕОСС заключалась в разрешении трансграничного замораживания активов. Согласно действующему европейскому праву о юрисдикции и приведении в исполнение иностранных судеб- ных решений (так называемый Регламент Брюссель I bis)2 меры защиты, предо- ставляемые ex parte, т.е. без заслушивания ответчика, не подпадают под действие упрощенного режима исполнения иностранных судебных ЕОСС решений. Напро- тив, Регламент ЕОСС применяется только к трансграничным делам3 и, в част- ности, позволяет судам одного государства-члена выдавать в одностороннем порядке ЕОСС с сохранением банковского счета, открытого в другом государстве- члене. Эта статья построена следующим образом: раздел I объясняет происхо- ждение Регламента ЕОСС. Раздел II предлагает обзор его основных особенностей. Наконец, в разделе III обсуждается один избранный вопрос. [less ▲]

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See detailCorporate social responsibility budgeting and spending during COVID–19 in Oman: A humanitarian response to the pandemic
Baatwah, Saeed Rabea; Al-Qadasi, Adel Ali; Al-Shehri, Amer Mohammed et al

in Finance Research Letters (2022)

COVID–19 is causing economic panic among people, governments, and businesses, requiring greater corporate social responsibility (CSR). Using a sample of Omani-listed firms, this study shows that CSR ... [more ▼]

COVID–19 is causing economic panic among people, governments, and businesses, requiring greater corporate social responsibility (CSR). Using a sample of Omani-listed firms, this study shows that CSR budgeting and spending have increased considerably during the pandemic. It also shows that CSR budgeting is positively affected by the increase in COVID–19 deaths. CSR spending increases with the number of COVID–19 confirmed and fatal cases. These findings suggest that firms resort to CSR to reduce the negative consequences of the pandemic. [less ▲]

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See detailFrom #MuseumAtHome to #AtHomeAtTheMuseum: Digital Museums and Dialogical Engagement beyond the COVID-19 Pandemic
Morse, Christopher UL; Landau, Blandine UL; Lallemand, Carine UL et al

in ACM Journal of Computing and Cultural Heritage (2022), 15(2),

The novel coronavirus spurred a keen interest in digital technologies for museums as both cultural professionals and the public took notice of their uses and limitations throughout the confinement period ... [more ▼]

The novel coronavirus spurred a keen interest in digital technologies for museums as both cultural professionals and the public took notice of their uses and limitations throughout the confinement period. In this study, we investigated the use of digital technologies by museums during a period when in-person interaction was not possible. The aim of the study was to better understand the impact of the confinement period on the use of museum technologies in order to identify implications for future museum experience design. We compared museums across four countries – France, Japan, Luxembourg, and the United States – by conducting an international survey in three languages on the use of digital technologies during the early phase of the pandemic. Additionally, we analyzed the Facebook activity of museums in each country and conducted a series of interviews with digital museology professionals in academia and the private sector. We found that despite a flurry of online activities, especially during the early phase of the pandemic, museums confronted a number of internal and external challenges that were often incongruent with their ability to offer new forms of digital engagement. In general, digital solutions served only as a temporary substitute for the museum experience rather than as an opportunity to usher in a new digital paradigm for cultural mediation, and many cultural professionals cited a lack of digital training as a limiting factor in robust ICT implementation. We also argue that the most successful digital engagement came from those activities that promoted a sense of community or an invitation for self-expression by visitors. We conclude with a framework that describes a ‘virtuous circle of museum participation’, aiming to support public engagement with museums through the development of content that builds on the interconnectedness of on-site and online interactivity. [less ▲]

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See detailGeneration of two human induced pluripotent stem cell lines from fibroblasts of Parkinson’s disease patients carrying the ILE368ASN mutation in PINK1 (LCSBi002) and the R275W mutation in Parkin (LCSBI004)
Novak, Gabriela; Finkbeiner, Steven; Skibinski, Gaia et al

in Stem Cell Research (2022), 61

Mutations in PINK1 and Parkin are two of the main causes of recessive early-onset Parkinson’s disease (PD). We generated human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) from fibroblasts of a 64-year-old ... [more ▼]

Mutations in PINK1 and Parkin are two of the main causes of recessive early-onset Parkinson’s disease (PD). We generated human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) from fibroblasts of a 64-year-old male patient with a homozygous ILE368ASN mutation in PINK1, who experienced disease onset at 33 years, and from fibroblasts of a 61-year-old female patient heterozygous for the R275W mutation in Parkin, who experienced disease onset at 44 years. Array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) determined genotypic variation in each line. The cell lines were successfully used to generate midbrain dopaminergic neurons, the neuron type primarily affected in PD. [less ▲]

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See detailLe financement du plan de relance européen : audaces fortuna juvat
Allemand, Frederic UL

in Revue des Affaires Européennes (2022), 2022(2), 797-806

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See detailSingle-cell transcriptional profiling and gene regulatory network modeling in Tg2576 mice reveal gender-dependent molecular features preceding Alzheimer-like pathologies
Ali, Muhammad UL; Huarte, Oihane; Heurtaux, Tony UL et al

in Molecular Neurobiology (2022), in press (doi:10.1007/s12035-022-02985-2)(in press),

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) onset and progression is influenced by a complex interplay of several environmental and genetic factors, one of them gender. Pronounced gender differences have been observed both ... [more ▼]

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) onset and progression is influenced by a complex interplay of several environmental and genetic factors, one of them gender. Pronounced gender differences have been observed both in the relative risk of developing AD and in clinical disease manifestations. A molecular level understanding of these gender disparities is still missing, but could provide important clues on cellular mechanisms modulating the disease and reveal new targets for gender-oriented disease-modifying precision therapies. We therefore present here a comprehensive single-cell analysis of disease-associated molecular gender differences in transcriptomics data from the neocortex, one of the brain regions most susceptible to AD, in one of the most widely used AD mouse models, the Tg2576 model. Cortical areas are also most commonly used in studies of post-mortem AD brains. To identify disease-linked molecular processes that occur before the onset of detectable neuropathology, we focused our analyses on an age with no detectable plaques and microgliosis. Cell-type specific alterations were investigated at the level of individual genes, pathways, and gene regulatory networks. The number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) was not large enough to build context-specific gene regulatory networks for each individual cell type, and thus, we focused on the study of cell types with dominant changes and included analyses of changes across the combination of cell types. We observed significant disease-associated gender differences in cellular processes related to synapse organization and axonogenesis, and identified a limited set of transcription factors, including Egr1 and Klf6, as key regulators of many of the disease-associated and gender-dependent gene expression changes in the model. Overall, our analyses revealed significant celltype-specific gene expression changes in individual genes, pathways and subnetworks, including gender-specific and gender-dimorphic changes in both upstream transcription factors and their downstream targets, in the Tg2576 AD model before the onset of overt disease. This opens a window into molecular events that could determine gender-susceptibility to AD, and uncovers tractable target candidates for potential gender-specific precision medicine for AD. [less ▲]

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See detailCorrection to: Performance assessment of the relative gravimeter Scintrex CG-6
Francis, Olivier UL

in Journal of Geodesy (2022), 96(1), 1-1

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See detailpatRoon 2.0: Improved non-target analysis workflows including automated transformation product screening
Helmus, Rick; van de Velde, Bas; Brunner, Andrea M. et al

in Journal of Open Source Software (2022), 7(71), 4029

Non-target analysis (NTA) via chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) is used to monitor and identify organic chemicals in the environment. Biotic and abiotic processes can ... [more ▼]

Non-target analysis (NTA) via chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) is used to monitor and identify organic chemicals in the environment. Biotic and abiotic processes can transform original chemicals (parents) into transformation products (TPs). These TPs can be of equal or more concern than their parent compounds and are therefore critical to monitor and identify in the environment (Escher & Fenner, 2011; Farré et al., 2008), often with NTA. Given the amount of data generated by NTA, advanced automated data processing workflows are essential. The open-source, R-based (R Core Team, 2021) platform patRoon (Helmus, ter Laak, et al., 2021) offers automated, straightforward, flexible and comprehensive NTA workflows. This article describes improvements introduced in patRoon 2.0, including extensive TP screening and simultaneous processing of positive and negative HRMS data. The updated documentation and code are available via https://rickhelmus.github.io/patRoon and archived in Helmus, Velde, et al. (2021). [less ▲]

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See detailThe Pandemic Worsens Europe’s Housing Problems
Flynn, Lindsay UL

in Current History (2022), 121(833), 83-89

Housing is a flash point in many European countries, with protests erupting and citizens voting to wrench properties from big investors. Inequality is driving the explosive debate, as households across ... [more ▼]

Housing is a flash point in many European countries, with protests erupting and citizens voting to wrench properties from big investors. Inequality is driving the explosive debate, as households across the income distribution face very different kinds of challenges and opportunities in today’s unequal housing markets. The COVID-19 pandemic has amplified the risks and rewards already present across different subgroups. This housing-generated inequality creates a conundrum for governments that must balance the interests of competing constituencies with complex housing markets, and points to fundamental questions about how to order society. [less ▲]

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See detailSelection of data sets for FAIRification in drug discovery and development: Which, why, and how?
Alharbi, Ebtisam; Gadiya, Yojana; Henderson, David et al

in Drug Discovery Today (2022)

Despite the intuitive value of adopting the Findable, Accessible, Interoperable, and Reusable (FAIR) principles in both academic and industrial sectors, challenges exist in resourcing, balancing long ... [more ▼]

Despite the intuitive value of adopting the Findable, Accessible, Interoperable, and Reusable (FAIR) principles in both academic and industrial sectors, challenges exist in resourcing, balancing long- versus short-term priorities, and achieving technical implementation. This situation is exacerbated by the unclear mechanisms by which costs and benefits can be assessed when decisions on FAIR are made. Scientific and research and development (R&D) leadership need reliable evidence of the potential benefits and information on effective implementation mechanisms and remediating strategies. In this article, we describe procedures for cost–benefit evaluation, and identify best-practice approaches to support the decision-making process involved in FAIR implementation. [less ▲]

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See detailDie 22. Legion, der Rhein und die Binnenschifffahrt bei den Legionen des Imperium Romanum
Groff, Thierry UL

in Mainzer Zeitschrift. Mittelrheinisches Jahrbuch für Archäologie, Kunst und Geschichte (2022), 117

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See detailWeakly Inscribed Polyhedra
chen, hao; Schlenker, Jean-Marc UL

in Transactions of the American Mathematical Society. Series B (2022), 9

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See detailThe determinants of bootstrap financing in crises: evidence from entrepreneurial ventures in the COVID-19 pandemic
Block, Jörn; Fisch, Christian UL; Hirschmann, Mirko UL

in Small Business Economics (2022), 58(2), 867-885

Bootstrap financing refers to measures that entrepreneurial ventures undertake to preserve liquidity (e.g., reducing expenses, collecting receivables, delaying payments, preselling). Prior research shows ... [more ▼]

Bootstrap financing refers to measures that entrepreneurial ventures undertake to preserve liquidity (e.g., reducing expenses, collecting receivables, delaying payments, preselling). Prior research shows that bootstrap financing is an important enabler for the growth of resource-constrained early-stage ventures. However, little is known about the use of bootstrap financing in crises, during which the preservation of liquidity is particularly salient. We investigate the determinants of bootstrap financing in the 2020 COVID-19 crisis using a sample of 17,046 German entrepreneurial ventures. We formulate hypotheses about the determinants of bootstrap financing from a necessity, human capital, and opportunity cost perspective. Among others, our results show that the severity of the crisis for the venture, the level of private consumption, and self-employment experience are positively associated with an increased use of bootstrap financing measures. Our study contributes to the literature on bootstrap financing and illuminates how entrepreneurial ventures maintain liquidity in crises. [less ▲]

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See detailHow we explore, interpret, and solve complex problems: A cross-national study of problem-solving processes
Molnar, G; Alrababah, A. A.; Greiff, Samuel UL

in Heliyon (2022), (8), 08775

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See detailShocks and Time: The Development of the European Financial Assistance Regime
Rehm, Moritz UL

in Journal of Common Market Studies (2022)

This paper analyses the impact of economic crises on the development of European financial assistance. It demonstrates that crisis episodes that have taken place over the last five decades have ... [more ▼]

This paper analyses the impact of economic crises on the development of European financial assistance. It demonstrates that crisis episodes that have taken place over the last five decades have significantly altered the design of European Union emergency support. This paper illustrates how solutions adopted in formative moments–including the 1973 oil shock, the Eurozone crisis, and the Covid-19 pandemic–and their long-term consequences led to the smorgasbord of instruments of the present financial assistance structure. By applying a historical institutionalist approach, combining insights from studies of critical junctures and gradual change, this contribution explains how economic shocks contributed to change in financial assistance, while also highlighting mechanisms that led to the continuation of specific elements of the assistance structure. [less ▲]

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See detailDiscovering pesticides and their TPs in Luxembourg waters using open cheminformatics approaches
Krier, Jessy; Singh, Randolph R.; Kondic, Todor UL et al

in Environment International (2022), 158

The diversity of hundreds of thousands of potential organic pollutants and the lack of (publicly available) information about many of them is a huge challenge for environmental sciences, engineering, and ... [more ▼]

The diversity of hundreds of thousands of potential organic pollutants and the lack of (publicly available) information about many of them is a huge challenge for environmental sciences, engineering, and regulation. Suspect screening based on high-resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) has enormous potential to help characterize the presence of these chemicals in our environment, enabling the detection of known and newly emerging pollutants, as well as their potential transformation products (TPs). Here, suspect list creation (focusing on pesticides relevant for Luxembourg, incorporating data sources in 4 languages) was coupled to an automated retrieval of related TPs from PubChem based on high confidence suspect hits, to screen for pesticides and their TPs in Luxembourgish river samples. A computational workflow was established to combine LC-HRMS analysis and pre-screening of the suspects (including automated quality control steps), with spectral annotation to determine which pesticides and, in a second step, their related TPs may be present in the samples. The data analysis with Shinyscreen (https://gitlab.lcsb.uni.lu/eci/shinyscreen/), an open source software developed in house, coupled with custom-made scripts, revealed the presence of 162 potential pesticide masses and 96 potential TP masses in the samples. Further identification of these mass matches was performed using the open source approach MetFrag (https://msbi.ipb-halle.de/MetFrag/). Eventual target analysis of 36 suspects resulted in 31 pesticides and TPs confirmed at Level-1 (highest confidence), and five pesticides and TPs not confirmed due to different retention times. Spatio-temporal analysis of the results showed that TPs and pesticides followed similar trends, with a maximum number of potential detections in July. The highest detections were in the rivers Alzette and Mess and the lowest in the Sûre and Eisch. This study (a) added pesticides, classification information and related TPs into the open domain, (b) developed automated open source retrieval methods - both enhancing FAIRness (Findability, Accessibility, Interoperability and Reusability) of the data and methods; and (c) will directly support “L’Administration de la Gestion de l’Eau” on further monitoring steps in Luxembourg. [less ▲]

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See detailHigher cardiovascular activation, but normal heartbeat-evoked potentials and cardiac interoceptive accuracy in somatoform disorders and major depressive disorder
Schulz, André UL; Dierolf, Angelika UL; Lutz, Annika UL et al

in Psychiatry Research Communications (2022), 2(3), 100052

The perception-filter model posits that the generation of medically-unexplained symptoms is associated with (I.) more intense afferent bodily signals, (II.) impaired filter system activity to ... [more ▼]

The perception-filter model posits that the generation of medically-unexplained symptoms is associated with (I.) more intense afferent bodily signals, (II.) impaired filter system activity to differentiate relevant from irrelevant signals, and (III.) altered perception of bodily signals. We tested these assumptions for cardiac perception in patients with somatoform disorders (SFD), patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and healthy control (HC) individuals. Heart rate (variability; HR/HRV) and blood pressure served as indicators of bodily signals (I.); heartbeat-evoked potentials (HEPs) assessed during a heartbeat counting task (HCT) and a distraction task indicated filter system activity (II.); interoceptive accuracy (IAc) in the HCT was interpreted as an index of perception (III.). All indicators were assessed before and after a socially-evaluated cold pressor stress task (SECPT) and a control intervention. SFD patients (n ​= ​24) showed higher average HR and diastolic blood pressure, as well as lower HRV than HC individuals (n ​= ​22), but there were no differences in HEPs or IAc. Neither were there significant differences between the SFD and the MDD groups (n ​= ​24), nor any stress effect on HEPs or IAc. Our findings suggest that increased intensity of bodily signals (I.) is the only model assumption that could be supported for patients with fully-developed SFD. [less ▲]

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See detailDas lateinische Homiliar-Legendar des Dominikanerinnenklosters Marienthal (Brüssel KBR, Hs. 831-34). Zugleich ein Beitrag zur Kontextualisierung der Lebensbeschreibung der Priorin Yolanda von Vianden
Dubuisson, Bastien UL

in Hemecht: Zeitschrift für Luxemburger Geschichte (2022), 74(1), 5-47

The Marienthal homiliarium-legendarium represents a unique example of a Latin hagiographical collection from the early period of the Ordo fratrum Praedicatorum originating from a nunnery. In addition, it ... [more ▼]

The Marienthal homiliarium-legendarium represents a unique example of a Latin hagiographical collection from the early period of the Ordo fratrum Praedicatorum originating from a nunnery. In addition, it is a rare example of a 'traditional' Dominican hagiographical collection unlike the abbreviated collections written during the 13th century by members of the Dominican Order, which redefined the landscape of Latin hagiographical edition. Based on a detailed codicological study as well as an analysis of the texts contained in the legendarium section of the factice codex, this article questions the context of production and use of the book object. A key point is whether the legendarium was the product of a Dominican enterprise or not. The detailed study of the literary tradition of several of the texts also sheds light on the provenance of the collection. As a book belonging to a young female community of the Order, the homiliarium-legendarium also raises questions about the history of the conventual library and of its concrete use by the nuns. Like other manuscripts, it could be linked to the prioress Yolanda of Vianden whose life story is not unlike that of the saints in the legendarium. [less ▲]

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See detailWorking Memory Training Coupled With Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in Older Adults: A Randomized Controlled Experiment
Teixeira Santos, Ana Carolina UL; Moreira, Celia S; Pereira, Diana R. et al

in Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience (2022)

Background: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been employed to boost working memory training (WMT) effects. Nevertheless, there is limited evidence on the efficacy of this combination in ... [more ▼]

Background: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been employed to boost working memory training (WMT) effects. Nevertheless, there is limited evidence on the efficacy of this combination in older adults. The present study is aimed to assess the delayed transfer effects of tDCS coupled with WMT in older adults in a 15-day follow-up. We explored if general cognitive ability, age, and educational level predicted the effects. Methods: In this single-center, double-blind randomized sham-controlled experiment, 54 older adults were randomized into three groups: anodal-tDCS (atDCS)+WMT, sham-tDCS (stDCS)+WMT, and double-sham. Five sessions of tDCS (2 mA) were applied over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Far transfer was measured by Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices (RAPM), while the near transfer effects were assessed through Digit Span. A frequentist linear mixed model (LMM) was complemented by a Bayesian approach in data analysis. Results: Working memory training improved dual n-back performance in both groups submitted to this intervention but only the group that received atDCS+WMT displayed a significant improvement from pretest to follow-up in transfer measures of reasoning (RAPM) and short-term memory (forward Digit Span). Near transfer improvements predicted gains in far transfer, demonstrating that the far transfer is due to an improvement in the trained construct of working memory. Age, formal education, and vocabulary score seem to predict the gains in reasoning. However, Bayesian results do not provide substantial evidence to support this claim. Conclusion: This study will help to consolidate the incipient but auspicious field of cognitive training coupled with tDCS in healthy older adults. Our findings demonstrated that atDCS may potentialize WMT by promoting transfer effects in short-term memory and reasoning in older adults, which are observed especially at follow-up. [less ▲]

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See detailPerformance of early warning signals for disease re-emergence: A case study on COVID-19 data
Proverbio, Daniele UL; Kemp, Francoise UL; Magni, Stefano UL et al

in PLoS Computational Biology (2022), 18(3), 1009958

Developing measures for rapid and early detection of disease re-emergence is important to perform science-based risk assessment of epidemic threats. In the past few years, several early warning signals ... [more ▼]

Developing measures for rapid and early detection of disease re-emergence is important to perform science-based risk assessment of epidemic threats. In the past few years, several early warning signals (EWS) from complex systems theory have been introduced to detect impending critical transitions and extend the set of indicators. However, it is still debated whether they are generically applicable or potentially sensitive to some dynamical charac- teristics such as system noise and rates of approach to critical parameter values. Moreover, testing on empirical data has, so far, been limited. Hence, verifying EWS performance remains a challenge. In this study, we tackle this question by analyzing the performance of common EWS, such as increasing variance and autocorrelation, in detecting the emer- gence of COVID-19 outbreaks in various countries. Our work illustrates that these EWS might be successful in detecting disease emergence when some basic assumptions are sat- isfied: a slow forcing through the transitions and not-fat-tailed noise. In uncertain cases, we observe that noise properties or commensurable time scales may obscure the expected early warning signals. Overall, our results suggest that EWS can be useful for active moni- toring of epidemic dynamics, but that their performance is sensitive to certain features of the underlying dynamics. Our findings thus pave a connection between theoretical and empiri- cal studies, constituting a further step towards the application of EWS indicators for inform- ing public health policies. [less ▲]

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See detailA genome on shaky ground: exploring the impact of mitochondrial DNA integrity on Parkinson's disease by highlighting the use of cybrid models.
Lang, Martin; Grünewald, Anne UL; Pramstaller, Peter P. et al

in Cellular and molecular life sciences : CMLS (2022), 79(5), 283

Mitochondria play important roles in the regulation of key cellular processes, including energy metabolism, oxidative stress response, and signaling towards cell death or survival, and are distinguished ... [more ▼]

Mitochondria play important roles in the regulation of key cellular processes, including energy metabolism, oxidative stress response, and signaling towards cell death or survival, and are distinguished by carrying their own genome (mtDNA). Mitochondrial dysfunction has emerged as a prominent cellular mechanism involved in neurodegeneration, including Parkinson's disease (PD), a neurodegenerative movement disorder, characterized by progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons and the occurrence of proteinaceous Lewy body inclusions. The contribution of mtDNA variants to PD pathogenesis has long been debated and is still not clearly answered. Cytoplasmic hybrid (cybrid) cell models provided evidence for a contribution of mtDNA variants to the PD phenotype. However, conclusive evidence of mtDNA mutations as genetic cause of PD is still lacking. Several models have shown a role of somatic, rather than inherited mtDNA variants in the impairment of mitochondrial function and neurodegeneration. Accordingly, several nuclear genes driving inherited forms of PD are linked to mtDNA quality control mechanisms, and idiopathic as well as familial PD tissues present increased mtDNA damage. In this review, we highlight the use of cybrids in this PD research field and summarize various aspects of how and to what extent mtDNA variants may contribute to the etiology of PD. [less ▲]

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See detailConstruction and contextualization approaches for protein-protein interaction networks.
Badkas, Apurva UL; de Landtsheer, Sébastien UL; Sauter, Thomas UL

in Computational and structural biotechnology journal (2022), 20

Protein-protein interaction network (PPIN) analysis is a widely used method to study the contextual role of proteins of interest, to predict novel disease genes, disease or functional modules, and to ... [more ▼]

Protein-protein interaction network (PPIN) analysis is a widely used method to study the contextual role of proteins of interest, to predict novel disease genes, disease or functional modules, and to identify novel drug targets. PPIN-based analysis uses both generic and context-specific networks. Multiple contextualization methodologies have been described, such as shortest-path algorithms, neighborhood-based methods, and diffusion/propagation algorithms. This review discusses these methods, provides intuitive representations of PPIN contextualization, and also examines how the quality of such context-specific networks could be improved by considering additional sources of evidence. As a heuristic, we observe that tasks such as identifying disease genes, drug targets, and protein complexes should consider local neighborhoods, while uncovering disease mechanisms and discovering disease-pathways would gain from diffusion-based construction. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluating Universal Student Mobility: Contrasting Policy Discourse and Student Narratives in Luxembourg
Kmiotek-Meier, Emilia; Powell, Justin J W UL

in International Studies in Sociology of Education (2022)

For decades, Luxembourg did without its own national university. Before and after the Luxembourg’s founding (UL) (2003), tertiary education and the status of being a Luxembourgish student have been ... [more ▼]

For decades, Luxembourg did without its own national university. Before and after the Luxembourg’s founding (UL) (2003), tertiary education and the status of being a Luxembourgish student have been closely linked to international student mobility (ISM). This long-standing tradition was maintained in the new university via compulsory ISM—to bolster the national elite’s European networks and internationalization. Focusing on ISM from Luxembourg—based on analysis of policy documents regarding the UL’s foundation and state allowances for students—we show that policymakers strongly favored ISM. We confront this policy agenda with the perspectives and self-identification of both credit and degree mobile Luxembourgish students. In narrative interviews, students did not always view compulsory ISM as positively as did policymakers. For students, the quality of a stay abroad is much more important—a perspective lacking in the state’s quantity-driven agenda. In the country with the highest ISM rates globally, constraints remain to achieve equity in ISM. [less ▲]

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See detailGamified web-delivered attentional bias modification training for adults with chronic pain: Protocol for a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial
Vermeir, Julie F; White, Melanie J; Johnson, Daniel et al

in JMIR Research Protocols (2022)

Background: Research to date has found variable success in using attentional bias modification training (ABMT) procedures in pain samples. Several factors could contribute to these mixed findings ... [more ▼]

Background: Research to date has found variable success in using attentional bias modification training (ABMT) procedures in pain samples. Several factors could contribute to these mixed findings, including boredom and low motivation. Indeed, training paradigms are repetitive, which can lead to disengagement and high drop-out rates. A potential approach to overcome some of these barriers is to attempt to increase motivation and engagement through gamification (ie, the use of game elements) of this procedure. To date, research has yet to explore the gamified format of ABMT for chronic pain and its potential for transfer of benefits. Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of a gamified web-delivered ABMT intervention in a sample of adults with chronic pain via a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Methods: One hundred and twenty adults with chronic musculoskeletal pain, recruited from clinical (hospital outpatient waiting list) and non-clinical (wider community) settings, will be included in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 3-arm trial. Participants will be randomly assigned to complete six online sessions of dot-probe non-gamified sham control ABMT, non-gamified standard ABMT, or gamified ABMT, across a period of three weeks. Active ABMT conditions will aim to train attention away from pain-relevant words. Participant outcomes will be assessed at pre-training, during training, immediately post-training and at 1-month follow-up. Primary outcomes include pain intensity, pain interference, and behavioral and self-reported engagement. Secondary outcomes include attentional bias for pain, anxiety, depression, interpretation bias for pain, and perceived improvement. Results: The ethical aspects of this research project have been approved by the Human Research Ethics Committees of the Royal Brisbane and Women’s Hospital (HREC/2020/QRBW/61743) and Queensland University of Technology (2000000395). This trial is currently in the active participant recruitment phase (since August 2021). Data collection and analysis are expected to conclude by October 2022 and January 2023, respectively. Conclusions: This trial will be the first to evaluate the effects of gamification techniques in a pain ABMT intervention. The findings will provide important information on the potential therapeutic benefits of gamified pain ABMT programs, shed light on the motivational influences of certain game elements in the context of pain, and advance our understanding of chronic pain. Trial Registration: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, ACTRN12620000803998 [less ▲]

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See detailSingle-cell transcriptomics of human iPSC differentiation dynamics reveal a core molecular network of Parkinson’s disease
Novak, Gabriela; Kyriakis, Dimitrios UL; Grzyb, Kamil UL et al

in Communications Biology (2022), 5(1), 1--19

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second-most prevalent neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons (mDA) in the midbrain. The underlying mechanisms are only partly ... [more ▼]

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second-most prevalent neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons (mDA) in the midbrain. The underlying mechanisms are only partly understood and there is no treatment to reverse PD progression. Here, we investigated the disease mechanism using mDA neurons differentiated from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) carrying the ILE368ASN mutation within the PINK1 gene, which is strongly associated with PD. Single-cell RNA sequencing (RNAseq) and gene expression analysis of a PINK1-ILE368ASN and a control cell line identified genes differentially expressed during mDA neuron differentiation. Network analysis revealed that these genes form a core network, members of which interact with all known 19 protein-coding Parkinson’s disease-associated genes. This core network encompasses key PD-associated pathways, including ubiquitination, mitochondrial function, protein processing, RNA metabolism, and vesicular transport. Proteomics analysis showed a consistent alteration in proteins of dopamine metabolism, indicating a defect of dopaminergic metabolism in PINK1-ILE368ASN neurons. Our findings suggest the existence of a network onto which pathways associated with PD pathology converge, and offers an inclusive interpretation of the phenotypic heterogeneity of PD. [less ▲]

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See detailSolids on Soli: Millimetre-Wave Radar Sensing through Materials
Čopič Pucihar, Klen; Attygalle, Nuwan T.; Kljun, Matjaž et al

in Proceedings of the ACM on Human-Computer Interaction (2022)

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See detailTechnocratic urban development: Large digital corporations as power brokers of the digital age
Carr, Constance UL; Hesse, Markus UL

in Planning Theory and Practice (2022)

Large digital corporations such as Amazon.com or Alphabet Inc. are forging their position in cities by promoting themselves as the sole providers of so-called essential urban infrastructures. In this ... [more ▼]

Large digital corporations such as Amazon.com or Alphabet Inc. are forging their position in cities by promoting themselves as the sole providers of so-called essential urban infrastructures. In this paper, we reflect on how the behaviours of these current-day ‘tech giants’ are similar to those of the mid-20th century, a time period also known for dramatic infrastructural change in North American and Europe. Specifically, we are reminded of Robert Moses and how he pushed for infrastructural change in New York City and State, which were also supposedly the height of state-of-the-art urban planning at the time. He pushed his agenda, however, by brokering power and strong-arming the urban and regional development field. We reflect on Alphabet Inc.’s project in Toronto and Amazon’s search for a second headquarters in New York City and how these LDCs were similarly armed with executive and financial power and an ability to bully the field of urban development in their own interest. Behaving as digital-age power brokers, they engaged managerial-technocratic modes of urban governance to instigate projects that ultimately failed. We argue that Alphabet’s and Amazon’s strategies not only resemble those of Moses, but that all three deploy tactics that debase planning practice itself. [less ▲]

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See detailPersonality and Subjective Age: Evidence from Six Samples
Stephan, Yannick; Sutin, Angelina R.; Kornadt, Anna Elena UL et al

in Psychology and Aging (2022), 37(3), 401-412

Subjective age is associated with health-related outcomes across adulthood. The present study examined the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between personality traits and subjective age ... [more ▼]

Subjective age is associated with health-related outcomes across adulthood. The present study examined the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between personality traits and subjective age. Participants (N > 31,000) were from the Midlife in the United States Study (MIDUS), the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), the National Health and Aging Study (NHATS), the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study Graduate (WLSG) and Siblings (WLSS) samples, and the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA). Demographic factors, personality traits, and subjective age were assessed at baseline. Subjective age was assessed again in the MIDUS, the HRS, and the NHATS, 4 to almost 20 years later. Across the samples and a meta-analysis, higher neuroticism was related to an older subjective age, whereas higher extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness were associated with a younger subjective age. Self-rated health, physical activity, chronic conditions, and depressive symptoms partially mediated these relationships. There was little evidence that chronological age moderated these associations. Multilevel longitudinal analyses found similar associations with the intercept and weak evidence for an association with the slope in the opposite of the expected direction: Lower neuroticism and higher extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness were related to feeling relatively older over time. The present study provides replicable evidence that personality is related to subjective age. It extends existing conceptualization of subjective age as a biopsychosocial marker of aging by showing that how old or young individuals feel partly reflects personality traits. [less ▲]

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See detailDrug targeting opportunities en route to Ras nanoclusters.
Pavic, Karolina UL; Chippalkatti, Rohan UL; Abankwa, Daniel UL

in Advances in cancer research (2022), 153

Disruption of the native membrane organization of Ras by the farnesyltransferase inhibitor tipifarnib in the late 1990s constituted the first indirect approach to drug target Ras. Since then, our ... [more ▼]

Disruption of the native membrane organization of Ras by the farnesyltransferase inhibitor tipifarnib in the late 1990s constituted the first indirect approach to drug target Ras. Since then, our understanding of how dynamically Ras shuttles between subcellular locations has changed significantly. Ras proteins have to arrive at the plasma membrane for efficient MAPK-signal propagation. On the plasma membrane Ras proteins are organized into isoform specific proteo-lipid assemblies called nanocluster. Recent evidence suggests that Ras nanocluster have a specific lipid composition, which supports the recruitment of effectors such as Raf. Conversely, effectors possess lipid-recognition motifs, which appear to serve as co-incidence detectors for the lipid domain of a given Ras isoform. Evidence suggests that dimeric Raf proteins then co-assemble dimeric Ras in an immobile complex, thus forming the minimal unit of an active nanocluster. Here we review established and novel trafficking chaperones and trafficking factors of Ras, along with the set of lipid and protein modulators of Ras nanoclustering. We highlight drug targeting approaches and opportunities against these determinants of functional Ras membrane organization. Finally, we reflect on implications for Ras signaling in polarized cells, such as epithelia, which are a common origin of tumorigenesis. [less ▲]

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See detailEuropeanizing Universities: Expanding and Consolidating Networks of the Erasmus Mundus Joint Master Degree Programme (2004–2017)
Marques, Marcelo; Zapp, Mike UL; Powell, Justin J W UL

in Higher Education Policy (2022), 35

The Europeanization of higher education has gained considerable scope and momentum over the past quarter century. Whereas the coordinative Bologna process, with soft governance mechanisms, have ... [more ▼]

The Europeanization of higher education has gained considerable scope and momentum over the past quarter century. Whereas the coordinative Bologna process, with soft governance mechanisms, have facilitated standardization across countries, European Commission funding programs targeted universities more directly. The Erasmus Mundus Joint Degree Programme, as an incentive-based program, epitomizes the dynamics of such European funding management. Notably, it has established expanding university networks across Europe and unique new tertiary degrees that facilitate student mobility. Applying social network analysis to 561 participating universities through several program cycles, we longitudinally examine three key patterns in the program’s development: the expansion of the programme, the consolidation of networks, and the participation of and coordination by central universities in these processes. Program participation increased considerably across cycles, even as established networks were consolidated, largely through re- accreditation of established programs. Moreover, we identify those universities that assume a central position in the inter-organizational structure of this international program. These universities actively facilitate the evolving Europeanization of higher education by strengthening inter-university networks via a signature EU program. [less ▲]

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See detailSulfur Treatment Passivates Bulk Defects in Sb2Se3Photocathodes for Water Splitting
Prabhakar, Rajiv Ramanujam; Moehl, Thomas; Friedrich, Dennis et al

in Advanced Functional Materials (2022)

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See detailEnhanced Optical Spectroscopy for Multiplexed DNA and Protein-Sequencing with Plasmonic Nanopores: Challenges and Prospects
Li, Wang; Zhou, Juan; Maccaferri, Nicolò UL et al

in Analytical Chemistry (2022), 94(2), 503-514

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See detailInsights from an information thermodynamics analysis of a synthetic molecular motor
Amano, Shuntaro; Esposito, Massimiliano UL; Kreidt, Elisabeth et al

in Nature Chemistry (2022), 14(5), 530-537

Information is physical, a realization that has transformed the physics of measurement and communication. However, the flow between information, energy and mechanics in chemical systems remains largely ... [more ▼]

Information is physical, a realization that has transformed the physics of measurement and communication. However, the flow between information, energy and mechanics in chemical systems remains largely unexplored. Here we analyse a minimalist autonomous chemically driven molecular motor in terms of information thermodynamics, a framework that quantitatively relates information to other thermodynamic parameters. The treatment reveals how directional motion is generated by free energy transfer from chemical to mechanical (conformational and/or co-conformational) processes by `energy flow' and `information flow'. It provides a thermodynamic level of understanding of molecular motors that is general, complements previous analyses based on kinetics and has practical implications for machine design. In line with kinetic analysis, we find that power strokes do not affect the directionality of chemically driven machines. However, we find that power strokes can modulate motor velocity, the efficiency of free energy transfer and the number of fuel molecules consumed per cycle. This may help explain the role of such (co-)conformational changes in biomachines and illustrates the interplay between energy and information in chemical systems. [less ▲]

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See detailEmerging ecologies and changing relations: a brief manifesto for histories of education after COVID-19
Priem, Karin UL

in Paedagogica Historica (2022)

he paper draws upon photography as an active intervention into compromised environments and uses it to discover and develop new perspectives on past and future histories of education after COVID-19. These ... [more ▼]

he paper draws upon photography as an active intervention into compromised environments and uses it to discover and develop new perspectives on past and future histories of education after COVID-19. These perspectives become particularly clear when seen against the backdrop of recent discussions on planetary responsibility and shared ecologies. The paper suggests that we shift our research agendas away from anthropocentric world views that have placed great emphasis on human sovereignty, modernisation, progress and/or decline, nation states and global governance, and the stratifying effects of education systems, without reflecting their ecological consequences. It argues that anthropocentric approaches to history of education have neglected the openness and vulnerability of the human body and its ethical, cultural and social proximity to other living creatures and the material world. The paper therefore focuses on what it means for historians of education to respond to the COVID-19 crisis, what it means to change research perspectives, and what it means to look at photographs that were produced in a state of exception. The paper sets out to propose a manifesto for a post-anthropocentric research agenda that anchors history of education and the history of pandemics in intertwined ecologies of the living and material worlds. The paper suggests that future histories of education cannot be written without considering the COVID-19 crisis as both a challenge and an encouragement to further develop our understanding of education. [less ▲]

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See detailAn evaluation of the German teacher version of the Developmental Behaviour Checklist in children and adolescents with intellectual disability
Zurbriggen, Carmen UL; Müller, Christoph M.

in Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disability (2022)

BACKGROUND The Developmental Behaviour Checklist (DBC) is an established, internationally used questionnaire for assessing behavioural and emotional problems among young people with developmental or ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND The Developmental Behaviour Checklist (DBC) is an established, internationally used questionnaire for assessing behavioural and emotional problems among young people with developmental or intellectual disabilities (ID). The present study aims to evaluate the psychometric properties of its German teacher version (DBC-T). METHOD The German DBC-T was administered to 397 school staff members who reported twice on 1177 children and adolescents with ID over a period of 7–9 months. Data were analysed within an exploratory structural equation modelling framework. RESULTS Our results supported the five-factor structure of the DBC-T and found good reliability for all scales. Analyses on the relationship of DBC-T scores with students’ age, gender, and adaptive behaviour provided further evidence for the validity of the DBC-T. CONCLUSIONS Our study endorses the notion that the German DBC-T is an important instrument both for research and practice. Limitations and further directions are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailIntroduction
Steveker, Lena UL; Frenk, Joachim

in Zeitschrift für Anglistik und Amerikanistik (2022), 70(2), 123-130

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See detailPer una riconcettualizzazione delle cause della povertà lavorativa
Ratti, Luca UL

in QRS - Quaderni di Rassegna Sindacale (2022)

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See detailBritish Borders: Negotiations in Anglophone Literatures
Frenk, Joachim; Steveker, Lena UL

in Zeitschrift für Anglistik und Amerikanistik (2022), 70(2), 121-211

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See detailPreschool predictors of learning to read and spell in an additional language: a two-wave longitudinal study in a multilingual context.
Wealer, Cyril UL; Fricke, Silke; Loff, Ariana et al

in Reading and Writing (2022)

The study explores whether foundational skills of reading and spelling in preschool (age 5–6) predict literacy skills cross-linguistically in an additional language in Grade 1 (age 6–7). A sample of ... [more ▼]

The study explores whether foundational skills of reading and spelling in preschool (age 5–6) predict literacy skills cross-linguistically in an additional language in Grade 1 (age 6–7). A sample of linguistically diverse preschool children completed tasks of phonological awareness, letter-sound knowledge, verbal-short term memory, rapid automatized naming, and lexical knowledge in the language of preschool instruction Luxembourgish. The children were followed-up in Grade 1 where literacy skills were assessed in the language of schooling, i.e., German, after fve months of literacy instruction. German was a non-native language for all children. Longitudinal correlations confrm that individual diferences in single word/pseudoword reading and spelling in German in Grade 1 can be predicted by all the foundational literacy skills that were assessed in Luxembourgish. Path analyses showed that phonological awareness in Luxembourgish emerged as the strongest unique predictor of Grade 1 literacy skills in German. The second unique preschool predictor of Grade 1 literacy skills was letter-sound knowledge. Results are consistent with the view that literacy development in an additional language builds upon similar building blocks as literacy acquisition in a frst language, at least for languages that are typologically close. However, current fndings suggest that respective contributions between predictors and literacy skills in children learning to read in an additional language may vary from patterns observed in studies with children acquiring literacy in their frst language. [less ▲]

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See detailKernel Regression over Graphs using Random Fourier Features
Elias, Vitor R.M.; Gogineni, Vinay C.; Alves Martins, Wallace UL et al

in IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing (2022)

This paper proposes efficient batch-based and online strategies for kernel regression over graphs (KRG). The proposed algorithms do not require the input signal to be a graph signal, whereas the target ... [more ▼]

This paper proposes efficient batch-based and online strategies for kernel regression over graphs (KRG). The proposed algorithms do not require the input signal to be a graph signal, whereas the target signal is defined over the graph. We first use random Fourier features (RFF) to tackle the complexity issues associated with kernel methods employed in the conventional KRG. For batch-based approaches, we also propose an implementation that reduces complexity by avoiding the inversion of large matrices. Then, we derive two distinct online strategies using RFF, namely, the mini-batch gradient KRG (MGKRG) and the recursive least squares KRG (RLSKRG). The stochastic gradient KRG (SGKRG) is introduced as a particular case of the MGKRG. The MGKRG and the SGKRG are low-complexity algorithms that employ stochastic gradient approximations in the regression-parameter update. The RLSKRG is a recursive implementation of the RFF-based batch KRG. A detailed stability analysis is provided for the proposed online algorithms, including convergence conditions in both mean and mean-squared senses. A discussion on complexity is also provided. Numerical simulations include a synthesized-data experiment and real-data experiments on temperature prediction, brain activity estimation, and image reconstruction. Results show that the RFF-based batch implementation offers competitive performance with a reduced computational burden when compared to the conventional KRG. The MGKRG offers a convenient trade-off between performance and complexity by varying the number of mini-batch samples. The RLSKRG has a faster convergence than the MGKRG and matches the performance of the batch implementation. [less ▲]

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See detailChanging Routinized Household Energy Consumption Using the Example of Washing, Cooking, and Standby: A Randomized Controlled Field Experiment of Home Energy Advice
Hess, Ann-Kathrin; Schubert, Iljana; Samuel, Robin UL et al

in Cleaner and Responsible Consumption (2022)

Despite advances in understanding routines, there is little knowledge about which aspects of routinized behavior people adjust during interventions. In this study, we applied an adjusted social practice ... [more ▼]

Despite advances in understanding routines, there is little knowledge about which aspects of routinized behavior people adjust during interventions. In this study, we applied an adjusted social practice theory framework to disentangle routinized energy consumption, focusing on energy services related to washing, standby, and cooking. We investigate the potential of home energy advice to change elements of routinized behaviors, namely meanings, knowledge, and technologies. Using a randomized controlled field trial on a probabilistic sample of households, we found short-term treatment effects related to increased usage of lids during cooking and improved knowledge of IT-related energy consumption, as well as negative effects regarding multi-sockets and washing frequency. Our findings suggest that meanings (e.g., preferences underlying routinized behaviors) are less subject to change, and that sociodemographic variables are associated with routinized behaviors in complex ways. Our disentangling of energy demand into elements of routines enables us to show how home energy advice may change behaviors and knowledge. This study highlights the benefits of a multifaceted perspective for understanding household energy consumption and can be used to inform intervention and policy design. [less ▲]

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See detailLes centrales nucléaires dans la littérature du Luxembourg
Thiltges, Sébastian UL

in Les Cahiers luxembourgeois (2022), 1

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See detailEnergy Harvesting from Jamming Attacks in Multi-User Massive MIMO Networks
Al-Hraishawi, Hayder UL; Abdullah, Osamah; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL et al

in IEEE Transactions on Green Communications and Networking (2022)

5G communication systems enable new functions and major performance improvements but at the cost of tougher energy requirements on mobile devices. One of the effective ways to address this issue along ... [more ▼]

5G communication systems enable new functions and major performance improvements but at the cost of tougher energy requirements on mobile devices. One of the effective ways to address this issue along with alleviating the environmental effects associated with the inevitable large increase in energy usage is the energy-neutral systems, which operate with the energy harvested from radio-frequency (RF) transmissions. In this direction, this paper investigates the notion of harvesting the ambient RF signals from an unusual source. Specifically, the performance of an RF energy harvesting scheme for multi-user massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) is investigated in the presence of multiple active jammers. The key idea is to exploit the jamming transmissions as an energy source to be harvested at the legitimate users. To this end, the achievable uplink sum rate expressions are derived in closed-form for two different antenna configurations. Two optimal time-switching schemes are also proposed based on maximum sum rate and user-fairness criteria. Besides, the essential trade-off between the harvested energy and achievable sum rate are quantified in closed-form. Our analysis reveals that the massive MIMO systems can exploit the surrounding RF signals of the jamming attacks for boosting the amount of harvested energy at the served users. Finally, numerical results illustrate the effectiveness of the derived closed-form expressions through simulations. [less ▲]

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See detailDer Witz der Urteilskraft. Zur politischen Dimension des Humors
Mein, Georg UL

in andererseits – Yearbook of Transatlantic German Studies (2022), 9/10

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See detailIn-Work poverty in the EU - EU Law Live Special Issue (II)
Ratti, Luca UL; Garcia Munoz Alhambra, Manuel Antonio UL

in EU Law Live - Weekend Edition (2022)

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See detailDark solitons in a trapped gas of long-range interacting bosons
Beau, M.; Del Campo Echevarria, Adolfo UL; Frantzeskakis, D. J. et al

in Physical Review (2022)

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See detailSharing calculations to understand arithmetical algorithms and parallel computing
Andrusiak, Rich; Perucca, Antonella UL

in Mathematics Teacher (2022)

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See detailEmpirical Perturbation Analysis of Two Adversarial Attacks: Black Box versus White Box
Chitic, Raluca; Topal, Ali Osman UL; Leprevost, Franck UL

in Applied Sciences (2022), 12(14), 7339

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See detailThe Corona Pandemic and Its Implications for the Mental Health and Mental Healthcare of Older Adults
Albert, Isabelle UL; Kornadt, Anna Elena UL

in GeroPsych: Journal of Gerontopsychology and Geriatric Psychiatry (2022), 35(1),

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See detailPredicting Patch Correctness Based on the Similarity of Failing Test Cases
Tian, Haoye UL; Li, Yinghua UL; Pian, Weiguo UL et al

in ACM Transactions on Software Engineering and Methodology (2022)

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See detailSetting out for new Shores! An explorative Analysis of Agency in Youth Employment Mobility
Skrobanek, Jan; Vysotskaya, Volha UL

in Journal of Education and Work (2022)

Based on biographical interviews from an intra-European youth mobility study in Luxembourg and Norway the article aims to contribute to the debate on how to understand and account for complexities of ... [more ▼]

Based on biographical interviews from an intra-European youth mobility study in Luxembourg and Norway the article aims to contribute to the debate on how to understand and account for complexities of agency in youth intra-European employment mobility. Critically reflecting and operationalising Emirbayer and Misches’s conceptualisation of agentic orientations in the field of intra-European employment mobility of young people, we a) explore the usefulness of researching agency from a relational perspective, we b) elaborate on how young mobile reflect their manoeuvring under perceived contingent moments and we c) augment our ken of the complex interlacement of habit, imagination and judgement with (contingent) employment mobility contexts and young people’s concrete employment mobility practices. Our results emphasise the importance of considering how differently agentic orientations interlace with contingent employment mobility contexts ranging from radical self-realisation, adaptive interplay of self-realisation and situational constraints and agentic orientations strongly bounded by situational constraints. In addition, the empirical analysis shows that some of the theoretical propositions of Emirbayer and Mische’s approach have to be revisited. [less ▲]

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See detailLe formalisme de la procédure de cassation luxembourgeoise en question
Cuniberti, Gilles UL

in Revue des procédures (2022)

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See detailPerspective luxembourgeoise: Conclusions sur le caractère inclusif des supports pédagogiques
Andersen, Katja Natalie UL; Vogt, Michaela; Bagger, Anette et al

in Forum für Politik, Gesellschaft und Kultur in Luxemburg (2022), 423

Cette contribution s’appuie sur les conclusions du projet European Comparison of Inclusive Teaching Materials (ITM) lancé en 2018. Cette collaboration regroupant l’Allemagne (Prof. Dr. M. Vogt, C ... [more ▼]

Cette contribution s’appuie sur les conclusions du projet European Comparison of Inclusive Teaching Materials (ITM) lancé en 2018. Cette collaboration regroupant l’Allemagne (Prof. Dr. M. Vogt, C. Bierschwale), le Luxembourg (Prof. Dr. K. Andersen), la Suède (Prof. Dr. A. Bagger) et l’Italie (Prof. Dr. V. Macchia, Prof. Dr. A. Augschöll, A. Ardemagni) cherche un moyen de définir le caractère inclusif des supports pédagogiques. C’est dans cette perspective qu’a été développé un catalogue de critères permettant d’évaluer la pertinence des supports pédagogiques en vue de leur utilisation dans des contextes d’enseignement inclusif. La présente contribution présente ces critères en les mettant en parallèle avec les conclusions des recherches menées au Luxembourg. [less ▲]

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See detailAn Empirical Study on Data Distribution-Aware Test Selection for Deep Learning Enhancement
Hu, Qiang UL; Guo, Yuejun UL; Cordy, Maxime UL et al

in ACM Transactions on Software Engineering and Methodology (2022)

Similar to traditional software that is constantly under evolution, deep neural networks (DNNs) need to evolve upon the rapid growth of test data for continuous enhancement, e.g., adapting to distribution ... [more ▼]

Similar to traditional software that is constantly under evolution, deep neural networks (DNNs) need to evolve upon the rapid growth of test data for continuous enhancement, e.g., adapting to distribution shift in a new environment for deployment. However, it is labor-intensive to manually label all the collected test data. Test selection solves this problem by strategically choosing a small set to label. Via retraining with the selected set, DNNs will achieve competitive accuracy. Unfortunately, existing selection metrics involve three main limitations: 1) using different retraining processes; 2) ignoring data distribution shifts; 3) being insufficiently evaluated. To fill this gap, we first conduct a systemically empirical study to reveal the impact of the retraining process and data distribution on model enhancement. Then based on our findings, we propose a novel distribution-aware test (DAT) selection metric. Experimental results reveal that retraining using both the training and selected data outperforms using only the selected data. None of the selection metrics perform the best under various data distributions. By contrast, DAT effectively alleviates the impact of distribution shifts and outperforms the compared metrics by up to 5 times and 30.09% accuracy improvement for model enhancement on simulated and in-the-wild distribution shift scenarios, respectively. [less ▲]

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See detailScience knowledge and trust in medicine affect individuals’ behavior in pandemic crises
Sailer, Michael; Stadler, Matthias UL; Botes, E'louise UL et al

in European Journal of Psychology of Education (2022), (37), 279-292

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See detailIntercorrelated random fields with bounds and the Bayesian identification of their parameters: Application to linear elastic struts and fibers
Rappel, Hussein; Girolami, Mark; Beex, Lars UL

in International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering (2022), 123(15), 3418-3463

Many materials and structures consist of numerous slender struts or fibers. Due to the manufacturing processes of different types of struts and the growth processes of natural fibers, their mechanical ... [more ▼]

Many materials and structures consist of numerous slender struts or fibers. Due to the manufacturing processes of different types of struts and the growth processes of natural fibers, their mechanical response frequently fluctuates from strut to strut, as well as locally within each strut. In associated mechanical models each strut is often represented by a string of beam elements, since the use of conventional three-dimensional finite elements renders the simulations computationally inefficient. The parameter input fields of each string of beam elements are ideally such that the local fluctuations and fluctuations between individual strings of beam elements are accurately captured. The goal of this study is to capture these fluctuations in several intercorrelated bounded random fields. Two formulations to describe the intercorrelations between each random field, as well as the case without any intercorrelation, are investigated. As only a few sets of input fields are available (due to time constraints of the supposed experimental techniques), the identification of the random fields’ parameters involves substantial uncertainties. A probabilistic identification approach based on Bayes’ theorem is employed to treat the involved uncertainties. [less ▲]

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See detailInterrogating the effect of enzyme kinetics on metabolism using differentiable constraint-based models
Wilken, St Elmo; Besançon, Mathieu; Kratochvil, Miroslav UL et al

in Metabolic Engineering (2022)

Metabolic models are typically characterized by a large number of parameters. Traditionally, metabolic control analysis is applied to differential equation-based models to investigate the sensitivity of ... [more ▼]

Metabolic models are typically characterized by a large number of parameters. Traditionally, metabolic control analysis is applied to differential equation-based models to investigate the sensitivity of predictions to parameters. A corresponding theory for constraint-based models is lacking, due to their formulation as optimization problems. Here, we show that optimal solutions of optimization problems can be efficiently differentiated using constrained optimization duality and implicit differentiation. We use this to calculate the sensitivities of predicted reaction fluxes and enzyme concentrations to turnover numbers in an enzyme-constrained metabolic model of Escherichia coli. The sensitivities quantitatively identify rate limiting enzymes and are mathematically precise, unlike current finite difference based approaches used for sensitivity analysis. Further, efficient differentiation of constraint-based models unlocks the ability to use gradient information for parameter estimation. We demonstrate this by improving, genome-wide, the state-of-the-art turnover number estimates for E. coli. Finally, we show that this technique can be generalized to arbitrarily complex models. By differentiating the optimal solution of a model incorporating both thermodynamic and kinetic rate equations, the effect of metabolite concentrations on biomass growth can be elucidated. We benchmark these metabolite sensitivities against a large experimental gene knockdown study, and find good alignment between the predicted sensitivities and in vivo metabolome changes. In sum, we demonstrate several applications of differentiating optimal solutions of constraint-based metabolic models, and show how it connects to classic metabolic control analysis. [less ▲]

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See detailThe quizzing effect depends on hope of success and can be optimized by cognitive load-based adaptation
Heitmann, Svenja; Grund, Axel UL; Fries, Stefan et al

in Learning and Instruction (2022), 77(online first), 101526

It is well established that quizzing fosters learning. However, some gaps in the literature relating to the fit of quizzing to learner characteristics and learner perceptions during quizzing still need to ... [more ▼]

It is well established that quizzing fosters learning. However, some gaps in the literature relating to the fit of quizzing to learner characteristics and learner perceptions during quizzing still need to be addressed. The present study focuses on two of these aspects: achievement motives and perceptions of cognitive load. First, quizzing entails that learners’ performance is judged against some standard of excellence. This might make it appealing and effective for learners with high hope of success and low fear of failure in particular. Second, it is an open question whether providing quiz questions that are adapted to learners’ perceived level of cognitive load during quizzing would be beneficial. To address these questions, we randomly assigned learners to either non-adaptive quizzing, adaptive quizzing, or note-taking. We found that quizzing benefits concerning learning outcomes were moderated by hope of success. Furthermore, the adaptation via cognitive load ratings substantially increased the quizzing effect. [less ▲]

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See detailThe generalized internal/external frame of reference model with academic self-concepts, interests, and anxieties in students from different language backgrounds
van der Westhuizen, Lindie UL; Arens, A. Katrin; Greiff, Samuel UL et al

in Contemporary Educational Psychology (2022)

Student motivation and affect play an important role in successful language learning. To investigate the formation of language learning motivation and affect, this study extended the generalized internal ... [more ▼]

Student motivation and affect play an important role in successful language learning. To investigate the formation of language learning motivation and affect, this study extended the generalized internal/external frame of reference (GI/E) model framework to multiple languages (German and French, along with math) and multiple motivational-affective outcomes (academic self-concept, interest, and anxiety). We examined whether social and dimensional comparisons play similar roles in the formation of students’ self-concepts, interests, and anxieties concerning different languages and whether dimensional comparisons result in contrast or assimilation effects. Moreover, we tested the generalizability of the GI/E model assumptions across students with different language backgrounds. Using a data set comprising virtually all ninth-grade students (N=6275; 48.0% female) from Luxembourg’s multilingual educational system, our findings indicated (1) clear contrast effects in the formation of self-concept and interest in math, German, and French, and (2) a combination of contrast, assimilation, and no effects in the formation of anxiety in math, German, and French. Using a subsample of 5837 students with valid language information (48.0% female), invariance tests demonstrated that the GI/E achievement–outcome relations operated equivalently across students from different home language backgrounds. [less ▲]

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See detailWhy are male students less likely to opt for social science courses? A theory-driven analysis
Haunberger, Sigrid; Hadjar, Andreas UL

in International Social Work (2022), 61(1), 17-34

In this article, we discuss the question of why only a few men decide to study social science courses such as social work. While the conceptual base of our analysis includes the theory of planned ... [more ▼]

In this article, we discuss the question of why only a few men decide to study social science courses such as social work. While the conceptual base of our analysis includes the theory of planned behaviour and theories centring on gender role orientations, the empirical base is a random cluster sample of high-school graduates in Switzerland. The results show different gender effects, as well as direct and indirect effects, for all the theory of planned behaviour factors. Gender role orientations and the question of how a social science profession fits one’s own gender identity appear to be of particular importance only among male students. [less ▲]

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See detailModel-based assessment of COVID-19 epidemic dynamics by wastewater analysis
Proverbio, Daniele UL; Kemp, Francoise UL; Magni, Stefano UL et al

in Science of the Total Environment (2022), 827

Continuous surveillance of COVID-19 diffusion remains crucial to control its diffusion and to anticipate infection waves. Detecting viral RNA load in wastewater samples has been suggested as an effective ... [more ▼]

Continuous surveillance of COVID-19 diffusion remains crucial to control its diffusion and to anticipate infection waves. Detecting viral RNA load in wastewater samples has been suggested as an effective approach for epidemic monitoring and the development of an effective warning system. However, its quantitative link to the epidemic status and the stages of outbreak is still elusive. Modelling is thus crucial to address these challenges. In this study, we present a novel mechanistic model-based approach to reconstruct the complete epidemic dynamics from SARS-CoV-2 viral load in wastewater. Our approach integrates noisy wastewater data and daily case numbers into a dynamical epidemiological model. As demonstrated for various regions and sampling protocols, it quantifies the case numbers, provides epidemic indicators and accurately infers future epidemic trends. Following its quantitative analysis, we also provide recommendations for wastewater data standards and for their use as warning indicators against new infection waves. In situations of reduced testing capacity, our modelling approach can enhance the surveillance of wastewater for early epidemic prediction and robust and cost-effective real-time monitoring of local COVID-19 dynamics. [less ▲]

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See detailReal-time Monitoring and Early Warning Of Atrial Fibrillation
Gavidia, Marino UL; Montanari, Arthur; Fuentes, Jesús UL et al

in Preprint (2022)

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See detailHyperideal polyhedra in the 3-dimensional anti-de Sitter space
Chen, Qiyu UL; Schlenker, Jean-Marc UL

in Advances in Mathematics (2022), 404(Paper No. 108441, 61 pp),

We study hyperideal polyhedra in the 3-dimensional anti-de Sitter space AdS3, which are defined as the intersection of the projective model of AdS3 with a convex polyhedron in RP3 whose vertices are all ... [more ▼]

We study hyperideal polyhedra in the 3-dimensional anti-de Sitter space AdS3, which are defined as the intersection of the projective model of AdS3 with a convex polyhedron in RP3 whose vertices are all outside of AdS3 and whose edges all meet AdS3. We show that hyperideal polyhedra in AdS3 are uniquely determined by their combinatorics and dihedral angles, as well as by the induced metric on their boundary together with an additional combinatorial data, and describe the possible dihedral angles and the possible induced metrics on the boundary. [less ▲]

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See detailThe future of Parkinson’s disease research: A new paradigm of human-specific investigation is necessary… and possible
Cassotta, Manuela; Geerts, Hugo; Harbom, Lise et al

in ALTEX: Alternatives to Animal Experimentation (2022)

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See detailUn pas de plus vers une définition autonome de l’autorité de la chose jugée
Menetrey, Séverine UL

in Revue des procédures (2022)

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See detailBenchmarking quantum annealing dynamics: The spin-vector Langevin model
Subires, David; Gómez-Ruiz, Fernando J.; Ruiz-García, Antonia et al

in Physical Review Research (2022)

The classical spin-vector Monte Carlo (SVMC) model is a reference benchmark for the performance of a quantum annealer. Yet, as a Monte Carlo method, SVMC is unsuited for an accurate description of the ... [more ▼]

The classical spin-vector Monte Carlo (SVMC) model is a reference benchmark for the performance of a quantum annealer. Yet, as a Monte Carlo method, SVMC is unsuited for an accurate description of the annealing dynamics in real-time.We introduce the spin-vector Langevin (SVL) model as an alternative benchmark in which the time evolution is described by Langevin dynamics. The SVL model is shown to provide a more stringent test than the SVMC model for the identification of quantum signatures in the performance of quantum annealing devices, as we illustrate by describing the Kibble-Zurek scaling associated with the dynamics of symmetry breaking in the transverse field Ising model, recently probed using D-Wave machines. Specifically, we show that D-Wave data are reproduced by the SVL model. [less ▲]

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See detailSample size dependence of tagged molecule dynamics in steady-state networks with bimolecular reactions: Cycle times of a light-driven pump
Asnicar, Daniele; Penocchio, Emanuele UL; Frezzato, Diego

in Journal of Chemical Physics (2022), 156(18), 184116

Here, steady-state reaction networks are inspected from the viewpoint of individual tagged molecules jumping among their chemical states upon the occurrence of reactive events. Such an agent-based ... [more ▼]

Here, steady-state reaction networks are inspected from the viewpoint of individual tagged molecules jumping among their chemical states upon the occurrence of reactive events. Such an agent-based viewpoint is useful for selectively characterizing the behavior of functional molecules, especially in the presence of bimolecular processes. We present the tools for simulating the jump dynamics both in the macroscopic limit and in the small-volume sample where the numbers of reactive molecules are of the order of few units with an inherently stochastic kinetics. The focus is on how an ideal spatial “compartmentalization” may affect the dynamical features of the tagged molecule. Our general approach is applied to a synthetic light-driven supramolecular pump composed of ring-like and axle-like molecules that dynamically assemble and disassemble, originating an average ring-through-axle directed motion under constant irradiation. In such an example, the dynamical feature of interest is the completion time of direct/inverse cycles of tagged rings and axles. We find a surprisingly strong robustness of the average cycle times with respect to the system’s size. This is explained in the presence of rate-determining unimolecular processes, which may, therefore, play a crucial role in stabilizing the behavior of small chemical systems against strong fluctuations in the number of molecules. [less ▲]

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See detailTaxes and declared profits: evidence from gold mines in Africa
Zanaj, Skerdilajda UL

in Resources Policy (2022)

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See detailMechanistically Coupled PK (MCPK) Model to Describe Enzyme Induction and Occupancy Dependent DDI of Dabrafenib Metabolism.
Albrecht, Marco; Kogan, Yuri; Kulms, Dagmar et al

in Pharmaceutics (2022), 14(2),

Dabrafenib inhibits the cell proliferation of metastatic melanoma with the oncogenic BRAF(V600)-mutation. However, dabrafenib monotherapy is associated with pERK reactivation, drug resistance, and ... [more ▼]

Dabrafenib inhibits the cell proliferation of metastatic melanoma with the oncogenic BRAF(V600)-mutation. However, dabrafenib monotherapy is associated with pERK reactivation, drug resistance, and consequential relapse. A clinical drug-dose determination study shows increased pERK levels upon daily administration of more than 300 mg dabrafenib. To clarify whether such elevated drug concentrations could be reached by long-term drug accumulation, we mechanistically coupled the pharmacokinetics (MCPK) of dabrafenib and its metabolites. The MCPK model is qualitatively based on in vitro and quantitatively on clinical data to describe occupancy-dependent CYP3A4 enzyme induction, accumulation, and drug-drug interaction mechanisms. The prediction suggests an eight-fold increase in the steady-state concentration of potent desmethyl-dabrafenib and its inactive precursor carboxy-dabrafenib within four weeks upon 150 mg b.d. dabrafenib. While it is generally assumed that a higher dose is not critical, we found experimentally that a high physiological dabrafenib concentration fails to induce cell death in embedded 451LU melanoma spheroids. [less ▲]

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See detailHeterogeneous Innovation over the Business Cycle
Manso, Gustavo; Balsmeier, Benjamin UL; Fleming, Lee

in Review of Economics and Statistics (2022)

Schumpeter (1939) claims that recessions are periods of “creative destruction,” concentrating innovation that is useful for the long-term growth of the economy. However previous research finds that ... [more ▼]

Schumpeter (1939) claims that recessions are periods of “creative destruction,” concentrating innovation that is useful for the long-term growth of the economy. However previous research finds that standard measures of firms’ innovation, such as R&D expenditures or raw patent counts, concentrate in booms. We argue that these measures do not capture shifts in firms’ innovative search strategies. We contemplate firms’ choice between exploration vs. exploitation over the business cycle and find evidence with more nuanced measures of patent characteristics that firms shift towards exploration during contractions and exploitation during expansions, with a stronger effect for firms in more cyclical industries. [less ▲]

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See detailReal-Time Integrated Learning and Decision Making for Cumulative Shock Degradation
Drent, Melvin UL; Drent, Collin UL; Kapodistria, Stella et al

in Manufacturing and Service Operations Management (2022)

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See detailNo Ensemble Averaging Below the Black Hole Threshold
Schlenker, Jean-Marc UL; Witten, Edward

in Journal of High Energy Physics (2022), 7

In the AdS/CFT correspondence, amplitudes associated to connected bulk manifolds with disconnected boundaries have presented a longstanding mystery. A possible interpretation is that they reflect the ... [more ▼]

In the AdS/CFT correspondence, amplitudes associated to connected bulk manifolds with disconnected boundaries have presented a longstanding mystery. A possible interpretation is that they reflect the effects of averaging over an ensemble of boundary theories. But in examples in dimension D≥3, an appropriate ensemble of boundary theories does not exist. Here we sharpen the puzzle by identifying a class of "sub-threshold" observables that we claim do not show effects of ensemble averaging. These are amplitudes that do not involve black hole states. To support our claim, we explore the example of D=3, and show that connected solutions of Einstein's equations with disconnected boundary never contribute to sub-threshold observables. To demonstrate this requires some novel results about the renormalized volume of a hyperbolic three-manifold, which we prove using modern methods in hyperbolic geometry. Why then do any observables show apparent ensemble averaging? We propose that this reflects the chaotic nature of black hole physics and the fact that the Hilbert space describing a black hole does not have a large N limit. [less ▲]

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See detailKinetic and energetic insights into the dissipative non-equilibrium operation of an autonomous light-powered supramolecular pump
Corra, Stefano; Baki, Marina Tranfi; Groppi, Jessica et al

in Nature Nanotechnology (2022)

Natural and artificial autonomous molecular machines operate by constantly dissipating energy coming from an external source to maintain a non-equilibrium state. Quantitative thermodynamic ... [more ▼]

Natural and artificial autonomous molecular machines operate by constantly dissipating energy coming from an external source to maintain a non-equilibrium state. Quantitative thermodynamic characterization of these dissipative states is highly challenging as they exist only as long as energy is provided. Here we report on the detailed physicochemical characterization of the dissipative operation of a supramolecular pump. The pump transduces light energy into chemical energy by bringing self-assembly reactions to non-equilibrium steady states. The composition of the system under light irradiation was followed in real time by 1H NMR for four different irradiation intensities. The experimental composition and photon flow were then fed into a theoretical model describing the non-equilibrium dissipation and the energy storage at the steady state. We quantitatively probed the relationship between the light energy input and the deviation of the dissipative state from thermodynamic equilibrium in this artificial system. Our results provide a testing ground for newly developed theoretical models for photoactivated artificial molecular machines operating away from thermodynamic equilibrium. [less ▲]

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See detailEffective attributed network embedding with information behavior extraction
Hu, Ganglin; Pang, Jun UL; Mo, Xian

in PeerJ Computer Science (2022), 8

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See detailTen Quick Tips for Biomarker Discovery and Validation Analyses Using Machine Learning
Diaz-Uriarte, R.; Gómez de Lope, Elisa UL; Giugno, R. et al

in PLoS Computational Biology (2022), 18(8), 1010357

High-throughput experimental methods for biosample profiling and growing collections of clinical and health record data provide ample opportunities for biomarker discovery and medical decision support ... [more ▼]

High-throughput experimental methods for biosample profiling and growing collections of clinical and health record data provide ample opportunities for biomarker discovery and medical decision support. However, many of the new data types, including single-cell omics and high-resolution cellular imaging data, also pose particular challenges for data analysis. A high dimensionality of the data in relation to small numbers of available samples, influences of additive and multiplicative noise, large numbers of uninformative or redundant data features, outliers, confounding factors and imbalanced sample group numbers are all common characteristics of current biomedical data collections. While first successes have been achieved in developing clinical decision support tools using multifactorial omics data, there is still an unmet need and great potential for earlier, more accurate and robust diagnostic and prognostic tools for many complex diseases. Here, we provide a set of broadly applicable tips to address some of the most common pitfalls and limitations for biomarker signature development, including supervised and unsupervised machine learning, feature selection and hypothesis testing approaches. In contrast to previous guidelines discussing detailed aspects of quality control, statistics or study reporting, we give a broader overview of the typical challenges and sort the quick tips to address them chronologically by the study phase (starting with study design, then covering consecutive phases of biomarker signature discovery and validation, see also the overview in Fig. 1). While these tips are not comprehensive, they are chosen to cover what we consider as the most frequent, significant, and practically relevant issues and risks in biomarker development. By pointing the reader to further relevant literature on the covered aspects of biomarker discovery and validation, we hope to provide an initial guideline and entry point into the more detailed technical and application-specific aspects of this field. [less ▲]

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See detailIntroduction
Mourlon-Druol, Emmanuel; Clavert, Frédéric UL

in Politique Européenne (2022), 2022(2), 6-11

Le vingtième siècle européen a été caractérisé par des visions concurrentes et/ou conflictuelles de l'organisation du continent. Cette introduction générale explique pourquoi les éditeurs ont décidé de se ... [more ▼]

Le vingtième siècle européen a été caractérisé par des visions concurrentes et/ou conflictuelles de l'organisation du continent. Cette introduction générale explique pourquoi les éditeurs ont décidé de se concentrer sur la période de la guerre froide, présente brièvement le contexte historique plus large et clarifie enfin l'utilisation du mot "asymétrie". [less ▲]

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See detailPINK1 Protects against Staurosporine-Induced Apoptosis by Interacting with Beclin1 and Impairing Its Pro-Apoptotic Cleavage.
Brunelli, Francesco; Torosantucci, Liliana; Gelmetti, Vania et al

in Cells (2022), 11(4),

PINK1 is a causative gene for Parkinson's disease and the corresponding protein has been identified as a master regulator of mitophagy-the autophagic degradation of damaged mitochondria. It interacts with ... [more ▼]

PINK1 is a causative gene for Parkinson's disease and the corresponding protein has been identified as a master regulator of mitophagy-the autophagic degradation of damaged mitochondria. It interacts with Beclin1 to regulate autophagy and initiate autophagosome formation, even outside the context of mitophagy. Several other pro-survival functions of this protein have been described and indicate that it might play a role in other disorders, such as cancer and proliferative diseases. In this study, we investigated a novel anti-apoptotic function of PINK1. To do so, we used SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, a neuronal model used in Parkinson's disease and cancer studies, to characterize the pro-survival functions of PINK1 in response to the apoptosis inducer staurosporine. In this setting, we found that staurosporine induces apoptosis but not mitophagy, and we demonstrated that PINK1 protects against staurosporine-induced apoptosis by impairing the pro-apoptotic cleavage of Beclin1. Our data also show that staurosporine-induced apoptosis is preceded by a phase of enhanced autophagy, and that PINK1 in this context regulates the switch from autophagy to apoptosis. PINK1 protein levels progressively decrease after treatment, inducing this switch. The PINK1-Beclin1 interaction is crucial in exerting this function, as mutants that are unable to interact do not show the anti-apoptotic effect. We characterized a new anti-apoptotic function of PINK1 that could provide options for treatment in proliferative or neurodegenerative diseases. [less ▲]

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See detailVC investors’ venture screening: the role of the decision maker’s education and experience
Moritz, Alexandra; Diegel, Walter; Block, Jörn et al

in Journal of Business Economics (2022), 92(1), 27-63

We assess whether and how VC investors’ education and experience influence their screening decisions of potential investee candidates. Empirically, we perform an experimental choice-based-conjoint (CBC ... [more ▼]

We assess whether and how VC investors’ education and experience influence their screening decisions of potential investee candidates. Empirically, we perform an experimental choice-based-conjoint (CBC) analysis with 564 individual VC investors. Our results highlight that the level and field of education, as well as the decision maker’s investment and entrepreneurial experience, moderate the relative importance of different screening criteria. More specifically, we find that international scalability seems to become more important for decision makers with higher education and those with entrepreneurial experience. Whereas decision makers with a background in natural science focus on the value-added of the product or service, engineers seem to value a break even profitability and focus less on the management team. Investment experience, on the other hand, leads to a stronger focus on the management team. Our study contributes to the literature investigating the influence of human capital characteristics of the decision maker in venture financing. Practical implications exist for entrepreneurial ventures seeking financing and for risk capital investors making investments in such ventures. [less ▲]

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See detailSupply chain design for industrial additive manufacturing
Friedich, Anne; Lange, Anne UL; Elbert, Ralf

in International Journal of Operations and Production Management (2022)

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See detailVers l’implémentation du modèle de Réponse à l’Intervention dans les systèmes éducatifs européens francophones ?
de Chambrier, Anne-Françoise; Dierendonck, Christophe UL

in Année Psychologique (2022), 122

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See detailSafety Culture and the Positive Association of Being a Primary Care Training Practice during COVID-19: The Results of the Multi-Country European PRICOV-19 Study.
Silva, Bianca; Ožvačić Adžić, Zlata; Vanden Bussche, Pierre et al

in International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (2022)

The day-to-day work of primary care (PC) was substantially changed by the COVID-19 pandemic. Teaching practices needed to adapt both clinical work and teaching in a way that enabled the teaching process ... [more ▼]

The day-to-day work of primary care (PC) was substantially changed by the COVID-19 pandemic. Teaching practices needed to adapt both clinical work and teaching in a way that enabled the teaching process to continue, while maintaining safe and high-quality care. Our study aims to investigate the effect of being a training practice on a number of different outcomes related to the safety culture of PC practices. PRICOV-19 is a multi-country cross-sectional study that researches how PC practices were organized in 38 countries during the pandemic. Data was collected from November 2020 to December 2021. We categorized practices into training and non-training and selected outcomes relating to safety culture: safe practice management, community outreach, professional well-being and adherence to protocols. Mixed-effects regression models were built to analyze the effect of being a training practice for each of the outcomes, while controlling for relevant confounders. Of the participating practices, 2886 (56%) were non-training practices and 2272 (44%) were training practices. Being a training practice was significantly associated with a lower risk for adverse mental health events (OR: 0.83; CI: 0.70–0.99), a higher number of safety measures related to patient flow (Beta: 0.17; CI: 0.07–0.28), a higher number of safety incidents reported (RR: 1.12; CI: 1.06–1.19) and more protected time for meetings (Beta: 0.08; CI: 0.01–0.15). No significant associations were found for outreach initiatives, availability of triage information, use of a phone protocol or infection prevention measures and equipment availability. Training practices were found to have a stronger safety culture than non-training practices. These results have important policy implications, since involving more PC practices in education may be an effective way to improve quality and safety in general practice. [less ▲]

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See detailRelevé de caducité non contradictoire
Menetrey, Séverine UL

in La semaine juridique JCP G (2022)

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See detailHow Germany achieved a record share of renewables during the COVID-19 pandemic while relying on the European interconnected power network
Halbrügge, Stephanie; Buhl, Hans Ulrich; Fridgen, Gilbert UL et al

in Energy (2022)

In 2020, Germany reached a maximum share of 50.5% intermittent renewables in electricity generation. Such a high share results in an increasing need for flexibility measures such as international ... [more ▼]

In 2020, Germany reached a maximum share of 50.5% intermittent renewables in electricity generation. Such a high share results in an increasing need for flexibility measures such as international transmission flexibility, i.e., electricity imports and exports. In fact, during the COVID-19 pandemic, Germany changed from a former electricity net exporter to a net importer. This paper, therefore, analyzes what we can learn from the resulting development of German electricity imports as a flexibility measure from a market, environmental, and network perspective. We analyze data on electricity imports/exports, generation, prices, and interconnection capacities of 38 bidding zones, respectively 11 countries within the ENTSO-E. In particular, we formulate three hypotheses to partition our overarching research question. Our results reveal that from a market perspective, Germany's increased need for transmission flexibility did not generally result in increased prices for German electricity imports. Also, from an environmental perspective, Germany increasingly relied on electricity imports from countries that exhibited a lower share of renewables. Finally, during the COVID-19 pandemic some of Germany's interconnection capacities to its neighboring countries exhibited a higher utilization. In view of our results, German policymakers may reflect on decarbonization policies considering a holistic European perspective. [less ▲]

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See detailDescribing UI Screenshots in Natural Language
Leiva, Luis A. UL; Hota; Oulasvirta, Antti

in ACM Transactions on Intelligent Systems and Technology (2022)

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See detailModeling How Different User Groups Perceive Webpage Aesthetics
Leiva, Luis A. UL; Shiripour, Morteza; Oulasvirta, Antti

in Universal Access in the Information Society (2022)

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