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See detailScience knowledge and trust in medicine affect individuals’ behavior in pandemic crises
Sailer, Michael; Stadler, Matthias UL; Botes, E'louise UL et al

in European Journal of Psychology of Education (2022), (37), 279-292

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See detailGamified web-delivered attentional bias modification training for adults with chronic pain: Protocol for a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial
Vermeir, Julie F; White, Melanie J; Johnson, Daniel et al

in JMIR Research Protocols (2022)

Background: Research to date has found variable success in using attentional bias modification training (ABMT) procedures in pain samples. Several factors could contribute to these mixed findings ... [more ▼]

Background: Research to date has found variable success in using attentional bias modification training (ABMT) procedures in pain samples. Several factors could contribute to these mixed findings, including boredom and low motivation. Indeed, training paradigms are repetitive, which can lead to disengagement and high drop-out rates. A potential approach to overcome some of these barriers is to attempt to increase motivation and engagement through gamification (ie, the use of game elements) of this procedure. To date, research has yet to explore the gamified format of ABMT for chronic pain and its potential for transfer of benefits. Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of a gamified web-delivered ABMT intervention in a sample of adults with chronic pain via a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Methods: One hundred and twenty adults with chronic musculoskeletal pain, recruited from clinical (hospital outpatient waiting list) and non-clinical (wider community) settings, will be included in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 3-arm trial. Participants will be randomly assigned to complete six online sessions of dot-probe non-gamified sham control ABMT, non-gamified standard ABMT, or gamified ABMT, across a period of three weeks. Active ABMT conditions will aim to train attention away from pain-relevant words. Participant outcomes will be assessed at pre-training, during training, immediately post-training and at 1-month follow-up. Primary outcomes include pain intensity, pain interference, and behavioral and self-reported engagement. Secondary outcomes include attentional bias for pain, anxiety, depression, interpretation bias for pain, and perceived improvement. Results: The ethical aspects of this research project have been approved by the Human Research Ethics Committees of the Royal Brisbane and Women’s Hospital (HREC/2020/QRBW/61743) and Queensland University of Technology (2000000395). This trial is currently in the active participant recruitment phase (since August 2021). Data collection and analysis are expected to conclude by October 2022 and January 2023, respectively. Conclusions: This trial will be the first to evaluate the effects of gamification techniques in a pain ABMT intervention. The findings will provide important information on the potential therapeutic benefits of gamified pain ABMT programs, shed light on the motivational influences of certain game elements in the context of pain, and advance our understanding of chronic pain. Trial Registration: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, ACTRN12620000803998 [less ▲]

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See detailAn Empirical Study on Data Distribution-Aware Test Selection for Deep Learning Enhancement
Hu, Qiang UL; Guo, Yuejun UL; Cordy, Maxime UL et al

in ACM Transactions on Software Engineering and Methodology (2022)

Similar to traditional software that is constantly under evolution, deep neural networks (DNNs) need to evolve upon the rapid growth of test data for continuous enhancement, e.g., adapting to distribution ... [more ▼]

Similar to traditional software that is constantly under evolution, deep neural networks (DNNs) need to evolve upon the rapid growth of test data for continuous enhancement, e.g., adapting to distribution shift in a new environment for deployment. However, it is labor-intensive to manually label all the collected test data. Test selection solves this problem by strategically choosing a small set to label. Via retraining with the selected set, DNNs will achieve competitive accuracy. Unfortunately, existing selection metrics involve three main limitations: 1) using different retraining processes; 2) ignoring data distribution shifts; 3) being insufficiently evaluated. To fill this gap, we first conduct a systemically empirical study to reveal the impact of the retraining process and data distribution on model enhancement. Then based on our findings, we propose a novel distribution-aware test (DAT) selection metric. Experimental results reveal that retraining using both the training and selected data outperforms using only the selected data. None of the selection metrics perform the best under various data distributions. By contrast, DAT effectively alleviates the impact of distribution shifts and outperforms the compared metrics by up to 5 times and 30.09% accuracy improvement for model enhancement on simulated and in-the-wild distribution shift scenarios, respectively. [less ▲]

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See detailDrug targeting opportunities en route to Ras nanoclusters.
Pavic, Karolina UL; Chippalkatti, Rohan UL; Abankwa, Daniel UL

in Advances in cancer research (2022), 153

Disruption of the native membrane organization of Ras by the farnesyltransferase inhibitor tipifarnib in the late 1990s constituted the first indirect approach to drug target Ras. Since then, our ... [more ▼]

Disruption of the native membrane organization of Ras by the farnesyltransferase inhibitor tipifarnib in the late 1990s constituted the first indirect approach to drug target Ras. Since then, our understanding of how dynamically Ras shuttles between subcellular locations has changed significantly. Ras proteins have to arrive at the plasma membrane for efficient MAPK-signal propagation. On the plasma membrane Ras proteins are organized into isoform specific proteo-lipid assemblies called nanocluster. Recent evidence suggests that Ras nanocluster have a specific lipid composition, which supports the recruitment of effectors such as Raf. Conversely, effectors possess lipid-recognition motifs, which appear to serve as co-incidence detectors for the lipid domain of a given Ras isoform. Evidence suggests that dimeric Raf proteins then co-assemble dimeric Ras in an immobile complex, thus forming the minimal unit of an active nanocluster. Here we review established and novel trafficking chaperones and trafficking factors of Ras, along with the set of lipid and protein modulators of Ras nanoclustering. We highlight drug targeting approaches and opportunities against these determinants of functional Ras membrane organization. Finally, we reflect on implications for Ras signaling in polarized cells, such as epithelia, which are a common origin of tumorigenesis. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Pandemic Worsens Europe’s Housing Problems
Flynn, Lindsay UL

in Current History (2022), 121(833), 83-89

Housing is a flash point in many European countries, with protests erupting and citizens voting to wrench properties from big investors. Inequality is driving the explosive debate, as households across ... [more ▼]

Housing is a flash point in many European countries, with protests erupting and citizens voting to wrench properties from big investors. Inequality is driving the explosive debate, as households across the income distribution face very different kinds of challenges and opportunities in today’s unequal housing markets. The COVID-19 pandemic has amplified the risks and rewards already present across different subgroups. This housing-generated inequality creates a conundrum for governments that must balance the interests of competing constituencies with complex housing markets, and points to fundamental questions about how to order society. [less ▲]

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See detailExploring Spillover Effects for COVID-19 Cascade Prediction
Chen, Ninghan; Chen, Xihui UL; Zhong, Zhiqiang UL et al

in Entropy (2022), 24(2),

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See detailDer Witz der Urteilskraft. Zur politischen Dimension des Humors
Mein, Georg UL

in andererseits – Yearbook of Transatlantic German Studies (2022), 9/10

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See detailMechanistically Coupled PK (MCPK) Model to Describe Enzyme Induction and Occupancy Dependent DDI of Dabrafenib Metabolism.
Albrecht, Marco; Kogan, Yuri; Kulms, Dagmar et al

in Pharmaceutics (2022), 14(2),

Dabrafenib inhibits the cell proliferation of metastatic melanoma with the oncogenic BRAF(V600)-mutation. However, dabrafenib monotherapy is associated with pERK reactivation, drug resistance, and ... [more ▼]

Dabrafenib inhibits the cell proliferation of metastatic melanoma with the oncogenic BRAF(V600)-mutation. However, dabrafenib monotherapy is associated with pERK reactivation, drug resistance, and consequential relapse. A clinical drug-dose determination study shows increased pERK levels upon daily administration of more than 300 mg dabrafenib. To clarify whether such elevated drug concentrations could be reached by long-term drug accumulation, we mechanistically coupled the pharmacokinetics (MCPK) of dabrafenib and its metabolites. The MCPK model is qualitatively based on in vitro and quantitatively on clinical data to describe occupancy-dependent CYP3A4 enzyme induction, accumulation, and drug-drug interaction mechanisms. The prediction suggests an eight-fold increase in the steady-state concentration of potent desmethyl-dabrafenib and its inactive precursor carboxy-dabrafenib within four weeks upon 150 mg b.d. dabrafenib. While it is generally assumed that a higher dose is not critical, we found experimentally that a high physiological dabrafenib concentration fails to induce cell death in embedded 451LU melanoma spheroids. [less ▲]

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See detailSuSy-EnGaD: Surveillance System Enhanced by Games of Drones
Stolfi Rosso, Daniel UL; Brust, Mathias UL; Danoy, Grégoire UL et al

in Drones (2022), 6(13),

In this article, we propose SuSy-EnGaD, a surveillance system enhanced by games of drones. We propose three different approaches to optimise a swarm of UAVs for improving intruder detection, two of them ... [more ▼]

In this article, we propose SuSy-EnGaD, a surveillance system enhanced by games of drones. We propose three different approaches to optimise a swarm of UAVs for improving intruder detection, two of them featuring a multi-objective optimisation approach, while the third approach relates to the evolutionary game theory where three different strategies based on games are proposed. We test our system on four different case studies, analyse the results presented as Pareto fronts in terms of flying time and area coverage, and compare them with the single-objective optimisation results from games. Finally, an analysis of the UAVs trajectories is performed to help understand the results achieved. [less ▲]

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See detailWorking Memory Training Coupled With Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in Older Adults: A Randomized Controlled Experiment
Teixeira Santos, Ana Carolina UL; Moreira, Celia S; Pereira, Diana R. et al

in Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience (2022)

Background: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been employed to boost working memory training (WMT) effects. Nevertheless, there is limited evidence on the efficacy of this combination in ... [more ▼]

Background: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been employed to boost working memory training (WMT) effects. Nevertheless, there is limited evidence on the efficacy of this combination in older adults. The present study is aimed to assess the delayed transfer effects of tDCS coupled with WMT in older adults in a 15-day follow-up. We explored if general cognitive ability, age, and educational level predicted the effects. Methods: In this single-center, double-blind randomized sham-controlled experiment, 54 older adults were randomized into three groups: anodal-tDCS (atDCS)+WMT, sham-tDCS (stDCS)+WMT, and double-sham. Five sessions of tDCS (2 mA) were applied over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Far transfer was measured by Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices (RAPM), while the near transfer effects were assessed through Digit Span. A frequentist linear mixed model (LMM) was complemented by a Bayesian approach in data analysis. Results: Working memory training improved dual n-back performance in both groups submitted to this intervention but only the group that received atDCS+WMT displayed a significant improvement from pretest to follow-up in transfer measures of reasoning (RAPM) and short-term memory (forward Digit Span). Near transfer improvements predicted gains in far transfer, demonstrating that the far transfer is due to an improvement in the trained construct of working memory. Age, formal education, and vocabulary score seem to predict the gains in reasoning. However, Bayesian results do not provide substantial evidence to support this claim. Conclusion: This study will help to consolidate the incipient but auspicious field of cognitive training coupled with tDCS in healthy older adults. Our findings demonstrated that atDCS may potentialize WMT by promoting transfer effects in short-term memory and reasoning in older adults, which are observed especially at follow-up. [less ▲]

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See detailFour reasons why data centers matter, five implications of their social spatial distribution, one graphic to visualize them
Bast, Desmond; Carr, Constance UL; Madron, Karinne Lynda UL et al

in Environment and Planning A (2022)

Data centers constitute a new kind of telecommunications infrastructure that demands attention for four reasons. Data centers are under-examined in the social sciences literature, urban studies, in ... [more ▼]

Data centers constitute a new kind of telecommunications infrastructure that demands attention for four reasons. Data centers are under-examined in the social sciences literature, urban studies, in particular. Data centers present an under explored geography of cyberworlds. Large digital corporations such as Amazon or Google are expanding their role in urban infrastructural development (such as data centers), and it is necessary to research and explain this phenomenon. Data centers present challenges of urban governance. The graphic provided here visualizes the social spatial distribution of data centers in the Washington Metropolitan Area. There are four implications of their social spatial distribution. Data centers are concentrated in metropolitan areas. Data centers have a high demand for energy and water, competing with local residents for these resources. The DC industry is a state-led niche economy. The uneven distribution of data centers can invoke inter-county competition for tax revenue, in addition to access to the water, power, and land resources that data centers require. The scale of the problem is unknown because the input needs of many data centers are not publicly available. [less ▲]

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See detailSetting out for new Shores! An explorative Analysis of Agency in Youth Employment Mobility
Skrobanek, Jan; Vysotskaya, Volha UL

in Journal of Education and Work (2022)

Based on biographical interviews from an intra-European youth mobility study in Luxembourg and Norway the article aims to contribute to the debate on how to understand and account for complexities of ... [more ▼]

Based on biographical interviews from an intra-European youth mobility study in Luxembourg and Norway the article aims to contribute to the debate on how to understand and account for complexities of agency in youth intra-European employment mobility. Critically reflecting and operationalising Emirbayer and Misches’s conceptualisation of agentic orientations in the field of intra-European employment mobility of young people, we a) explore the usefulness of researching agency from a relational perspective, we b) elaborate on how young mobile reflect their manoeuvring under perceived contingent moments and we c) augment our ken of the complex interlacement of habit, imagination and judgement with (contingent) employment mobility contexts and young people’s concrete employment mobility practices. Our results emphasise the importance of considering how differently agentic orientations interlace with contingent employment mobility contexts ranging from radical self-realisation, adaptive interplay of self-realisation and situational constraints and agentic orientations strongly bounded by situational constraints. In addition, the empirical analysis shows that some of the theoretical propositions of Emirbayer and Mische’s approach have to be revisited. [less ▲]

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See detailKernel Regression over Graphs using Random Fourier Features
Elias, Vitor R.M.; Gogineni, Vinay C.; Alves Martins, Wallace UL et al

in IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing (2022)

This paper proposes efficient batch-based and online strategies for kernel regression over graphs (KRG). The proposed algorithms do not require the input signal to be a graph signal, whereas the target ... [more ▼]

This paper proposes efficient batch-based and online strategies for kernel regression over graphs (KRG). The proposed algorithms do not require the input signal to be a graph signal, whereas the target signal is defined over the graph. We first use random Fourier features (RFF) to tackle the complexity issues associated with kernel methods employed in the conventional KRG. For batch-based approaches, we also propose an implementation that reduces complexity by avoiding the inversion of large matrices. Then, we derive two distinct online strategies using RFF, namely, the mini-batch gradient KRG (MGKRG) and the recursive least squares KRG (RLSKRG). The stochastic gradient KRG (SGKRG) is introduced as a particular case of the MGKRG. The MGKRG and the SGKRG are low-complexity algorithms that employ stochastic gradient approximations in the regression-parameter update. The RLSKRG is a recursive implementation of the RFF-based batch KRG. A detailed stability analysis is provided for the proposed online algorithms, including convergence conditions in both mean and mean-squared senses. A discussion on complexity is also provided. Numerical simulations include a synthesized-data experiment and real-data experiments on temperature prediction, brain activity estimation, and image reconstruction. Results show that the RFF-based batch implementation offers competitive performance with a reduced computational burden when compared to the conventional KRG. The MGKRG offers a convenient trade-off between performance and complexity by varying the number of mini-batch samples. The RLSKRG has a faster convergence than the MGKRG and matches the performance of the batch implementation. [less ▲]

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See detailThe quizzing effect depends on hope of success and can be optimized by cognitive load-based adaptation
Heitmann, Svenja; Grund, Axel UL; Fries, Stefan et al

in Learning and Instruction (2022), 77(online first), 101526

It is well established that quizzing fosters learning. However, some gaps in the literature relating to the fit of quizzing to learner characteristics and learner perceptions during quizzing still need to ... [more ▼]

It is well established that quizzing fosters learning. However, some gaps in the literature relating to the fit of quizzing to learner characteristics and learner perceptions during quizzing still need to be addressed. The present study focuses on two of these aspects: achievement motives and perceptions of cognitive load. First, quizzing entails that learners’ performance is judged against some standard of excellence. This might make it appealing and effective for learners with high hope of success and low fear of failure in particular. Second, it is an open question whether providing quiz questions that are adapted to learners’ perceived level of cognitive load during quizzing would be beneficial. To address these questions, we randomly assigned learners to either non-adaptive quizzing, adaptive quizzing, or note-taking. We found that quizzing benefits concerning learning outcomes were moderated by hope of success. Furthermore, the adaptation via cognitive load ratings substantially increased the quizzing effect. [less ▲]

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See detailSequential On-Device Multitasking within Online Surveys: A Data Quality and Response Behavior Perspective
Decieux, Jean Philippe Pierre UL

in Sociological Methods and Research (2022)

The risk of multitasking is high in online surveys. However, knowledge on the effects of multitasking on answer quality is sparse and based on suboptimal approaches. Research reports inconclusive results ... [more ▼]

The risk of multitasking is high in online surveys. However, knowledge on the effects of multitasking on answer quality is sparse and based on suboptimal approaches. Research reports inconclusive results concerning the consequences of multitasking on task performance. However, studies suggest that especially sequential-multitasking activities are expected to be critical. Therefore, this study focusses on sequential-on-device-multitasking activities (SODM) and its consequences for data quality. Based on probability-based data, this study aims to reveal the prevalence of SODM based on the javascript function OnBlur, to reflect its determinants and to examine the consequences for data quality. Results show that SODM was detected for 25% of all respondents and that respondent attributes and the device used to answer the survey are related to SODM. Moreover, it becomes apparent that SODM is significantly correlated to data quality measures. Therefore, I propose SODM behavior as a new instrument for researching suboptimal response behavior. [less ▲]

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See detailTransnational soldiering, burial and commemoration across borders. The case of Luxembourgers in the French Foreign Legion
Kolnberger, Thomas UL; Kmec, Sonja UL

in Francia: Forschungen zur Westeuropäischen Geschichte. 3, 19./20. Jahrhundert (2022), 49

To whom do the dead belong? The French Foreign Legion exemplifies a modern military conundrum: how to reconcile loyal and patriotic duty with mercenary service or, in neutral terms, military labour. This ... [more ▼]

To whom do the dead belong? The French Foreign Legion exemplifies a modern military conundrum: how to reconcile loyal and patriotic duty with mercenary service or, in neutral terms, military labour. This article investigates soldierly funeral culture in the long nineteenth century, with a focus on the entangled histories of Luxembourg and France. The Foreign Legion’s transnational recruitment makes this armed force a unique case study to explore military commemoration across state borders, honouring the dead and the living alike. Since its establishment to fight outside mainland France, rooted in the conquest of Algeria (1830–1857), the Legion has been the only branch of the French military whose members swear allegiance not to France, but to the corps itself: its motto is Legio Patria Nostra (»The Legion is our Homeland«). As a military parallel society and temporary »ersatz nation«, the Legion has elaborated a specific death cult, which has both a corporeal (body-centred, individual) and a sur-real (transcendent, communal) dimension. The two dimensions cannot be rigidly delimited: they clearly overlap and can be shared with other nations, as the case of Luxembourg demonstrates. [less ▲]

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See detailHow Germany achieved a record share of renewables during the COVID-19 pandemic while relying on the European interconnected power network
Halbrügge, Stephanie; Buhl, Hans Ulrich; Fridgen, Gilbert UL et al

in Energy (2022)

In 2020, Germany reached a maximum share of 50.5% intermittent renewables in electricity generation. Such a high share results in an increasing need for flexibility measures such as international ... [more ▼]

In 2020, Germany reached a maximum share of 50.5% intermittent renewables in electricity generation. Such a high share results in an increasing need for flexibility measures such as international transmission flexibility, i.e., electricity imports and exports. In fact, during the COVID-19 pandemic, Germany changed from a former electricity net exporter to a net importer. This paper, therefore, analyzes what we can learn from the resulting development of German electricity imports as a flexibility measure from a market, environmental, and network perspective. We analyze data on electricity imports/exports, generation, prices, and interconnection capacities of 38 bidding zones, respectively 11 countries within the ENTSO-E. In particular, we formulate three hypotheses to partition our overarching research question. Our results reveal that from a market perspective, Germany's increased need for transmission flexibility did not generally result in increased prices for German electricity imports. Also, from an environmental perspective, Germany increasingly relied on electricity imports from countries that exhibited a lower share of renewables. Finally, during the COVID-19 pandemic some of Germany's interconnection capacities to its neighboring countries exhibited a higher utilization. In view of our results, German policymakers may reflect on decarbonization policies considering a holistic European perspective. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of COVID-19 Pandemic on (Health) Care Situation of People with Parkinson’s Disease in Germany (Care4PD)
Fründt, Odette; Hanff, Anne-Marie UL; Mai, Tobias et al

in Brain Sciences (2022), 12(1 62),

The Care4PD study examined the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the care situation of people (PwP) with Parkinson’s disease in Germany. A comprehensive, nationwide, anonymous questionnaire for PwP was ... [more ▼]

The Care4PD study examined the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the care situation of people (PwP) with Parkinson’s disease in Germany. A comprehensive, nationwide, anonymous questionnaire for PwP was distributed by the members’ journal of the German Parkinson’s Disease Association and in several PD specialized in- and outpatient institutions. PwP subjectively evaluated their general care situation and individual impairments during the pandemic. We analyzed 1269 eligible out of 1437 returned questionnaires (88.3%) and compared PwP with (p-LTC) and without (np-LTC) professional long-term care. Both groups rated the general pandemic-related consequences as being rather mild to moderate (e.g., worsening of symptom or concerns). However, familial/social contact restrictions were indicated as most compromising, whereas access to outpatient professional health care providers was less affected. PwP with professional LTC reported more impairment than those without. COVID-19 vaccination rates and acceptance were generally high (p-LTC: 64.3%, np-LTC: 52.3%) at the time of the study, but realization of sanitary measures—especially wearing masks as a patient during care sessions—still needs to be improved. Technical options for telemedicine were principally available but only rarely used. Altogether, during the COVID-19 pandemic, PwP in Germany seemed to have a relatively stable health care access, at least in outpatient settings, while mainly social isolation compromised them. The p-LTC group was more impaired in everyday live compared with the np-LTC group. [less ▲]

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See detailLeveraging the Potential of Digital Technology for Better Individualized Treatment of Parkinson's Disease.
Fröhlich, Holger; Bontridder, Noémi; Petrovska-Delacréta, Dijana et al

in Frontiers in neurology (2022), 13

Recent years have witnessed a strongly increasing interest in digital technology within medicine (sensor devices, specific smartphone apps) and specifically also neurology. Quantitative measures derived ... [more ▼]

Recent years have witnessed a strongly increasing interest in digital technology within medicine (sensor devices, specific smartphone apps) and specifically also neurology. Quantitative measures derived from digital technology could provide Digital Biomarkers (DMs) enabling a quantitative and continuous monitoring of disease symptoms, also outside clinics. This includes the possibility to continuously and sensitively monitor the response to treatment, hence opening the opportunity to adapt medication pathways quickly. In addition, DMs may in the future allow early diagnosis, stratification of patient subgroups and prediction of clinical outcomes. Thus, DMs could complement or in certain cases even replace classical examiner-based outcome measures and molecular biomarkers measured in cerebral spinal fluid, blood, urine, saliva, or other body liquids. Altogether, DMs could play a prominent role in the emerging field of precision medicine. However, realizing this vision requires dedicated research. First, advanced data analytical methods need to be developed and applied, which extract candidate DMs from raw signals. Second, these candidate DMs need to be validated by (a) showing their correlation to established clinical outcome measures, and (b) demonstrating their diagnostic and/or prognostic value compared to established biomarkers. These points again require the use of advanced data analytical methods, including machine learning. In addition, the arising ethical, legal and social questions associated with the collection and processing of sensitive patient data and the use of machine learning methods to analyze these data for better individualized treatment of the disease, must be considered thoroughly. Using Parkinson's Disease (PD) as a prime example of a complex multifactorial disorder, the purpose of this article is to critically review the current state of research regarding the use of DMs, discuss open challenges and highlight emerging new directions. [less ▲]

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See detailpatRoon 2.0: Improved non-target analysis workflows including automated transformation product screening
Helmus, Rick; van de Velde, Bas; Brunner, Andrea M. et al

in Journal of Open Source Software (2022), 7(71), 4029

Non-target analysis (NTA) via chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) is used to monitor and identify organic chemicals in the environment. Biotic and abiotic processes can ... [more ▼]

Non-target analysis (NTA) via chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) is used to monitor and identify organic chemicals in the environment. Biotic and abiotic processes can transform original chemicals (parents) into transformation products (TPs). These TPs can be of equal or more concern than their parent compounds and are therefore critical to monitor and identify in the environment (Escher & Fenner, 2011; Farré et al., 2008), often with NTA. Given the amount of data generated by NTA, advanced automated data processing workflows are essential. The open-source, R-based (R Core Team, 2021) platform patRoon (Helmus, ter Laak, et al., 2021) offers automated, straightforward, flexible and comprehensive NTA workflows. This article describes improvements introduced in patRoon 2.0, including extensive TP screening and simultaneous processing of positive and negative HRMS data. The updated documentation and code are available via https://rickhelmus.github.io/patRoon and archived in Helmus, Velde, et al. (2021). [less ▲]

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See detailEnhanced Optical Spectroscopy for Multiplexed DNA and Protein-Sequencing with Plasmonic Nanopores: Challenges and Prospects
Li, Wang; Zhou, Juan; Maccaferri, Nicolò UL et al

in Analytical Chemistry (2022), 94(2), 503-514

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See detailFrom #MuseumAtHome to #AtHomeAtTheMuseum: Digital Museums and Dialogical Engagement beyond the COVID-19 Pandemic
Morse, Christopher UL; Landau, Blandine UL; Lallemand, Carine UL et al

in Journal on Computing and Cultural Heritage (2022), 15(2),

The novel coronavirus spurred a keen interest in digital technologies for museums as both cultural professionals and the public took notice of their uses and limitations throughout the confinement period ... [more ▼]

The novel coronavirus spurred a keen interest in digital technologies for museums as both cultural professionals and the public took notice of their uses and limitations throughout the confinement period. In this study, we investigated the use of digital technologies by museums during a period when in-person interaction was not possible. The aim of the study was to better understand the impact of the confinement period on the use of museum technologies in order to identify implications for future museum experience design. We compared museums across four countries – France, Japan, Luxembourg, and the United States – by conducting an international survey in three languages on the use of digital technologies during the early phase of the pandemic. Additionally, we analyzed the Facebook activity of museums in each country and conducted a series of interviews with digital museology professionals in academia and the private sector. We found that despite a flurry of online activities, especially during the early phase of the pandemic, museums confronted a number of internal and external challenges that were often incongruent with their ability to offer new forms of digital engagement. In general, digital solutions served only as a temporary substitute for the museum experience rather than as an opportunity to usher in a new digital paradigm for cultural mediation, and many cultural professionals cited a lack of digital training as a limiting factor in robust ICT implementation. We also argue that the most successful digital engagement came from those activities that promoted a sense of community or an invitation for self-expression by visitors. We conclude with a framework that describes a ‘virtuous circle of museum participation’, aiming to support public engagement with museums through the development of content that builds on the interconnectedness of on-site and online interactivity. [less ▲]

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See detailOne planet: one health. A call to support the initiative on a global science–policy body on chemicals and waste
Brack, Werner; Barcelo Culleres, Damia; Boxall, Alistair B. A. et al

in Environmental Sciences Europe (2022), 34(1), 21

Abstract The chemical pollution crisis severely threatens human and environmental health globally. To tackle this challenge the establishment of an overarching international science–policy body has ... [more ▼]

Abstract The chemical pollution crisis severely threatens human and environmental health globally. To tackle this challenge the establishment of an overarching international science–policy body has recently been suggested. We strongly support this initiative based on the awareness that humanity has already likely left the safe operating space within planetary boundaries for novel entities including chemical pollution. Immediate action is essential and needs to be informed by sound scientific knowledge and data compiled and critically evaluated by an overarching science–policy interface body. Major challenges for such a body are (i) to foster global knowledge production on exposure, impacts and governance going beyond data-rich regions (e.g., Europe and North America), (ii) to cover the entirety of hazardous chemicals, mixtures and wastes, (iii) to follow a one-health perspective considering the risks posed by chemicals and waste on ecosystem and human health, and (iv) to strive for solution-oriented assessments based on systems thinking. Based on multiple evidence on urgent action on a global scale, we call scientists and practitioners to mobilize their scientific networks and to intensify science–policy interaction with national governments to support the negotiations on the establishment of an intergovernmental body based on scientific knowledge explaining the anticipated benefit for human and environmental health. [less ▲]

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See detailPUBA: Privacy-Preserving User-Data Bookkeeping and Analytics
Fetzer, Valerie; Keller, Marcel; Maier, Sven et al

in Proceedings on Privacy Enhancing Technologies (2022), 2022(2),

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See detailChanging Routinized Household Energy Consumption Using the Example of Washing, Cooking, and Standby: A Randomized Controlled Field Experiment of Home Energy Advice
Hess, Ann-Kathrin; Schubert, Iljana; Samuel, Robin UL et al

in Cleaner and Responsible Consumption (2022)

Despite advances in understanding routines, there is little knowledge about which aspects of routinized behavior people adjust during interventions. In this study, we applied an adjusted social practice ... [more ▼]

Despite advances in understanding routines, there is little knowledge about which aspects of routinized behavior people adjust during interventions. In this study, we applied an adjusted social practice theory framework to disentangle routinized energy consumption, focusing on energy services related to washing, standby, and cooking. We investigate the potential of home energy advice to change elements of routinized behaviors, namely meanings, knowledge, and technologies. Using a randomized controlled field trial on a probabilistic sample of households, we found short-term treatment effects related to increased usage of lids during cooking and improved knowledge of IT-related energy consumption, as well as negative effects regarding multi-sockets and washing frequency. Our findings suggest that meanings (e.g., preferences underlying routinized behaviors) are less subject to change, and that sociodemographic variables are associated with routinized behaviors in complex ways. Our disentangling of energy demand into elements of routines enables us to show how home energy advice may change behaviors and knowledge. This study highlights the benefits of a multifaceted perspective for understanding household energy consumption and can be used to inform intervention and policy design. [less ▲]

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See detailCoffee, smoking and aspirin are associated with age at onset in idiopathic Parkinson's disease.
Gabbert, Carolin; König, Inke R.; Lüth, Theresa et al

in Journal of neurology (2022)

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder. Genetic modifiers, environmental factors and gene-environment interactions have been found to modify PD risk and disease progression ... [more ▼]

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder. Genetic modifiers, environmental factors and gene-environment interactions have been found to modify PD risk and disease progression. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of smoking, caffeine and anti-inflammatory drugs with age at onset (AAO) in a large PD cohort. A total of 35,963 American patients with idiopathic PD (iPD) from the Fox Insight Study responded to health and lifestyle questionnaires. We compared the median AAO between different groups using the non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test. Non-parametric Spearman's correlation was used for correlation assessments and regression analysis was used to assess interaction between variables. We found that smoking (p < 0.0001), coffee drinking (p < 0.0001) and aspirin intake (p < 0.0001) show an exploratory association with AAO in PD, that was further supported by multivariate regression models. The association of aspirin with PD AAO was replicated in another cohort (EPIPARK) (n = 237 patients with PD). [less ▲]

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See detailSolids on Soli: Millimetre-Wave Radar Sensing through Materials
Čopič Pucihar, Klen; Attygalle, Nuwan T.; Kljun, Matjaž et al

in Proceedings of the ACM on Human-Computer Interaction (2022)

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See detailNeurodegeneration and neuroinflammation are linked, but independent of a-synuclein inclusions, in a seeding/spreading mouse model of Parkinson's disease
Garcia, Pierre UL; Wemheuer, W.; Uriarte, O. et al

in Glia (2022)

A key pathological process in Parkinson's disease (PD) is the transneuronal spreading of α-synuclein. Alpha-synuclein (α-syn) is a presynaptic protein that, in PD, forms pathological inclusions. Other ... [more ▼]

A key pathological process in Parkinson's disease (PD) is the transneuronal spreading of α-synuclein. Alpha-synuclein (α-syn) is a presynaptic protein that, in PD, forms pathological inclusions. Other hallmarks of PD include neurodegeneration and microgliosis in susceptible brain regions. Whether it is primarily transneuronal spreading of α-syn particles, inclusion formation, or other mechanisms, such as inflammation, that cause neurodegeneration in PD is unclear. We used a model of spreading of α-syn induced by striatal injection of α-syn preformed fibrils into the mouse striatum to address this question. We performed quantitative analysis for α-syn inclusions, neurodegeneration, and microgliosis in different brain regions, and generated gene expression profiles of the ventral midbrain, at two different timepoints after disease induction. We observed significant neurodegeneration and microgliosis in brain regions not only with, but also without α-syn inclusions. We also observed prominent microgliosis in injured brain regions that did not correlate with neurodegeneration nor with inclusion load. Using longitudinal gene expression profiling, we observed early gene expression changes, linked to neuroinflammation, that preceded neurodegeneration, indicating an active role of microglia in this process. Altered gene pathways overlapped with those typical of PD. Our observations indicate that α-syn inclusion formation is not the major driver in the early phases of PD-like neurodegeneration, but that microglia, activated by diffusible, oligomeric α-syn, may play a key role in this process. Our findings uncover new features of α-syn induced pathologies, in particular microgliosis, and point to the necessity for a broader view of the process of α-syn spreading. [less ▲]

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See detailBruceine D Identified as a Drug Candidate against Breast Cancer by a Novel Drug Selection Pipeline and Cell Viability Assay.
Cipriani, Claudia; Pires Pacheco, Maria Irene UL; Kishk, Ali UL et al

in Pharmaceuticals (Basel, Switzerland) (2022), 15(2),

The multi-target effects of natural products allow us to fight complex diseases like cancer on multiple fronts. Unlike docking techniques, network-based approaches such as genome-scale metabolic modelling ... [more ▼]

The multi-target effects of natural products allow us to fight complex diseases like cancer on multiple fronts. Unlike docking techniques, network-based approaches such as genome-scale metabolic modelling can capture multi-target effects. However, the incompleteness of natural product target information reduces the prediction accuracy of in silico gene knockout strategies. Here, we present a drug selection workflow based on context-specific genome-scale metabolic models, built from the expression data of cancer cells treated with natural products, to predict cell viability. The workflow comprises four steps: first, in silico single-drug and drug combination predictions; second, the assessment of the effects of natural products on cancer metabolism via the computation of a dissimilarity score between the treated and control models; third, the identification of natural products with similar effects to the approved drugs; and fourth, the identification of drugs with the predicted effects in pathways of interest, such as the androgen and estrogen pathway. Out of the initial 101 natural products, nine candidates were tested in a 2D cell viability assay. Bruceine D, emodin, and scutellarein showed a dose-dependent inhibition of MCF-7 and Hs 578T cell proliferation with IC(50) values between 0.7 to 65 μM, depending on the drug and cell line. Bruceine D, extracted from Brucea javanica seeds, showed the highest potency. [less ▲]

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See detailViews on Aging – Current Trends and Future Directions for Cross- Cultural Research
Kornadt, Anna Elena UL; De Paula Couto, Clara M. P.; Rothermund, Klaus

in Online Readings in Psychology and Culture (2022), 6(2),

The investigation of what enables societies and individuals to age well remains one of the greatest challenges of our time. Views on aging are a decisive factor in this process, and thus, improving their ... [more ▼]

The investigation of what enables societies and individuals to age well remains one of the greatest challenges of our time. Views on aging are a decisive factor in this process, and thus, improving their understanding through cross-cultural research is of utmost importance. In the current review, we address the role of socio-ecological variables and cultural values and beliefs when investigating country differences in what people think about older persons and getting old themselves. Several complexities are introduced in terms of a differentiated conceptualization of views on aging that takes life domains and normative prescriptions into account, and also in terms of a differentiated and extended view on the factors through which societal and cultural aspects and views on aging mutually influence each other. We propose that an encompassing, lifespan framework on views on aging enhances our understanding of aging well in different cultural and societal contexts. [less ▲]

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See detailEuropeanizing Universities: Expanding and Consolidating Networks of the Erasmus Mundus Joint Master Degree Programme (2004–2017)
Marques, Marcelo; Zapp, Mike UL; Powell, Justin J W UL

in Higher Education Policy (2022), 35

The Europeanization of higher education has gained considerable scope and momentum over the past quarter century. Whereas the coordinative Bologna process, with soft governance mechanisms, have ... [more ▼]

The Europeanization of higher education has gained considerable scope and momentum over the past quarter century. Whereas the coordinative Bologna process, with soft governance mechanisms, have facilitated standardization across countries, European Commission funding programs targeted universities more directly. The Erasmus Mundus Joint Degree Programme, as an incentive-based program, epitomizes the dynamics of such European funding management. Notably, it has established expanding university networks across Europe and unique new tertiary degrees that facilitate student mobility. Applying social network analysis to 561 participating universities through several program cycles, we longitudinally examine three key patterns in the program’s development: the expansion of the programme, the consolidation of networks, and the participation of and coordination by central universities in these processes. Program participation increased considerably across cycles, even as established networks were consolidated, largely through re- accreditation of established programs. Moreover, we identify those universities that assume a central position in the inter-organizational structure of this international program. These universities actively facilitate the evolving Europeanization of higher education by strengthening inter-university networks via a signature EU program. [less ▲]

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See detailLe formalisme de la procédure de cassation luxembourgeoise en question
Cuniberti, Gilles UL

in Revue des procédures (2022)

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See detailBook review - Adrian Briggs Civil Jurisdiction and Judgments and A conflict of Laws Companion
Cuniberti, Gilles UL

in International and Comparative Law Quarterly (2022)

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See detailThe Effect of Noise Level on the Accuracy of Causal Discovery Methods with Additive Noise Models
Kap, Benjamin; Aleksandrova, Marharyta UL; Engel, Thomas UL

in Communications in Computer and Information Science (2022), 1530

In recent years a lot of research was conducted within the area of causal inference and causal learning. Many methods were developed to identify the cause-effect pairs. These methods also proved their ... [more ▼]

In recent years a lot of research was conducted within the area of causal inference and causal learning. Many methods were developed to identify the cause-effect pairs. These methods also proved their ability to successfully determine the direction of causal relationships from observational real-world data. Yet in bivariate situations, causal discovery problems remain challenging. A class of methods, that also allows tackling the bivariate case, is based on Additive Noise Models (ANMs). Unfortunately, one aspect of these methods has not received much attention until now: what is the impact of different noise levels on the ability of these methods to identify the direction of the causal relationship? This work aims to bridge this gap with the help of an empirical study. We consider a bivariate case and two specific methods Regression with Subsequent Independence Test and Identification using Conditional Variances. We perform a set of experiments with an exhaustive range of ANMs where the additive noises’ levels gradually change from 1% to 10000% of the causes’ noise level (the latter remains fixed). Additionally, we consider several different types of distributions as well as linear and non-linear ANMs. The results of the experiments show that these causal discovery methods can fail to capture the true causal direction for some levels of noise. [less ▲]

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See detailCurrent Tax Treaty Issues, 50th Anniversary of the International Tax Group, G. Maisto (Editor), EC and International Tax Law Series Vol. 18, IBFD. 2020
Haslehner, Werner UL

in Intertax, International Tax Review (2022), 50(3), 4

This is a short review of an important anniversary volume of the "International Tax Group", which has made many significant contributions to international tax law over the last 50 years.

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See detailVC investors’ venture screening: the role of the decision maker’s education and experience
Moritz, Alexandra; Diegel, Walter; Block, Jörn et al

in Journal of Business Economics (2022), 92(1), 27-63

We assess whether and how VC investors’ education and experience influence their screening decisions of potential investee candidates. Empirically, we perform an experimental choice-based-conjoint (CBC ... [more ▼]

We assess whether and how VC investors’ education and experience influence their screening decisions of potential investee candidates. Empirically, we perform an experimental choice-based-conjoint (CBC) analysis with 564 individual VC investors. Our results highlight that the level and field of education, as well as the decision maker’s investment and entrepreneurial experience, moderate the relative importance of different screening criteria. More specifically, we find that international scalability seems to become more important for decision makers with higher education and those with entrepreneurial experience. Whereas decision makers with a background in natural science focus on the value-added of the product or service, engineers seem to value a break even profitability and focus less on the management team. Investment experience, on the other hand, leads to a stronger focus on the management team. Our study contributes to the literature investigating the influence of human capital characteristics of the decision maker in venture financing. Practical implications exist for entrepreneurial ventures seeking financing and for risk capital investors making investments in such ventures. [less ▲]

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See detailProject-based learning course on metabolic network modelling in computational systems biology.
Sauter, Thomas UL; Bintener, Tamara; Kishk, Ali UL et al

in PLoS computational biology (2022), 18(1), 1009711

Project-based learning (PBL) is a dynamic student-centred teaching method that encourages students to solve real-life problems while fostering engagement and critical thinking. Here, we report on a PBL ... [more ▼]

Project-based learning (PBL) is a dynamic student-centred teaching method that encourages students to solve real-life problems while fostering engagement and critical thinking. Here, we report on a PBL course on metabolic network modelling that has been running for several years within the Master in Integrated Systems Biology (MISB) at the University of Luxembourg. This 2-week full-time block course comprises an introduction into the core concepts and methods of constraint-based modelling (CBM), applied to toy models and large-scale networks alongside the preparation of individual student projects in week 1 and, in week 2, the presentation and execution of these projects. We describe in detail the schedule and content of the course, exemplary student projects, and reflect on outcomes and lessons learned. PBL requires the full engagement of students and teachers and gives a rewarding teaching experience. The presented course can serve as a role model and inspiration for other similar courses. [less ▲]

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See detailA genome on shaky ground: exploring the impact of mitochondrial DNA integrity on Parkinson's disease by highlighting the use of cybrid models.
Lang, Martin; Grünewald, Anne UL; Pramstaller, Peter P. et al

in Cellular and molecular life sciences : CMLS (2022), 79(5), 283

Mitochondria play important roles in the regulation of key cellular processes, including energy metabolism, oxidative stress response, and signaling towards cell death or survival, and are distinguished ... [more ▼]

Mitochondria play important roles in the regulation of key cellular processes, including energy metabolism, oxidative stress response, and signaling towards cell death or survival, and are distinguished by carrying their own genome (mtDNA). Mitochondrial dysfunction has emerged as a prominent cellular mechanism involved in neurodegeneration, including Parkinson's disease (PD), a neurodegenerative movement disorder, characterized by progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons and the occurrence of proteinaceous Lewy body inclusions. The contribution of mtDNA variants to PD pathogenesis has long been debated and is still not clearly answered. Cytoplasmic hybrid (cybrid) cell models provided evidence for a contribution of mtDNA variants to the PD phenotype. However, conclusive evidence of mtDNA mutations as genetic cause of PD is still lacking. Several models have shown a role of somatic, rather than inherited mtDNA variants in the impairment of mitochondrial function and neurodegeneration. Accordingly, several nuclear genes driving inherited forms of PD are linked to mtDNA quality control mechanisms, and idiopathic as well as familial PD tissues present increased mtDNA damage. In this review, we highlight the use of cybrids in this PD research field and summarize various aspects of how and to what extent mtDNA variants may contribute to the etiology of PD. [less ▲]

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See detailDistributional Change: Assessing the Contribution of Household Income Sources
Kyzyma, Iryna; Fusco, Alessio; van Kerm, Philippe UL

in Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics (2022), n/a(n/a),

We develop a decomposition of changes in household income distributions by factor components to quantify the contribution of changes over time in the association between sources of income and changes in ... [more ▼]

We develop a decomposition of changes in household income distributions by factor components to quantify the contribution of changes over time in the association between sources of income and changes in their (marginal) distributions. The two components are broken down to isolate the contribution of specific income sources. An application to the change in the distribution of household incomes in Luxembourg between 2004 and 2013 reveals contrasted results: increased association between spouse earnings, public transfers and taxes depressed the income share of poor households while changes in marginal distributions increased incomes in the upper half of the distribution. [less ▲]

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See detailEnhancing Participation in Probability-Based Online Panels: Two Incentive Experiments and Their Effects on Response and Panel Recruitment
Witte, Nils; Schaurer, Ines; Schröder, Jette et al

in Social Science Computer Review (2022)

This article investigates how mail-based online panel recruitment can be facilitated through incentives. The analysis relies on two incentive experiments and their effects on panel recruitment, and the ... [more ▼]

This article investigates how mail-based online panel recruitment can be facilitated through incentives. The analysis relies on two incentive experiments and their effects on panel recruitment, and the intermediate participation in the recruitment survey. The experiments were implemented in the context of the German Emigration and Remigration Panel Study and encompass two samples of randomly sampled persons. Tested incentives include a conditional lottery, conditional monetary incentives, and the combination of unconditional money-in-hand with conditional monetary incentives. For an encompassing evaluation of the link between incentives and panel recruitment, the article further assesses the incentives’ implications for demographic composition and panel recruitment unit costs. Multivariate analysis indicates that low combined incentives (€5/€5) or, where unconditional disbursement is unfeasible, high conditional incentives (€20) are most effective in enhancing panel participation. In terms of demographic bias, low combined incentives (€5/€5) and €10 conditional incentives are the favored options. The budget options from the perspective of panel recruitment include the lottery and the €10 conditional incentive which break-even at net sample sizes of 1000. [less ▲]

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See detailTechnocratic urban development: Large digital corporations as power brokers of the digital age
Carr, Constance UL; Hesse, Markus UL

in Planning Theory and Practice (2022)

Large digital corporations such as Amazon.com or Alphabet Inc. are forging their position in cities by promoting themselves as the sole providers of so-called essential urban infrastructures. In this ... [more ▼]

Large digital corporations such as Amazon.com or Alphabet Inc. are forging their position in cities by promoting themselves as the sole providers of so-called essential urban infrastructures. In this paper, we reflect on how the behaviours of these current-day ‘tech giants’ are similar to those of the mid-20th century, a time period also known for dramatic infrastructural change in North American and Europe. Specifically, we are reminded of Robert Moses and how he pushed for infrastructural change in New York City and State, which were also supposedly the height of state-of-the-art urban planning at the time. He pushed his agenda, however, by brokering power and strong-arming the urban and regional development field. We reflect on Alphabet Inc.’s project in Toronto and Amazon’s search for a second headquarters in New York City and how these LDCs were similarly armed with executive and financial power and an ability to bully the field of urban development in their own interest. Behaving as digital-age power brokers, they engaged managerial-technocratic modes of urban governance to instigate projects that ultimately failed. We argue that Alphabet’s and Amazon’s strategies not only resemble those of Moses, but that all three deploy tactics that debase planning practice itself. [less ▲]

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See detailA chip off the old block? The relationship of family factors and young adults’ views on aging.
Hoffmann, Cathy UL; Kornadt, Anna Elena UL

in Frontiers in Psychology (2022), 13:808386

Views on aging (VoA), such as self-perceptions of aging or age stereotypes are generated in early childhood and continue to develop throughout the entire lifespan. The ideas a person has about their own ... [more ▼]

Views on aging (VoA), such as self-perceptions of aging or age stereotypes are generated in early childhood and continue to develop throughout the entire lifespan. The ideas a person has about their own aging and aging in general influence their behavior towards older persons as well as their own actual aging, which is why VoA are already important in adolescence and young adulthood. The current study investigates VoA of young adults in different domains (continued growth, physical losses, social losses) and how different family aspects are related to VoA. From February to March 2021, N = 305 young adults [aged 18 - 30 years, Mage(SD) = 22.20(2.60)] participated in an online survey, in which, in addition to sociodemographic variables and family aspects (contact with grandparents, family age climate, i.e. the frequency and valence of talking about age in the family), self-perceptions of aging, age stereotypes, and the young adults’ ratings of their parents' VoA were assessed. The results of stepwise regression analyses predicting the young adults’ VoA, revealed significant associations between the quality of contact with grandparents and the self-perceptions of aging of young adults. However, the frequency of contact was neither related to young adults’ self-perceptions of aging nor age stereotypes. Grandparents' health status emerged as a significant moderator between the relationship of contact quality and the young adults’ self-perceptions of aging as continued growth and physical decline. Family climate was also found to be significantly related to young adults' self-perceptions of aging and age stereotypes. Similarities regarding VoA within the family were demonstrated, based on proxy report from the respondents. The results underline the importance of family aspects for the development of VoA in young adulthood, and the significance of interventions targeting these factors to combat ageism. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Corona Pandemic and Its Implications for the Mental Health and Mental Healthcare of Older Adults
Albert, Isabelle UL; Kornadt, Anna Elena UL

in GeroPsych: Journal of Gerontopsychology and Geriatric Psychiatry (2022), 35(1),

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See detailWeight Status and Mental Well-Being Among Adolescents: The Mediating Role of Self-Perceived Body Weight. A Cross-National Survey
Fismen, Anne-Siri; Galler, Martina; Klepp, Knut-Inge et al

in Journal of Adolescent Health (2022)

Purpose Overweight and obesity are associated with poor mental health in adolescents. However, little is known about whether the influence of overweight and obesity on mental well-being is mediated by ... [more ▼]

Purpose Overweight and obesity are associated with poor mental health in adolescents. However, little is known about whether the influence of overweight and obesity on mental well-being is mediated by self-perceived body weight. Exploring the mechanisms underlying the relationships between obesity and mental well-being is of interest to policy makers and others working in the field of adolescent health. Methods 76,998). Mixed regression models that included gender and socioeconomic status as covariates were used to identify associations between weight status and mental well-being (life satisfaction and subjective health complaints) and to explore whether self-perceived body weight (feeling too thin or too fat) has a mediating effect. Associations between weight status, self-perceived weight, and mental well-being were further assessed country by country. Results Self-perceived body weight mediated the observed associations between overweight or obesity and mental well-being. Perceiving one's body weight as “too thin” or “too fat” was associated with poorer mental well-being, regardless of weight status. Self-perceived body weight varied by gender, socioeconomic status, and country. Discussion Self-perceived body weight may explain, to a greater extent than body mass index, variation in mental well-being among adolescents. These results are important to policy makers, clinicians, and others targeting adolescent health. [less ▲]

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See detailCorrection to: Performance assessment of the relative gravimeter Scintrex CG-6
Francis, Olivier UL

in Journal of Geodesy (2022), 96(1), 1-1

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See detailCOVID-19 Compliance Behaviors of Older People: The Role of Cognitive and Non-Cognitive Skills
Clark, Andrew; d'Ambrosio, Conchita UL; Onur, Ilke et al

in Economics Letters (2022), 210

This paper examines the empirical relationship between individuals’ cognitive and non-cognitive abilities and COVID-19 compliance behaviors using cross-country data from the Survey of Health, Ageing and ... [more ▼]

This paper examines the empirical relationship between individuals’ cognitive and non-cognitive abilities and COVID-19 compliance behaviors using cross-country data from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). We find that both cognitive and non-cognitive skills predict responsible health behaviors during the COVID-19 crisis. Episodic memory is the most important cognitive skill, while conscientiousness and neuroticism are the most significant personality traits. There is also some evidence of a role for an internal locus of control in compliance. [less ▲]

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See detailLearning GUI Completions with User-defined Constraints
Brückner, Lukas; Leiva, Luis A. UL; Oulasvirta, Antti

in ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems (2022), 12(1),

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See detailSharing calculations to understand arithmetical algorithms and parallel computing
Andrusiak, Rich; Perucca, Antonella UL

in Mathematics Teacher (2022)

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See detailPerspective luxembourgeoise: Conclusions sur le caractère inclusif des supports pédagogiques
Andersen, Katja Natalie UL; Vogt, Michaela; Bagger, Anette et al

in Forum für Politik, Gesellschaft und Kultur in Luxemburg (2022), 423

Cette contribution s’appuie sur les conclusions du projet European Comparison of Inclusive Teaching Materials (ITM) lancé en 2018. Cette collaboration regroupant l’Allemagne (Prof. Dr. M. Vogt, C ... [more ▼]

Cette contribution s’appuie sur les conclusions du projet European Comparison of Inclusive Teaching Materials (ITM) lancé en 2018. Cette collaboration regroupant l’Allemagne (Prof. Dr. M. Vogt, C. Bierschwale), le Luxembourg (Prof. Dr. K. Andersen), la Suède (Prof. Dr. A. Bagger) et l’Italie (Prof. Dr. V. Macchia, Prof. Dr. A. Augschöll, A. Ardemagni) cherche un moyen de définir le caractère inclusif des supports pédagogiques. C’est dans cette perspective qu’a été développé un catalogue de critères permettant d’évaluer la pertinence des supports pédagogiques en vue de leur utilisation dans des contextes d’enseignement inclusif. La présente contribution présente ces critères en les mettant en parallèle avec les conclusions des recherches menées au Luxembourg. [less ▲]

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See detailAddressing the need for new interoceptive methods
Garfinkel, Sarah N.; Schulz, André UL; Tsakiris, Manos

in Biological Psychology (2022), 170(1), 108322

Internal bodily signals are dynamically coupled to brain dynamics; interoception, the ‘sensing’ of internal signals, can influence cognition, emotion and perception. An appreciation of the wide-ranging ... [more ▼]

Internal bodily signals are dynamically coupled to brain dynamics; interoception, the ‘sensing’ of internal signals, can influence cognition, emotion and perception. An appreciation of the wide-ranging implications of interoceptive processing has surpassed the range and breadth of available interoceptive methods. New techniques are required to support the scientific study of interoception and this special issue brings together a diverse array of novel interoceptive methods and assessments, spanning psychophysiology, experimental psychology, affective neuroscience and computational approaches, divided into 5 core sections. Section 1 presents novel theoretical and computational models of interoception, while section two brings together a range of perspectives on questionnaire measures of interoception. Section 3 is devoted to the development of novel methods to assess interoception in behavioral tasks and section 4 focuses on the validity and confounds present in a range of methods used to assess interoception. Finally, section 5 details new methodological insights of interoception in the domains of emotion, cognition and health. Improved interoceptive methods are needed to progress this field; greater precision in techniques and core interoceptive constructs will aid in the mapping of interoceptive measures to cognition and emotion factors, as well as help to elucidate precise interoceptive alterations observed in clinical conditions. [less ▲]

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See detailExplicit Kummer generators for cyclotomic extensions
Hoermann, Fritz; Perucca, Antonella UL; Sgobba, Pietro UL et al

in JP Journal of Algebra, Number Theory and Applications (2022)

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See detailThe story of a bank through the architecture of its headquarters
Duval, Cécile UL; Gabellini, Marco UL; Mouton, Victoria UL

in Bulletin - Finance and Photography (2022), 2

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See detailHistorical Exposomics and High Resolution Mass Spectrometry
Aurich, Dagny UL; Miles, Owen; Schymanski, Emma UL

in Exposome (2021), 00(0),

Awareness of the exposome and its influence on health has increased in the last decade. As past exposures can cause changes in human health many years later, delving into the past is relevant for both ... [more ▼]

Awareness of the exposome and its influence on health has increased in the last decade. As past exposures can cause changes in human health many years later, delving into the past is relevant for both diagnostic and prevention purposes, but remains a challenging task. Lifestyle, diet, and socioeconomic information of the past should be well documented and compatible with modern data science methods. While chemical analysis nowadays makes use of high resolution mass spectrometry (HR-MS) for highly sensitive and comprehensive coverage of samples plus retrospective analysis, these data archives are in the very early stages. Since past measurements are often only available for a limited set of chemicals, adding to this knowledge requires careful selection of sample types and sampling sites, which may not always be available. The choice of analytes and analytical methods should be suitable for the study question —which is not always clear in advance in exposomics. Data interpretation and the use of appropriate databases are indispensable for a proper exposure assessment, and as databases and knowledge grow, re-analysis of physically or digitally archived samples could enable “continuous monitoring” efforts. This review focuses on the chemical analytical approaches necessary to capture the complexity of the historical exposome. Various sample types, analytes as well as analyses and data interpretation methods are discussed in relation to chemical exposures, while the connection to health remains in focus. It ends with perspectives and challenges in assessing the historical exposome, discussing how we can “learn from the past” to build a better future. [less ▲]

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See detailEarly Diagnosis of Multiple Sclerosis Using Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography and Convolutional Neural Networks Trained with Data Augmentation
Lopez-Dorado, Almudena; Ortiz Del Castillo, Miguel UL; Saute, Maria et al

in Sensors (2021)

Background: The aim of this paper is to implement a system to facilitate the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) in its initial stages. It does so using a convolutional neural network (CNN) to classify ... [more ▼]

Background: The aim of this paper is to implement a system to facilitate the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) in its initial stages. It does so using a convolutional neural network (CNN) to classify images captured with swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). Methods: SS-OCT images from 48 control subjects and 48 recently diagnosed MS patients have been used. These images show the thicknesses (45 × 60 points) of the following structures: complete retina, retinal nerve fiber layer, two ganglion cell layers (GCL+, GCL++) and choroid. The Cohen distance is used to identify the structures and the regions within them with greatest discriminant capacity. The original database of OCT images is augmented by a deep convolutional generative adversarial network to expand the CNN’s training set. Results: The retinal structures with greatest discriminant capacity are the GCL++ (44.99% of image points), complete retina (26.71%) and GCL+ (22.93%). Thresholding these images and using them as inputs to a CNN comprising two convolution modules and one classification module obtains sensitivity = specificity = 1.0. Conclusions: Feature pre-selection and the use of a convolutional neural network may be a promising, nonharmful, low-cost, easy-to-perform and effective means of assisting the early diagnosis of MS based on SS-OCT thickness data [less ▲]

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See detailINVESTIGATION OF POINTNET FOR SEMANTIC SEGMENTATION OF LARGE-SCALE OUTDOOR POINT CLOUDS
Nurunnabi, Abdul Awal Md UL; Teferle, Felix Norman UL; Li, J. et al

Scientific journal (2021)

Semantic segmentation of point clouds is indispensable for 3D scene understanding. Point clouds have credibility for capturing geometry of objects including shape, size, and orientation. Deep learning (DL ... [more ▼]

Semantic segmentation of point clouds is indispensable for 3D scene understanding. Point clouds have credibility for capturing geometry of objects including shape, size, and orientation. Deep learning (DL) has been recognized as the most successful approach for image semantic segmentation. Applied to point clouds, performance of the many DL algorithms degrades, because point clouds are often sparse and have irregular data format. As a result, point clouds are regularly first transformed into voxel grids or image collections. PointNet was the first promising algorithm that feeds point clouds directly into the DL architecture. Although PointNet achieved remarkable performance on indoor point clouds, its performance has not been extensively studied in large-scale outdoor point clouds. So far, we know, no study on large-scale aerial point clouds investigates the sensitivity of the hyper-parameters used in the PointNet. This paper evaluates PointNet’s performance for semantic segmentation through three large-scale Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) point clouds of urban environments. Reported results show that PointNet has potential in large-scale outdoor scene semantic segmentation. A remarkable limitation of PointNet is that it does not consider local structure induced by the metric space made by its local neighbors. Experiments exhibit PointNet is expressively sensitive to the hyper-parameters like batch-size, block partition and the number of points in a block. For an ALS dataset, we get significant difference between overall accuracies of 67.5% and 72.8%, for the block sizes of 5m×5m and 10m×10m, respectively. Results also discover that the performance of PointNet depends on the selection of input vectors. [less ▲]

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See detailQuantitative volatile organic compound sensing with liquid crystal core fibers
Schelski, Katrin UL; Reyes, Catherine UL; Pschyklenk, Lukas et al

in Cell Reports Physical Science (2021), 2(12), 100661

Polymer fibers with liquid crystals (LCs) in the core have potential as autonomous sensors of airborne volatile organic compounds (VOCs), with a high surface-to-volume ratio enabling fast and sensi- tive ... [more ▼]

Polymer fibers with liquid crystals (LCs) in the core have potential as autonomous sensors of airborne volatile organic compounds (VOCs), with a high surface-to-volume ratio enabling fast and sensi- tive response and an attractive non-woven textile form factor. We demonstrate their ability to continuously and quantitatively mea- sure the concentration of toluene, cyclohexane, and isopropanol as representative VOCs, via the impact of each VOC on the LC bire- fringence. The response is fully reversible and repeatable over several cycles, the response time can be as low as seconds, and high sensitivity is achieved when the operating temperature is near the LC-isotropic transition temperature. We propose that a broad operating temperature range can be realized by combining fi- bers with different LC mixtures, yielding autonomous VOC sensors suitable for integration in apparel or in furniture that can compete with existing consumer-grade electronic VOC sensors in terms of sensitivity and response speed. [less ▲]

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See detailBead Geometry Prediction in Laser-Wire Additive Manufacturing Process Using Machine Learning: Case of Study
Mbodj, Natago Guilé UL; Abuabiah, Mohammad UL; Plapper, Peter UL et al

in Applied Sciences (2021), Volume 11(Issue 24),

In Laser Wire Additive Manufacturing (LWAM), the final geometry is produced using the layer-by-layer deposition (beads principle). To achieve good geometrical accuracy in the final product, proper ... [more ▼]

In Laser Wire Additive Manufacturing (LWAM), the final geometry is produced using the layer-by-layer deposition (beads principle). To achieve good geometrical accuracy in the final product, proper implementation of the bead geometry is essential. For this reason, the paper focuses on this process and proposes a layer geometry (width and height) prediction model to improve deposition accuracy. More specifically, a machine learning regression algorithm is applied on several experimental data to predict the bead geometry across layers. Furthermore, a neural network-based approach was used to study the influence of different deposition parameters, namely laser power, wire-feed rate and travel speed on bead geometry. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed approach, a test split validation strategy was applied to train and validate the machine learning models. The results show a particular evolutionary trend and confirm that the process parameters have a direct influence on the bead geometry, and so, too, on the final part. Several deposition parameters have been found to obtain an accurate prediction model with low errors and good layer deposition. Finally, this study indicates that the machine learning approach can efficiently be used to predict the bead geometry and could help later in designing a proper controller in the LWAM process. [less ▲]

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See detailCombining responsiveness and durability in liquid crystal-functionalised electrospun fibres with crosslinked sheath
Vats, Shameek UL; Lagerwall, Jan UL

in Liquid Crystals (2021)

Responsive functional composite fibre mats that are mechanically stable and impervious to water exposure are produced by coaxial electrospinning of thermotropic liquid crystal (LC) core inside a water ... [more ▼]

Responsive functional composite fibre mats that are mechanically stable and impervious to water exposure are produced by coaxial electrospinning of thermotropic liquid crystal (LC) core inside a water-based solution of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) forming the sheath. Because thermotropic LCs usually cannot be spun inside water-based solutions due to excessive interfacial tension γ, a n enabling step is the addition of ethanol or dioxane to the LC as a co-solvent compatible with both core and sheath fluids. This reduces γ sufficiently that coaxial jet spinning is possible. After spinning, thermal cross-linking of the PVA+PAA sheath yields LC-functionalised fibres that can be manipulated by hand and remain intact even upon full immersion in water. The LC core retains its behaviour, nematics showing well-aligned birefringence and transitioning to isotropic upon heating above the clearing point, and cholesterics showing selective reflection which is even enhanced upon water immersion due to the removal of sheath scattering. Our results pave the way to producing LC-functionalised responsive fibre mats using durable polymer sheaths, thereby enabling numerous innovative applications in wearable technology, and they also open new opportunities to study LCs in confinement, without visible impact of the container walls. [less ▲]

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See detailMisleading Higher-Order Evidence, Conflicting Ideals, and Defeasible Logic
Knoks, Aleks UL

in Ergo, An Open Access Journal of Philosophy (2021), 8(6), 141-174

Thinking about misleading higher-order evidence naturally leads to a puzzle about epistemic rationality: If one's total evidence can be radically misleading regarding itself, then two widely-accepted ... [more ▼]

Thinking about misleading higher-order evidence naturally leads to a puzzle about epistemic rationality: If one's total evidence can be radically misleading regarding itself, then two widely-accepted requirements of rationality come into conflict, suggesting that there are rational dilemmas. This paper focuses on an often misunderstood and underexplored response to this (and similar) puzzles, the so-called conflicting-ideals view. Drawing on work from defeasible logic, I propose understanding this view as a move away from the default meta-epistemological position according to which rationality requirements are strict and governed by a strong, but never explicitly stated logic, toward the more unconventional view, according to which requirements are defeasible and governed by a comparatively weak logic. When understood this way, the response is not committed to dilemmas. [less ▲]

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See detailFlexible Resource Optimization for GEO Multibeam Satellite Communication System
Abdu, Tedros Salih UL; Kisseleff, Steven UL; Lagunas, Eva UL et al

in IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications (2021)

Conventional GEO satellite communication systems rely on a multibeam foot-print with a uniform resource allocation to provide connectivity to users. However, applying uniform resource allocation is ... [more ▼]

Conventional GEO satellite communication systems rely on a multibeam foot-print with a uniform resource allocation to provide connectivity to users. However, applying uniform resource allocation is inefficient in presence of non-uniform demand distribution. To overcome this limitation, the next generation of broadband GEO satellite systems will enable flexibility in terms of power and bandwidth assignment, enabling on-demand resource allocation. In this paper, we propose a novel satellite resource assignment design whose goal is to satisfy the beam traffic demand by making use of the minimum transmit power and utilized bandwidth. The motivation behind the proposed design is to maximize the satellite spectrum utilization by pushing the spectrum reuse to affordable limits in terms of tolerable interference. The proposed problem formulation results in a non-convex optimization structure, for which we propose an efficient tractable solution. We validate the proposed method with extensive numerical results, which demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed approach with respect to benchmark schemes. [less ▲]

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See detailLehren und Lernen auf Distanz – Impulse für digitale Unterrichtsentwicklung in Luxemburg
Baumann, Isabell Eva UL; Harion, Dominic UL

in Bildungsbericht für Luxemburg 2021 (2021)

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See detailA family of deep learning architectures for channel estimation and hybrid beamforming in multi-carrier mm-wave massive MIMO.
Elbir, Ahmet M.; Mishra, Kumar Vijay; Mysore Rama Rao, Bhavani Shankar UL et al

in IEEE Transactions on Cognitive Communications and Networking (2021)

Hybrid analog and digital beamforming transceivers are instrumental in addressing the challenge of expensive hardware and high training overheads in the next generation millimeter-wave (mm-Wave) massive ... [more ▼]

Hybrid analog and digital beamforming transceivers are instrumental in addressing the challenge of expensive hardware and high training overheads in the next generation millimeter-wave (mm-Wave) massive MIMO (multiple-input multiple-output) systems. However, lack of fully digital beamforming in hybrid architectures and short coherence times at mm-Wave impose additional constraints on the channel estimation. Prior works on addressing these challenges have focused largely on narrowband channels wherein optimization-based or greedy algorithms were employed to derive hybrid beamformers. In this paper, we introduce a deep learning (DL) approach for channel estimation and hybrid beamforming for frequency-selective, wideband mm-Wave systems. In particular, we consider a massive MIMO Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM) system and propose three different DL frameworks comprising convolutional neural networks (CNNs), which accept the raw data of received signal as input and yield channel estimates and the hybrid beamformers at the output. We also introduce both offline and online prediction schemes. Numerical experiments demonstrate that, compared to the current state-of-the-art optimization and DL methods, our approach provides higher spectral efficiency, lesser computational cost and fewer number of pilot signals, and higher tolerance against the deviations in the received pilot data, corrupted channel matrix, and propagation environment. [less ▲]

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See detailEffective Elements of School-based Provision for the Promotion of Healthy Lifestyles: A European Delphi Study
Bailey, Richard; Glibo, Iva; Scheuer, Claude UL

in Health Behavior and Policy Review (2021), 8(6), 546-557

Objective: Schools can serve as settings for promoting their student health, although it is necessary to identify the key elements of provision to leverage change. This study’s objective was to develop a ... [more ▼]

Objective: Schools can serve as settings for promoting their student health, although it is necessary to identify the key elements of provision to leverage change. This study’s objective was to develop a Europe-based list of the elements of learning and health support systems judged by a group of experts to be most effective in influencing school student healthy lifestyles education. Methods: A 3-stage Delphi study involving a group of 18 Europe-based subject specialists was used to articulate shared expert opinions on the main research question: what are the most effective elements of learning and health support systems influencing school students’ healthy lifestyles education? Over 3 rounds of data-gathering, experts were asked to assess the effectiveness of 25 specific elements. Results: The 3 rounds resulted in the following ranked list: Physical Education (PE), Staff Professional Development, Healthy School Policies, Active Recess, Family & Community Engagement, Healthy Eating, Physical Activity in Classroom Lessons, and Active Transport. Conclusions: Cautious of overly generalizing from the results, we suggest the findings offer useful information for evidence-based programs, as well as future research that explores the necessary components of health promotion in schools. [less ▲]

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See detailTransforming secondary education in the Belgian–German borderlands (1918–1939)
Venken, Machteld UL

in History of Education (2021)

Establishing and implementing rules that would teach pupils to become citizens became a crucial technique for turning those spots on the map of Europe whose sovereignty had shifted after the First World ... [more ▼]

Establishing and implementing rules that would teach pupils to become citizens became a crucial technique for turning those spots on the map of Europe whose sovereignty had shifted after the First World War into lived social spaces. This article uses Arnold Van Gennep’s notion that a shift in social status possesses a spatiality and temporality of its own, in order to analyse how principals of secondary schools negotiated transformation in the Belgian–German borderlands. It asks whether and how they were called on to offer training that would make the borderlands more cohesive with the rest of Belgium in terms of the social origins of pupils and the content of study, and examines the extent to which they were historical actors with room for their own decision-making on creating and abolishing a liminal phase, thereby leading secondary education through its rites of passage. [less ▲]

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See detailConciliatory reasoning, self-defeat, and abstract argumentation
Knoks, Aleks UL

in Review of Symbolic Logic (2021), First View

According to conciliatory views on the significance of disagreement, it’s rational for you to become less confident in your take on an issue in case your epistemic peer’s take on it is different. These ... [more ▼]

According to conciliatory views on the significance of disagreement, it’s rational for you to become less confident in your take on an issue in case your epistemic peer’s take on it is different. These views are intuitively appealing, but they also face a powerful objection: in scenarios that involve disagreements over their own correctness, conciliatory views appear to self-defeat and, thereby, issue inconsistent recommendations. This paper provides a response to this objection. Drawing on the work from defeasible logics paradigm and abstract argumentation, it develops a formal model of conciliatory reasoning and explores its behavior in the troubling scenarios. The model suggests that the recommendations that conciliatory views issue in such scenarios are perfectly reasonable---even if outwardly they may look odd. [less ▲]

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See detailSeebeck effect in nanomagnets
Fedorov, Dmitry UL; Gradhand, Martin; Tauber, Katarina et al

in Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter (2021), 34

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See detailCoronavirus Pandemic Response and Voter Choice: Evidence from Serbia and Croatia
Glaurdic, Josip UL; Lesschaeve, Christophe UL; Mochtak, Michal

in Communist and Post-Communist Studies (2021), 54(4), 197214

Does the public perception of governments’ coronavirus pandemic responses actually make a difference to their electoral fortunes? In this research note, we answer that question by presenting the ... [more ▼]

Does the public perception of governments’ coronavirus pandemic responses actually make a difference to their electoral fortunes? In this research note, we answer that question by presenting the preliminary results of a survey of more than 3,000 voters in Croatia and Serbia conducted on a dedicated mobile app and web platform directly preceding parliamentary elections that took place in these two countries during the summer of 2020. This survey was part of our larger project tracking political competition, public discourse, and conspiracy theories in Southeast Europe during the coronavirus pandemic. The preliminary findings presented in this research note demonstrate Croatian and Serbian voters were rationally retrospective and rewarded parties in power based on evaluations of their crisis management performance. We also find evidence of voters who have personally witnessed the health consequences of the coronavirus being more likely to support the parties in power. We believe this is evidence of the coronavirus pandemic increasing affected citizens’ expectations of and trust in national governments where those governments respond strongly to the pandemic’s first wave, as was the case in both Croatia and Serbia. [less ▲]

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See detailIn-plane magnetic field-driven symmetry breaking in topological insulator-based three-terminal junctions
Kölzer, Jonas; Moors, Kristof; Jalil, Abdur Rehman et al

in Communications Materials (2021)

Topological surface states of three-dimensional topological insulator nanoribbons and their distinct magnetoconductance properties are promising for topoelectronic applications and topological quantum ... [more ▼]

Topological surface states of three-dimensional topological insulator nanoribbons and their distinct magnetoconductance properties are promising for topoelectronic applications and topological quantum computation. A crucial building block for nanoribbon-based circuits are three-terminal junctions. While the transport of topological surface states on a planar boundary is not directly affected by an in-plane magnetic field, the orbital effect cannot be neglected when the surface states are confined to the boundary of a nanoribbon geometry. Here, we report on the magnetotransport properties of such three-terminal junctions. We observe a dependence of the current on the in-plane magnetic field, with a distinct steering pattern of the surface state current towards a preferred output terminal for different magnetic field orientations. We demonstrate that this steering effect originates from the orbital effect, trapping the phase-coherent surface states in the different legs of the junction on opposite sides of the nanoribbon and breaking the left-right symmetry of the transmission across the junction. The reported magnetotransport properties demonstrate that an in-plane magnetic field is not only relevant but also very useful for the characterization and manipulation of transport in three-dimensional topological insulator nanoribbon-based junctions and circuits, acting as a topoelectric current switch. [less ▲]

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See detailLe droit à la sauce piquante n°25 - Décembre 2021
Hiez, David UL; Laurent, Rémi

in Le droit à la sauce piquante (2021), 25

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See detailCapturing a moving target: interviewing fintech experts via LinkedIn
Robinson, Gary UL

in Area (2021), 53(4), 671-678

This paper explores possible responses to some of the main challenges associated with conducting elite and expert interviews as part of qualitative research in human geography. Drawing on the example of ... [more ▼]

This paper explores possible responses to some of the main challenges associated with conducting elite and expert interviews as part of qualitative research in human geography. Drawing on the example of the dynamic fintech industry, the paper outlines some similarities and differences between elite and expert interviews, and uses this to identify and discuss possible responses. Against this backdrop, the paper also reflects on advantages and disadvantages of using the professional social networking site LinkedIn as a research aid for sampling and contacting interviewees as well as for interview preparation. The paper is anticipated to be of interest to those conducting qualitative research involving limited subject sample sizes who are potentially difficult to find. [less ▲]

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See detailIn pursuit of the best standards: what material and legal interoperability for NATO forces?
Zarkan, Laetitia UL

in NATO Legal Gazette (2021), (42), 36-52

In the wake of the increasing development and use of space systems, alliances and partnerships appear to be the solution for minimising the risk of harmful interferences, reducing costs, and further apply ... [more ▼]

In the wake of the increasing development and use of space systems, alliances and partnerships appear to be the solution for minimising the risk of harmful interferences, reducing costs, and further apply advancement in new technologies. The military uses space systems to support a wide range of activities such as intelligence gathering, telecommunications, tracking, positioning, navigation, and early warnings to detect ballistic missile launches. Interoperability is bringing under the spotlight the disparities between technologically advanced and less-advanced States. Only a few States are able to produce and access space technologies individually and subsequently determine the standards and operational parameters. The utilisation of space systems requires like-minded operators who collectively agree on the same idea of norms of behaviours, threat characterisation, and thresholds for interference. This article critically engages with the idea that interoperability poses legal problems and an unfair burden on the less developed members of the Alliance. This article presents a two-fold analysis of interoperability challenges in utilising space equipment, with particular attention to joint responsibility during hostilities. Ensuring space systems' functionality appears necessary to preserve the operational effectiveness of the space infrastructure used by different operators. In turn, this entails the existence of interoperable systems and compliance with standards and regulations unilaterally set by the most technologically advanced States and sometimes not collectively agreed or developed. If allies want to operate the same equipment, they need to thwart compatibility issues from both a technical and legal perspective. In focusing on a small number of technologically advanced States to fix the interoperability standards, other States are deprived of a certain degree of autonomy and protection as they will have to share proprietary information. Moreover, less developed States are not able to fully control their operations or decide their responsibility for joint activities. [less ▲]

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See detailBemessung von Verbundstützen – Update prEN 1994-1-1
Schäfer, Markus UL; Zhang, Qingjie UL; Bergmann, Marco

in Stahlbau (2021), 90(12), 903-912

The design of composite columns follows the rules in accordance to EN 1994-1-1 providing simplified design methods and the general method. Whereby the general method requires an advanced comprehensive FE ... [more ▼]

The design of composite columns follows the rules in accordance to EN 1994-1-1 providing simplified design methods and the general method. Whereby the general method requires an advanced comprehensive FE-Analysis. However, the recent Eurocode 4 does not provide sufficient guidance for the application of the general method and there is not a harmony in the literature on how to conduct it. This often leads to uncertainty among users and discussions on the validation and assessment of the analysis results. Actually, the draft of the second generation of Eurocode 4 (prEN 1994-1-1) is available, including more guidance but also introduces additional safety parameters and extends the application scope in regard to the martial strengths. This paper points out the procedure for the design of composite column with focus on the general method and changes provided by the draft of prEN 1994-1-1:2021. [less ▲]

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See detailIs a dynamic approach to tax games relevant?
Paulus, Nora; Pieretti, Patrice UL; Zou, Benteng UL

in Annals of Economics and statistics (2021), 144

In this paper, we argue that static models provide an incomplete analysis of interjurisdictional tax competition. Accordingly, one can doubt whether a one-shot view is suitable for analyzing real world ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we argue that static models provide an incomplete analysis of interjurisdictional tax competition. Accordingly, one can doubt whether a one-shot view is suitable for analyzing real world tax competition. Contrary to previous contributions in tax competition, we are able to model the interplay between changing tax rates and sluggish factor adjustments. We demonstrate that the intensity of tax competition is impacted by the temporal nature of the game. The commitment of governments to stick to their tax policies for a given period (open-loop behavior) leads to less intense competition relative to a static approach. If the policymakers continuously update their tax rates (Markovian behavior), competition is fiercer than in a static game, except for the case where capital adjustment is relatively sluggish and the governments' marginal valuation of public goods is high enough. [less ▲]

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See detailCOVID-19 Crisis Management in Luxembourg: Insights from an Epidemionomic Approach
Burzynski; Machado, Joel; Aalto, Atte UL et al

in Economics and Human Biology (2021), 43

We develop an epidemionomic model that jointly analyzes the health and economic responses to the COVID-19 crisis and to the related containment and public health policy measures implemented in Luxembourg ... [more ▼]

We develop an epidemionomic model that jointly analyzes the health and economic responses to the COVID-19 crisis and to the related containment and public health policy measures implemented in Luxembourg. The model has been used to produce nowcasts and forecasts at various stages of the crisis. We focus here on two key moments in time, namely the deconfinement period following the first lockdown, and the onset of the second wave. In May 2020, we predicted a high risk of a second wave that was mainly explained by the resumption of social life, low participation in large-scale testing, and reduction in teleworking practices. Simulations conducted 5 months later reveal that managing the second wave with moderately coercive measures has been epidemiologically and economically effective. Assuming a massive third (or fourth) wave will not materialize in 2021, the real GDP loss due to the second wave will be smaller than 0.4 percentage points in 2020 and 2021. [less ▲]

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See detailCybersecurity is Gaining Momentum – NIS 2.0 Is on its Way
Schmitz, Sandra UL

in European Data Protection Law Review (2021), (4), 580-585

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See detailBrownian Loops, Layering Fields and Imaginary Gaussian Multiplicative Chaos
Camia, Federico; Gandolfi, Alberto; Peccati, Giovanni UL et al

in Communications in Mathematical Physics (2021), In press

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See detailTOrPEDO: Witnessing Model Correctness with Topological Proofs
Menghi, Claudio UL; Rizzi, Alessandro Maria; Bernasconi, Anna et al

in Formal Aspects of Computing (2021), 33(6), 1039-1066

Model design is not a linear, one-shot process. It proceeds through refinements and revisions. To effectively support developers in generating model refinements and revisions, it is desirable to have some ... [more ▼]

Model design is not a linear, one-shot process. It proceeds through refinements and revisions. To effectively support developers in generating model refinements and revisions, it is desirable to have some automated-support to verify evolvable models. To address this problem, we recently proposed to adopt topological proofs, which are slices of the original model that witness property satisfaction. We implemented TOrPEDO, a framework that provides automated support for using topological proofs during model design. Our results showed that topological proofs are significantly smaller than the original models, and that, in most of the cases, they allow the property to be re-verified by relying only on a simple syntactic check. However, our results also show that the procedure that computes topological proofs, which requires extracting unsatisfiable cores of LTL formulae, is computationally expensive. For this reason, TOrPEDO currently handles models with a small dimension. With the intent of providing practical and efficient support for flexible model design and wider adoption of our framework, in this paper, we propose an enhanced – re-engineered – version of TOrPEDO. The new version of TOrPEDO relies on a novel procedure to extract topological proofs, which has so far represented the bottleneck of TOrPEDO performances. We implemented our procedure within TOrPEDO by considering Partial Kripke Structures (PKSs) and Linear-time Temporal Logic (LTL): two widely used formalisms to express models with uncertain parts and their properties. To extract topological proofs, the new version of TOrPEDO converts the LTL formulae into an SMT instance and reuses an existing SMT solver (e.g., Microsoft Z3) to compute an unsatisfiable core. Then, the unsatisfiable core returned by the SMT solver is automatically processed to generate the topological proof. We evaluated TOrPEDO by assessing (i) how does the size of the proofs generated by TOrPEDO compares to the size of the models being analyzed; and (ii) how frequently the use of the topological proof returned by TOrPEDO avoids re-executing the model checker. Our results show that TOrPEDO provides proofs that are smaller (≈60%) than their respective initial models effectively supporting designers in creating model revisions. In a significant number of cases (≈79%), the topological proofs returned by TOrPEDO enable assessing the property satisfaction without re-running the model checker. We evaluated our new version of TOrPEDO by assessing (i) how it compares to the previous one; and (ii) how useful it is in supporting the evaluation of alternative design choices of (small) model instances in applied domains. The results show that the new version of TOrPEDO is significantly more efficient than the previous one and can compute topological proofs for models with less than 40 states within two hours. The topological proofs and counterexamples provided by TOrPEDO are useful to support the development of alternative design choices of (small) model instances in applied domains. [less ▲]

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See detailFrom deformation theory of wheeled props to classification of Kontsevich formality maps
Andersson, Assar UL; Merkulov, Sergei UL

in International Mathematical Research Notices (2021), rnab012

We study homotopy theory of the wheeled prop controlling Poisson structures on arbitrary formal graded finite-dimensional manifolds and prove, in particular, that Grothendieck-Teichmueller group acts on ... [more ▼]

We study homotopy theory of the wheeled prop controlling Poisson structures on arbitrary formal graded finite-dimensional manifolds and prove, in particular, that Grothendieck-Teichmueller group acts on that wheeled prop faithfully and homotopy non-trivially. Next we apply this homotopy theory to the study of the deformation complex of an arbitrary Maxim Kontsevich formality map and compute the full cohomology group of that deformation complex in terms of the cohomology of a certain graph complex introduced earlier by Maxim Kontsevich in [K1] and studied by Thomas Willwacher in [W1]. [less ▲]

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See detailLearning-Assisted User Clustering in Cell-Free Massive MIMO-NOMA Networks
Le; Nguyen, van Dinh UL; Dobre, Octavia A. et al

in IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology (2021), 70(12), 12872-12887

The superior spectral efficiency (SE) and user fairness feature of non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) systems are achieved by exploiting user clustering (UC) more efficiently. However, a random UC ... [more ▼]

The superior spectral efficiency (SE) and user fairness feature of non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) systems are achieved by exploiting user clustering (UC) more efficiently. However, a random UC certainly results in a suboptimal solution while an exhaustive search method comes at the cost of high complexity, especially for systems of medium-to-large size. To address this problem, we develop two efficient unsupervised machine learning based UC algorithms, namely k-means++ and improved k-means++, to effectively cluster users into disjoint clusters in cell-free massive multiple-input multiple-output (CFmMIMO) system. Adopting full-pilot zero-forcing at access points (APs) to comprehensively assess the system performance, we formulate the sum SE optimization problem taking into account power constraints at APs, necessary conditions for implementing successive interference cancellation, and required SE constraints at user equipments. The formulated optimization problem is highly non-convex, and thus, it is difficult to obtain the global optimal solution. Therefore, we develop a simple yet efficient iterative algorithm for its solution. In addition, the performance of collocated massive MIMO-NOMA (COmMIMO-NOMA) system is also characterized. Numerical results are provided to show the superior performance of the proposed UC algorithms compared to baseline schemes. The effectiveness of applying NOMA in CFmMIMO and COmMIMO systems is also validated. [less ▲]

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See detailKijken en Kennis: Een zeventiende-eeuws constcamer-schilderij
Koeleman, Floor Anna UL

in Wonderkamer: Magazine voor Wetenschapsgeschiedenis (2021), 4

Wie wil doordringen tot de diepere betekenis van een constcamer schilderij, moet leren kijken. Floor Koeleman neemt ons mee naar de kleinste details, want overal schuilt betekenis in. Bovendien vertellen ... [more ▼]

Wie wil doordringen tot de diepere betekenis van een constcamer schilderij, moet leren kijken. Floor Koeleman neemt ons mee naar de kleinste details, want overal schuilt betekenis in. Bovendien vertellen de schilderijen uit de vroegmoderne tijd ons veel over hoe kennis in de zeventiende eeuw tot stand kwam. [less ▲]

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See detailA Systematic Literature Review of Empirical Methods and Risk Representation in Usable Privacy and Security Research
Distler, Verena UL; Fassl, Matthias; Habib, Hana et al

in ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction (2021), 28(6), 50

Usable privacy and security researchers have developed a variety of approaches to represent risk to research participants. To understand how these approaches are used and when each might be most ... [more ▼]

Usable privacy and security researchers have developed a variety of approaches to represent risk to research participants. To understand how these approaches are used and when each might be most appropriate, we conducted a systematic literature review of methods used in security and privacy studies with human participants. From a sample of 633 papers published at five top conferences between 2014 and 2018 that included keywords related to both security/privacy and usability, we systematically selected and analyzed 284 full-length papers that included human subjects studies. Our analysis focused on study methods; risk representation; the use of prototypes, scenarios, and educational intervention; the use of deception to simulate risk; and types of participants. We discuss benefits and shortcomings of the methods, and identify key methodological, ethical, and research challenges when representing and assessing security and privacy risk. We also provide guidelines for the reporting of user studies in security and privacy. [less ▲]

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See detailCompte rendu de Dirk Richtus, Naar de hel met Hitler
Brüll, Christoph UL

in Contemporanea (2021), (4),

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See detailPublic Covid-19 X-ray datasets and their impact on model bias - a systematic review of a significant problem
Garcia Santa Cruz, Beatriz UL; Bossa, Matias Nicolas UL; Sölter, Jan UL et al

in Medical Image Analysis (2021), 74

Computer-aided diagnosis and stratification of COVID-19 based on chest X-ray suffers from weak bias assessment and limited quality-control. Undetected bias induced by inappropriate use of datasets, and ... [more ▼]

Computer-aided diagnosis and stratification of COVID-19 based on chest X-ray suffers from weak bias assessment and limited quality-control. Undetected bias induced by inappropriate use of datasets, and improper consideration of confounders prevents the translation of prediction models into clinical practice. By adopting established tools for model evaluation to the task of evaluating datasets, this study provides a systematic appraisal of publicly available COVID-19 chest X-ray datasets, determining their potential use and evaluating potential sources of bias. Only 9 out of more than a hundred identified datasets met at least the criteria for proper assessment of the risk of bias and could be analysed in detail. Remarkably most of the datasets utilised in 201 papers published in peer-reviewed journals, are not among these 9 datasets, thus leading to models with a high risk of bias. This raises concerns about the suitability of such models for clinical use. This systematic review highlights the limited description of datasets employed for modelling and aids researchers to select the most suitable datasets for their task. [less ▲]

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See detailPIONEERED: Elaborating the link between social and educational policies for tackling educational inequalities in Europe
Hadjar, Andreas UL; Aigul, Alieva; Jobst, Solvejg et al

in socialpolicy.ch (2021), early online

Although a number of policies tackling educational inequalities have been introduced in recent decades in Europe, educational inequalities exist to a varying extent both in different sub- and ... [more ▼]

Although a number of policies tackling educational inequalities have been introduced in recent decades in Europe, educational inequalities exist to a varying extent both in different sub- and supranational contexts. In this article, we address the link between social and educational policies with respect to educational inequalities. Educational policies aim to guarantee opportunities throughout educational trajectories and beyond. They pertain to all areas and the entire duration of the human life. Our contribution to socialpolicy.ch introduces the ongoing Horizon 2020 project PIONEERED on educational inequalities by elaborating on the social problems behind those dis-parities, and by outlining the project’s conceptual and methodological approaches that join together multilevel, intersectional and life-course perspectives. [less ▲]

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See detailThe impact of maternal child- and self-oriented pain-related injustice appraisals upon maternal attention to child pain, attention to anger, and pain-attending behavior
Baert, Fleur; van Ryckeghem, Dimitri UL; Sanchez-Lopez, Alvaro et al

in British Journal of Pain (2021)

Objectives The current study investigated the role of maternal child- and self-oriented injustice appraisals about child pain in understanding maternal attention for child pain and adult anger cues and ... [more ▼]

Objectives The current study investigated the role of maternal child- and self-oriented injustice appraisals about child pain in understanding maternal attention for child pain and adult anger cues and pain-attending behavior. Methods Forty-four children underwent a painful cold pressor task (CPT) while their mother observed. Eye tracking was used to measure maternal attention to child pain and adult anger cues. Initial attention allocation and attentional maintenance were indexed by probability of first fixation and gaze duration, respectively. Maternal pain-attending behaviors toward the child were videotaped and coded after CPT completion. Mothers also rated the intensity of pain and anger cues used in the free-viewing tasks. All analyses controlled for maternal catastrophizing about child pain. Results Neither child-oriented nor self-oriented injustice was associated with maternal attentional bias toward child pain. Regarding attention toward self-relevant anger cues, differential associations were observed for self- and child-oriented injustice appraisals, with maternal self-oriented injustice being associated with a greater probability of first fixating on anger and with higher anger ratings, whereas maternal child-oriented injustice was associated with enhanced attentional maintenance toward anger. Neither type of maternal injustice appraisals was associated with maternal pain-attending behavior, which was only associated with maternal catastrophizing. Conclusions The current study sheds light on potential differential mechanisms through which maternal self- vs. child-oriented injustice appraisals may exert their impact on parent and child pain-related outcomes. Theoretical implications and future directions are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailLearning-Assisted User Clustering in Cell-Free Massive MIMO-NOMA Networks
Le, Quang Nhat; Nguyen, van Dinh UL; Dobre, Octavia A. et al

in IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology (2021), 70(12), 12872-12887

The superior spectral efficiency (SE) and user fairness feature of non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) systems are achieved by exploiting user clustering (UC) more efficiently. However, a random UC ... [more ▼]

The superior spectral efficiency (SE) and user fairness feature of non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) systems are achieved by exploiting user clustering (UC) more efficiently. However, a random UC certainly results in a suboptimal solution while an exhaustive search method comes at the cost of high complexity, especially for systems of medium-to-large size. To address this problem, we develop two efficient unsupervised machine learning based UC algorithms, namely k-means++ and improved k-means++, to effectively cluster users into disjoint clusters in cell-free massive multiple-input multiple-output (CFmMIMO) system. Adopting full-pilot zero-forcing at access points (APs) to comprehensively assess the system performance, we formulate the sum SE optimization problem taking into account power constraints at APs, necessary conditions for implementing successive interference cancellation, and required SE constraints at user equipments. The formulated optimization problem is highly non-convex, and thus, it is difficult to obtain the global optimal solution. Therefore, we develop a simple yet efficient iterative algorithm for its solution. In addition, the performance of collocated massive MIMO-NOMA (COmMIMO-NOMA) system is also characterized. Numerical results are provided to show the superior performance of the proposed UC algorithms compared to baseline schemes. The effectiveness of applying NOMA in CFmMIMO and COmMIMO systems is also validated. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Metaproteomics Initiative: a coordinated approach for propelling the functional characterization of microbiomes
Van den Bossche, Tim; Arntzen, Magnus; Becher, Dörte et al

in Microbiome (2021), 9(1), 243

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