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See detailMulti-Antenna Data-Driven Eavesdropping Attacks and Symbol-Level Precoding Countermeasures
Mayouche, Abderrahmane UL; Alves Martins, Wallace UL; Tsinos, Christos UL et al

in IEEE Open Journal of Vehicular Technology (2021)

In this work, we consider secure communications in wireless multi-user (MU) multiple-input single-output (MISO) systems with channel coding in the presence of a multi-antenna eavesdropper (Eve), who is a ... [more ▼]

In this work, we consider secure communications in wireless multi-user (MU) multiple-input single-output (MISO) systems with channel coding in the presence of a multi-antenna eavesdropper (Eve), who is a legit user trying to eavesdrop other users. In this setting, we exploit machine learning (ML) tools to design soft and hard decoding schemes by using precoded pilot symbols as training data. The proposed ML frameworks allow an Eve to determine the transmitted message with high accuracy. We thereby show that MU-MISO systems are vulnerable to such eavesdropping attacks even when relatively secure transmission techniques are employed, such as symbol-level precoding (SLP). To counteract this attack, we propose two novel SLP-based schemes that increase the bit-error rate at Eve by impeding the learning process. We design these two security-enhanced schemes to meet different requirements regarding runtime, security, and power consumption. Simulation results validate both the ML-based eavesdropping attacks as well as the countermeasures, and show that the gain in security is achieved without affecting the decoding performance at the intended users. [less ▲]

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See detailAn Atomistic Study of the Thermoelectric Signatures of CNT Peapods
Rodríguez Méndez, Alvaro; Medrano Sandonas, Leonardo UL; Dianat, Arezoo et al

in Journal of Physical Chemistry. C, Nanomaterials and interfaces (2021), 125(25), 1372113731

Carbon-based nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have a great potential for applications in the development of high performance thermoelectric (TE) materials because of their low-cost and for ... [more ▼]

Carbon-based nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have a great potential for applications in the development of high performance thermoelectric (TE) materials because of their low-cost and for being environmentally friendly. Pristine nanotubes have, however, high electrical and thermal conductivities so that further nanoscale engineering is required to exploit them as TE materials. We investigate electron and phonon transport in CNT peapods to elucidate their potential advantage over pristine CNTs as basic TE elements. We show that the electron and phonon transport properties are sensitively modified by C60 encapsulation, when the CNT–C60 intermolecular interaction is strong enough to produce a periodic buckling of the CNT walls. Moreover, the phonon transmission is strongly suppressed at low and high frequencies, leading to a reduction of the phonon contribution to the overall thermal conductance. A similar effect has also been observed in the recently proposed phononic metamaterials. We obtain in general a larger TE figure of merit over a broad temperature range for the CNT peapod when compared with the pristine CNT, achieving an increase by a factor of 2.2 at 575 K. Our findings show an alternative route for the enhancement of the TE performance of CNT-based devices. [less ▲]

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See detailLinear Z2n-Manifolds and Linear Actions
Bruce, Andrew UL; Ibarguengoytia, Eduardo UL; Poncin, Norbert UL

in Symmetry, Integrability and Geometry: Methods and Applications (2021), 17(060), 58

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See detailThe BIOMarkers in Atopic Dermatitis and Psoriasis (BIOMAP) Glossary: developing a lingua franca to facilitate data harmonisation and cross-cohort analyses
Broderick, Conor; Christian, Nils; Apfelbacher, Christian et al

in British Journal of Dermatology (2021)

Dear Editor, BIOMAP (BIOMarkers in Atopic dermatitis and Psoriasis) is a large European consortium aiming to advance personalised medicine for atopic dermatitis and psoriasis by identifying biomarkers ... [more ▼]

Dear Editor, BIOMAP (BIOMarkers in Atopic dermatitis and Psoriasis) is a large European consortium aiming to advance personalised medicine for atopic dermatitis and psoriasis by identifying biomarkers which predict therapeutic response and disease progression. BIOMAP brings together clinicians, researchers, patient organisations and pharmaceutical industry partners and encompasses data from over 60 individual studies, including randomised clinical trials, population-based cohorts and deeply-phenotyped disease registries. The curation and harmonisation of data and bio-samples from these established studies will facilitate cross-cohort clinical and molecular analyses, increasing the potential to identify small effect estimates and to better stratify disease subtypes. This letter serves to disseminate BIOMAP's pathway to data harmonisation and will inform future collaborative research endeavours. [less ▲]

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See detailUniversal statistics of vortices in a newborn holographic superconductor: beyond the Kibble-Zurek mechanism
Del Campo Echevarria, Adolfo UL; Gómez-Ruiz, Fernando Javier; Li, Zhi-Hong et al

in JHEP (2021)

Traversing a continuous phase transition at a finite rate leads to the breakdown of adiabatic dynamics and the formation of topological defects, as predicted by the celebrated Kibble-Zurek mechanism (KZM ... [more ▼]

Traversing a continuous phase transition at a finite rate leads to the breakdown of adiabatic dynamics and the formation of topological defects, as predicted by the celebrated Kibble-Zurek mechanism (KZM). We investigate universal signatures beyond the KZM, by characterizing the distribution of vortices generated in a thermal quench leading to the formation of a holographic superconductor. The full counting statistics of vortices is described by a binomial distribution, in which the mean value is dictated by the KZM and higher-order cumulants share the universal power-law scaling with the quench time. Extreme events associated with large fluctuations no longer exhibit a power-law behavior with the quench time and are characterized by a universal form of the Weibull distribution for different quench rates. [less ▲]

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See detailStillborn Banking Union: Explaining Ineffective European Union Bank Resolution Rules
Howarth, David UL; Asimakopoulos, Ioannis

in Journal of Common Market Studies (2021)

Our contribution demonstrates and explains the ineffectiveness of European Union (EU) bank resolution rules, a core element of Banking Union. This inadequacy owes in large part to the limited access to ... [more ▼]

Our contribution demonstrates and explains the ineffectiveness of European Union (EU) bank resolution rules, a core element of Banking Union. This inadequacy owes in large part to the limited access to and insufficient availability of EU resolution funds and inadequate national deposit guarantee schemes in most EU member states, in conjunction with the relatively high minimum requirements for own funds and eligible liabilities (MREL) for many EU banks. In many cases, these requirements are unlikely ever to be met – particularly for retail banks most likely to require resolution in the euro periphery. We offer a liberal intergovernmentalist analysis to explain the inadequacy of the EU resolution regime by examining German and French government preferences on EU rules on bank capital requirements agreed earlier in 2013 and national deposit guarantee schemes agreed in 2014. These government preferences were shaped significantly by the preferences of national banks and bank associations. [less ▲]

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See detailRole of Common Genetic Variants for Drug-Resistance to Specific Anti-Seizure Medications
Wolking, Stefan; Campbell, Ciarán; Stapleton, Caragh et al

in Frontiers in Pharmacology (2021), 12

Objective: Resistance to anti-seizure medications (ASMs) presents a significant hurdle in the treatment of people with epilepsy. Genetic markers for resistance to individual ASMs could support clinicians ... [more ▼]

Objective: Resistance to anti-seizure medications (ASMs) presents a significant hurdle in the treatment of people with epilepsy. Genetic markers for resistance to individual ASMs could support clinicians to make better-informed choices for their patients. In this study, we aimed to elucidate whether the response to individual ASMs was associated with common genetic variation.Methods: A cohort of 3,649 individuals of European descent with epilepsy was deeply phenotyped and underwent single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-genotyping. We conducted genome-wide association analyses (GWASs) on responders to specific ASMs or groups of functionally related ASMs, using non-responders as controls. We performed a polygenic risk score (PRS) analyses based on risk variants for epilepsy and neuropsychiatric disorders and ASM resistance itself to delineate the polygenic burden of ASM-specific drug resistance.Results: We identified several potential regions of interest but did not detect genome-wide significant loci for ASM-specific response. We did not find polygenic risk for epilepsy, neuropsychiatric disorders, and drug-resistance associated with drug response to specific ASMs or mechanistically related groups of ASMs.Significance: This study could not ascertain the predictive value of common genetic variants for ASM responder status. The identified suggestive loci will need replication in future studies of a larger scale. [less ▲]

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See detailDe la poussière à la lumière bleue. Émotions, récits, gestes de l'archive à l'ère numérique
Muller, Caroline; Clavert, Frédéric UL

in Signata. Annales des Sémiotiques (2021), 12(12),

For a great many historians, Arlette Farge’s book The Allure of the Archives remains a seminal description of working with archives, at least in France. In the past few years however, a clear disparity ... [more ▼]

For a great many historians, Arlette Farge’s book The Allure of the Archives remains a seminal description of working with archives, at least in France. In the past few years however, a clear disparity has emerged between this book and the actual experience and practice of historical research because of the rise in digital technologies, which have prompted a dramatic change in historians’ relationship with archives. Based on the collective online book Le Goût de l’archive à l’ère numérique (“The allure of the archives in the digital age” – https://www.gout-numerique.net/) and on a study day held in 2018 at the French National Archives, this paper aims to investigate the changing relationship of historians with archives: their emotional engagement, their relations with archivists and their practices when consulting paper, digitised or born-digital archives. From dusty shelves to blue light, the entire profession of historian has changed, often in discreet, implicit ways, such as the recent practice of taking photos at archival centers, a consequence of the widespread ownership and use of digital cameras. Do archives still elicit the same emotions when they are merely one snapshot among many on a hard disk, or when they are turned into data and published online in a corpus? If the emotion attached to archives is no longer the same, does this change the way in which we interpret them? How should we reflect on our own practices so that we can see past the algorithms that drive the search engines and software we now use? [less ▲]

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See detailIntroduction. La participation politique en ligne au révélateur du pétitionnement électronique
Contamin, Jean-Gabriel; Kies, Raphaël UL; Paye, Olivier et al

in Participations: Revue de sciences sociales sur la démocratie et la citoyenneté (2021), 3(28), 7-45

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See detailQuand les e-pétitions influencent-elles la décision politique ? Une analyse du système de pétitions électroniques de la Chambre des députés du Luxembourg
Kies, Raphaël UL; Seidenthal, Sven UL

in Participations: Revue de sciences sociales sur la démocratie et la citoyenneté (2021), 3(28), 177-202

Dans cet article, nous présentons l’une des premières analyses à étudier de manière systématique les facteurs expliquant le degré d’appropriation par un gouvernement des demandes exprimées dans les e ... [more ▼]

Dans cet article, nous présentons l’une des premières analyses à étudier de manière systématique les facteurs expliquant le degré d’appropriation par un gouvernement des demandes exprimées dans les e-pétitions qui lui sont soumises. Cette analyse se base sur l’ensemble des e-pétitions ayant obtenu les 4 500 signatures requises pour donner lieu à un débat public à la Chambre des députés du Luxembourg. Les hypothèses testées pour expliquer les variations dans le niveau d’appropriation des e-pétitions par le gouvernement ont été : 1) la compatibilité avec l’agenda du gouvernement, 2) la compétence du gouvernement pour traiter les e-pétitions en question, 3) la nature consensuelle (ou non)de l’e-pétition, 4) le nombre de signatures en sa faveur, 5) sa visibilité médiatique, et 6) le statut de son initiateur. Conformément à nos attentes, nous avons observé que les probabilités qu’une e-pétition soit prise en considération par le gouvernement sont liées à essentiellement trois facteurs : 1) la compatibilité avec l’agenda du gouvernement, 2) la compétence du gouvernement et 3) l’accord du gouvernement avec les revendications des pétitionnaires. Les autres facteurs, tels que le soutien populaire ou médiatique de l’e-pétition, sa thématique ou bien les coûts de sa réalisation, apparaissent peu significatifs. [less ▲]

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See detailSecure Energy Efficiency Maximization in Cognitive Satellite-Terrestrial Networks
Lu, Weixin; An, Kang; Liang, Tao et al

in IEEE Systems Journal (2021), 15(2), 2382-2385

This article investigates the secure energy efficiency (EE) optimization problem in a cognitive satellite-terrestrial network with a capable eavesdropper. The objective is to maximize the secure EE for ... [more ▼]

This article investigates the secure energy efficiency (EE) optimization problem in a cognitive satellite-terrestrial network with a capable eavesdropper. The objective is to maximize the secure EE for the primary satellite network while satisfying the allowable signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio requirements of the secondary and primary users along within the transmit power limitation of both satellite and the terrestrial base station. Owing to the nonconvexity and intractability of the original optimization problem, a beamforming scheme and associated transformation algorithms are proposed by jointly applying the Taylor approximation, fraction programming, and alternating search to cope with the implementation difficulty. The key is to convert the original optimization problem into a simple convex framework and obtain the optimal solution step by step. Finally, numerical simulations are given to verify the feasibility and practicability of the proposed optimization algorithms. [less ▲]

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See detailAuthoritarianism Beyond Disposition: A Literature Review of Research on Contextual Antecedents
Schnelle, Caroline; Baier, Dirk; Hadjar, Andreas UL et al

in Frontiers in Psychology (2021), 12

A core debate in authoritarianism research relates to the stability of authoritarianism, i.e., whether it is a dispositional phenomenon socialized in early childhood or even genetically predisposed, or ... [more ▼]

A core debate in authoritarianism research relates to the stability of authoritarianism, i.e., whether it is a dispositional phenomenon socialized in early childhood or even genetically predisposed, or whether it is impacted by time-sensitive, exterior conditions. Whereas certain individual authoritarian tendencies emerge as a rather stable personality trait, there is also empirical evidence for a dynamic influence of external factors. This review article provides a conceptual multilevel framework for the study of authoritarianism and offers an insight into the state-of-research on socialization and situational influences, with a particular focus on threat. Findings are discussed with regard to key theories of authoritarianism. [less ▲]

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See detaileJMT Problem Corner: June 2021
Kreis, Yves UL; Haas, Ben; Lavicza, Zsolt

in The Electronic Journal of Mathematics & Technology (2021)

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See detailOn Systematically Building a Controlled Natural Language for Functional Requirements
Veizaga Campero, Alvaro Mario UL; Alferez, Mauricio UL; Torre, Damiano UL et al

in Empirical Software Engineering (2021), 26(4), 79

[Context] Natural language (NL) is pervasive in software requirements specifications (SRSs). However, despite its popularity and widespread use, NL is highly prone to quality issues such as vagueness ... [more ▼]

[Context] Natural language (NL) is pervasive in software requirements specifications (SRSs). However, despite its popularity and widespread use, NL is highly prone to quality issues such as vagueness, ambiguity, and incompleteness. Controlled natural languages (CNLs) have been proposed as a way to prevent quality problems in requirements documents, while maintaining the flexibility to write and communicate requirements in an intuitive and universally understood manner. [Objective] In collaboration with an industrial partner from the financial domain, we systematically develop and evaluate a CNL, named Rimay, intended at helping analysts write functional requirements. [Method] We rely on Grounded Theory for building Rimay and follow well-known guidelines for conducting and reporting industrial case study research. [Results] Our main contributions are: (1) a qualitative methodology to systematically define a CNL for functional requirements; this methodology is intended to be general for use across information-system domains, (2) a CNL grammar to represent functional requirements; this grammar is derived from our experience in the financial domain, but should be applicable, possibly with adaptations, to other information-system domains, and (3) an empirical evaluation of our CNL (Rimay) through an industrial case study. Our contributions draw on 15 representative SRSs, collectively containing 3215 NL requirements statements from the financial domain. [Conclusion] Our evaluation shows that Rimay is expressive enough to capture, on average, 88% (405 out of 460) of the NL requirements statements in four previously unseen SRSs from the financial domain. [less ▲]

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See detailIncome and Wealth Volatility: Evidence from Italy and the U.S. in the Past Two Decades
Menta, Giorgia UL; Wolff, Edward; d'ambrosio, Conchita UL

in Journal of Economic Inequality (2021), 19(2), 293-313

Income volatility and wealth volatility are central objects of investigation for the literature on income and wealth inequality and dynamics. Here we analyse the two concepts in a comparative perspective ... [more ▼]

Income volatility and wealth volatility are central objects of investigation for the literature on income and wealth inequality and dynamics. Here we analyse the two concepts in a comparative perspective for the same individuals in Italy and the U.S. over the last two decades. We find that in both countries wealth volatility reaches significantly higher values than income volatility, the effect being mostly driven by changes in the market value of real estate assets. We also show that there is more volatility in both dimensions in the U.S. and that the overall trend in both countries is increasing over time. We conclude by exploring volatility in consumption. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the Secrecy-Reliability Performance Trade-off for NOMA-enabled 5G mmWave Networks
Solanki, Sourabh UL; Gurjar, Devendra S.; Sharma, Pankaj K. et al

in 2021 IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (IEEE PIMRC 2021) (2021)

The evolution of 5G wireless networks poses significant research challenges such as securing the user data, maintaining certain latency and reliability requirements etc. However, it can be challenging to ... [more ▼]

The evolution of 5G wireless networks poses significant research challenges such as securing the user data, maintaining certain latency and reliability requirements etc. However, it can be challenging to simultaneously meet these performance requisites, which may lead to resort to a trade-off among different metrics. This paper investigates the secrecy-reliability performance trade-off (SRPT) for non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA)-based millimeter wave (mmWave) networks. Herein, we consider two end-users, namely primary and secondary, which are served by an mmWave base station using downlink NOMA. Besides, a passive eavesdropper lying in the vicinity of these end-users attempts to intercept their legitimate message signals. For this set-up, we derive the closed-form expressions of the outage probability (OP) of a targeted end-user and intercept probability (IP) of the eavesdropper to analyze the SRPT of the system. We further propose a low-complexity average channel state information (CSI)-based power allocation strategy to improve the reliability of a targeted user while maintaining its information secrecy. Moreover, we obtain the condition under which NOMA guarantees superior secrecy performance than that of orthogonal multiple access (OMA) scheme. We corroborate our theoretical analysis via simulation results presented in terms of IP and OP. [less ▲]

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See detailGlobale Warenketten und ungleiche Entwicklung
Hesse, Markus UL

in Zeitschrift für Wirtschaftsgeographie (2021)

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See detailDie Ökonomisierung des Raums
Hesse, Markus UL

in disP : The Planning Review (2021), 57(1), 88-89

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See detailIs This Time Really Different? Flight-to-Safety and the COVID-19 Crisis
Löwen, Celina; Kchouri, Bilal UL; Lehnert, Thorsten UL

in PLoS ONE (2021), 16(5),

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See detailBoys don't cry (or do the dishes): Family size and the housework gender gap
Menta, Giorgia UL; Lepinteur, Anthony UL

in Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization (2021), 186

We here use data from the British Cohort Study (BCS) to link family size to age-16 children’s contribution to household chores and the adult housework gender gap. Assuming that home production is an ... [more ▼]

We here use data from the British Cohort Study (BCS) to link family size to age-16 children’s contribution to household chores and the adult housework gender gap. Assuming that home production is an increasing function of family size and using an instrument to account for the endogeneity of fertility, we show that larger families have a different effect on boys and girls at age 16: girls in large families are significantly more likely to contribute to housework, with no effect for boys. We then show that childhood family size affects the housework gender gap between the cohort members and their partners at age 34. Women who grew up in larger families are more likely to carry out a greater share of household tasks in adulthood, as compared to women from smaller families. In addition, growing up in a large family makes cohort members more likely to sort into households with a wider housework gender gap as adults. We show that the persistent effect of family size is due to the adoption of behaviours in line with traditional gender roles: a lower likelihood of employment and shorter commutes for women, along with a higher employment probability for their partners. [less ▲]

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See detailThe impact of COVID-19 on alternative and local food systems and the potential for the sustainability transition: Insights from 13 countries
Reckinger, Rachel UL; Nemes, Gusztav; Chiffoleau, Yuna et al

in Sustainable Production and Consumption (2021), 28(2021), 591599

The COVID-19 pandemic has been a major stress test for the agri-food system. While most research has analysed the impact of the pandemic on mainstream food systems, this article examines how alternative ... [more ▼]

The COVID-19 pandemic has been a major stress test for the agri-food system. While most research has analysed the impact of the pandemic on mainstream food systems, this article examines how alternative and local food systems (ALFS) in 13 countries responded in the first months of the crisis. Using pri- mary and secondary data and combining the Multi-Level Perspective with social innovation approaches, we highlight the innovations and adaptations that emerged in ALFS, and how these changes have cre- ated or supported the sustainability transition in production and consumption systems. In particular, we show how the combination of social and technological innovation, greater citizen involvement, and the increased interest of policy-makers and retailers have enabled ALFS to extend their scope and engage new actors in more sustainable practices. Finally, we make recommendations concerning how to support ALFS’ upscaling to embrace the opportunities arising from the crisis and strengthen the sustainability transition [less ▲]

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See detailPrestigious Language, Pigeonholed Speakers: Stances towards the "Native English Speaker" in a Multilingual European Institution
Lovrits, Veronika UL; de Bres, Julia

in Journal of Sociolinguistics (2021), 25(3), 398-417

Critical sociolinguistics has demonstrated that the social construct of the “native speaker” has a strong impact on people’s lives, but research on “native speaker effects” in the workplace remains rare ... [more ▼]

Critical sociolinguistics has demonstrated that the social construct of the “native speaker” has a strong impact on people’s lives, but research on “native speaker effects” in the workplace remains rare. This article examines such effects from the perspective of four “native English speaker” trainees on temporary contracts in a multilingual European Union institution in Luxembourg. Applying the framework of sociolinguistic stance to interview data and drawings, we examine how the participants position themselves towards the “native English speaker” construct at work, and how they think others position them. According to our participants, “native English speaker” positioning confers privilege but restricts opportunities, demonstrating that the interest of a multilingual organisation in using the “native English speaker” as a resource does not automatically provide a powerful position to “native English speaking” workers. Our results featuring trainees in precarious labour conditions raise broader issues regarding the precaritisation of language work in the EU. [less ▲]

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See detailMantis: flexible and consensus-driven genome annotation
Queirós, Pedro; Delogu, Francesco UL; Hickl, Oskar UL et al

in GigaScience (2021), 10(6),

The rapid development of the (meta-)omics fields has produced an unprecedented amount of high-resolution and high-fidelity data. Through the use of these datasets we can infer the role of previously ... [more ▼]

The rapid development of the (meta-)omics fields has produced an unprecedented amount of high-resolution and high-fidelity data. Through the use of these datasets we can infer the role of previously functionally unannotated proteins from single organisms and consortia. In this context, protein function annotation can be described as the identification of regions of interest (i.e., domains) in protein sequences and the assignment of biological functions. Despite the existence of numerous tools, challenges remain in terms of speed, flexibility, and reproducibility. In the big data era, it is also increasingly important to cease limiting our findings to a single reference, coalescing knowledge from different data sources, and thus overcoming some limitations in overly relying on computationally generated data from single sources.We implemented a protein annotation tool, Mantis, which uses database identifiers intersection and text mining to integrate knowledge from multiple reference data sources into a single consensus-driven output. Mantis is flexible, allowing for the customization of reference data and execution parameters, and is reproducible across different research goals and user environments. We implemented a depth-first search algorithm for domain-specific annotation, which significantly improved annotation performance compared to sequence-wide annotation. The parallelized implementation of Mantis results in short runtimes while also outputting high coverage and high-quality protein function annotations.Mantis is a protein function annotation tool that produces high-quality consensus-driven protein annotations. It is easy to set up, customize, and use, scaling from single genomes to large metagenomes. Mantis is available under the MIT license at https://github.com/PedroMTQ/mantis. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of self-reflection in Humboldtian Bildung and the Kyoto School - Educational implications in light of OECD frameworks
Chiba, Miwa UL

in Nordic Journal of Comparative and International Education (2021), 5(2), 8-21

This article focuses on the importance of reflective experiences in education. It firstly reviews and compares the Humboldtian Bildung and the Kyoto School, represented by Nishida Kitaro. Both ... [more ▼]

This article focuses on the importance of reflective experiences in education. It firstly reviews and compares the Humboldtian Bildung and the Kyoto School, represented by Nishida Kitaro. Both philosophies emphasize the importance of reflective experiences in education, criticising the specific knowledge-skill-based instruction approach. In this sense, the two views are similar. However, this article further explains the significant difference in how the self is considered in relation to the world within each thought, and therefore, how each educational approach is different, namely as seen in the idea of negative education from the Kyoto School. In the latter section, this article develops the discussion of reflection in the process of learning provided in the OECD Education 2030 framework, which was initiated in 2015 and that is still ongoing. Criticising didactic learning as the sole approach for knowledge and skill acquisition, the OECD Education framework advocates instead for the importance of student self-reflection in relation to society to support a broader development of necessary competencies. By comparing the two schools of thought, the article reveals the underlying assumption of self in Western mainstream educational philosophy, and it argues for the importance of open-mindedness toward the other worldview. [less ▲]

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See detailNRAS mutant melanoma: Towards better therapies
Randic, Tijana UL; Kozar, Ines UL; Margue, Christiane UL et al

in Cancer Treatment Reviews (2021), 99

Genetic alterations affecting RAS proteins are commonly found in human cancers. Roughly a fourth of melanoma patients carry activating NRAS mutations, rendering this malignancy particularly challenging to ... [more ▼]

Genetic alterations affecting RAS proteins are commonly found in human cancers. Roughly a fourth of melanoma patients carry activating NRAS mutations, rendering this malignancy particularly challenging to treat. Although the development of targeted as well as immunotherapies led to a substantial improvement in the overall survival of non-NRASmut melanoma patients (e.g. BRAFmut), patients with NRASmut melanomas have an overall poorer prognosis due to the high aggressiveness of RASmut tumors, lack of efficient targeted therapies or rapidly emerging resistance to existing treatments. Understanding how NRAS-driven melanomas develop therapy resistance by maintaining cell cycle progression and survival is crucial to develop more effective and specific treatments for this group of melanoma patients. In this review, we provide an updated summary of currently available therapeutic options for NRASmut melanoma patients with a focus on combined inhibition of MAPK signaling and CDK4/6-driven cell cycle progression and mechanisms of the inevitably developing resistance to these treatments. We conclude with an outlook on the most promising novel therapeutic approaches for melanoma patients with constitutively active NRAS. [less ▲]

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See detailMigration and mobility of third-country national labour workers to and inside Europe during the Covid-19 pandemic – a legal analysis
Sommarribas, Adolfo UL; Nienaber, Birte UL

in Comparative Migration Studies (2021), 9(22), 17

The Covid-19 pandemic took most EU Member States of the European Union by surprise, as they underestimated the rapid spread of the contagion across the continent. The response of the EU Member States was ... [more ▼]

The Covid-19 pandemic took most EU Member States of the European Union by surprise, as they underestimated the rapid spread of the contagion across the continent. The response of the EU Member States was asymmetrical, individualistic and significantly slow. The first measures taken were to close down the internal borders. The European Union's response was even slower, and it was not until 17th March 2020 that the external borders were closed. These actions affected legal migration into the European Union from four perspectives: it affected 1) the mobility of those third-country nationals who were on a temporary stay in the EU Member States; 2) the entry of third-country nationals to do seasonal work; 3) legal migrants entering and staying; and 4) the status of the third-country nationals already residing in the EU Member States, especially those experiencing a loss of income. This article will deal with the EU Member States' measures to manage the immigration services, as a case study how Luxembourg dealt to avoid that temporary staying migrants and regular migrants fall into irregularity. Finally, we will focus on the vulnerability of third-country nationals with the rising risk of unemployment and the risk of being returned to their country of origin. The article will also analyse access to healthcare and unemployment benefits. [less ▲]

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See detailTug of War over Financial Assistance: Which Way Forward for Eurozone Stability Mechanisms?
Rehm, Moritz UL

in Politics and Governance (2021), 9(2), 173184

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See detailAvoiding the Inappropriate: The European Commission and Sanctions under the Stability and Growth Pact
Sacher, Martin UL

in Politics and Governance (2021), 9(2), 163-172

Fiscal policy surveillance, including the possibility to impose financial sanctions, has been an important feature of Economic and Monetary Union since its inception. With the reform of fiscal rules in ... [more ▼]

Fiscal policy surveillance, including the possibility to impose financial sanctions, has been an important feature of Economic and Monetary Union since its inception. With the reform of fiscal rules in the aftermath of the financial and sovereign debt crisis, coercive provisions have been made stricter and the Commission has formally gained power vis‐à‐vis the Council. Nevertheless, sanctions under the Stability and Growth Pact for budgetary non‐compliance have so far not been imposed. This article asks why the Commission has until now refrained from proposing such sanctions. Using minimalist process‐tracing methods, three post‐crisis cases in which the imposition of fines was possible, are analysed. Applying an adaptation of normative institutionalism, it is argued that the mechanism entitled “normative‐strategic minimum enforcement” provides an explanation of why no sanctions are imposed in the cases studied: Given that the Commission does not perceive punitive action as appropriate, it strategically refrains from applying the enforcement provisions to their full extent. [less ▲]

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See detailScrutiny or Complacency? Banking Union in the Bundestag and the Assemblée Nationale
Högenauer, Anna-Lena UL

in Politics and Governance (2021), 9(2), 219-229

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See detailThe European Central Bank and the German Constitutional Court: Police Patrols and Fire Alarms
Howarth, David UL; Fontan, Clément

in Politics and Governance (2021), 9(2),

In May 2020, a ruling of the German Federal Constitutional Court (FCC) questioned the legality of the Bundesbank’s participation in the European Central Bank’s (ECB’s) Public Sector Purchase Programme ... [more ▼]

In May 2020, a ruling of the German Federal Constitutional Court (FCC) questioned the legality of the Bundesbank’s participation in the European Central Bank’s (ECB’s) Public Sector Purchase Programme. Applying elements of a principal-agent analysis, this article analyses how the FCC ruling presents us with a new understanding of the relationship between the ECB, other EU institutions and Eurozone member states. Existing principal-agent analyses of the ECB focus upon its relations with other EU-level institutions and point to the limited ex ante control mechanisms and efforts to reinforce ex post control mechanisms—notably European Parliament oversight. The FCC ruling and the ECB’s reaction demonstrate the relative importance of national level controls over the ECB agent. This article understands the role of private plaintiffs in Germany as a form of ‘fire alarm’ on ECB policymaking against the background of weak ex post controls at the EU-level. [less ▲]

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See detailReforming the Institutions of Eurozone Governance
Högenauer, Anna-Lena UL; Rehm, Moritz UL

in Politics and Governance (2021), 9(2), 159162

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See detailPractitioners’ language-supporting strategies in multilingual ECE institutions in Luxembourg
Kirsch, Claudine UL

in European Early Childhood Education Research Journal (2021), 29(3),

Multilingual education is mandatory in early childhood education in several European countries. Scholars working in first, second, and foreign language learning have shown the effectiveness of interaction ... [more ▼]

Multilingual education is mandatory in early childhood education in several European countries. Scholars working in first, second, and foreign language learning have shown the effectiveness of interaction-promoting and language-modelling strategies for language development. In addition, teachers in bilingual contexts have been translanguaging to foster language learning. To this day, few research studies have examined these strategies in combination and their deployment in multilingual contexts. The present study takes place in multilingual Luxembourg where 64% of the four-year-olds do not speak Luxembourgish. It focuses on three practitioners who took part in a professional development course on multilingual pedagogies and presents their language-supporting strategies as well as their translanguaging practices. The findings show that the practitioners use a range of strategies in Luxembourgish, French and home languages, in daily conversations, routines and language and literacy activities to address children’s linguistic needs. [less ▲]

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See detailBrillouin light scattering during shearing of complex fluids
Lehr, Claudius Moritz UL; Astasheva, Olga UL; Baller, Jörg

in Optics Express (2021), 29(11), 16019-16031

A setup for the optical measurement of elastic properties during the flow of complex fluids is presented. Brillouin light scattering and rotational rheology are combined in order to simultaneously measure ... [more ▼]

A setup for the optical measurement of elastic properties during the flow of complex fluids is presented. Brillouin light scattering and rotational rheology are combined in order to simultaneously measure the high-frequency longitudinal elastic modulus in a classical rheometer along with the zero-shear viscosity. Brillouin light scattering allows for the contactless determination of local elastic properties. First measurements of a diluted polymer system suggest a homogeneous orientation of polymer molecules throughout the sample as soon as a critical shear rate has been reached at one spatial position. [less ▲]

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See detailPractices and experiences of distant education during the COVID-19 pandemic: The perspectives of six- to sixteen-year-olds from three high-income countries
Kirsch, Claudine UL; Engel de Abreu, Pascale UL; Neumann, Sascha et al

in International Journal of Educational Research Open (2021), 2(2), 11

The paper explores children’s perspectives of distance education, their learning experiences and school satisfac- tion in Luxembourg, Germany and Switzerland during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic ... [more ▼]

The paper explores children’s perspectives of distance education, their learning experiences and school satisfac- tion in Luxembourg, Germany and Switzerland during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. The data stem from an online questionnaire completed by 1773 primary and secondary school children aged 6–16. While the paper uses quantitative and qualitative data, it aligns with the qualitative research tradition and predominantly uses an inductive approach. The findings show that teachers offered varied types of distance education and that parents supported children. The children’s contact time with teachers and their time spent on schoolwork var- ied within and between countries. Their school satisfaction dropped in the three countries. The paper calls for training and development on distant education. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessing the role of rare genetic variants in drug-resistant, non-lesional focal epilepsy
Wolking, Stefan; Moreau, Claudia; McCormack, Mark et al

in Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology (2021), n/a(n/a),

Abstract Objective Resistance to antiseizure medications (ASMs) is one of the major concerns in the treatment of epilepsy. Despite the increasing number of ASMs available, the proportion of individuals ... [more ▼]

Abstract Objective Resistance to antiseizure medications (ASMs) is one of the major concerns in the treatment of epilepsy. Despite the increasing number of ASMs available, the proportion of individuals with drug-resistant epilepsy remains unchanged. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of rare genetic variants in ASM resistance. Methods We performed exome sequencing of 1,128 individuals with non-familial non-acquired focal epilepsy (NAFE) (762 non-responders, 366 responders) and were provided with 1,734 healthy controls. We undertook replication in a cohort of 350 individuals with NAFE (165 non-responders, 185 responders). We performed gene-based and gene-set-based kernel association tests to investigate potential enrichment of rare variants in relation to drug response status and to risk for NAFE. Results We found no gene or gene set that reached genome-wide significance. Yet, we identified several prospective candidate genes – among them DEPDC5, which showed a potential association with resistance to ASMs. We found some evidence for an enrichment of truncating variants in dominant familial NAFE genes in our cohort of non-familial NAFE and in association with drug-resistant NAFE. Interpretation Our study identifies potential candidate genes for ASM resistance. Our results corroborate the role of rare variants for non-familial NAFE and imply their involvement in drug-resistant epilepsy. Future large-scale genetic research studies are needed to substantiate these findings. [less ▲]

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See detailInteractions between the regulation of homosexuality and transsexuality since the enactment of the Transsexual Act
de Silva, Adrian UL

in History | Sexuality | Law (2021)

Drawing upon Federal Constitutional Court decisions on relevant provisions of the Transsexual Act and legislation on same-sex partnerships, this contribution traces how the regulation of homosexuality and ... [more ▼]

Drawing upon Federal Constitutional Court decisions on relevant provisions of the Transsexual Act and legislation on same-sex partnerships, this contribution traces how the regulation of homosexuality and transsexuality impacted upon each other since the Transsexual Act was enacted in the Federal Republic of Germany in 1981. [less ▲]

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See detailActive engines: Thermodynamics moves forward
Fodor, Etienne UL; Cates, Michael E.

in Europhysics Letters (2021), 134

The study of thermal heat engines was pivotal to establishing the principles of equilibrium thermodynamics, with implications far wider than only engine optimization. For nonequilibrium systems, which by ... [more ▼]

The study of thermal heat engines was pivotal to establishing the principles of equilibrium thermodynamics, with implications far wider than only engine optimization. For nonequilibrium systems, which by definition dissipate energy even at rest, how to best convert such dissipation into useful work is still largely an outstanding question, with similar potential to illuminate general physical principles. We review recent theoretical progress in studying the performances of engines operating with active matter, where particles are driven by individual self-propulsion. We distinguish two main classes, either autonomous engines exploiting a particle current, or cyclic engines applying periodic transformation to the system, and present the strategies put forward so far for optimization. We delineate the limitations of previous studies, and propose some future perspectives, with a view to building a consistent thermodynamic framework far from equilibrium. [less ▲]

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See detailSemantic and Relational Spaces in Science of Science: Deep Learning Models for Article Vectorisation
Kozlowski, Diego UL; Dusdal, Jennifer UL; Pang, Jun UL et al

in Scientometrics (2021)

Over the last century, we observe a steady and exponentially growth of scientific publications globally. The overwhelming amount of available literature makes a holistic analysis of the research within a ... [more ▼]

Over the last century, we observe a steady and exponentially growth of scientific publications globally. The overwhelming amount of available literature makes a holistic analysis of the research within a field and between fields based on manual inspection impossible. Automatic techniques to support the process of literature review are required to find the epistemic and social patterns that are embedded in scientific publications. In computer sciences, new tools have been developed to deal with large volumes of data. In particular, deep learning techniques open the possibility of automated end-to-end models to project observations to a new, low-dimensional space where the most relevant information of each observation is highlighted. Using deep learning to build new representations of scientific publications is a growing but still emerging field of research. The aim of this paper is to discuss the potential and limits of deep learning for gathering insights about scientific research articles. We focus on document-level embeddings based on the semantic and relational aspects of articles, using Natural Language Processing (NLP) and Graph Neural Networks (GNNs). We explore the different outcomes generated by those techniques. Our results show that using NLP we can encode a semantic space of articles, while with GNN we are able to build a relational space where the social practices of a research community are also encoded. [less ▲]

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See detailUnification of functional annotation descriptions using text mining
Queirós, Pedro; Novikova, Polina UL; Wilmes, Paul UL et al

in Biological Chemistry (2021)

A common approach to genome annotation involves the use of homology-based tools for the prediction of the functional role of proteins. The quality of functional annotations is dependent on the reference ... [more ▼]

A common approach to genome annotation involves the use of homology-based tools for the prediction of the functional role of proteins. The quality of functional annotations is dependent on the reference data used, as such, choosing the appropriate sources is crucial. Unfortunately, no single reference data source can be universally considered the gold standard, thus using multiple references could potentially increase annotation quality and coverage. However, this comes with challenges, particularly due to the introduction of redundant and exclusive annotations. Through text mining it is possible to identify highly similar functional descriptions, thus strengthening the confidence of the final protein functional annotation and providing a redundancy-free output. Here we present UniFunc, a text mining approach that is able to detect similar functional descriptions with high precision. UniFunc was built as a small module and can be independently used or integrated into protein function annotation pipelines. By removing the need to individually analyse and compare annotation results, UniFunc streamlines the complementary use of multiple reference datasets. [less ▲]

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See detailGastric interoception and gastric myoelectrical activity in bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder
van Dyck, Zoé UL; Schulz, André UL; Blechert, Jens et al

in International Journal of Eating Disorders (2021), 54(7), 1106-1115

Objective: Identifying factors that control food intake is crucial to the understanding and treatment of eating disorders characterized by binge eating. In healthy individuals, stomach distension plays an ... [more ▼]

Objective: Identifying factors that control food intake is crucial to the understanding and treatment of eating disorders characterized by binge eating. In healthy individuals, stomach distension plays an important role in the development of satiation, but gastric sensations might be overridden in binge eating. The present study investigated the perception of gastric signals (i.e., gastric interoception) and gastric motility in patients experiencing binge eating episodes, i.e. bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge-eating disorder (BED). Method: Twenty-nine patients with BN or BED (ED group) and 32 age-, sex-, and BMI-matched healthy controls (HC group) participated in the study. The onset of satiation and stomach fullness were assessed using a novel 2-step water load test (WLT-II). Gastric myoelectrical activity (GMA) was measured by electrogastrography (EGG) before and after ingestion of non-caloric water. Results: Individuals in the ED group drank significantly more water until reporting satiation during the WLT-II. The percentage of normal gastric myoelectrical power was significantly smaller in the ED group compared to HC, and negatively related to the number of objective binge-eating episodes per week in bulimic patients. Power in the bradygastria range was greater in ED than in HC subjects. Discussion: Patients with EDs have a delayed response to satiation compared to HC participants, together with abnormal GMA. Repeated binge eating episodes may induce disturbances to gastric motor function. [less ▲]

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See detailIncreasing the diversity of the teacher workforce: Socio-political challenges to reducing inequalities in access to teacher education programs.
Pit-Ten Cate, Ineke UL; Rivas, Salvador UL; Busana, Gilbert UL

in Frontiers in Education (2021), 6

Cross-border migration leads to a diversification of societies, which is reflected in the education system, where classrooms are composed of students with heterogeneous cultural, linguistic, socio ... [more ▼]

Cross-border migration leads to a diversification of societies, which is reflected in the education system, where classrooms are composed of students with heterogeneous cultural, linguistic, socio-economic characteristics. However, this diversity is only to a limited extent reflected in the teacher population, even though teachers from different backgrounds can bring specific intercultural competencies, have more positive attitudes toward multicultural heterogeneity and act as role models. To facilitate the diversification of the teaching profession, it is imperative that the cohorts of students entering teacher education programs represent the diversity of societies, however studies have shown students with migration background or from families with lower socio-economic status are underrepresented in such programs. This study considered the demographic constellation of applicants for admission into the teacher education program in Luxembourg (2015-2019) and investigated to what extent the admission process (dis)advantages certain groups. Results revealed that although applications come from diverse backgrounds, proficiency in the country´s native languages poses a disadvantage for students with migration background. In addition, applicants coming from more privileged families stand a better chance of being admitted. Results are interpreted within the framework of social mobility and social reproduction. Implications for the admission to the teachers education program are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailProbing Quantum Speed Limits with Ultracold Gases
Del Campo Echevarria, Adolfo UL

in Physical Review Letters (2021)

Quantum speed limits (QSLs) rule the minimum time for a quantum state to evolve into a distinguishable state in an arbitrary physical process. These fundamental results constrain a notion of distance ... [more ▼]

Quantum speed limits (QSLs) rule the minimum time for a quantum state to evolve into a distinguishable state in an arbitrary physical process. These fundamental results constrain a notion of distance traveled by the quantum state, known as the Bures angle, in terms of the speed of evolution set by nonadiabatic energy fluctuations. I theoretically propose how to measure QSLs in an ultracold quantum gas confined in a timedependent harmonic trap. In this highly-dimensional system of continuous variables, quantum tomography is prohibited. Yet, QSLs can be probed whenever the dynamics is self-similar by measuring as a function of time the cloud size of the ultracold gas. This makes it possible to determine the Bures angle and energy fluctuations, as I discuss for various ultracold atomic systems. [less ▲]

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See detailMonolingual cringe and ideologies of English: Anglophone migrants to Luxembourg draw their experiences in a multilingual society
de Bres, Julia; Lovrits, Veronika UL

in Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development (2021)

This article uses reflective drawing to explore representations of multilingualism by Anglophone migrants in Luxembourg. Analysing twelve interviews in which participants drew and described their language ... [more ▼]

This article uses reflective drawing to explore representations of multilingualism by Anglophone migrants in Luxembourg. Analysing twelve interviews in which participants drew and described their language experiences, we examine the language ideologies Anglophone migrants adopt in response to the ideologies of English they encounter. Participants adopt various ideologies, sometimes aligning with the ideology of global English, sometimes with counter-ideologies of resistance to it, and sometimes a mix of the two. Visual features indexing affective states include colour, gesture, facial expression, and composition. Monolingual cringe – expressed as shame, embarrassment and being ‘bad at languages’ – performs several functions for the participants. Sometimes it serves as an affective disclaimer, allowing them to lean on their privilege in a more socially acceptable way. Sometimes it appears to express genuine distress, in the form of searing linguistic insecurity. Sometimes it performs a distancing function, enabling them to oppose themselves to the stereotype of the monolingual English speaker. The affective intensity of the drawings suggests the ideology of global English does have costs for Anglophone migrants. Fundamentally, though, monolingual cringe reinforces privilege, allowing participants to apologise for their monolingualism even as they continue to benefit from it. [less ▲]

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See detailModeling seizures in the Human Phenotype Ontology according to contemporary ILAE concepts makes big phenotypic data tractable
Lewis-Smith, David; Galer, Peter D.; Balagura, Ganna et al

in Epilepsia (2021), n/a(n/a),

Abstract Objective The clinical features of epilepsy determine how it is defined, which in turn guides management. Therefore, consideration of the fundamental clinical entities that comprise an epilepsy ... [more ▼]

Abstract Objective The clinical features of epilepsy determine how it is defined, which in turn guides management. Therefore, consideration of the fundamental clinical entities that comprise an epilepsy is essential in the study of causes, trajectories, and treatment responses. The Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) is used widely in clinical and research genetics for concise communication and modeling of clinical features, allowing extracted data to be harmonized using logical inference. We sought to redesign the HPO seizure subontology to improve its consistency with current epileptological concepts, supporting the use of large clinical data sets in high-throughput clinical and research genomics. Methods We created a new HPO seizure subontology based on the 2017 International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) Operational Classification of Seizure Types, and integrated concepts of status epilepticus, febrile, reflex, and neonatal seizures at different levels of detail. We compared the HPO seizure subontology prior to, and following, our revision, according to the information that could be inferred about the seizures of 791 individuals from three independent cohorts: 2 previously published and 150 newly recruited individuals. Each cohort's data were provided in a different format and harmonized using the two versions of the HPO. Results The new seizure subontology increased the number of descriptive concepts for seizures 5-fold. The number of seizure descriptors that could be annotated to the cohort increased by 40 and the total amount of information about individuals' seizures increased by 38\%. The most important qualitative difference was the relationship of focal to bilateral tonic-clonic seizure to generalized-onset and focal-onset seizures. Significance We have generated a detailed contemporary conceptual map for harmonization of clinical seizure data, implemented in the official 2020-12-07 HPO release and freely available at hpo.jax.org. This will help to overcome the phenotypic bottleneck in genomics, facilitate reuse of valuable data, and ultimately improve diagnostics and precision treatment of the epilepsies. [less ▲]

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See detailSmall States and the ‘Corona crisis’
Högenauer, Anna-Lena UL; Sarapuu, Külli; Trimikliniotis, Nicos

in Small States & Territories (2021), 4(1),

All papers are available open access on the journal's website.

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See detailThe International Legal Framework on Whistle-Blowers: What More Should Be Done?
Kafteranis, Dimitrios UL

in Seattle Journal for Social Justice (2021), 19(3),

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See detailANN-aided incremental multiscale-remodelling-based finite strain poroelasticity
Dehghani, Hamidreza UL; Zilian, Andreas UL

in Computational Mechanics (2021)

Mechanical modelling of poroelastic media under finite strain is usually carried out via phenomenological models neglecting complex micro-macro scales interdependency. One reason is that the mathematical ... [more ▼]

Mechanical modelling of poroelastic media under finite strain is usually carried out via phenomenological models neglecting complex micro-macro scales interdependency. One reason is that the mathematical two-scale analysis is only straightforward assuming infinitesimal strain theory. Exploiting the potential of ANNs for fast and reliable upscaling and localisation procedures, we propose an incremental numerical approach that considers rearrangement of the cell properties based on its current deformation, which leads to the remodelling of the macroscopic model after each time increment. This computational framework is valid for finite strain and large deformation problems while it ensures infinitesimal strain increments within time steps. The full effects of the interdependency between the properties and response of macro and micro scales are considered for the first time providing a more accurate predictive analysis of fluid-saturated porous media which is studied via a numerical consolidation example. Furthermore, the (nonlinear) deviation from Darcy’s law is captured in fluid filtration numerical analyses. Finally, the brain tissue mechanical response under the uniaxial cyclic test is simulated and studied. [less ▲]

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See detailThe values of web archives
Schafer, Valerie UL; Winters, Jane

in International Journal of Digital Humanities (2021)

This article considers how the development, promotion and adoption of a set of core values for web archives, linked to principles of “good governance”, will help them to tackle the challenges of ... [more ▼]

This article considers how the development, promotion and adoption of a set of core values for web archives, linked to principles of “good governance”, will help them to tackle the challenges of sustainability, accountability and inclusiveness that are central to their long-term societal and cultural worth. It outlines the work that has already been done to address these questions, as web archiving begins to move out of its establishment phase, and then discusses seven key principles of good governance that might be adapted by and embedded within web archives: participation, consensus, accountability, transparency, effectiveness and efficiency, inclusivity and legality. The article concludes with a call to action for researchers and archivists to co-create the core values for web archives that will be required if they are to remain a vital part of our cultural heritage infrastructure. [less ▲]

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See detailLe droit à la sauce piquante n°23 - Mai 2021
Hiez, David UL; Laurent, Rémi

in Le droit à la sauce piquante (2021), 23

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See detailLes dimensions spatiales et socioprofessionnelles du travail frontalier aux frontières franco-suisse et franco-luxembourgeoise
Pigeron-Piroth, Isabelle UL; Belkacem, Rachid

in Géo-Regards: Revue Neuchâteloise de Géographie (2021), 13(2020), 147-177

This article analyzes the main spatial and socio-professional dimensions of cross-border workers at the different borders of France, particularly within the cross-border employment poles of Geneva, Basel ... [more ▼]

This article analyzes the main spatial and socio-professional dimensions of cross-border workers at the different borders of France, particularly within the cross-border employment poles of Geneva, Basel and Luxembourg. It is based on data from the French population census, supplemented by data from the countries where cross-border workers work. While cross-border workers have socio-demographic characteristics that are relatively common to the different cross-border employment centres (mostly men, relatively young, etc.), the article highlights the territorial specificity of socio-professional profiles according to the different cross-border spaces observed. Cross-border work thus constitutes a modality of territorial management of labor and skills. [less ▲]

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See detailQuantum moment map and obstructions to the existence of closed Fedosov star products
Futaki, Akito; La Fuente-Gravy, Laurent UL

in Journal of Geometry and Physics (2021), 163

It is shown that the normalized trace of Fedosov star product for quantum moment map depends only on the path component in the cohomology class of the symplectic form and the cohomology class of the ... [more ▼]

It is shown that the normalized trace of Fedosov star product for quantum moment map depends only on the path component in the cohomology class of the symplectic form and the cohomology class of the closed formal 2-form required to define Fedosov connections (Theorem 1.3). As an application we obtain a family of obstructions to the existence of closed Fedosov star products naturally attached to symplectic manifolds (Theorem 1.5) and Kähler manifolds (Theorem 1.6). These obstructions are integral invariants depending only on the path component of the cohomology class of the symplectic form. Restricted to compact Kähler manifolds we re-discover an obstruction found earlier in La Fuente-Gravy (2019). [less ▲]

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See detailExploring the frequency of anxiety and depression symptoms in a Brazilian sample during the COVID-19 outbreak
Ribeiro, Fabiana UL; Santos, Flávia; Anunciação, Luis et al

in International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (2021), 18(9),

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See detailEncoding Hidden Information onto Surfaces Using Polymerized Cholesteric Spherical Reflectors
Geng, Yong UL; Kizhakidathazhath, Rijeesh UL; Lagerwall, Jan UL

in Advanced Functional Materials (2021)

The omnidirectional Bragg reflection of cholesteric liquid crystals molded into spheres turns them into narrow-band retroreflectors with distinct circular polarization. It is shown that these cholesteric ... [more ▼]

The omnidirectional Bragg reflection of cholesteric liquid crystals molded into spheres turns them into narrow-band retroreflectors with distinct circular polarization. It is shown that these cholesteric spherical reflectors (CSRs) can encode information onto surfaces for far-field optical read-out without false positives, as the selective retroreflectivity allows the background to be easily subtracted. In order to hide the encoding from detection by the human eye, the retroreflection band is tuned to the near-UV or IR spectra, allowing ubiquitous deployment of CSRs in human-populated environments. This opens diverse application opportunities, for instance, in supporting safe robotic navigation and in augmented reality. A key breakthrough is our ability to permanently embed CSRs in a binder such that undesired scattering and reflections are minimized. This is achieved by realizing CSRs as shells that are polymerized from the liquid crystalline state. The resulting shrinkage around an incompressible fluid deforms the thinnest region of each shell such that it ruptures at a well-defined point. This leaves a single small hole in every CSR that gives access to the interior, allowing complete embedding in the binder with optimized refractive index, minimizing visibility. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Museum of American War Letters
Janz, Nina UL

in HSOZKULT - Kommunikation und Fachinformation für die Geschichtswissenschaften (2021)

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See detailLimitations of plastic bending resistance for composite beams deviated from strain-limitation
Schäfer, Markus UL; Zhang, Qingjie UL; Braun, Matthias et al

in Journal of Constructional Steel Research (2021), 180(106562),

Due to the demand for sustainable constructions, composite structures have become more important and lead to slim and economic solutions with a low structural self-weight. EN 1994-1-1 distinguishes ... [more ▼]

Due to the demand for sustainable constructions, composite structures have become more important and lead to slim and economic solutions with a low structural self-weight. EN 1994-1-1 distinguishes between four different cross-section classes for the determination of moment resistance. For the plastic moment resistance, it is assumed, that each cross-sectional fibre can plastify without any limit on the strain. For standard composite beams with sagging moments and a high plastic neutral axis, plastic resistance and strain-limited resistance give similar results. For sections with a large compression zone height xpl and limited rotation capacity, concrete failure in the compression zone can occur before the plastic moment resistance Mpl,Rd, is reached. The strain limit design becomes critical. This paper points out the impact of the concrete part on the design of composite beams. A parametric study comparing plastic and strain limited moment resistance of a considerable variety of cross-sections has been carried out to develop the beam design methods considering compression zone height for the next generation of Eurocodes. [less ▲]

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See detailReading EUropean borderlands under the perspective of legal geography and spatial justice
Evrard, Estelle UL

in European Planning Studies (2021)

Recently, the notion of spatial justice has been discussed as a possible conceptual foundation for rethinking EU Cohesion Policy. While scholars have adopted a dual distributive and procedural ... [more ▼]

Recently, the notion of spatial justice has been discussed as a possible conceptual foundation for rethinking EU Cohesion Policy. While scholars have adopted a dual distributive and procedural understanding of spatial justice, the paper argues that, applied to cross-border areas, such a conceptualisation is challenged to explain how the border contributes to disparities. We argue that actively questioning the role of law is paramount for better examination of the dynamics within border areas. An understanding of spatial justice informed by legal geography allows examination of how law fosters and impedes movement across borders. The paper presents three recent examples where policy representatives from affected communities have fought to adapt legal provisions to cross-border spatiality. Whether such initiatives increased border communities’ capacities to shape their own development (i.e. European Grouping of Territorial Cooperation) or not yet (i.e. co-development at the Lorraine-Luxembourg border; European Cross-Border Mechanism), these examples show that analysing EUropean borderlands as a spatiolegal category helps understanding of how space and law constantly struggle with one another, and how spatial justice emerges from a movement out of this conflict. The paper concludes by discussing the practical and conceptual implications of combining legal geography and spatial justice for analysing EU Borderlands. [less ▲]

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See detailSub-genic intolerance, ClinVar, and the epilepsies: A whole-exome sequencing study of 29,165 individuals
Motelow, Joshua E.; Povysil, Gundula; Dhindsa, Ryan S. et al

in The American Journal of Human Genetics (2021)

Summary Both mild and severe epilepsies are influenced by variants in the same genes, yet an explanation for the resulting phenotypic variation is unknown. As part of the ongoing Epi25 Collaboration, we ... [more ▼]

Summary Both mild and severe epilepsies are influenced by variants in the same genes, yet an explanation for the resulting phenotypic variation is unknown. As part of the ongoing Epi25 Collaboration, we performed a whole-exome sequencing analysis of 13,487 epilepsy-affected individuals and 15,678 control individuals. While prior Epi25 studies focused on gene-based collapsing analyses, we asked how the pattern of variation within genes differs by epilepsy type. Specifically, we compared the genetic architectures of severe developmental and epileptic encephalopathies (DEEs) and two generally less severe epilepsies, genetic generalized epilepsy and non-acquired focal epilepsy (NAFE). Our gene-based rare variant collapsing analysis used geographic ancestry-based clustering that included broader ancestries than previously possible and revealed novel associations. Using the missense intolerance ratio (MTR), we found that variants in DEE-affected individuals are in significantly more intolerant genic sub-regions than those in NAFE-affected individuals. Only previously reported pathogenic variants absent in available genomic datasets showed a significant burden in epilepsy-affected individuals compared with control individuals, and the ultra-rare pathogenic variants associated with DEE were located in more intolerant genic sub-regions than variants associated with non-DEE epilepsies. MTR filtering improved the yield of ultra-rare pathogenic variants in affected individuals compared with control individuals. Finally, analysis of variants in genes without a disease association revealed a significant burden of loss-of-function variants in the genes most intolerant to such variation, indicating additional epilepsy-risk genes yet to be discovered. Taken together, our study suggests that genic and sub-genic intolerance are critical characteristics for interpreting the effects of variation in genes that influence epilepsy. [less ▲]

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See detailSCHOOL FUTURES - using scenario approaches to inform transformation initiatives in the Luxembourg school system
König, Ariane UL; Raber, Bo Manuel UL; Drenth, Gerard et al

in ECA Journal (2021), (1), 194

Alternative, plausible, but challenging visions of the future – called scenarios – help us to explore the future today, to familiarise ourselves with a ‘systems thinking’ approach, and to strengthen our ... [more ▼]

Alternative, plausible, but challenging visions of the future – called scenarios – help us to explore the future today, to familiarise ourselves with a ‘systems thinking’ approach, and to strengthen our ability to address the uncertainties of tomorrow. This anticipation competency, that also includes a capacity for systemsthinking and making normative judgements, isparticularly important for younger generations still at school. In Luxembourg, the Education Scenarios Project served to develop a set of nationalscenarios for education, andthe sequel Schol Futures Project helped to leverage these scenarios in school development processes that engaged students as well as teachers in futureoriented systems thinking. Ariane König, Senior Research Scientist at the University of Luxembourg, Ciaran McGinley, Senior Associate at NormannPartners, Bo ManuelRaber of the University of Luxembourg, Francis Schartz, former president of the Luxembourg National Council for Sustainability, and Gerard Drenth, Senior Associate at Normann Partners, worked with in collaboration with diverse stakeholders in the Luxembourg education system, including with students and teachers from three different schools in Luxembourg. Below they share insights and experiences relating to the scenario approaches used. [less ▲]

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See detailEnergy Minimization in UAV-Aided Networks: Actor-Critic Learning for Constrained Scheduling Optimization
Yuan, Yaxiong UL; Lei, Lei UL; Vu, Thang Xuan UL et al

in IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology (2021)

In unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) applications, the UAV's limited energy supply and storage have triggered the development of intelligent energy-conserving scheduling solutions. In this paper, we ... [more ▼]

In unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) applications, the UAV's limited energy supply and storage have triggered the development of intelligent energy-conserving scheduling solutions. In this paper, we investigate energy minimization for UAV-aided communication networks by jointly optimizing data-transmission scheduling and UAV hovering time. The formulated problem is combinatorial and non-convex with bilinear constraints. To tackle the problem, firstly, we provide an optimal relax-and-approximate solution and develop a near-optimal algorithm. Both the proposed solutions are served as offline performance benchmarks but might not be suitable for online operation. To this end, we develop a solution from a deep reinforcement learning (DRL) aspect. The conventional RL/DRL, e.g., deep Q-learning, however, is limited in dealing with two main issues in constrained combinatorial optimization, i.e., exponentially increasing action space and infeasible actions. The novelty of solution development lies in handling these two issues. To address the former, we propose an actor-critic-based deep stochastic online scheduling (AC-DSOS) algorithm and develop a set of approaches to confine the action space. For the latter, we design a tailored reward function to guarantee the solution feasibility. Numerical results show that, by consuming equal magnitude of time, AC-DSOS is able to provide feasible solutions and saves 29.94% energy compared with a conventional deep actor-critic method. Compared to the developed near-optimal algorithm, AC-DSOS consumes around 10% higher energy but reduces the computational time from minute-level to millisecond-level. [less ▲]

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See detailBalancing Shareability and Positive Interdependence to Support Collaborative Problem-Solving on Interactive Tabletops
Maquil, Valérie; Afkari, Hoorieh; Arend, Béatrice UL et al

in Advances in Human-Computer Interaction (2021)

To support collaboration, researchers from different fields have proposed the design principles of shareability (engaging users in shared interactions around the same content) and positive interdependence ... [more ▼]

To support collaboration, researchers from different fields have proposed the design principles of shareability (engaging users in shared interactions around the same content) and positive interdependence (distributing roles and information to make users dependent on each other). While, on its own, each principle was shown to successfully support collaboration in different contexts, these principles are also partially conflicting, and their combination creates several design challenges. This paper describes how shareability and positive interdependency were jointly implemented in an interactive tabletop-mediated environment called Orbitia, with the aim of inducing collaboration between three adult participants. We present the design details and rationale behind the proposed application. Furthermore, we describe the results of an empirical evaluation focusing on joint problem-solving efficiency, collaboration styles, participation equity, and perceived collaboration effectiveness. [less ▲]

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See detailThe metalloprotein YhcH is an anomerase providing N-acetylneuraminate aldolase with the open form of its substrate
Kentache, Takfarinas; Thabault, Leopold; Deumer, Gladys et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2021)

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See detailDisentangling encryption from the personalization debate: On the advisability of endorsing the “relativist approach” underpinning the identifiability criterion
Chiara, Pier Giorgio UL

in University of Vienna Law Review (2021), 4(2), 168-188

The great confusion about encryption, cornerstone concept of data security, may jeopardise a proper taxonomy in order to legally qualify data. Through a technical and legal literature review, this paper ... [more ▼]

The great confusion about encryption, cornerstone concept of data security, may jeopardise a proper taxonomy in order to legally qualify data. Through a technical and legal literature review, this paper firstly aims to shed the light on the nature of encryption. Having set the context, the study investigates whether and to what extent the so-called relativist understanding of Recital 26 GDPR is desirable. It considers the effort required to identify the data subject only by the data controller: in the context of cryptography, GDPR’s regime would be applicable if a data controller is able to decrypt a data set or, at least, has reasonable possibilities of doing so. The legal analysis, integrated with technical aspects, addresses the case of polymorphic encryption as an argument in favour of the relativist approach in the post-Breyer era: if cryptographic means have been strong enough so that identification is no longer reasonably likely, such data would be effectively non-personal data. The advisability of such outcome will be critically discussed in the light of recent business trends, where big corporations are increasingly investing in business models aiming at removing from the equation personal data. [less ▲]

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See detailTrend-Aware Proactive Caching via Tensor Train Decomposition: A Bayesian Viewpoint
Mehrizi Rahmat Abadi, Sajad UL; X. Vu, Thang; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL et al

in IEEE Open Journal of the Communications Society (2021), (4369),

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See detailTrend-Aware Proactive Caching via Tensor Train Decomposition: A Bayesian Viewpoint
Mehrizi Rahmat Abadi, Sajad UL; X. Vu, Thang; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL et al

in IEEE Open Journal of the Communications Society (2021), (4369),

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See detailTrend-Aware Proactive Caching via Tensor Train Decomposition: A Bayesian Viewpoint
Mehrizi Rahmat Abadi, Sajad UL; X. Vu, Thang; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL et al

in IEEE Open Journal of the Communications Society (2021), (4369),

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See detailTrend-Aware Proactive Caching via Tensor Train Decomposition: A Bayesian Viewpoint
Mehrizi Rahmat Abadi, Sajad UL; X. Vu, Thang; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL et al

in IEEE Open Journal of the Communications Society (2021), (4369),

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See detailTrend-Aware Proactive Caching via Tensor Train Decomposition: A Bayesian Viewpoint
Mehrizi Rahmat Abadi, Sajad UL; X. Vu, Thang; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL et al

in IEEE Open Journal of the Communications Society (2021), (4369),

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See detailInvestigation of Mycelium-Miscanthus composites as building insulation material
Pereira Dias, Patrick; Jayasinghe, Laddu Bhagya; Waldmann, Daniele UL

in Results in Materials ELSEVIER (2021)

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See detailOutage Probability Analysis of IRS-Assisted Systems Under Spatially Correlated Channels
Van Chien, Trinh; Papazafeiropoulos, Anastasios K.; Thanh Tu, Lam et al

in IEEE Wireless Communications Letters (2021), 10(8), 1815-1819

This letter investigates the impact of spatial channel correlation on the outage probability of intelligent reflecting surface (IRS)-assisted single-input single-output (SISO) communication systems. In ... [more ▼]

This letter investigates the impact of spatial channel correlation on the outage probability of intelligent reflecting surface (IRS)-assisted single-input single-output (SISO) communication systems. In particular, we derive a novel closed-form expression of the outage probability for arbitrary phase shifts and correlation matrices of the indirect channels. To shed light on the impact of the spatial correlation, we further attain the closed-form expressions for two common scenarios met in the literature when the large-scale fading coefficients are expressed by the loss over a propagation distance. Numerical results validate the tightness and effectiveness of the closed-form expressions. Furthermore, the spatial correlation offers significant decreases in the outage probability as the direct channel is blocked. [less ▲]

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See detailLexicometric and Informational Measures in Political and Literary Corpora
Armaselu, Florentina UL

in Studii şi Cercetări Lingvistice (2021), 2(LXXI – 2020, iulie–decembrie (July - December)), 163-178

The paper presents a method for corpus-based informational analysis, using an open source platform for lexicometric processing and a spreadsheet application. This type of study may serve in illustrating ... [more ▼]

The paper presents a method for corpus-based informational analysis, using an open source platform for lexicometric processing and a spreadsheet application. This type of study may serve in illustrating the factors that influence informational measures such as entropy, energy and informativity, and in detecting certain structural or stylistic particularities of the analysed corpora. [less ▲]

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See detailJoint Radio Resource Management and Link Adaptation for Multicasting 802.11ax-based WLAN Systems
Ha, Vu Nguyen UL; Kaddoum, Georges; Poitau, Gwenael

in IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications (2021)

Adopting OFDMA and MU-MIMO techniques for both downlink and uplink IEEE 802.11ax will help next-generation WLANs efficiently cope with large numbers of devices but will also raise some research challenges ... [more ▼]

Adopting OFDMA and MU-MIMO techniques for both downlink and uplink IEEE 802.11ax will help next-generation WLANs efficiently cope with large numbers of devices but will also raise some research challenges. One of these is how to optimize the channelization, resource allocation, beamforming design, and MCS selection jointly for IEEE 802.11ax-based WLANs. In this paper, this technical requirement is formulated as a mixed-integer non-linear programming problem maximizing the total system throughput for the WLANs consisting of unicast users with multicast groups. A novel two-stage solution approach is proposed to solve this challenging problem. The first stage aims to determine the precoding vectors under unit-power constraints. These temporary precoders help re-form the main problem into a joint power and radio resource allocation one. Then, two low-complexity algorithms are proposed to cope with the new problem in stage two. The first is developed based on the well-known compressed sensing method while the second seeks to optimize each of the optimizing variables alternatively until reaching converged outcomes. The outcomes corresponding to the two stages are then integrated to achieve the complete solution. Numerical results are provided to confirm the superior performance of the proposed algorithms over benchmarks. [less ▲]

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See detailPrison in Iran, a known unknown, By Nahid Rahimipour Anaraki
Blount, Kelly UL

in Crime, Law and Social Change (2021), 76(2), 215-218

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See detailAddressing seeming paradoxes by embracing them: small state theory and the integration of migrants
Kolnberger, Thomas UL; Koff, Harlan UL

in Comparative Migration Studies (2021), 9

This article examines the integration of migrants in Luxembourg within the framework of small state theory. Within the comparative scholarship on migration, small states are often presented as “success ... [more ▼]

This article examines the integration of migrants in Luxembourg within the framework of small state theory. Within the comparative scholarship on migration, small states are often presented as “success stories.” This research questions this assumption and empirical data presented here indicates that many contradictions exist within Luxembourg’s migrant integration model. The country’s “success” in fact does not reflect the levels of integration of migrants nationally as significant inequalities are present in Luxembourg. However, the analysis of Luxembourg presented here illustrates how small states have coherently embraced many paradoxes that are inherent to integration strategies throughout Europe with the goal of promoting peaceful coexistence. [less ▲]

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See detailRevealing defect-induced spin disorder in nanocrystalline Ni
Bersweiler, Mathias UL; Michels, Andreas UL; Sinaga, Evelyn Pratami UL et al

in Physical Review Materials (2021), 5(4), 044409

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See detailBubble-Enriched Smoothed Finite Element Methods for Nearly-Incompressible Solids
Lee, Changkye; Natarajan, Sundararajan; Hale, Jack UL et al

in Computer Modeling in Engineering and Sciences (2021), 127(2), 411-436

This work presents a locking-free smoothed finite element method (S-FEM) for the simulation of soft matter modelled by the equations of quasi-incompressible hyperelasticity. The proposed method overcomes ... [more ▼]

This work presents a locking-free smoothed finite element method (S-FEM) for the simulation of soft matter modelled by the equations of quasi-incompressible hyperelasticity. The proposed method overcomes well-known issues of standard finite element methods (FEM) in the incompressible limit: the over-estimation of stiffness and sensitivity to severely distorted meshes. The concepts of cell-based, edge-based and node-based S-FEMs are extended in this paper to three-dimensions. Additionally, a cubic bubble function is utilized to improve accuracy and stability. For the bubble function, an additional displacement degree of freedom is added at the centroid of the element. Several numerical studies are performed demonstrating the stability and validity of the proposed approach. The obtained results are compared with standard FEM and with analytical solutions to show the effectiveness of the method. [less ▲]

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See detailInvestigation of electron and phonon transport in Bi-doped CaMnO3 for thermoelectric applications
Suprayoga, E; Putri, WBK; Singsoog, K et al

in Materials Research Bulletin (2021), 141

The electron and phonon transports in CaMnO3 and in one of its Bi-doped counterparts, namely, Bi0.03Ca0.97MnO3, are investigated using the thermoelectric transport measurements and first-principles ... [more ▼]

The electron and phonon transports in CaMnO3 and in one of its Bi-doped counterparts, namely, Bi0.03Ca0.97MnO3, are investigated using the thermoelectric transport measurements and first-principles calculations. We find that antiferromagnetic insulator CaMnO3 breaks the Wiedemann–Franz law with the Lorenz number reaching four times that of ordinary metals at room temperature. Bismuth doping reduces both the electrical resistivity and Seebeck coefficient of CaMnO3; thus, it recovers the Wiedemann–Franz law behavior. In addition, Bi0.03Ca0.97MnO3 possesses a shorter phonon lifetime according to the transport measurements. As a result, Bi0.03Ca0.97MnO3 exhibits superior thermoelectric properties over pristine CaMnO3 owing to the lower thermal conductivity and electrical resistivity. [less ▲]

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See detailMultilingual education in early years in Luxembourg: a paradigm shift?
Kirsch, Claudine UL; Aleksic, Gabrijela UL

in International Journal of Multilingualism (2021)

This paper is based in Luxembourg where a multilingual programme has been implemented in early childhood education in 2017. The research project examines the language use in daily communication and ... [more ▼]

This paper is based in Luxembourg where a multilingual programme has been implemented in early childhood education in 2017. The research project examines the language use in daily communication and literacy activities of educators and parents in day care centres, as reported by educators in two online-questionnaires. The findings show that the educators and parents use multiple languages when communicating, singing and reading with children in the centres. In addition to French and Luxembourgish which dominate, they use five other languages. Their reported multilingual practice reflects their beliefs that speaking and reading in several languages promotes language learning. However, while the programme is multilingual, a range of home languages are marginalised. The educators produce a language hierarchy in the centres which the parents reproduce. While collaboration with parents can be effective in bringing home languages into day care centres, educators need to be aware of language hierarchies and ideologies. [less ▲]

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See detailFrictional interactions for non-localised beam-to-beam and beam-inside-beam contact
Magliulo, Marco; Lengiewicz, Jakub UL; Zilian, Andreas UL et al

in International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering (2021), 122(7), 1706-1731

This contribution presents the extensions of beam-to-beam and beam-inside-beam contact schemes of the same authors towards frictional interactions. Since the schemes are based on the beams’ true surfaces ... [more ▼]

This contribution presents the extensions of beam-to-beam and beam-inside-beam contact schemes of the same authors towards frictional interactions. Since the schemes are based on the beams’ true surfaces (instead of surfaces implicitly deduced from the beams’ centroid lines), the presented enhancements are not only able to account for frictional sliding in the beams’ axial directions, but also in the circumferential directions. Both the frictional beam-to-beam approach as well as the frictional beam-inside-beam approach are applicable to shear-deformable and shear-undeformable beams, as well as to beams with both circular and elliptical cross-sections (although the cross-sections must be rigid). A penalty formulation is used to treat unilateral and frictional contact constraints. FE implementation details are discussed, where automatic differentiation techniques are used to derive the implementations. Simulations involving large sliding displacements and large deformations are presented for both beam-to-beam and beam-inside-beam schemes. All simulation results are compared to those of the frictionless schemes. [less ▲]

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See detailAdaptive Waveform Design for Automotive Joint Radar-Communication Systems
Dokhanchi, Sayed Hossein; Mysore Rama Rao, Bhavani Shankar UL; Alaeekerahroodi, Mohammad UL et al

in IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology (2021), 70(5), 4273-4290

Unified waveform design for automotive joint radar-communications (JRC) leverages the scarce spectrum efficiently and has become a key topic for investigation of late. Designing such a waveform ... [more ▼]

Unified waveform design for automotive joint radar-communications (JRC) leverages the scarce spectrum efficiently and has become a key topic for investigation of late. Designing such a waveform necessitates meeting the requirements of both systems, thereby making it a challenging task. The contribution of this paper is to formulate the JRC design problem into an optimization problem and propose an algorithm to maximize the signal-to-clutter-plus-noise-ratio (SCNR) of radar system and signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) at communicating vehicle, simultaneously. Central to this are the exploitation of the communication link to acquire environment/ channel information and enhance radar tasks, flexibility to impart trade-off between the two systems during design as well the formulation of the optimization problem to include sidelobe constraints and yield solutions robust to Doppler shifts. The designed waveforms exhibit enhanced radar performance in terms of probability of detection and communication performance in terms of bit error rate (BER), while taking into account the trade-off between two systems. The numerical simulations corroborate the claim of optimized performance with environment/ channel information, ease of effecting trade-off and the use of design flexibility. [less ▲]

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See detailPerceived loneliness and the role of cultural and intergenerational belonging: the case of Portuguese first‑generation immigrants in Luxembourg
Albert, Isabelle UL

in European Journal of Ageing (2021)

The risk of loneliness for migrants, particularly in older age, has been documented across multiple studies. Migration is a life-changing transition. While often retaining links to their country of origin ... [more ▼]

The risk of loneliness for migrants, particularly in older age, has been documented across multiple studies. Migration is a life-changing transition. While often retaining links to their country of origin, an important developmental task for migrants is the establishment of bonds in the receiving country. Drawing on recent studies, I will explore the role of cultural and intergenerational belonging in order to identify both protective and risk factors regarding loneliness in middle and older age in a sample of first-generation immigrants from Portugal living in Luxembourg. The sample comprises N = 131 participants (51.9% female) between the ages of 41 and 80 (M = 56.08; SD = 7.80) who have on average spent M = 31.71 years (SD = 8.81) in Luxembourg and raised children in Luxembourg. They took part in the IRMA project (‘Intergenerational Relations in the Light of Migration and Ageing’) which was funded by the Fonds National de la Recherche Luxembourg. A standardised questionnaire assessed socio-demographic data, aspects of cultural belonging (i.e. cultural attachment to both countries, bicultural identity orientation, acculturative stress), intergenerational belonging (i.e. family cohesion, family conflict, perceived intergenerational value consensus) and perceived loneliness. Results showed that while cultural and intergenerational belonging were protective factors, the strongest predictors for participants’ perceived loneliness were cultural identity conflict and, even more so, intergenerational conflict. Our findings suggest that establishing roots and bonds in the host country is a protective factor against loneliness, whereas the feeling of not fitting in is a strong risk factor. [less ▲]

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See detailDifferent concepts for creating antibacterial yet biocompatible surfaces: adding bactericidal element, grafting therapeutic agent through COOH plasma polymer and their combination
Permyakova, Elizaveta S.; Manakhov, Anton M.; Kiryukhantsev-Korneev, Philipp V. et al

in Applied Surface Science (2021)

Antibacterial coatings have become a rapidly developing field of research, strongly stimulated by the increasing urgency of identifying alternatives to the traditional administration of antibiotics. Such ... [more ▼]

Antibacterial coatings have become a rapidly developing field of research, strongly stimulated by the increasing urgency of identifying alternatives to the traditional administration of antibiotics. Such coatings can be deposited onto implants and other medical devices and prevent the inflammations caused by hospital-acquired infections. Nevertheless, the design of antibacterial yet biocompatible and bioactive surfaces is a challenge that biological community has faced for many years but the “materials of dream” have not yet been developed. In this work, the biocompatible yet antibacterial multi-layered films were prepared by a combination of magnetron sputtering (TiCaPCON film), ion implantation (Ag-doped TiCaPCON film), plasma polymerization (COOH layer), and final immobilization of gentamicin (GM) and heparin (Hepa) molecules. The layer chemistry was thoroughly investigated by means of FTIR and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies. It was found that the immobilization of therapeutic components occurs throughout the entire thickness of the plasma-deposited COOH layer. The influence of each type of bactericide (Ag+ ions, GM, and Hepa) on antibacterial activity and cell proliferation was analyzed. Our films were cytocompatible and demonstrated superior bactericidal efficiency toward antibiotic-resistant bacterial E. coli K261 strain. Increased toxicity while using the combination of Ag nanoparticles and COOH plasma polymer is discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailA Discrete Element Framework for Modeling the Mechanical Behaviour of Snow PART II: Model Validation
Peters, Bernhard UL; Kabore, Brice Wendlassida UL; Mark, Michael et al

in Granular Matter (2021), 23(2), 43

A micro-scale modelling approach of snow based on the extension of the classical discrete element method (DEM) has been presented in the first part of this study. This modelling approach is employed to ... [more ▼]

A micro-scale modelling approach of snow based on the extension of the classical discrete element method (DEM) has been presented in the first part of this study. This modelling approach is employed to predict the mechanical response of snow under compression dependent on strain rate, initial density and temperature. Results obtained under a variety of conditions are validated with experimental data for both micro- and macro-scale, in particular the broad range between ductile i.e.~low deformation rates and brittle i.e.~high deformation rates regimes are investigated. For this purpose snow is assumed to be composed of ice grains that are inter-connected by a network of bonds between neighbouring grains. This arrangement represents the micro-scale of which the interaction is described by inter-granular collision and bonding. Hence, the response on a macro-scale is largely determined by inter-granular collisions and deformation and failure of bonds during a loading cycle. Consequently, validation was first carried out on micro-scale deformations at different loading rates and temperatures. Hereafter, macro-scale simulations of confined and unconfined, deformation-controlled compression tests have been predicted and were successfully compared to experimental data reported in literature. [less ▲]

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See detailA Discrete Element Framework for Modeling the Mechanical Behaviour of Snow PART I: Mechanical Behaviour and Numerical Model
Kabore, Brice Wendlassida UL; Peters, Bernhard UL; Michael, Mark et al

in Granular Matter (2021), 23(2), 42

A framework for investigating the mechanics of snow is proposed based on an advanced micro-scale approach. Varying strain rates, densities and temperatures are taken into account. Natural hazards i.e ... [more ▼]

A framework for investigating the mechanics of snow is proposed based on an advanced micro-scale approach. Varying strain rates, densities and temperatures are taken into account. Natural hazards i.e. snow avalanches are triggered by snow deforming at low rates, while a large group of industrial applications concerning driving safety or winter sport activities require an understanding of snow behaviour under high deformation rates. On the micro-scale, snow is considered to consist of ice grains joined by ice bonds to build a porous structure. Deformation and failure of bonds and the inter-granular collisions of ice grains determine the macroscopic response under mechanical load. Therefore, this study proposes an inter-granular bond and collision model for snow based on the discrete element method (DEM) to describe interaction on a grain-scale. It aims at predicting the mechanical behaviour of ice particles under different strain rates using a unified approach. Thus, the proposed algorithm predicts the displacement of each individual grains due to inter-granular forces and torques that derive from bond deformation and grain collision. For this purpose, the inter-granular characteristics are approximated by an elastic viscous-plastic material law which is based on the temperature-dependent properties of poly-crystalline ice Ih. [less ▲]

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See detailActor‑critic learning‑based energy optimization for UAV access and backhaul networks
Yuan, Yaxiong UL; Lei, Lei UL; Vu, Thang Xuan UL et al

in EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking (2021)

In unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)-assisted networks, UAV acts as an aerial base station which acquires the requested data via backhaul link and then serves ground users (GUs) through an access network. In ... [more ▼]

In unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)-assisted networks, UAV acts as an aerial base station which acquires the requested data via backhaul link and then serves ground users (GUs) through an access network. In this paper, we investigate an energy minimization problem with a limited power supply for both backhaul and access links. The difficul- ties for solving such a non-convex and combinatorial problem lie at the high compu- tational complexity/time. In solution development, we consider the approaches from both actor-critic deep reinforcement learning (AC-DRL) and optimization perspectives. First, two offline non-learning algorithms, i.e., an optimal and a heuristic algorithms, based on piecewise linear approximation and relaxation are developed as benchmarks. Second, toward real-time decision-making, we improve the conventional AC-DRL and propose two learning schemes: AC-based user group scheduling and backhaul power allocation (ACGP), and joint AC-based user group scheduling and optimization-based backhaul power allocation (ACGOP). Numerical results show that the computation time of both ACGP and ACGOP is reduced tenfold to hundredfold compared to the offline approaches, and ACGOP is better than ACGP in energy savings. The results also verify the superiority of proposed learning solutions in terms of guaranteeing the feasibility and minimizing the system energy compared to the conventional AC-DRL. [less ▲]

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See detailElectrical Control over Phonon Polarization in Strained Graphene
Sonntag, Jens; Reichardt, Sven UL; Beschoten, Bernd et al

in Nano Letters (2021), 21(7), 2898--2904

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See detailSignal-Based Properties of Cyber-Physical Systems: Taxonomy and Logic-based Characterization
Boufaied, Chaima UL; Jukss, Maris; Bianculli, Domenico UL et al

in Journal of Systems and Software (2021), 174

The behavior of a cyber-physical system (CPS) is usually defined in terms of the input and output signals processed by sensors and actuators. Requirements specifications of CPSs are typically expressed ... [more ▼]

The behavior of a cyber-physical system (CPS) is usually defined in terms of the input and output signals processed by sensors and actuators. Requirements specifications of CPSs are typically expressed using signal-based temporal properties. Expressing such requirements is challenging, because of (1) the many features that can be used to characterize a signal behavior; (2) the broad variation in expressiveness of the specification languages (i.e., temporal logics) used for defining signal-based temporal properties. Thus, system and software engineers need effective guidance on selecting appropriate signal behavior types and an adequate specification language, based on the type of requirements they have to define. In this paper, we present a taxonomy of the various types of signal-based properties and provide, for each type, a comprehensive and detailed description as well as a formalization in a temporal logic. Furthermore, we review the expressiveness of state-of-the-art signal-based temporal logics in terms of the property types identified in the taxonomy. Moreover, we report on the application of our taxonomy to classify the requirements specifications of an industrial case study in the aerospace domain, in order to assess the feasibility of using the property types included in our taxonomy and the completeness of the latter. [less ▲]

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See detailThe role of flexibility in the light of the COVID-19 pandemic and beyond: Contributing to a sustainable and resilient energy future in Europe
Heffron, Raphael J.; Körner, Marc-Fabian; Schoepf, Michael UL et al

in Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews (2021), 140

The energy sector provides fuel for much of everyday life, particularly economically and socially. Fighting against the COVID-19 pandemic, a well-functioning and resilient energy sector is vital for ... [more ▼]

The energy sector provides fuel for much of everyday life, particularly economically and socially. Fighting against the COVID-19 pandemic, a well-functioning and resilient energy sector is vital for maintaining the operation of critical infrastructures, including, most importantly, the health sector, and timely economic recovery. Notwithstanding its importance in everyday life and crises, the energy sector itself is currently in a complex and far-reaching transformation to combat climate change whilst supporting the transition to a low-carbon economy and society, mainly through the development of variable renewable energy sources (RES) such as wind and solar photovoltaics. This paper highlights the need for energy resilience as countries face the triple challenge of the COVID-19 health crisis, the consequent economic crisis, and the climate crisis. Focusing on Europe, it is advanced here that with the ability to balance fluctuating electricity generation and demand, flexibility allows the energy sector to utilise low-carbon RES reliably, ensuring a more resilient and sustainable energy future. This paper derives five urgent policy recommendations for Europe that address possible impacts of COVID-19 on the economic and societal prerequisites for flexibility in energy systems. [less ▲]

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See detailTowards the assessment of realistic hybrid precoding in millimeter wave MIMO systems with hardware impairments
Papazafeiropoulos, Anastasios K; Papageorgiou, Georgios K; Kolawole, Oluwatayo Y et al

in IET Communications (2021), 15(12), 1606-1619

Hybrid processing in millimeter wave (mmWave) communication has been proposed as a solution to reduce the cost and energy consumption by reducing the number of radio-frequency (RF) chains. However, the ... [more ▼]

Hybrid processing in millimeter wave (mmWave) communication has been proposed as a solution to reduce the cost and energy consumption by reducing the number of radio-frequency (RF) chains. However, the impact of the inevitable residual transceiver hardware impairments (RTHIs), including the residual additive transceiver hardware impairments (RATHIs) and the amplified thermal noise (ATN), has not been sufficiently studied in mmWave hybrid processing. In this work, the hybrid precoder and combiner are designed, which include both digital and analog processing by taking into account the RATHIs and the ATN. In particular, a thorough study is provided to shed light on the degradation of the spectral efficiency (SE) of the practical system. The outcomes show the steady degradation of the performance by the ATN across all SNR values, which becomes increasingly critical for higher values of its variance. Furthermore, it is shown that RATHIs result in degradation of the system only in the high SNR regime. Hence, their impact in mmWave system operating at low SNRs might be negligible. Moreover, an increase concerning the number of streams differentiates the impact between the transmit and receive RATHIs with the latter having a more severe effect. [less ▲]

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