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See detailNonlinear three-dimensional anisotropic material model for failure analysis of timber
Eslami, Hooman; Jayasinghe, Laddu Bhagya; Waldmann, Daniele UL

in Engineering Failure Analysis (2021)

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See detailMachine learning in mix design of Miscanthus lightweight concrete
Pereira Dias, Patrick; Jayasinghe, Laddu Bhagya; Waldmann, Daniele UL

in Construction and Building Materials (2021)

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See detailBinary blended cement pastes and concrete using gravel wash mud (GWM) powders
Thapa, Vishojit; Waldmann, Daniele UL

in Construction and Building Materials (2021)

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See detailDelta-kick cooling, time-optimal control of scale-invariant dynamics, and shortcuts to adiabaticity assisted by kicks
Dupays, Léonce UL; Spierings, David C.; Steinberg, Aephraim M. et al

in Physical Review Research (2021)

Delta-kick cooling (DKC) is used to compress the momentum distribution of ultracold quantum matter. It combines expansion dynamics with the use of kick pulses, designed via classical methods, that bring ... [more ▼]

Delta-kick cooling (DKC) is used to compress the momentum distribution of ultracold quantum matter. It combines expansion dynamics with the use of kick pulses, designed via classical methods, that bring the system to rest.We introduce an exact approach to DKC for arbitrary scale-invariant dynamics of quantum gases, lifting the original restrictions to free evolution and noninteracting systems, to account for the control of atomic clouds in a time-dependent harmonic trap that can be either repulsive (inverted) or confining. We show that DKC assisted by a repulsive potential outperforms the conventional scheme, and that sudden trap-frequency quenches combined with DKC are equivalent to time-optimal bang-bang protocols.We further show that reverse engineering of the scale-invariant dynamics under smooth trap-frequency modulations can be combined with DKC to introduce a new class of shortcuts to adiabaticity assisted by kicks. [less ▲]

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See detailReview of Adam Crymble: Technology and the Historian. Transformations in the Digital Age
Zaagsma, Gerben UL

in H-Soz-Kult: Kommunikation und Fachinformation für die Geschichtswissenschaften (2021)

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See detailMicrodiversity characterizes prevalent phylogenetic clades in the glacier-fed stream microbiome
Fodelianakis, Styliianos; Busi, Susheel Bhanu UL; Wilmes, Paul UL et al

in ISME Journal (2021)

Glacier-fed streams (GFSs) are extreme and rapidly vanishing ecosystems, and yet they harbor diverse microbial communities. Although our understanding of the GFS microbiome has recently increased, we do ... [more ▼]

Glacier-fed streams (GFSs) are extreme and rapidly vanishing ecosystems, and yet they harbor diverse microbial communities. Although our understanding of the GFS microbiome has recently increased, we do not know which microbial clades are ecologically successful in these ecosystems, nor do we understand potentially underlying mechanisms. Ecologically successful clades should be more prevalent across GFSs compared to other clades, which should be reflected as clade-wise distinctly low phylogenetic turnover. However, methods to assess such patterns are currently missing. Here we developed and applied a novel analytical framework, “phyloscore analysis”, to identify clades with lower spatial phylogenetic turnover than other clades in the sediment microbiome across twenty GFSs in New Zealand. These clades constituted up to 44% and 64% of community α-diversity and abundance, respectively. Furthermore, both their α-diversity and abundance increased as sediment chlorophyll a decreased, corroborating their ecological success in GFS habitats largely devoid of primary production. These clades also contained elevated levels of putative microdiversity than others, which could potentially explain their high prevalence in GFSs. This hitherto unknown microdiversity may be threatened as glaciers shrink, urging towards further genomic and functional exploration of the GFS microbiome. [less ▲]

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See detailNonequilibrium thermodynamics of light-induced reactions
Penocchio, Emanuele UL; Rao, Riccardo; Esposito, Massimiliano UL

in Journal of Chemical Physics (2021), 155

Current formulations of nonequilibrium thermodynamics of open chemical reaction networks only consider chemostats as free-energy sources sustaining nonequilibrium behaviors. Here, we extend the theory to ... [more ▼]

Current formulations of nonequilibrium thermodynamics of open chemical reaction networks only consider chemostats as free-energy sources sustaining nonequilibrium behaviors. Here, we extend the theory to include incoherent light as a source of free energy. We do so by relying on a local equilibrium assumption to derive the chemical potential of photons relative to the system they interact with. This allows us to identify the thermodynamic potential and the thermodynamic forces driving light-reacting chemical systems out-of-equilibrium. We use this framework to treat two paradigmatic photochemical mechanisms describing light-induced unimolecular reactions—namely, the adiabatic and diabatic mechanisms—and highlight the different thermodynamics they lead to. Furthermore, using a thermodynamic coarse-graining procedure, we express our findings in terms of commonly measured experimental quantities, such as quantum yields. [less ▲]

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See detailTesting market regulations in experimental asset markets –The case of margin purchases
Neugebauer, Tibor UL; Füllbrunn, Sascha

in Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization (2021)

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See detailJoint Transmit Waveform and Receive Filter Design for Dual-Function Radar-Communication Systems
Tsinos, Christos UL; Arora, Aakash UL; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL et al

in IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Signal Processing (2021), 15(6), 1378-1392

In this paper, the problem of joint transmit waveform and receive filter design for dual-function radar-communication (DFRC) systems is studied. The considered system model involves a multiple antenna ... [more ▼]

In this paper, the problem of joint transmit waveform and receive filter design for dual-function radar-communication (DFRC) systems is studied. The considered system model involves a multiple antenna base station (BS) of a cellular system serving multiple single antenna users on the downlink. Furthermore, the BS simultaneously introduces sensing capabilities in the form of point-like target detection from the reflected return signals in a signal-dependent interference environment. A novel framework based on constrained optimization problems is proposed for the joint design of the transmit waveform and the radar receive filter such that different constraints related to the power amplifiers and the radar waveform are satisfied. In contrast to the existing approaches in the DFRC systems’ literature, the proposed approach does not require the knowledge of a predetermined radar beampattern in order to optimize the performance of the radar part through its approximation. Instead, a beampattern is generated by maximizing the radar receive signal-to-interference ratio (SINR) thus, enabling a more flexible design. Moreover, the radar receive filter processing and its optimization is considered for the first time on DFRC systems, enabling the effective exploitation of the available degrees of freedom in the radar receive array. Efficient algorithmic solutions with guaranteed convergence are developed for the defined constrained nonconvex optimization problems. The effectiveness of the proposed solutions is verified via numerical results. [less ▲]

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See detailChild–Computer Interaction: From a systematic review towards an integrated understanding of interaction design methods for children
Lehnert, Florence Kristin UL; Niess, Jasmin; Lallemand, Carine UL et al

in International Journal of Child - Computer Interaction (2021), 100398

Child–Computer Interaction (CCI) is a steadily growing field that focuses on children as a prominent and emergent user group. For more than twenty years, the Interaction Design for Children (IDC ... [more ▼]

Child–Computer Interaction (CCI) is a steadily growing field that focuses on children as a prominent and emergent user group. For more than twenty years, the Interaction Design for Children (IDC) community has developed, extended, and advanced research and design methods for children’s involvement in designing and evaluating interactive technologies. However, as the CCI field evolves, the need arises for an integrated understanding of interaction design methods currently applied. To that end, we analyzed 272 full papers across a selection of journals and conference venues from 2005 to 2020. Our review contributes to the literature on this topic by (1) examining a holistic child population, including developmentally diverse children and children from 0 to 18 years old, (2) illustrating the interplay of children’s and adults’ roles across different methods, and (3) identifying patterns of triangulation in the methods applied while taking recent ethical debates about children’s involvement in design into account. While we found that most studies were conducted in natural settings, we observed a preference for evaluating interactive artifacts at a single point in time. Method triangulation was applied in two-thirds of the papers, with a preference for qualitative methods. Researchers used triangulation predominantly with respect to mainstream methods that were not specifically developed for child participants, such as user observation combined with semi-structured interviews or activity logging. However, the CCI field employs a wide variety of creative design methods which engage children more actively in the design process by having them take on roles such as informant and design partner. In turn, we see that more passive children’s roles, e.g., user or tester, are more often linked to an expert mindset by the adult. Adults take on a wider spectrum of roles in the design process when addressing specific developmental groups, such as children with autism spectrum disorder. We conclude with a critical discussion about the constraints involved in conducting CCI research and discuss implications that can inform future methodological advances in the field and underlying challenges. [less ▲]

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See detailMachine learning for surgical time prediction
Martinez, Oscar; Martinez Luna, Carol UL; Parra, Carlos et al

in Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine (2021)

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See detailApproaches for completing metabolic networks through metabolite damage and repair discovery
Griffith, Corey UL; Walvekar, Adhish UL; Linster, Carole UL

in Current Opinion in Systems Biology (2021), 28

Metabolites are prone to damage, either via enzymatic side reactions, which collectively form the underground metabolism, or via spontaneous chemical reactions. The resulting non-canonical metabolites ... [more ▼]

Metabolites are prone to damage, either via enzymatic side reactions, which collectively form the underground metabolism, or via spontaneous chemical reactions. The resulting non-canonical metabolites that can be toxic, are mended by dedicated “metabolite repair enzymes.” Deficiencies in the latter can cause severe disease in humans, whereas inclusion of repair enzymes in metabolically engineered systems can improve the production yield of value-added chemicals. The metabolite damage and repair loops are typically not yet included in metabolic reconstructions and it is likely that many remain to be discovered. Here, we review strategies and associated challenges for unveiling non-canonical metabolites and metabolite repair enzymes, including systematic approaches based on high-resolution mass spectrometry, metabolome-wide side-activity prediction, as well as high-throughput substrate and phenotypic screens. [less ▲]

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See detailApproaches for completing metabolic networks through metabolite damage and repair discovery
Griffith, Corey UL; Walvekar, Adhish UL; Linster, Carole UL

in Current Opinion in Systems Biology (2021), 28

Metabolites are prone to damage, either via enzymatic side reactions, which collectively form the underground metabolism, or via spontaneous chemical reactions. The resulting non-canonical metabolites ... [more ▼]

Metabolites are prone to damage, either via enzymatic side reactions, which collectively form the underground metabolism, or via spontaneous chemical reactions. The resulting non-canonical metabolites that can be toxic, are mended by dedicated “metabolite repair enzymes.” Deficiencies in the latter can cause severe disease in humans, whereas inclusion of repair enzymes in metabolically engineered systems can improve the production yield of value-added chemicals. The metabolite damage and repair loops are typically not yet included in metabolic reconstructions and it is likely that many remain to be discovered. Here, we review strategies and associated challenges for unveiling non-canonical metabolites and metabolite repair enzymes, including systematic approaches based on high-resolution mass spectrometry, metabolome-wide side-activity prediction, as well as high-throughput substrate and phenotypic screens. [less ▲]

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See detailSingle‑nuclei chromatin profiling of ventral midbrain reveals cell identity transcription factors and cell‑type‑specific gene regulatory variation
Gui, Yujuan; Grzyb, Kamil UL; Thomas, Melanie UL et al

in Epigenetics and Chromatin (2021)

Background: Cell types in ventral midbrain are involved in diseases with variable genetic susceptibility, such as Parkinson’s disease and schizophrenia. Many genetic variants affect regulatory regions and ... [more ▼]

Background: Cell types in ventral midbrain are involved in diseases with variable genetic susceptibility, such as Parkinson’s disease and schizophrenia. Many genetic variants affect regulatory regions and alter gene expression in a cell-type-specific manner depending on the chromatin structure and accessibility. Results: We report 20,658 single-nuclei chromatin accessibility profiles of ventral midbrain from two genetically and phenotypically distinct mouse strains. We distinguish ten cell types based on chromatin profiles and analysis of accessible regions controlling cell identity genes highlights cell-type-specific key transcription factors. Regulatory variation segregating the mouse strains manifests more on transcriptome than chromatin level. However, cell-type-level data reveals changes not captured at tissue level. To discover the scope and cell-type specificity of cis-acting variation in midbrain gene expression, we identify putative regulatory variants and show them to be enriched at differentially expressed loci. Finally, we find TCF7L2 to mediate trans-acting variation selectively in midbrain neurons. Conclusions: Our data set provides an extensive resource to study gene regulation in mesencephalon and provides insights into control of cell identity in the midbrain and identifies cell-type-specific regulatory variation possibly underlying phenotypic and behavioural differences between mouse strains. [less ▲]

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See detailLa cybersecurity come bene pubblico: alcune riflessioni normative a partire dai recenti sviluppi nel diritto UE
Brighi, Raffaella; Chiara, Pier Giorgio UL

in Federalismi.it (2021), 21

The article casts the light on how and to what extent the recent EU legislative developments can uphold the thesis that would identify cybersecurity as a public good, in particular, taking into account ... [more ▼]

The article casts the light on how and to what extent the recent EU legislative developments can uphold the thesis that would identify cybersecurity as a public good, in particular, taking into account systems’ robustness. The doctrine of the public good, which is typically an economic concept, in its normative dimension reveals a framework of shared responsibilities, in view of the common interest in having a satisfactory level of security of the information systems at the basis of our societies. Improving cybersecurity is essential, on the one hand, to trust and benefit from innovation, connectivity and automation; on the other hand, for safeguarding fundamental rights and freedoms, including the rights to privacy and to the protection of personal data, and the freedom of expression and information. Against this background, the new strategy of the European Commission on cybersecurity, the proposal for an NIS 2.0 Directive and, at a lower level of abstraction, the inclusion of minimum cybersecurity requirements for connected devices in the Directives and Regulations of the “New Legislative Framework” (NLF), testify the firm will of the Commission to outline a clear, coherent and inclusive regulatory framework, in order to increase the global level of security within the Union. [less ▲]

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See detailHybrid Active-and-Passive Relaying Model for 6G-IoT Greencom Networks with SWIPT
Gautam, Sumit UL; Solanki, Sourabh UL; Sharma, Shree Krishna UL et al

in Sensors (2021), 21

In order to support a massive number of resource-constrained Internet-of-Things (IoT) devices and machine-type devices, it is crucial to design a future beyond 5G/6G wireless networks in an energy ... [more ▼]

In order to support a massive number of resource-constrained Internet-of-Things (IoT) devices and machine-type devices, it is crucial to design a future beyond 5G/6G wireless networks in an energy-efficient manner while incorporating suitable network coverage expansion methodologies. To this end, this paper proposes a novel two-hop hybrid active-and-passive relaying scheme to facilitate simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) considering both time-switching (TS) and power-splitting (PS) receiver architectures, while dynamically modelling the involved dual-hop time-period (TP) metric. An optimization problem is formulated to jointly optimize the throughput, harvested energy, and transmit power of a SWIPT-enabled system with the proposed hybrid scheme. In this regard, we provide two distinct ways to obtain suitable solutions based on the Lagrange dual technique and Dinkelbach method assisted convex programming, respectively, where both the approaches yield an appreciable solution within polynomial computational time. The experimental results are obtained by directly solving the primal problem using a non-linear optimizer. Our numerical results in terms of weighted utility function show the superior performance of the proposed hybrid scheme over passive repeater-only and active relay-only schemes, while also depicting their individual performance benefits over the corresponding benchmark SWIPT systems with the fixed-TP. [less ▲]

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See detailKerr effect in tilted nodal loop semimetals
Ekström, Carl Johan Ingvar UL; Hasdeo, Eddwi Hesky UL; Farias, Maria Belen UL et al

in Physical Review. B (2021), 104(12), 125411

We investigate the optical activity of tilted nodal loop semimetals. We calculate the full conductivity matrix for a band structure containing a nodal loop with possible tilt in the x−y plane, which ... [more ▼]

We investigate the optical activity of tilted nodal loop semimetals. We calculate the full conductivity matrix for a band structure containing a nodal loop with possible tilt in the x−y plane, which allows us to study the Kerr rotation and ellipticity both for a thin film and a bulk material. We find signatures in the Kerr signal that give direct information about the tilt velocity and direction, the radius of the nodal loop and the internal chemical potential of the system. These findings should serve as guide to understanding optical measurements of nodal loop semimetals and as an additional tool to characterize them. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluating a location-based game to support citizens' situated reflection on history: a mixed-method approach
Jones, Catherine UL

in International Journal of Cartography (2021), 7

This paper describes the process and findings of a critical evaluation conducted for a custom-made Location based game (LBG) designed to support reflection on social history. We use a mixed-method ... [more ▼]

This paper describes the process and findings of a critical evaluation conducted for a custom-made Location based game (LBG) designed to support reflection on social history. We use a mixed-method protocol to answer the following research questions: “Can a LBG be designed to stimulate situated reflection on social history topics? and “What form and type of reflections can occur when participating in a LBG? Using an innovative approach that took inspiration from the field of museum studies and computer science. We chose a Think-aloud protocol to conduct an evaluation in Valletta, Malta and adapted the Remind study protocol to explore participant experience in Luxembourg. We combined transcripts from both sets of experiments wiith user-generated content to complete a systematic analysis using a predefined set of qualitative codes. We were able to identify that LBG can support reflection on social history topics but the depth of and type of reflection depends on the social history content, the individual locations in the city, and personal connections players are able to make to both. [less ▲]

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See detailWarrior candidates: Do voters value combat experience in postwar elections?
Glaurdic, Josip UL; Lesschaeve, Christophe

in Political Research Quarterly (2021)

Electoral competition in postwar societies is often dominated by war veterans. The question whether voters actually reward candidates’ records of war service, however, remains open. We answer it using a ... [more ▼]

Electoral competition in postwar societies is often dominated by war veterans. The question whether voters actually reward candidates’ records of war service, however, remains open. We answer it using a unique dataset with detailed information on the records of combat service of nearly four thousand candidates in two cycles of parliamentary elections held under proportional representation rules with preferential voting in Croatia. Our analysis shows war veterans’ electoral performance to be conditional on the voters’ communities’ exposure to war violence: combat veterans receive a sizeable electoral bonus in areas whose populations were more exposed to war violence, but are penalized in areas whose populations avoided destruction. This divergence is particularly pronounced for candidates of nationalist rightwing parties, demonstrating the importance of the interaction between lived war experiences and political ideology in postwar societies. [less ▲]

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See detailSpeculative Trading and Bubbles: Evidence from the Art Market
Penasse, Julien UL; Renneboog, Luc

in Management Science (2021)

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See detailAssessing Equity in Carsharing Systems: the case of Munich, Germany
Giorgione, Giulio; Viti, Francesco UL

in Transportation Research Procedia (2021)

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See detailLuxemburger Geschichte revisited. Überlegungen zu meta- und transnationaler Geschichtsschreibung
Binsfeld, Andrea UL; Dostert, Paul; Kmec, Sonja UL et al

in Hemecht: Zeitschrift für Luxemburger Geschichte (2021), 73(3), 261-264

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See detailLe droit à la sauce piquante n°24 - Septembre 2021
Hiez, David UL; Laurent, Rémi

in Le droit à la sauce piquante (2021), 24

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See detailLe self-placement : un obstacle au bail-in qui doit être levé
Conac, Pierre-Henri UL

in Revue Banque (2021)

Si la protection des épargnants s’est peu à peu renforcée en Europe, elle demeure insuffisante face au risque de renflouement interne (bail-in) ce qui a incité à contourner la résolution. Afin de rendre ... [more ▼]

Si la protection des épargnants s’est peu à peu renforcée en Europe, elle demeure insuffisante face au risque de renflouement interne (bail-in) ce qui a incité à contourner la résolution. Afin de rendre celle-ci moins effrayante, le législateur européen et la Commission devraient exempter de bail-in les titres détenus par les clients « retail » de la banque en résolution ou en liquidation, vendus selon la technique du « self-placement ». [less ▲]

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See detailVoluntary disclosure, tax avoidance and family firms
Derouiche, Imen UL; Boubaker, sabri; Nguyen, Hung

in Journal of Management and Governance (2021)

This study examines the effect of voluntary disclosure in annual reports on tax avoidance activities. The agency theory of tax avoidance suggests that tax sheltering is associated with important agency ... [more ▼]

This study examines the effect of voluntary disclosure in annual reports on tax avoidance activities. The agency theory of tax avoidance suggests that tax sheltering is associated with important agency costs, underlining the importance of corporate governance mechanisms such as voluntary disclosure in shaping tax planning. Using a sample of 3448 firm-year observations of French listed firms over 2007–2013, the results show that voluntary disclosure is associated with lower tax avoidance activities, providing evidence that this disclosure can be seen as an effective monitoring tool that reduces the insiders’ likelihood to engage in rent extraction through tax avoidance activities. The results also indicate that the negative effect of voluntary disclosure on tax avoidance is significant only when family control is below 40%, suggesting that the disciplinary role of voluntary disclosure is limited to firms with relatively low family control levels. Overall, our findings are consistent with the agency theory of tax avoidance and highlight the important role of corporate disclosure in improving corporate governance. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalysis of MaaS membership attributes: an agent-based approach
Cisterna, Carolina UL; Bigi, Federico UL; Tinessa, Fiore et al

in Transportation Research Procedia (2021)

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See detailRecent Developments and Overview of the Country and Practitioner’s Reports
Cole, Mark David UL

in European Data Protection Law Review (2021), 7(3), 413-415

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See detailAdaptive Practice Quizzing in a University Lecture: A Pre-Registered Field Experiment
Heitmann, Svenja; Obergassel, Niklas; Fries, Stefan et al

in Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition (2021)

Providing quiz questions has emerged as a powerful means to support learning. However, it is still unclear whether adaptive practice quizzing will enhance beneficial effects in authentic contexts. To ... [more ▼]

Providing quiz questions has emerged as a powerful means to support learning. However, it is still unclear whether adaptive practice quizzing will enhance beneficial effects in authentic contexts. To address this question, university students (N = 188; n = 155 female) were randomly assigned to employ either adaptive practice quizzing, nonadaptive practice quizzing, or note-taking following three consecutive sessions of a standard psychology university lecture for undergraduate pre-service teachers. In the adaptive practice quizzing condition, quiz questions were adapted to learners’ expertise via cognitive demand ratings, whereas in the non-adaptive condition quiz questions followed a fixed sequence. Students in the adaptive practice quizzing condition outperformed those in the nonadaptive condition after a two-week delay, but not after a one-week delay. Exploratory mediation analyses show that performance on the quiz questions during the learning phase seems to be partly responsible for this effect. [less ▲]

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See detailThe evolution and social determinants of mental health during the first wave of the COVID-19 outbreak in Luxembourg
Ribeiro, Fabiana UL; Schröder, Valerie UL; Krüger, Rejko UL et al

in Psychiatry Research (2021), 303

Studies have been showing a negative impact of pandemic control measures on mental health. However, few studies assessed these effects longitudinally during the peak of the first wave of the COVID-19 ... [more ▼]

Studies have been showing a negative impact of pandemic control measures on mental health. However, few studies assessed these effects longitudinally during the peak of the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. The goals of this study were to explore whether differential effects of COVID-19 restrictions on mental health could be observed by sex and age in a Luxembourgish nationally representative sample during the initial outbreak of COVID-19. Furthermore, we aimed to assess whether there are differences in risk and protective factors longitudinally at two assessment times. A total of 1,756 respondents aged 18 years and older (50.74% women) reported sociodemographic and socio-economic characteristics, depression, anxiety, stress, and loneliness. Women and younger respondents reported higher rates of severe depression and anxiety symptoms, suggesting higher vulnerability to the pandemic control measures. This study contributes to the investigation of mental health consequences of the pandemic and the pandemic control measures, particularly related to shifts in care task responsibilities, gender and socio-economic inequalities, as well as younger groups' uncertainty about the future. [less ▲]

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See detailWhen, why, and how do People Deviate from Physical Distancing Measures During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Mixed-Methods Study
Van Alboom, Maité; Baert, Fleur; Wauters, Aline et al

in Psychologica Belgica (2021)

To limit the spread of COVID-19, many countries, including Belgium, have installed physical distancing measures. Yet, adherence to these newly installed behavioral measures has been described as ... [more ▼]

To limit the spread of COVID-19, many countries, including Belgium, have installed physical distancing measures. Yet, adherence to these newly installed behavioral measures has been described as challenging and effortful. Based on the Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) model, this study performed an in-depth evaluation of when, why, and how people deviated from the physical distancing measures. An online mixed-method study was conducted among Belgian adults (N = 2055) in the beginning of May 2020. Participants were recruited via an open call through email and social media platforms, using snowball sampling. Conditions wherein people deviated from the physical distancing measures were assessed by means of an open-ended question. HAPA determinants were assessed in a quantitative way. Half of the sample reported to deviate from the measures. Further, deviation from the measures was associated with each determinant outlined by the HAPA. Findings highlight that many people deviated from the measures because of their need for social contact. The majority of the people who deviated from the measures stated that they carefully weighed the risks of their behavior. Need for social contact pushed people to deviate from physical distancing measures in a deliberate manner. Potential areas for future interventions aimed at promoting adherence to physical distancing measures and enhancing psychosocial well-being are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Mediation role of ADHD Symptoms and Emotion Regulation in the association between Executive functions and internalizing Symptoms: A study among youths with and without ADHD and/of Dyslexia
Battistutta, Layla; Schiltz, Christine UL; Steffgen, Georges UL

in Advances in Neurodevelopmental Disorders (2021), 5

Objectives The present study aimed at combining previous separate research findings having shown that executive functions (EF) contribute to a large range of emotional and behavioral problems among youths ... [more ▼]

Objectives The present study aimed at combining previous separate research findings having shown that executive functions (EF) contribute to a large range of emotional and behavioral problems among youths with and without neurodevelopmental disorders such as dyslexia and ADHD. Within a unifying framework, it investigated the mediational roles of ADHD symptoms and emotion regulation (ER) difficulties in the association between various EF and internalizing symptoms. Methods The sample included 82 adolescents with ADHD, dyslexia, comorbid ADHD/dyslexia, and typically developing adolescents, thus showing varying EF deficits. Whereas EF (attentional control, inhibition, shifting, working memory) were assessed in behavioral tasks, parents reported on ADHD symptoms, and ER and internalizing (anxiety, depression) symptoms were assessed via self-reports. Results In two-path mediation analyses, ADHD symptoms and ER problems mediated the association between working memory and anxiety (via inattention and ER, a1d21b2 = − .27, 95% CI [− .58, − .04]; via hyperactivity and ER, a1d21b2 = − .19, 95% CI [− .42, − .02]) and depression symptoms (via inattention and ER, a1d21b2 = − .20, 95% CI [− .54, − .03]; via hyperactivity and ER, a1d21b2 = − .24, 95% CI [− .48, − .03]). Hyperactivity and ER, but not inattention and ER, mediated the association between inhibition and internalizing symptoms (predicting anxiety, a1d21b2 = .003, 95% CI [.0001, .009]; predicting depression, a1d21b2 = .004, 95% CI [.002, .009]) as well as between attentional control and internalizing symptoms (predicting anxiety, a1d21b2 = .01, 95% CI [.001, .03]; predicting depression, a1d21b2 = .01, 95% CI [.004, .03]). Conclusions These results offer an insight into how ADHD symptoms and ER problems mediate the association between EF components and internalizing symptoms, with potential implications for prevention and intervention measures. [less ▲]

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See detailEntered into Force: The 2020 Space Law of Luxembourg
Hofmann, Mahulena UL

in Air and Space Law (2021), 46(4-5), 587-602

In comparison with the broad spectrum of Luxembourg’s activities, the national legal framework allowing for authorizing and supervising activities under Luxembourg’s jurisdiction was narrow. The 1991 Law ... [more ▼]

In comparison with the broad spectrum of Luxembourg’s activities, the national legal framework allowing for authorizing and supervising activities under Luxembourg’s jurisdiction was narrow. The 1991 Law on Electronic Media allowed for the authorization of the SES telecommunication satellites. The 2017 Space Resources Law was adopted speedily to welcome operators in this specific area. A legal basis for other activities was missing – there were no binding provisions enabling domestic authorities to regulate launching of space objects, Earth observation, navigation, or on-orbit activities. The Law of 15 December 2020 on Space Activity fills this gap. From 1 January 2021 onwards, future Luxembourg space operators can apply for an authorization of their space activity in or out of its territory, and the conditions for a successful application are known, as are the price and consequences. [less ▲]

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See detailFunctional inequalities on path space of sub-Riemannian manifolds and applications
Cheng, Li Juan UL; Grong, Erlend; Thalmaier, Anton UL

in Nonlinear Analysis: Theory, Methods and Applications (2021), 210(112387), 1-30

We consider the path space of a manifold with a measure induced by a stochastic flow with an infinitesimal generator that is hypoelliptic, but not elliptic. These generators can be seen as sub-Laplacians ... [more ▼]

We consider the path space of a manifold with a measure induced by a stochastic flow with an infinitesimal generator that is hypoelliptic, but not elliptic. These generators can be seen as sub-Laplacians of a sub-Riemannian structure with a chosen complement. We introduce a concept of gradient for cylindrical functionals on path space in such a way that the gradient operators are closable in L^2. With this structure in place, we show that a bound on horizontal Ricci curvature is equivalent to several inequalities for functions on path space, such as a gradient inequality, log-Sobolev inequality and Poincaré inequality. As a consequence, we also obtain a bound for the spectral gap of the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck operator. [less ▲]

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See detailChronique de droit européen de la consommation 2020 - 2021
Poillot, Elise UL

in Journal de Droit Européen (2021)

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See detail1361-9209/© 2021 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.Microscopic energy consumption modelling of electric buses: model development, calibration, and validation
Fiori, Chiara; Montanino, Marcello; Nielsen, Sune et al

in Transportation Research. Part D, Transport and Environment (2021)

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See detailConvolutional Neural Networks for Flexible Payload Management in VHTS Systems
Ortiz Gomez, Flor de Guadalupe UL; Tarchi, Daniele; Martinez, Ramon et al

in IEEE Systems Journal (2021), 15(3), 4675-4686

Very high throughput satellite (VHTS) systems are expected to have a large increase in traffic demand in the near future. However, this increase will not be uniform throughout the service area due to the ... [more ▼]

Very high throughput satellite (VHTS) systems are expected to have a large increase in traffic demand in the near future. However, this increase will not be uniform throughout the service area due to the nonuniform user distribution, and the changing traffic demand during the day. This problem is addressed using flexible payload architectures, enabling the allocation of the payload resources in a flexible manner to meet traffic demand of each beam, leading to dynamic resource management (DRM) approaches. However, DRM adds significant complexity to the VHTS systems, which is why in this article, we are analyzing the use of convolutional neural networks (CNNs) to manage the resources available in flexible payload architectures for DRM. The VHTS system model is first outlined, for introducing the DRM problem statement and the CNN-based solution. A comparison between different payload architectures is performed in terms of DRM response, and the CNN algorithm performance is compared by three other algorithms, previously suggested in the literature to demonstrate the effectiveness of the suggested approach and to examine all the challenges involved. [less ▲]

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See detailBorderland Child Heterotopias. A Case Study on the Belgian-German Borderlands
Venken, Machteld UL

in Journal of Borderlands Studies (2021), 36(2), 159-180

This article investigates the capacities of children to participate actively in their lives in the Belgian-German borderlands in the time period between World War I and World War II. The article ... [more ▼]

This article investigates the capacities of children to participate actively in their lives in the Belgian-German borderlands in the time period between World War I and World War II. The article interprets a body of historical sources that has hitherto been left unexplored – namely, borderland child ego documents – with the help of insights from child studies and border studies. These ego documents unfold as borderland child heterotopias. Borderland child heterotopias include material places and creative linguistic loci established by or for those considered in crisis in relation to the rest of society based on their age within or outside child spaces of modernity. The borderland child heterotopias offer a unique gateway to borderland children’s past imaginations for a better world. [less ▲]

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See detailLuxemburger Geschichte revisited. Überlegungen zu meta- und transnationaler Geschichtsschreibung
Binsfeld, Andrea UL; Dostert, Paul; Kmec, Sonja UL et al

in Hemecht: Zeitschrift für Luxemburger Geschichte (2021), 73(3), 261-264

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See detailLa technologie blockchain – et les tendances de la décorporéisation en droit et culture
Becker, Katrin UL

in Pistes. Revue de philosophie contemporaine. Éthique, politique, philosophie des techniques (2021), 1

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See detailRules, Norms and Practices. A Comparative Study Exploring Disposal Practices and Facilities in Northern Europe
Kmec, Sonja UL; Nordh, Helena; House, Danielle et al

in Omega: Journal of Death and Dying (2021), 83(4),

We identify and analyse practices and management regimes around burial and handling of ashes across eight case study towns within six Northern European countries. We analyse management of cemeteries and ... [more ▼]

We identify and analyse practices and management regimes around burial and handling of ashes across eight case study towns within six Northern European countries. We analyse management of cemeteries and crematoria gardens, majority practices and provision for minority communities, including various burial types, cremated remains, the re-use of graves, and costs for interments. Comparative data is drawn from analysis of national and local regulations, interviews with stakeholders, and observations at cemeteries and crematoria gardens. The findings show significant variation in national and local regulations and practices for burial and cremation particularly around the re-use of graves, handling of ashes and costs for grave space and cremation. We identify the opportunities and constraints of these variations in terms of accessibility, diversity and equality; and argue for national directions to avoid unequal treatment within nations. Furthermore, we stress the importance of a liberal and inclusive management of European cemeteries and crematoria gardens. [less ▲]

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See detailHISTORIAE, History of Socio-Cultural Transformation as Linguistic Data Science. A Humanities Use Case
Armaselu, Florentina UL; Apostol, Elena-Simona; Khan, Anas Fahad et al

in Open Access Series in Informatics (2021), 93(2021), 341-3413

The paper proposes an interdisciplinary approach including methods from disciplines such as history of concepts, linguistics, natural language processing (NLP) and Semantic Web, to create a comparative ... [more ▼]

The paper proposes an interdisciplinary approach including methods from disciplines such as history of concepts, linguistics, natural language processing (NLP) and Semantic Web, to create a comparative framework for detecting semantic change in multilingual historical corpora and generating diachronic ontologies as linguistic linked open data (LLOD). Initiated as a use case (UC4.2.1) within the COST Action Nexus Linguarum, European network for Web-centred linguistic data science, the study will explore emerging trends in knowledge extraction, analysis and representation from linguistic data science, and apply the devised methodology to datasets in the humanities to trace the evolution of concepts from the domain of socio-cultural transformation. The paper will describe the main elements of the methodological framework and preliminary planning of the intended workflow. [less ▲]

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See detailFunctional meta-omics provide critical insights into long- and short-read assemblies
Galata, Valentina UL; Busi, Susheel Bhanu UL; Kunath, Benoît UL et al

in Briefings in Bioinformatics (2021)

Real-world evaluations of metagenomic reconstructions are challenged by distinguishing reconstruction artifacts from genes and proteins present in situ. Here, we evaluate short-read-only, long-read-only ... [more ▼]

Real-world evaluations of metagenomic reconstructions are challenged by distinguishing reconstruction artifacts from genes and proteins present in situ. Here, we evaluate short-read-only, long-read-only and hybrid assembly approaches on four different metagenomic samples of varying complexity. We demonstrate how different assembly approaches affect gene and protein inference, which is particularly relevant for downstream functional analyses. For a human gut microbiome sample, we use complementary metatranscriptomic and metaproteomic data to assess the metagenomic data-based protein predictions. Our findings pave the way for critical assessments of metagenomic reconstructions. We propose a reference-independent solution, which exploits the synergistic effects of multi-omic data integration for the in situ study of microbiomes using long-read sequencing data. [less ▲]

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See detailStress-induced inflammation evoked by immunogenic cell death is blunted by the IRE1α kinase inhibitor KIRA6 through HSP60 targeting
Rufo, Nicole; Korovesis, Dimitris; Van Eygen, Sofie et al

in Cell Death and Differentiation (2021)

Mounting evidence indicates that immunogenic therapies engaging the unfolded protein response (UPR) following endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress favor proficient cancer cell-immune interactions, by ... [more ▼]

Mounting evidence indicates that immunogenic therapies engaging the unfolded protein response (UPR) following endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress favor proficient cancer cell-immune interactions, by stimulating the release of immunomodulatory/ proinflammatory factors by stressed or dying cancer cells. UPR-driven transcription of proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines exert beneficial or detrimental effects on tumor growth and antitumor immunity, but the cell-autonomous machinery governing the cancer cell inflammatory output in response to immunogenic therapies remains poorly defined. Here, we profiled the transcriptome of cancer cells responding to immunogenic or weakly immunogenic treatments. Bioinformatics-driven pathway analysis indicated that immunogenic treatments instigated a NF-κB/AP-1-inflammatory stress response, which dissociated from both cell death and UPR. This stress-induced inflammation was specifically abolished by the IRE1α-kinase inhibitor KIRA6. Supernatants from immunogenic chemotherapy and KIRA6 co-treated cancer cells were deprived of proinflammatory/chemoattractant factors and failed to mobilize neutrophils and induce dendritic cell maturation. Furthermore, KIRA6 significantly reduced the in vivo vaccination potential of dying cancer cells responding to immunogenic chemotherapy. Mechanistically, we found that the anti-inflammatory effect of KIRA6 was still effective in IRE1α-deficient cells, indicating a hitherto unknown off-target effector of this IRE1α-kinase inhibitor. Generation of a KIRA6-clickable photoaffinity probe, mass spectrometry, and co-immunoprecipitation analysis identified cytosolic HSP60 as a KIRA6 off-target in the IKK-driven NF-κB pathway. In sum, our study unravels that HSP60 is a KIRA6-inhibitable upstream regulator of the NF-κB/AP-1-inflammatory stress responses evoked by immunogenic treatments. It also urges caution when interpreting the anti-inflammatory action of IRE1α chemical inhibitors. [less ▲]

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See detailUAV Relay-Assisted Emergency Communications in IoT Networks: Resource Allocation and Trajectory Optimization
Tran Dinh, Hieu UL; Nguyen, van Dinh UL; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL et al

in IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications (2021)

Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) communication hasemerged as a prominent technology for emergency communi-cations (e.g., natural disaster) in the Internet of Things (IoT)networks to enhance the ability of ... [more ▼]

Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) communication hasemerged as a prominent technology for emergency communi-cations (e.g., natural disaster) in the Internet of Things (IoT)networks to enhance the ability of disaster prediction, damageassessment, and rescue operations promptly. A UAV can bedeployed as a flying base station (BS) to collect data from time-constrained IoT devices and then transfer it to a ground gateway(GW). In general, the latency constraint at IoT devices and UAV’slimited storage capacity highly hinder practical applicationsof UAV-assisted IoT networks. In this paper, full-duplex (FD)radio is adopted at the UAV to overcome these challenges. Inaddition, half-duplex (HD) scheme for UAV-based relaying isalso considered to provide a comparative study between twomodes (viz., FD and HD). Herein, a device is considered tobe successfully served iff its data is collected by the UAV andconveyed to GW timely during flight time. In this context,we aim to maximize the number of served IoT devices byjointly optimizing bandwidth, power allocation, and the UAVtrajectory while satisfying each device’s requirement and theUAV’s limited storage capacity. The formulated optimizationproblem is troublesome to solve due to its non-convexity andcombinatorial nature. Towards appealing applications, we firstrelax binary variables into continuous ones and transform theoriginal problem into a more computationally tractable form.By leveraging inner approximation framework, we derive newlyapproximated functions for non-convex parts and then develop asimple yet efficient iterative algorithm for its solutions. Next,we attempt to maximize the total throughput subject to thenumber of served IoT devices. Finally, numerical results showthat the proposed algorithms significantly outperform benchmarkapproaches in terms of the number of served IoT devices andsystem throughput. [less ▲]

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See detailGenotype-phenotype correlations in SCN8A-related disorders reveal prognostic and therapeutic implications
Johannesen, Katrine M.; Liu, Yuanyuan; Koko, Mahmoud et al

in Brain (2021)

We report detailed functional analyses and genotype-phenotype correlations in 392 individuals carrying disease-causing variants in SCN8A, encoding the voltage-gated Na+ channel NaV1.6, with the aim of ... [more ▼]

We report detailed functional analyses and genotype-phenotype correlations in 392 individuals carrying disease-causing variants in SCN8A, encoding the voltage-gated Na+ channel NaV1.6, with the aim of describing clinical phenotypes related to functional effects. Six different clinical subgroups could be identified: 1) Benign familial infantile epilepsy (BFIE) (n = 15, normal cognition, treatable seizures), 2) intermediate epilepsy (n = 33, mild ID, partially pharmaco-responsive), 3) developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE, n = 177, severe ID, majority pharmaco-resistant), 4) generalized epilepsy (n = 20, mild to moderate ID, frequently with absence seizures), 5) unclassifiable epilepsy (n = 127), and 6) neurodevelopmental disorder without epilepsy (n = 20, mild to moderate ID). Groups 1–3 presented with focal or multifocal seizures (median age of onset: four months) and focal epileptiform discharges, whereas the onset of seizures in group 4 was later (median: 42 months) with generalized epileptiform discharges. We performed functional studies expressing missense variants in ND7/23 neuroblastoma cells and primary neuronal cultures using recombinant tetrodotoxin-insensitive human NaV1.6 channels and whole-cell patch-clamping. Two variants causing DEE showed a strong gain-of-function (GOF, hyperpolarising shift of steady-state activation, strongly increased neuronal firing rate), and one variant causing BFIE or intermediate epilepsy showed a mild GOF (defective fast inactivation, less increased firing). In contrast, all three variants causing generalized epilepsy induced a loss-of-function (LOF, reduced current amplitudes, depolarising shift of steady-state activation, reduced neuronal firing). Including previous studies, functional effects were known for 170 individuals. All 136 individuals carrying a functionally tested GOF variant had either focal (97, groups 1–3), or unclassifiable epilepsy (39), whereas 34 with a LOF variant had either generalized (14), no (11) or unclassifiable (6) epilepsy; only three had DEE. Computational modeling in the GOF group revealed a significant correlation between the severity of the electrophysiological and clinical phenotypes. GOF variant carriers responded significantly better to sodium channel blockers (SCBs) than to other anti-seizure medications, and the same applied for all individuals of groups 1–3.In conclusion, our data reveal clear genotype-phenotype correlations between age at seizure onset, type of epilepsy and gain- or loss-of-function effects of SCN8A variants. Generalized epilepsy with absence seizures is the main epilepsy phenotype of LOF variant carriers and the extent of the electrophysiological dysfunction of the GOF variants is a main determinant of the severity of the clinical phenotype in focal epilepsies. Our pharmacological data indicate that SCBs present a treatment option in SCN8A-related focal epilepsy with onset in the first year of life. [less ▲]

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See detailRole of higher-order effects in spin-misalignment small-angle neutron scattering of high-pressure torsion nickel
Oba, Yojiro; Bersweiler, Mathias UL; Titov, Ivan et al

in Physical Review Materials (2021), 5

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See detailNormative coherence for development – What relevance for responsive regionalism?
Koff, Harlan UL; Häbel, Sandra UL

in Development Policy Review (2021)

Without a normative dimension, transformative development risks reproducing traditional economic development. In this special issue we focus on norm implementation in different world regions through the ... [more ▼]

Without a normative dimension, transformative development risks reproducing traditional economic development. In this special issue we focus on norm implementation in different world regions through the lens of normative coherence for development. This special issue indicates that regions are an important interlocutor between the global, national, and sub-national level and, as such, are crucial for implementing the sustainable development agenda. The articles show, however, that to date normative coherence for development has not been achieved due to overriding priorities and technical approaches to policy coherence for development. With this special issue we aim to draw more attention to the topic of normative coherence for development and show that policies need to be adjusted in order to reflect the normative dimension of sustainable development. [less ▲]

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See detailSoftware for the frontiers of quantum chemistry: An overview of developments in the Q-Chem 5 package
Evgeny Epifanovsky; Andrew T. B Gilbert; Xintian Feng et al

in Journal of Chemical Physics (2021)

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See detailA Pharmacophore Model for SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro Small Molecule Inhibitors and in Vitro Experimental Validation of Computationally Screened Inhibitors
Glaab, Enrico UL; Manoharan, Ganesh Babu UL; Abankwa, Daniel UL

in Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling (2021), 61(8), 4082-4096

Among the biomedical efforts in response to the current coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, pharmacological strategies to reduce viral load in patients with severe forms of the disease are being studied ... [more ▼]

Among the biomedical efforts in response to the current coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, pharmacological strategies to reduce viral load in patients with severe forms of the disease are being studied intensively. One of the main drug target proteins proposed so far is the SARS-CoV-2 viral protease 3CLpro (also called Mpro), an essential component for viral replication. Ongoing ligand- and receptor-based computational screening efforts would be facilitated by an improved understanding of the electrostatic, hydrophobic and steric features that characterize small molecule inhibitors binding stably to 3CLpro, as well as by an extended collection of known binders. Here, we present combined virtual screening, molecular dynamics simulation, machine learning and in vitro experimental validation analyses which have led to the identification of small molecule inhibitors of 3CLpro with micromolar activity, and to a pharmacophore model that describes functional chemical groups associated with the molecular recognition of ligands by the 3CLpro binding pocket. Experimentally validated inhibitors using a ligand activity assay include natural compounds with available prior knowledge on safety and bioavailability properties, such as the natural compound rottlerin (IC50 = 37 µM), and synthetic compounds previously not characterized (e.g. compound CID 46897844, IC50 = 31 µM). In combination with the developed pharmacophore model, these and other confirmed 3CLpro inhibitors may provide a basis for further similarity-based screening in independent compound databases and structural design optimization efforts, to identify 3CLpro ligands with improved potency and selectivity. Overall, this study suggests that the integration of virtual screening, molecular dynamics simulations and machine learning can facilitate 3CLpro-targeted small molecule screening investigations. Different receptor-, ligand- and machine learning-based screening strategies provided complementary information, helping to increase the number and diversity of identified active compounds. Finally, the resulting pharmacophore model and experimentally validated small molecule inhibitors for 3CLpro provide resources to support follow-up computational screening efforts for this drug target. [less ▲]

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See detailA research-practice cooperation to support elementary school teachers’ diagnostic competencies based on a working theory of talent development in STEM
Krischler, Mireille UL; Mack, Elena; Gnas, Jessica et al

in Gifted and Talented International (2021)

We present a teacher professionalization project for promoting elementary school teachers’ diagnostic competencies in recognizing their students’ potential in STEM subjects. Teacher professionalization is ... [more ▼]

We present a teacher professionalization project for promoting elementary school teachers’ diagnostic competencies in recognizing their students’ potential in STEM subjects. Teacher professionalization is fostered through the teachers’ personal involvement in the development of subjectspecific diagnostic materials as well as through continuing training on the fundamental knowledge needed to detect and support gifted students. On the basis of the Talent Development in Achievement Domains (TAD) framework, we reached a common working theory of talent and its development in mathematics and science for elementary school-aged students based on the available scientific evidence and approved by teachers. We share a multidimensional, dynamic view of talent development that includes abilities, personality traits, and skills. We describe how our working theory and diagnostic materials can foster teachers’ diagnostic competencies as well as talent discovery and promotion in order to foster students’ development of creative productivity in STEM fields. [less ▲]

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See detailDistribution of kinks in an Ising ferromagnet after annealing and the generalized Kibble-Zurek mechanism
Mayo, Jack J.; Fan, Zhijie; Chern, Gia-Wei et al

in Physical Review Research (2021)

We consider the annealing dynamics of a one-dimensional Ising ferromagnet induced by a temperature quench in finite time. In the limit of slow cooling, the asymptotic two-point correlator is analytically ... [more ▼]

We consider the annealing dynamics of a one-dimensional Ising ferromagnet induced by a temperature quench in finite time. In the limit of slow cooling, the asymptotic two-point correlator is analytically found under Glauber dynamics, and the distribution of the number of kinks in the final state is shown to be consistent with a Poissonian distribution. The mean kink number, the variance, and the third centered moment take the same value and obey a universal power-law scaling with the quench time in which the temperature is varied. The universal power-law scaling of cumulants is corroborated by numerical simulations based on Glauber dynamics for moderate cooling times away from the asymptotic limit, when the kink-number distribution takes a binomial form. We analyze the relation of these results to physics beyond the Kibble-Zurek mechanism for critical dynamics, using the kink-number distribution to assess adiabaticity and its breakdown.We consider linear, nonlinear, and exponential cooling schedules, among which the last provides the most efficient shortcuts to cooling in a given quench time. The nonthermal behavior of the final state is established by considering the trace norm distance to a canonical Gibbs state. [less ▲]

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See detailAlmost global convergence to practical synchronization in the generalized Kuramoto model on networks over the n-sphere
Markdahl, Johan UL; Proverbio, Daniele UL; Mi, La et al

in Communications Physics (2021), 4

From the flashing of fireflies to autonomous robot swarms, synchronization phenomena are ubiquitous in nature and technology. They are commonly described by the Kuramoto model that, in this paper, we ... [more ▼]

From the flashing of fireflies to autonomous robot swarms, synchronization phenomena are ubiquitous in nature and technology. They are commonly described by the Kuramoto model that, in this paper, we generalise to networks over n-dimensional spheres. We show that, for almost all initial conditions, the sphere model converges to a set with small diameter if the model parameters satisfy a given bound. Moreover, for even n, a special case of the generalized model can achieve phase synchronization with nonidentical frequency parameters. These results contrast with the standard n = 1 Kuramoto model, which is multistable (i.e., has multiple equilibria), and converges to phase synchronization only if the frequency parameters are identical. Hence, this paper shows that the generalized network Kuramoto models for n ≥ 2 displays more coherent and predictable behavior than the standard n = 1 model, a desirable property both in flocks of animals and for robot control. [less ▲]

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See detail„Raum für Mehrsprachigkeit geben!“
Heinzel, Friederike; Schüler, Liz; Kirsch, Claudine UL et al

in Die Grundschulzeitschrift (2021)

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See detailSchöne Digitale Welt: Analysen und Einsprüche (Rezension)
Baumann, Isabell Eva UL

in MEDIENwissenschaft: Rezensionen, Reviews (2021), 38(2),

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See detailErgebnisse des Jugendberichtes 2020
Schumacher, Anette UL; S

in Ergebnisse des Jugendberichtes 2020 (2021)

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See detailTowards a computer-assisted aesthetics of user response
Armaselu, Florentina UL

in Digital Scholarship in the Humanities (2021)

The article focuses on the analysis of the user as an aesthetic category and proposes a methodology for evaluating user response within a framework that combines theoretical background from different ... [more ▼]

The article focuses on the analysis of the user as an aesthetic category and proposes a methodology for evaluating user response within a framework that combines theoretical background from different areas, the theory of aesthetic response, psycholinguistics, appraisal theory, dialogism, and affective stylistics, with the application of digital tools for corpus linguistics and sentiment analysis. Four user types were derived from the corpus linguistics analysis referred to as immersed, distant, sceptical, and enthusiastic users. Each type may encompass a certain degree of intentionality and convey an attitude, implying features such as commitment and honesty, objectivity and engagement with the audience, critical reflection and circumspection, openness to technological novelty, and enjoyment. This assumes that the users involved in usability testing are not neutral or undifferentiated informational entities placed in an experimental context but individuals that respond to the same stimuli and express themselves differently in light of psycholinguistic factors and rules of social interaction. On the other hand, the results of sentiment analysis showed that an experiential analysis, centred not only on the artefact but also on the response and the experience it generates, may enable understanding the user as involved in a hermeneutic process of interpretation during his/her interaction with the studied artefact. Given the small scale of the analysed data, the study does not intend to provide evidence for general or definitive statements but formulates and illustrates a set of interpretative hypotheses and methodological directions for further enquiry aiming at developing an ‘aesthetics’ of user response. [less ▲]

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See detailAutomatic Diagnosis of Bipolar Disorder Using Optical Coherence Tomography Data and Artificial Intelligence
Sanchez-Morla, Eva M.; Fuentes, Juan L.; Miguel-Jimenez et al

in Journal of Personalized Medicine (2021)

Background: The aim of this study is to explore an objective approach that aids the diagnosis of bipolar disorder (BD), based on optical coherence tomography (OCT) data which are analyzed using artificial ... [more ▼]

Background: The aim of this study is to explore an objective approach that aids the diagnosis of bipolar disorder (BD), based on optical coherence tomography (OCT) data which are analyzed using artificial intelligence. Methods: Structural analyses of nine layers of the retina were analyzed in 17 type I BD patients and 42 controls, according to the areas defined by the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) chart. The most discriminating variables made up the feature vector of several automatic classifiers: Gaussian Naive Bayes, K-nearest neighbors and support vector machines. Results: BD patients presented retinal thinning affecting most layers, compared to controls. The retinal thickness of the parafoveolar area showed a high capacity to discriminate BD subjects from healthy individuals, specifically for the ganglion cell (area under the curve (AUC) = 0.82) and internal plexiform (AUC = 0.83) layers. The best classifier showed an accuracy of 0.95 for classifying BD versus controls, using as variables of the feature vector the IPL (inner nasal region) and the INL (outer nasal and inner inferior regions) thickness. Conclusions: Our patients with BD present structural alterations in the retina, and artificial intelligence seem to be a useful tool in BD diagnosis, but larger studies are needed to confirm our findings. [less ▲]

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See detailRole of S100A8/A9 for Cytokine Secretion, Revealed in Neutrophils Derived from ER-Hoxb8 Progenitors
Zhou, Yang UL; Hann, Justine UL; Schenten, Veronique UL et al

in International Journal of Molecular Sciences (2021)

S100A9, a Ca2+-binding protein, is tightly associated to neutrophil pro-inflammatory functions when forming a heterodimer with its S100A8 partner. Upon secretion into the extracellular environment, these ... [more ▼]

S100A9, a Ca2+-binding protein, is tightly associated to neutrophil pro-inflammatory functions when forming a heterodimer with its S100A8 partner. Upon secretion into the extracellular environment, these proteins behave like damage-associated molecular pattern molecules, which actively participate in the amplification of the inflammation process by recruitment and activation of pro-inflammatory cells. Intracellular functions have also been attributed to the S100A8/A9 complex, notably its ability to regulate nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase activation. However, the complete functional spectrum of S100A8/A9 at the intracellular level is far from being understood. In this context, we here investigated the possibility that the absence of intracellular S100A8/A9 is involved in cytokine secretion. To overcome the difficulty of genetically modifying neutrophils, we used murine neutrophils derived from wild-type and S100A9-/- Hoxb8 immortalized myeloid progenitors. After confirming that differentiated Hoxb8 neutrophil-like cells are a suitable model to study neutrophil functions, our data show that absence of S100A8/A9 led to a dysregulation of cytokine secretion after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. Furthermore, we demonstrate that S100A8/A9-induced cytokine secretion was regulated by the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway. These results were confirmed in human differentiated HL-60 cells, in which S100A9 was inhibited by shRNAs. Finally, our results indicate that the degranulation process could be involved in the regulation of cytokine secretion by S100A8/A9. [less ▲]

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See detailA Catalogus Immune Muris of the mouse immune responses to diverse pathogens
Del Sol Mesa, Antonio UL

in Cell Death and Disease (2021)

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See detailRobustness of Adversarial Images against Filters
Chitic, Ioana Raluca UL; Deridder, Nathan; Leprevost, Franck UL et al

in Optimization and Learning (2021), 1443

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See detailNumerical study on design rules for minimum degree of shear connection in propped steel-concrete composite beams
Vigneri, Valentino; Odenbreit, Christoph UL; Romero, Alfredo UL

in Engineering Structures (2021), 241

This manuscript presents a numerical study on simply supported propped composite beams with ductile shear connectors subjected to uniformly distributed load. The aim is to assess the performance of the ... [more ▼]

This manuscript presents a numerical study on simply supported propped composite beams with ductile shear connectors subjected to uniformly distributed load. The aim is to assess the performance of the revised rules for the minimum degree of shear connection (CEN/TC250/SC4.T3) with respect to the occurring slip. First, a non-linear 3D finite element model was developed through the software ABAQUS 2017 and validated against analytical values of the elastic stiffness and plastic bending resistance. Then, 91 configurations were analysed for different degrees of shear connection η=0.2,0.4…1.0. The span ranges from 6 to 25 m while the geometrical and mechanical properties varied within their typical field of applicability. According to both current and revised rules, 16 configurations with relatively deep beam and “weak” concrete slab exhibited allowable slip values smax significantly higher than 6 m. Therefore, the authors proposed a reduction of the maximum degree of utilization to these special cases. If the proposed reduction is included in the revised rules, none of the considered cases exhibit a slip smax higher than 8 mm while few cases have smax between 6 and 8 mm. For the ease of use, a design proposal is reformulated as a conditional reduction of the plastic bending resistance of the composite section. [less ▲]

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See detailIntelligent Reflecting Surface Enhanced Secure Transmission Against Both Jamming and Eavesdropping Attacks
Sun, Yifu; An, Kang; Luo, Junshan et al

in IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology (2021), 70(10, Oct. 2021), 11017-11022

Both the jammer and the eavesdropper pose severe threat to wireless communications due to the broadcast nature of wireless channels. In this paper, an intelligent reflecting surface (IRS) assisted secure ... [more ▼]

Both the jammer and the eavesdropper pose severe threat to wireless communications due to the broadcast nature of wireless channels. In this paper, an intelligent reflecting surface (IRS) assisted secure communication system is considered, where a base station (BS) wishes to reliably convey information to a user, in the presence of both a jammer and an eavesdropper whose channel state information (CSI) is not perfectly known. Specifically, we aim to maximize the system achievable rate by jointly designing the BS’s transmit beamforming and the IRS’s reflect beamforming with imperfect CSI, while limiting the information leakage to the potential eavesdropper. Due to the non-convexity and intractability of the original problem induced by the CSI uncertainty, we utilize the auxiliary variables and General Sign-Definiteness transformation to convert the original optimization problem into a tractable convex optimization problem, and then obtain the high-quality optimal solution by using the successive convex approximation and penalty convex concave procedure. Numerical simulations demonstrate the superiority of our proposed optimization algorithm compared with existing approaches, and also reveal the impact of key parameters on the achievable system performance. [less ▲]

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See detailWideband OFDM-based Communications in Bus Topology as a Key Enabler for Industry 4.0 Networks
Gonzalez Rios, Jorge Luis UL; Torres Gómez, Jorge; Sharma, Rajesh Kumar et al

in IEEE Access (2021), 9

The Industry 4.0 paradigm conceives a cyber-physical supporting framework for the manufacturing processes in smart factories. In this context, solutions concerning the wired communications at the field ... [more ▼]

The Industry 4.0 paradigm conceives a cyber-physical supporting framework for the manufacturing processes in smart factories. In this context, solutions concerning the wired communications at the field-level have been reported which utilize either fieldbuses, which exhibit a huge distance range but a reduced data rate in a bus topology, or Ethernet-based technologies, which provide an increased data rate but reduced distance in a ring topology. To overcome this shortage, we propose the use of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) to significantly increase the achievable data rates over large distances in industrial bus systems. Also, we establish a novel methodology to compute the signal-to-noise ratio between arbitrary pairs of nodes, which in turn allows to compute the communication capacity. Our wideband system was validated by connecting up to 32 nodes in the distance range 100 m–1 km. Compared to fieldbuses, the results of the proposal exhibit an amazing improvement in data rate of about fifty times for 100m distance and more than ten times for 0.5 km. Moreover, with respect to Ethernet-based solutions, the results show a relevant improvement in the data rate of around five times for 100 m distance, but Ethernet-based systems cannot go beyond this distance, to which our proposal is not limited. [less ▲]

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See detailATG5 and ATG7 Expression Levels Are Reduced in Cutaneous Melanoma and Regulated by NRF1
Frangez, Ziva; Gerard, Déborah UL; He, Zhahoyue et al

in Frontiers in Oncology (2021)

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See detailPsychological wellbeing of parents of very young children with type 1 diabetes – baseline assessment
De Beaufort, Carine; Pit-Ten Cate, Ineke UL; Schierloh, Ulrike et al

in Frontiers in Endocrinology (2021), 12(721028),

Background: Type 1 diabetes in young children is a heavy parental burden. As part of pilot phase of the KIDSAP01 study, we conducted a baseline assessment in parents to study the association between ... [more ▼]

Background: Type 1 diabetes in young children is a heavy parental burden. As part of pilot phase of the KIDSAP01 study, we conducted a baseline assessment in parents to study the association between hypoglycemia fear, parental wellbeing and child behavior. Methods: All parents were invited to fill in baseline questionnaires: hypoglycemia fear survey (HFS), WHO-5, Epworth Sleepiness Scale and Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Results: 24 children (median age: 5-year, range 1-7 years, 63% male, mean diabetes duration: 3 ± 1.7 years) participated. 23/24 parents filled out the questionnaires. We found a higher score for the hypoglycemia fear behavior 33.9 ± 5.6 compared to hypoglycemia worry 34.6 ± 12.2. Median WHO-5 score was 16 (8 - 22) with poor well-being in two parents. Median daytime sleepiness score was high in five parents (>10). For six children a high total behavioral difficulty score (>16) was reported. Pro social behavior score was lower than normal in six children (<6). Parental well-being was negatively associated with HFS total (r = - 0.50, p <.05) and subscale scores (r = - 0.44, p <.05 for HFS-Worry and HFS-Behavior), child behavior (r = - 0.45, p = .05) and positively with child age (r = 0.58, p <.01). HFS, parental well-being nor daytime sleepiness are associated with the HbA1c. Conclusion: Regular screening of parental well-being, hypoglycemia fear and child behavior should be part of routine care to target early intervention. [less ▲]

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See detailRandomization as Mitigation of Directed Timing Inference Based Attacks on Time-Triggered Real-Time Systems with Task Replication
Krüger, Kristin; Vreman, Nils; Pates, Richard et al

in LITES: Leibnitz Transactions on Embedded Systems (2021)

Time-triggered real-time systems achieve deterministic behavior using schedules that are constructed offline, based on scheduling constraints. Their deterministic behavior makes time-triggered systems ... [more ▼]

Time-triggered real-time systems achieve deterministic behavior using schedules that are constructed offline, based on scheduling constraints. Their deterministic behavior makes time-triggered systems suitable for usage in safety-critical environments, like avionics. However, this determinism also allows attackers to fine-tune attacks that can be carried out after studying the behavior of the system through side channels, targeting safety-critical victim tasks. Replication – i.e., the execution of task variants across different cores – is inherently able to tolerate both accidental and malicious faults (i.e. attacks) as long as these faults are independent of one another. Yet, targeted attacks on the timing behavior of tasks which utilize information gained about the system behavior violate the fault independence assumption fault tolerance is based on. This violation may give attackers the opportunity to compromise all replicas simultaneously, in par- ticular if they can mount the attack from already compromised components. In this paper, we ana- lyze vulnerabilities of time-triggered systems, focusing on safety-certified multicore real-time systems. We introduce two runtime mitigation strategies to withstand directed timing inference based attacks: (i) schedule randomization at slot level, and (ii) randomization within a set of offline constructed schedules. We evaluate these mitigation strategies with synthetic experiments and a real case study to show their effectiveness and practicality. [less ▲]

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See detailA Comparative Study of Thermoelectric Properties of Monolayer, Bilayer and Bulk CrI3
Suprayoga, E; Hanna, M. Y.; Hasdeo, Eddwi Hesky UL et al

in AIP Conference Proceedings (2021), 2382(1), 020004

We comparatively study the electronic and thermoelectric properties of the monolayer, bilayer, and bulk CrI3 by density functional theory (DFT). We show that, according to the DFT calculation, those ... [more ▼]

We comparatively study the electronic and thermoelectric properties of the monolayer, bilayer, and bulk CrI3 by density functional theory (DFT). We show that, according to the DFT calculation, those materials are magnetic semiconductors with ferromagnetic (FM) in monolayer, antiferromagnetic (AFM) in the bilayer, back to FM in the bulk structure. The thermoelectric properties of those materials are evaluated by using the Boltzmann transport equation (BTE) with a constant relaxation time approximation (RTA). At room temperature, we obtain bulk CrI3 has more significant electrical conductivity than monolayer and bilayer CrI3, while the Seebeck coefficient is similar that implied the bulk CrI3 has a better thermoelectric performance. In those systems, the optimum power factor is obtained by shifting the chemical potential of CrI3 by 1 eV with p-type doping. [less ▲]

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See detailQuantitative trait locus mapping identifies a locus linked to striatal dopamine and points to collagen IV alpha-6 chain as a novel regulator of striatal axonal branching in mice
Thomas, Melanie UL; Gui, Yujuan; Garcia, Pierre UL et al

in Genes, Brain, and Behavior (2021)

Dopaminergic neurons (DA neurons) are controlled by multiple factors, many involved in neurological disease. Parkinson's disease motor symptoms are caused by the demise of nigral DA neurons, leading to ... [more ▼]

Dopaminergic neurons (DA neurons) are controlled by multiple factors, many involved in neurological disease. Parkinson's disease motor symptoms are caused by the demise of nigral DA neurons, leading to loss of striatal dopamine (DA). Here, we measured DA concentration in the dorsal striatum of 32 members of Collaborative Cross (CC) family and their eight founder strains. Striatal DA varied greatly in founders, and differences were highly heritable in the inbred CC progeny. We identified a locus, containing 164 genes, linked to DA concentration in the dorsal striatum on chromosome X. We used RNAseq profiling of the ventral midbrain of two founders with substantial difference in striatal DA–C56BL/6 J and A/J—to highlight potential protein-coding candidates modulating this trait. Among the five differentially expressed genes within the locus, we found that the gene coding for the collagen IV alpha 6 chain (Col4a6) was expressed nine times less in A/J than in C57BL/6J. Using single cell RNA-seq data from developing human midbrain, we found that COL4A6 is highly expressed in radial glia-like cells and neuronal progenitors, indicating a role in neuronal development. Collagen IV alpha-6 chain (COL4A6) controls axogenesis in simple model organisms. Consistent with these findings, A/J mice had less striatal axonal branching than C57BL/6J mice. We tentatively conclude that DA concentration and axonal branching in dorsal striatum are modulated by COL4A6, possibly during development. Our study shows that genetic mapping based on an easily measured Central Nervous System (CNS) trait, using the CC population, combined with follow-up observations, can parse heritability of such a trait, and nominate novel functions for commonly expressed proteins. [less ▲]

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See detailMachine learning-based identification and characterization of 15 novel pathogenic SUOX missense mutations
Kaczmarek, Alexander Tobias; Bahlmann, Nike; Thaqi, Besarta et al

in Molecular Genetics and Metabolism (2021)

Isolated sulfite oxidase deficiency (ISOD) is a rare hereditary metabolic disease caused by absence of functional sulfite oxidase (SO) due to mutations of the SUOX gene. SO oxidizes toxic sulfite and ... [more ▼]

Isolated sulfite oxidase deficiency (ISOD) is a rare hereditary metabolic disease caused by absence of functional sulfite oxidase (SO) due to mutations of the SUOX gene. SO oxidizes toxic sulfite and sulfite accumulation is associated with neurological disorders, progressive brain atrophy and early death. Similarities of these neurological symptoms to abundant diseases like neonatal encephalopathy underlines the raising need to increase the awareness for ISOD. Here we report an interdisciplinary approach utilizing exome/genome data derived from gnomAD database as well as published variants to predict the pathogenic outcome of 303 naturally occurring SO missense variants and combining these with activity determination. We identified 15 novel ISOD-causing SO variants and generated a databank of pathogenic SO missense variants to support future diagnosis of ISOD patients. We found six inactive variants (W101G, H118Y, E197K, R217W, S427W, D512Y, Q518R) and seven (D110H, P119S, G121E, G130R, Y140C, R269H, Q396P, R459Q) with severe reduction in activity. Based on the Hardy-Weinberg-equilibrium and the combination of our results with published SO missense and protein truncating variants, we calculated the first comprehensive incidence rate for ISOD of 1 in 1,377,341 births and provide a pathogenicity score to 303 naturally occurring SO missense variants. [less ▲]

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See detailWhat accounts for changes in the chances of being NEET in the UK?
Holmes, Craig; Murphy, Emily UL; Mayhew, Ken

in Journal of Education and Work (2021)

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See detailMassive MIMO under Double Scattering Channels: Power Minimization and Congestion Controls
Van Chien, Trinh; Ngo, Hien Quoc; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL et al

in IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications (2021)

This paper considers a massive MIMO system under the double scattering channels. We derive a closed-form expression of the uplink ergodic spectral efficiency (SE) by exploiting the maximum-ratio combining ... [more ▼]

This paper considers a massive MIMO system under the double scattering channels. We derive a closed-form expression of the uplink ergodic spectral efficiency (SE) by exploiting the maximum-ratio combining technique with imperfect channel state information. We then formulate and solve a total uplink data power optimization problem that aims at simultaneously satisfying the required SEs from all the users with limited power resources. We further propose algorithms to cope with the congestion issue appearing when at least one user is served by lower SE than requested. Numerical results illustrate the effectiveness of our proposed power optimization. More importantly, our proposed congestion-handling algorithms can guarantee the required SEs to many users under congestion, even when the SE requirement is high. [less ▲]

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See detailA rigged model of the breast for preoperative surgical planning
Mazier, Arnaud UL; Ribes, Sophie; Gilles, Benjamin et al

in Journal of Biomechanics (2021), 128

In breast surgical practice, drawing is part of the preoperative planning procedure and is essential for a successful operation. In this study, we design a pipeline to assist surgeons with patient ... [more ▼]

In breast surgical practice, drawing is part of the preoperative planning procedure and is essential for a successful operation. In this study, we design a pipeline to assist surgeons with patient-specific breast surgical drawings. We use a deformable torso model containing the surgical patterns to match any breast surface scan. To be compatible with surgical timing, we build an articulated model through a skinning process coupled with shape deformers to enhance a fast registration process. On one hand, the scalable bones of the skinning account for pose and morphological variations of the patients. On the other hand, pre-designed artistic blendshapes create a linear space for guaranteeing anatomical variations. Then, we apply meaningful constraints to the model to find a trade-off between precision and speed. The experiments were conducted on 7 patients, in 2 different poses (prone and supine) with a breast size ranging from 36A and 42C (US/UK bra sizing). The acquisitions were obtained using the depth camera Structure Sensor, and the breast scans were acquired in less than 1 minute. The result is a registration method converging within a few seconds (3 maximum), reaching a Mean Absolute Error of 2.3 mm for mesh registration and 8.0 mm for breast anatomical landmarks. Compared to the existing literature, our model can be personalized and does not require any database. Finally, our registered model can be used to transfer surgical reference patterns onto any patient in any position. [less ▲]

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See detailSimulation of gas-dynamic, pressure surges and adiabatic compression phenomena in geometrically complex respirator oxygen valves
Obeidat, Anas UL; Andreas, Thomas; Bordas, Stéphane UL et al

in Thermal Science and Engineering Progress (2021), 24

Gas-dynamic pressure surges and adiabatic compression phenomena are generally hard to predict numerically. In this contribution, we study the effect of the pressure reserve capacity on the compressible ... [more ▼]

Gas-dynamic pressure surges and adiabatic compression phenomena are generally hard to predict numerically. In this contribution, we study the effect of the pressure reserve capacity on the compressible gas-dynamics pressure surge and adiabatic compression in a fitted respirator oxygen valve geometry. A three-dimensional remeshed smoothed particle hydrodynamics method for the simulation of isotropic turbulence is used, the method is coupled with Brinkman penalisation technique for flow simulation inside the complex valve geometry. Simulations are carried out for three different pressure reserve quantities, to replicate the opening of the valve, two time-based pressure inlet boundary condition functions were simulated along with an impulsively started scenario. A geometrical sensitivity analysis is provided, where the simulation is performed on a modified valve design which exhibits a damping effect on the gas dynamics and flow characteristics, which has a favourable effect on the valve functionality and safety. It is found that the capacity of the pressure reserve has a considerable effect on the simulated flow fields (velocity, temperature), as the temperature could rise 6.0X the reference temperature, and up to 2.7X the reference velocity. The numerical results are compared with a previous study carried out by Rotarex S.A., demonstrating that the remeshed particle-mesh method coupled with Brinkman penalisation provides a good quality simulation and the results are in agreement with the reference solution. [less ▲]

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See detailFailure mechanism analysis based on laser-based surface treatments for aluminum-polyamide laser joining
Amne Elahi, Mahdi UL; Koch, Marcus; Bardon, Julien et al

in Journal of Materials Processing Technology (2021), 298

The development of strong metal to polymer assemblies is currently an important research subject thanks to its prominence to develop lightweight structures. Furthermore, laser welding is known to be a ... [more ▼]

The development of strong metal to polymer assemblies is currently an important research subject thanks to its prominence to develop lightweight structures. Furthermore, laser welding is known to be a fast, reliable, and versatile joining process, and it was demonstrated recently that it can be applied to such metal to polymer systems. To enhance the mechanical properties of the laser-joined aluminum-polyamide (Al-PA) specimens, laser polishing and laser ablation processes have been implemented on the aluminum surface before joining. The polyamide surface was also treated with the laser beam, separately. The surfaces were tested by several characterization techniques before and after each surface treatment. Then aluminum and polyamide samples with different surface treatments have been joined with an identical laser joining process. The mechanical properties of the joints in single lap shear configuration are reported and the failure mechanisms are discussed based on micro-computed x-ray tomography imaging of joined specimens and microscopic analysis before failure. Results show that both surface treatments of aluminum significantly improve the shear load of the joint; however, with different failure mechanisms. Polyamide surface treatment and increasing degree of crystallinity are effective when combined with the laser polishing of the Al surface. This combination is responsible for further enhancement of the shear load of the joint to the limit of base metal strength which is approximately 60 % improvement compared to the untreated samples. Finally, energy dispersive X-ray mapping shows the physicochemical bonding between aluminum oxide and polyamide at the interface. [less ▲]

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See detailOn The (In)Effectiveness of Static Logic Bomb Detector for Android Apps
Samhi, Jordan UL; Bartel, Alexandre UL

in IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing (2021)

Android is present in more than 85% of mobile devices, making it a prime target for malware. Malicious code is becoming increasingly sophisticated and relies on logic bombs to hide itself from dynamic ... [more ▼]

Android is present in more than 85% of mobile devices, making it a prime target for malware. Malicious code is becoming increasingly sophisticated and relies on logic bombs to hide itself from dynamic analysis. In this paper, we perform a large scale study of TSO PEN, our open-source implementation of the state-of-the-art static logic bomb scanner T RIGGER S COPE, on more than 500k Android applications. Results indicate that the approach scales. Moreover, we investigate the discrepancies and show that the approach can reach a very low false-positive rate, 0.3%, but at a particular cost, e.g., removing 90% of sensitive methods. Therefore, it might not be realistic to rely on such an approach to automatically detect all logic bombs in large datasets. However, it could be used to speed up the location of malicious code, for instance, while reverse engineering applications. We also present T RIGDB a database of 68 Android applications containing trigger-based behavior as a ground-truth to the research community. [less ▲]

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See detailRethinking Trust in Social Robotics
Carli, Rachele UL; Najjar, Amro UL

in arXiv (2021)

— In 2018 the European Commission highlighted the demand of a human-centered approach to AI. Such a claim is gaining even more relevance considering technologies specifi cally designed to directly ... [more ▼]

— In 2018 the European Commission highlighted the demand of a human-centered approach to AI. Such a claim is gaining even more relevance considering technologies specifi cally designed to directly interact and physically collaborate with human users in the real world. This is notably the case of social robots. The domain of Human-Robot Interaction (HRI) emerged to investigate these issues."Human-robot trust" has been highlighted as one of the most challenging and intriguing factors influencing HRI. On the one hand, user studies and technical experts underline how trust is a key element to facilitate users’ acceptance, consequently increasing the chances to pursue the given task. On the other hand, such a phenomenon raises also ethical and philosophical concerns leading scholars in these domains to argue that humans should not trust robots. However, trust in HRI is not an index of fragility, it is rooted in anthropomorphism, and it is a natural characteristic of every human being. Thus, instead of focusing solely on how to inspire user trust in social robots, this paper argues that what should be investigated is to what extent and for which purpose it is suitable to trust robots. Such an endeavour requires an interdisciplinary approach taking into account (i) technical needs and (ii) psychological implications. [less ▲]

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See detailCreativity in Humans, Robots, Humbots
Lubart, Todd; Esposito, Dario; Gubenko, Alla UL et al

in Creativity: Theories – Research – Applications (2021), 8(1),

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See detailSecure Transmission in Massive MIMO System with Specular Component-based Beamforming and Artificial Noise over Ricean Fading Channel
Qu, Aiyan; Zhang, Xianyu; An, Kang et al

in IEEE Wireless Communications Letters (2021), 10(11, Nov. 2021),

This paper investigates the secure transmission in a multi-user massive MIMO system over Ricean fading channel in the presence of a multi-antenna eavesdropper. In order to reduce the system complexity and ... [more ▼]

This paper investigates the secure transmission in a multi-user massive MIMO system over Ricean fading channel in the presence of a multi-antenna eavesdropper. In order to reduce the system complexity and the channel estimation overhead, a low-complexity beamforming (BF) scheme using only the specular component is presented. Moreover, the generation of artificial noise (AN) is employed at the base station (BS) for additional security enhancement. Specifically, a tractable closedform lower bound for the achievable ergodic secrecy rate is derived. Furthermore, the optimal power allocation factor is obtained based on the asymptotic analysis to maximize the achievable ergodic secrecy rate. The analytical results reveal that the ergodic secrecy rate improves with the increase of Ricean K- factor and converges to a specific constant when increasing the number of antennas. The performance of the proposed scheme is evaluated through comprehensive simulations. [less ▲]

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See detail1918, 1945, 1989: Childhood in Times of Political Transformation: Part II
Kind-Kovács, Friederike; Venken, Machteld UL

in Journal of Modern European History (2021), 19

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See detailDie Wiedereinführung von EU-Binnengrenzkontrollen: ein unverhältnismäßiges, unwirksames und unzulässiges Mittel zur Bekämpfung der Pandemie
Gerkrath, Jörg UL

in Kritische Vierteljahresschrift für Gesetzgebung und Rechtswissenschaft (2021), 104(1), 75-87

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See detailEditoriaal. Kinderen.
Venken, Machteld UL

in Tijdschrift. Erfgoedpraktijk in Vlaanderen (2021), 11(2), 4-5

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See detailTalent development in natural science in elementary school: A juxtaposition of research and practice
Mack, Elena; Breit, Moritz; Krischler, Mireille UL et al

in Teaching and Teacher Education (2021), 104

We present a working theory of person-related predictors of talent development in natural science during elementary school. The working theory resulted from the juxtaposition of scientific findings and ... [more ▼]

We present a working theory of person-related predictors of talent development in natural science during elementary school. The working theory resulted from the juxtaposition of scientific findings and teachers' expertise. The results showed that both teachers and researchers conceive of talent development in natural science as a complex process including abilities, personality traits, and skills as predictors. However, teachers focused mainly on skills whereas the scientific literature emphasized cognitive abilities. The working theory can be used for the identification and promotion of natural science talent and the development of teachers' diagnostic skills to assess students’ potential in natural science. [less ▲]

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See detailTschechen in der deutschen Wehrmacht. Totgeschwiegene Schicksale
Janz, Nina UL

in CLIO-online (2021)

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See detailEuropean port cities in transition
Hesse, Markus UL

in Journal of Transport Geography (2021), 96

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See detailLa clause de non-concurrence des associés dans les SCOP : le coopérateur sur le bûcher du droit du travail
Hiez, David UL

in RTD Com: Revue Trimestrielle de Droit Commercial et Economique (2021), (3), 619-626

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See detailOutage Probability Analysis of IRS-Assisted Systems Under Spatially Correlated Channels
Trinh, van Chien UL; K. Papazafeiropoulos, Anastasios; Tu, Lam Thanh et al

in IEEE Wireless Communications Letters (2021), 10(8), 1815-1819

This paper investigates the impact of spatial channel correlation on the outage probability of intelligent reflecting surface (IRS)-assisted single-input single-output (SISO) communication systems. In ... [more ▼]

This paper investigates the impact of spatial channel correlation on the outage probability of intelligent reflecting surface (IRS)-assisted single-input single-output (SISO) communication systems. In particular, we derive a novel closed-form expression of the outage probability for arbitrary phase shifts and correlation matrices of the indirect channels. To shed light on the impact of the spatial correlation, we further attain the closed-form expressions for two common scenarios met in the literature when the large-scale fading coefficients are expressed by the loss over a propagation distance. Numerical results validate the tightness and effectiveness of the closed-form expressions. Furthermore, the spatial correlation offers significant decreases in the outage probability as the direct channel is blocked. [less ▲]

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See detailWhen a Master Dies: Speculation and Asset Float
Penasse, Julien UL; Renneboog, Luc; Scheinkman, José

in Review of Financial Studies (2021), 34(8), 38403879

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See detailChronic primary pain in the COVID-19 pandemic: how uncertainty and stress impact on functioning and suffering
Meulders, Ann; Vlaeyen, Johan W S; Evers, Andrea W M et al

in Pain (2021)

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See detailRadio Resource Management Techniques for Multibeam Satellite Systems
Kisseleff, Steven UL; Lagunas, Eva UL; Abdu, Tedros Salih UL et al

in IEEE Communications Letters (2021), 25(8), 2448-2452

Next–generation of satellite communication (SatCom) networks are expected to support extremely high data rates for a seamless integration into future large satellite-terrestrial networks. In view of the ... [more ▼]

Next–generation of satellite communication (SatCom) networks are expected to support extremely high data rates for a seamless integration into future large satellite-terrestrial networks. In view of the coming spectral limitations, the main challenge is to reduce the cost (satellite launch and operation) per bit, which can be achieved by enhancing the spectral efficiencies. In addition, the capability to quickly and flexibly assign radio resources according to the traffic demand distribution has become a must for future multibeam broadband satellite systems. This article presents the radio resource management problems encountered in the design of future broadband SatComs and provides a comprehensive overview of the available techniques to address such challenges. Firstly, we focus on the demand matching formulation of the power and bandwidth assignment. Secondly, we present the scheduling design in practical multibeam satellite systems. Finally, a number of future challenges and the respective open research topics are described. [less ▲]

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See detail"Unless One Does the Research, It May Seem as Just a Useless Battery-Consuming App" - Field Notes on COVID-19 Contact Tracing Applications
Stojkovski, Borce UL; Abu-Salma, Ruba; Triquet, Karen et al

in Digital Threats: Research and Practice (2021)

Globally, countries have been developing contact tracing applications to control the spread of the Coronavirus (COVID-19) disease. In this work, we present the findings of eight focus groups we conducted ... [more ▼]

Globally, countries have been developing contact tracing applications to control the spread of the Coronavirus (COVID-19) disease. In this work, we present the findings of eight focus groups we conducted with participants living in France and Germany, to explore why they decided to adopt, or not adopt, a contact tracing application as well as understand how they perceived the benefits/drawbacks and the threat model of a contact tracing application. [less ▲]

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See detailGuest Editorial: Space Information Networks: Technological Challenges, Design Issues, and Solutions
Xue, Kaiping; De Cola, Tomaso; Wei, David S.L. et al

in IEEE Network (2021), 35(4), 16-18

It has been expected that the space information networks (SIN), as an extension of the terrestrial network, would provide high-speed, high-capacity, global continuous communication, and data transmission ... [more ▼]

It has been expected that the space information networks (SIN), as an extension of the terrestrial network, would provide high-speed, high-capacity, global continuous communication, and data transmission services anywhere for anyone at any time. With rapid advances in relevant technologies (e.g., satellite miniaturization technology, reusable rocket launch technology, and semiconductor technology), low-orbit satellites, drones, and airships can be integrated into the SIN to supply more comprehensive network connectivity. The standard development organizations including 3GPP, ITU, and ETSI already starts corresponding standardization activities to support nonterrestrial networks in SIN. It can be foreseen that SIN will be expanded to provide not only telephone services but also various kinds of Internet services, and it is thus able to serve many more users with different demands. [less ▲]

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See detailPolicy Experimentation in Committees: A Case Against Veto Rights Under Redistributive Constraints
Anesi, Vincent UL; Bowen, Renee

in American Economic Journal. Microeconomics (2021), 13(3), 124-162

We study optimal policy experimentation by a committee. We consider a dynamic bargaining game in which committee members choose either a risky reform or a safe alternative each period. When no ... [more ▼]

We study optimal policy experimentation by a committee. We consider a dynamic bargaining game in which committee members choose either a risky reform or a safe alternative each period. When no redistribution is allowed the unique equilibrium outcome is generically inefficient. When redistribution is allowed (even small amounts), there always exists an equilibrium that supports optimal experimentation for any voting rule without veto players. With veto players, however, optimal policy experimentation is possible only with a sufficient amount of redistribution. We conclude that veto rights are more of an obstacle to optimal policy experimentation than the constraints on redistribution themselves. [less ▲]

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See detailSupervised machine learning for power and bandwidth management in very high throughput satellite systems
Ortiz Gomez, Flor de Guadalupe UL; Tarchi, Daniele; Martinez, Ramon et al

in International Journal of Satellite Communications and Networking (2021)

In the near future, very high throughput satellite (VHTS) systems are expected to have a high increase in traffic demand. However, this increase will not be uniform over the service area and will be also ... [more ▼]

In the near future, very high throughput satellite (VHTS) systems are expected to have a high increase in traffic demand. However, this increase will not be uniform over the service area and will be also dynamic. A solution to this problem is given by flexible payload architectures; however, they require that resource management is performed autonomously and with low latency. In this paper, we propose the use of supervised machine learning, in particular a classification algorithm using a neural network, to manage the resources available in flexible payload architectures. Use cases are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach, and a discussion is made on all the challenges that are presented. [less ▲]

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See detailModelling COVID-19 dynamics and potential for herd immunity by vaccination in Austria, Luxembourg and Sweden
Kemp, Francoise UL; Proverbio, Daniele UL; Aalto, Atte UL et al

in Journal of Theoretical Biology (2021)

Against the COVID-19 pandemic, non-pharmaceutical interventions have been widely applied and vaccinations have taken off. The upcoming question is how the interplay between vaccinations and social ... [more ▼]

Against the COVID-19 pandemic, non-pharmaceutical interventions have been widely applied and vaccinations have taken off. The upcoming question is how the interplay between vaccinations and social measures will shape infections and hospitalizations. Hence, we extend the Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Removed (SEIR) model including these elements. We calibrate it to data of Luxembourg, Austria and Sweden until 15 December 2020. Sweden results having the highest fraction of undetected, Luxembourg of infected and all three being far from herd immunity in December. We quantify the level of social interaction, showing that a level around 1/3 of before the pandemic was still required in December to keep the effective reproduction number Refft below 1, for all three countries. Aiming to vaccinate the whole population within 1 year at constant rate would require on average 1,700 fully vaccinated people/day in Luxembourg, 24,000 in Austria and 28,000 in Sweden, and could lead to herd immunity only by mid summer. Herd immunity might not be reached in 2021 if too slow vaccines rollout speeds are employed. The model thus estimates which vaccination rates are too low to allow reaching herd immunity in 2021, depending on social interactions. Vaccination will considerably, but not immediately, help to curb the infection; thus limiting social interactions remains crucial for the months to come. [less ▲]

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