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See detailEndogenous Technical Change in a Competitive Economy
Hellwig, Martin; Irmen, Andreas UL

in Journal of Economic Theory (2001), 101(1), 1-39

We develop a model of endogenous growth in an economy with competitive markets. Technical change arises from the intentional actions of entrepreneurs looking for profits. Opportunities for such profits ... [more ▼]

We develop a model of endogenous growth in an economy with competitive markets. Technical change arises from the intentional actions of entrepreneurs looking for profits. Opportunities for such profits stem from inframarginal rents. This provides a counterexample to the widespread view that endogenous technical change is possible only if innovating firms can expect to reap monopoly or oligopoly rents. The model has a unique equilibrium, which involves steady growth at a positive rate. Equilibrium growth is inefficiently low because knowledge spillover effects are neglected. The inefficiency can be eliminated by an interest rate subsidy.<P>(This abstract was borrowed from another version of this item.) [less ▲]

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See detailHeat equation derivative formulas for vector bundles
Driver, Bruce K.; Thalmaier, Anton UL

in Journal of Functional Analysis (2001), 183(1), 42-108

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See detailMechanisms of estrogen receptor action in the myocardium. Rapid gene activation via the ERK1/2 pathway and serum response elements.
de Jager, T.; Pelzer, T.; Muller-Botz, S. et al

in The Journal of biological chemistry (2001), 276(30), 27873-80

We have previously shown that the myocardium is a target tissue for estrogen. Here, we have identified rapid non-nuclear estrogen effects on the expression of the early growth response gene-1 (Egr-1) in ... [more ▼]

We have previously shown that the myocardium is a target tissue for estrogen. Here, we have identified rapid non-nuclear estrogen effects on the expression of the early growth response gene-1 (Egr-1) in cardiomyocytes. Egr-1 mRNA and protein were rapidly and strongly induced by estrogen in an estrogen receptor-dependent manner via the extracellular signal-regulated kinase, ERK1/2. A promoter analysis study of a 1.2-kilobase Egr-1 promoter fragment revealed that the serum response elements (SREs) but not the estrogen response elements or AP-1 sites are responsible for Egr-1 induction by estrogen, identifying a novel mechanism of estrogen receptor-dependent gene activation in the myocardium. Both estrogen receptor-alpha and -beta induced the Egr-1 promoter via the SREs as well as an artificial promoter consisting of only five SREs in cardiomyocytes. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that a protein complex containing serum response factor or an antigenically related protein was recruited to the SREs by estrogen treatment of primary cardiomyocytes. The recruitment of the protein complex was inhibited by the specific estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182,780 as well as the MEK inhibitor PD 98059. Taken together, these results identify SREs as important promoter control elements for an estrogen receptor-dependent mechanism of gene activation in the myocardium. [less ▲]

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See detailFinding the Eigenvalue in Elkies' Algorithm
Müller, Volker UL; Maurer, Markus

in Experimental Mathematics (2001), 10(2), 275-285

One important part of Elkies' algorithm for computing the group order of an elliptic curve is the search for an eigenvalue of the Frobenius endomorphism. In this paper we compare two well known algorithms ... [more ▼]

One important part of Elkies' algorithm for computing the group order of an elliptic curve is the search for an eigenvalue of the Frobenius endomorphism. In this paper we compare two well known algorithms with two new ideas based on the Babystep Giantstep method. Moreover we show how resultants can be used to speed up this search. Finally we present a fast probabilistic algorithm for checking whether a given rational function is congruent to an entry in a table of rational functions modulo some fixed polynomial. [less ▲]

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See detailFreezing of Nano-Scaled Fractal Molecules: Dendrimers
Krüger, Jan-Kristian UL; Veith, M.; Elsässer, R. et al

in Ferroelectrics (2001), 259(1-4), 27-36

Within this paper we present mono-disperse dendrimers as a new class of ideal canonical glass formers where the frustration mechanism originates from the self similar intramolecular order. Because of ... [more ▼]

Within this paper we present mono-disperse dendrimers as a new class of ideal canonical glass formers where the frustration mechanism originates from the self similar intramolecular order. Because of their fractal intramolecular structure these dendrimers are hardly able to build up a three dimensional translation symmetry necessary to form the crystalline state. Instead they show an unconventional dynamic and static freezing behavior at rather low temperatures. Based on temperature modulated differential scanning calorimetry (TMDSC) and Brillouin spectroscopy (BS) we give further evidences for the existence of an ideal primary glass transition with a thermal glass transition temperature which increases with the generation index of the fractal molecule. However, the primary glass transitions of higher generations do not completely erase the memory of the fractal intramolecular mobility but allow the survival of dynamic processes significant for the freezing of the constituting molecular unit. [less ▲]

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See detailAlGaN/GaN Round-HEMTs on (111) silicon substrates
Javorka, P.; Alam, A.; Nastase, N. et al

in Electronics Letters (2001), 37(2001), 1364-1366

AlGaN/GaN Round-HEMTs on silicon substrates have been realised and their static characteristics investigated. The AlGaN/GaN (x = 0.23) material structures were grown on (111) p-Si by LP-MOVPE. Devices ... [more ▼]

AlGaN/GaN Round-HEMTs on silicon substrates have been realised and their static characteristics investigated. The AlGaN/GaN (x = 0.23) material structures were grown on (111) p-Si by LP-MOVPE. Devices with 0.3 mm gate length exhibit a saturation current of 0.82 A/mm, a good pinch-off and a peak extrinsic transconductance of 110 mS/mm. Highest saturation current reported so far and static output characteristics up to 20 V demonstrate that the devices are capable of handling 16 W/mm of static heat dissipation without any degradation of their performance. [less ▲]

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See detailResults from the Fifth Internationl Comparison of Absolute Gravimeters, ICAG97
Robertsson, L.; Francis, Olivier UL; van Dam, Tonie UL et al

in Metrologia (2001), 38

The fifth in the series of International Comparisons of Absolute Gravimeters (ICAG) was held at the Bureau International des Poids et Measures (BIPM) in November 1997. Fifteen absolute gravimeters ... [more ▼]

The fifth in the series of International Comparisons of Absolute Gravimeters (ICAG) was held at the Bureau International des Poids et Measures (BIPM) in November 1997. Fifteen absolute gravimeters participated in the comparison. The mean gravity value obtained at station A (0.9 m) at the BIPM was found to be 980 925 707.8 µGal with a standard uncertainty of 2.8 µGal. This is consistent with the results obtained in previous comparisons at this site. Conclusions based on the analysis of the present results and proposals for future activities are presented. [less ▲]

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See detailNumerical modelling of electrified particle layer formation on the surface of filtration fabric.
Peters, Bernhard UL; Dzuigys, A.

in Environmental Engineering (2001), 4

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See detailAdaptive estimation in autoregression or $\beta$-mixing regression via model selection
Baraud, Yannick UL; Comte, F.; Viennet, G.

in Annals of Statistics (2001), 29(3), 839--875

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See detailOnderwijs en opvoeding en de terugkeer van de religie in een postmoderne samenleving.
Biesta, Gert UL; Nijnatten, C.; Miedema, S.

in Pedagogiek (2001), 21(2), 124-133

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See detailJijo-2: An office robot that communicates and learns
Asoh, H.; Vlassis, Nikos UL; Motomura, Y. et al

in IEEE Intelligent Systems (2001), 16(5), 46-55

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See detailLa naissance de la protection sociale au Luxembourg. Le contexte économique et social, les acteurs et les enjeux politiques
Scuto, Denis UL

in Bulletin luxembourgeois des questions sociales (2001), 10

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See detailReliability and commitment in Ronan Bennett's The Catastrophist
Weber, Jean-Jacques UL

in Arbeiten Aus Anglistik und Amerikanist [=AAA] (2001), 26

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See detailTrends in the incidence of childhood onset diabetes in Europe. 1989-1998
Green, A.; Patterson, C.C.; De Beaufort, Carine UL

in Diabetologia (2001), 44(3), 3-8

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: To study the epidemiology of childhood-onset (Type I) insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in Europe, the EURODIAB collaborative group in 1988 established prospective, geographically ... [more ▼]

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: To study the epidemiology of childhood-onset (Type I) insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in Europe, the EURODIAB collaborative group in 1988 established prospective, geographically-defined registers of all children diagnosed with Type I diabetes under 15 years of age. This report is based on 24,423 children, registered by 36 centres, with complete participation during the period 1989-1998 and representing most European countries with a population coverage of approximately 20 million children. METHODS: Multiple sources of ascertainment were used to validate the level of ascertainment. Trends in Type I diabetes incidence during the period were analysed using Poisson regression with the results from the 36 centres pooled into nine regions. RESULTS: The standardised average annual incidence rate of Type I diabetes varied more than tenfold between centres. Overall, the annual increase in incidence was 3.2% (95%-CI: 2.7%, 3.7%), being highest for children in the 0-4-year age-group 4.8% (3.8%, 5.9%) and lowest for children in the 10-14-year age group 2.1 % (1.4%, 2.8%). However, the absolute increases in Type I diabetes were roughly similar in the three age-groups of 0-4, 5-9 and 10-14 years. Central Eastern Europe showed the highest increase whereas Sardinia and Northern Europe (except Finland) showed no evidence of an increase. For all age-groups relatively fewer cases had disease onset during the summer months, especially the 10-14-year age-group. CONCLUSION/INTERPRETATION: The extremely large range of incidence rates within Europe has been confirmed. The incidence rate is generally increasing but is more pronounced in some regions than in others. Seasonality at disease onset is apparent even in the youngest age-group. [less ▲]

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See detailEmpirical evidence for the Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer conjectures for the modular Jacobians of genus 2 curves
Flynn, E. Victor; Leprévost, Franck UL; Schaefer, E. F. et al

in Mathematics of Computation (2001), 70(236), 1675-1697

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See detailRéflexion des enseignants dans un palais des mirroirs: Reflets politiques et épistémologiques.
Fendler, Lynn UL; Ouhlen, Jöelle

in Recherche et Formation (2001), 38

In the first section, the paper examines the meanings of reflection in United States teacher education discourse by analyzing some of the contributing factors that make reflection seem like a desirable ... [more ▼]

In the first section, the paper examines the meanings of reflection in United States teacher education discourse by analyzing some of the contributing factors that make reflection seem like a desirable and reasonable practice for teachers. It traces the genealogy of reflection in teacher education by seeking the conditions of its emergence in discourse, and looking for the traditions, conventions and assumptions that buttress the appeal of reflection as an "academic virtue and source of privileged knowledge". After tracing the conditions for the emergence of reflection in teacher education discourse, the paper critiques the political consequences of some commonplace reflective practices. [less ▲]

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See detailFurther Results and Insights on Subspace Based Sinusoidal Frequency Estimation
Kristensson, Martin; Jansson, Magnus; Ottersten, Björn UL

in IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing (2001), 49(12), 29622974

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See detailMapping of a region within the N terminus of Jak1 involved in cytokine receptor interaction
Haan, Claude UL; Isharc, H.; Hermanns, H. M. et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2001), 276(40), 37451-8

Janus kinase 1 (Jak1) is a cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase that noncovalently associates with a variety of cytokine receptors. Here we show that the in vitro translated N-terminal domains of Jak1 are ... [more ▼]

Janus kinase 1 (Jak1) is a cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase that noncovalently associates with a variety of cytokine receptors. Here we show that the in vitro translated N-terminal domains of Jak1 are sufficient for binding to a biotinylated peptide comprising the membrane-proximal 73 amino acids of gp130, the signal-transducing receptor chain of interleukin-6-type cytokines. By the fold recognition approach amino acid residues 36-112 of Jak1 were predicted to adopt a beta-grasp fold, and a structural model was built using ubiquitin as a template. Substitution of Tyr(107) to alanine, a residue conserved among Jaks and involved in hydrophobic core interactions of the proposed beta-grasp domain, abrogated binding of full-length Jak1 to gp130 in COS-7 transfectants. By further mutagenesis we identified the loop 4 region of the Jak1 beta-grasp domain as essential for gp130 association and gp130-mediated signal transduction. In Jak1-deficient U4C cells reconstituted with the loop 4 Jak1 mutants L80A/Y81A and Delta(Tyr(81)-Ser(84)), the interferon-gamma, interferon-alpha, and interleukin-6 responses were similarly impaired. Thus, loop 4 of the beta-grasp domain plays a role in the association of Jak1 with both class I and II cytokine receptors. Taken together the structural model and the mutagenesis data provide further insight into the interaction of Janus kinases with cytokine receptors. [less ▲]

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See detailCompte-rendu SCHREIBER, Marion, Stille Rebellen. Der Uberfall auf den 20. Deportationszug nach Auschwitz
Majerus, Benoît UL

in Cahiers d'Histoire du Temps Présent = Bijdragen tot de Eigentijdse Geschiedenis (2001), 9

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See detailRole of G(i)-proteins in norepinephrine-mediated vasoconstriction in rat tail artery smooth muscle
Petitcolin, M. A.; Spitzbarth-Régrigny, E.; Bueb, Jean-Luc UL et al

in Biochemical Pharmacology (2001), 61(9), 1169-75

We showed, in rat de-endothelialised tail artery, that pertussis toxin (PTX) (1 microg/mL, 2 hr) attenuated norepinephrine (NE)-induced vasoconstriction without modifying intracellular calcium ... [more ▼]

We showed, in rat de-endothelialised tail artery, that pertussis toxin (PTX) (1 microg/mL, 2 hr) attenuated norepinephrine (NE)-induced vasoconstriction without modifying intracellular calcium concentration [Ca2+](i) mobilisation. We suggested the existence of two NE-induced intracellular pathways: a first, which would be insensitive to PTX and lead to [Ca2+](i) mobilisation, and a second sensitive to PTX and involved in the [Ca2+](i) sensitivity of NE-induced contraction. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the existence of the second intracellular pathway. PTX-sensitive G(i/o)-proteins in rat tail artery SMC membrane were identified by immunoblot and ADP-ribosylation. [(32)P]ADP-ribosylation of alpha(i/o)-subunits was demonstrated in situ by perfusing rat de-endothelialised tail artery segments with PTX (1 microg/mL, 2 hr), which suggested that G(i/o)-protein inactivation was involved in the reduction by PTX of the [Ca2+](i) sensitivity of NE-induced contraction. Coupling between G(i/o)-proteins and NE receptors was confirmed by the NE-induced increase in G(i/o)-specific GTPase activity (24.1 +/- 1.9 vs 8.8 +/- 0.4 pmol P(i)/mg protein at 5 min; P < 0.05 vs basal). [(3)H]Prazosin-binding data showed the presence of a heterogeneous alpha(1)-AR population in rat tail artery smooth muscle cells. We demonstrated the in vitro coupling between alpha(1A)-AR subtype and alpha(i)-subunits. In conclusion, we identified, in rat de-endothelialised tail artery, a PTX-sensitive G(i/o)-protein-modulated pathway that is coupled to NE receptors via alpha(1A)-AR. We suggest that NE stimulates two alpha(1)-AR-mediated intracellular pathways: a first, which is mediated by a G(q)-protein and leads to [Ca2+](i) mobilisation and contraction, and a second, which is mediated by a G(i)-protein and is involved in the amplification of the [Ca2+](i) sensitivity of NE-induced tension. [less ▲]

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See detailAey2, a new mutation in the betaB2-crystallin-encoding gene of the mouse.
Graw, J.; Loster, J.; Soewarto, D. et al

in Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science (2001), 42(7), 1574-80

PURPOSE: During an ethylnitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis screen, mice were tested for the occurrence of dominant cataracts. One particular mutant was found that caused progressive opacity and was referred to ... [more ▼]

PURPOSE: During an ethylnitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis screen, mice were tested for the occurrence of dominant cataracts. One particular mutant was found that caused progressive opacity and was referred to as Aey2. The purpose of the study was to provide a morphologic description, to map the mutant gene, and to characterize the underlying molecular lesion. METHODS: Isolated lenses were photographed, and histologic sections of the eye were analyzed according to standard procedures. Linkage analysis was performed using a set of microsatellite markers covering all autosomal chromosomes. cDNA from candidate genes was amplified after reverse transcription of lens mRNA. RESULTS: The cortical opacification visible at eye opening progressed to an anterior suture cataract and reached its final phenotype as total opacity at 8 weeks of age. There was no obvious difference between heterozygous and homozygous mutants. The mutation was mapped to chromosome 5 proximal to the marker D5Mit138 (8.7 +/- 4.2 centimorgan [cM]) and distal to D5Mit15 (12.8 +/- 5.4 cM). No recombinations were observed to the markers D5Mit10 and D5Mit25. This position makes the genes within the betaA4/betaB-crystallin gene cluster excellent candidate genes. Sequence analysis revealed a mutation of T-->A at position 553 in the Crybb2 gene, leading to an exchange of Val for GLU: It affects the same region of the Crybb2 gene as in the Philly mouse. Correspondingly, the loss of the fourth Greek key motif is to be expected. CONCLUSIONS: The Aey2 mutant represents the second allele of Crybb2 in mice. Because an increasing number of beta- and gamma-crystallin mutations have been reported, a detailed phenotype-genotype correlation will allow a clearer functional understanding of beta- and gamma-crystallins. [less ▲]

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See detailIn pursuit of the good life
Mirón, L.F.; Bogotch,I.; Biesta, Gert UL

in Cultural Studies, Critical Methodologies (2001), 1(4), 490-516

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See detailA Generalization of Weighted Subspace Fitting to Full Rank Models
Bengtsson, Mats; Ottersten, Björn UL

in IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing (2001), 49(5), 10021012

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See detailModel selection for (auto-)regression with dependent data
Baraud, Yannick UL; Comte, F.; Viennet, G.

in ESAIM: Probability and Statistics (2001), 5

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See detailA principle approach to model furnace processes for waste incineration.
Peters, Bernhard UL; Müller, Ulrich UL; Krebs, L.

in Environ. Comb. Tech (2001), 2

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See detailDas böse Kind. Eine Auseinandersetzung mit pädagogischen Kritikern der neueren Kindheitsforschung
Honig, Michael-Sebastian UL

in Zeitschrift für Pädagogische Historiographie (2001), 7(1), 35-43

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See detailAttribute dependence and the provision of quality
Degryse, Hans; Irmen, Andreas UL

in Regional Science & Urban Economics (2001), 31(5), 547-569

A quality improvement often necessitates modifications of varietal product features. This paper studies firms’ incentives to provide quality when this decision affects the goods’ degree of horizontal ... [more ▼]

A quality improvement often necessitates modifications of varietal product features. This paper studies firms’ incentives to provide quality when this decision affects the goods’ degree of horizontal differentiation. Intuitively, one is inclined to argue that private incentives to provide quality are insufficient relative to the social optimum if a quality improvement reduces horizontal differentiation. We find that this argument depends on whether the game is simultaneous or sequential. In the former case private incentives prove excessive relative to the social optimum, and in the latter case, insufficient. As a result, a regulator might want to impose either minimum or maximum quality standards.<P>(This abstract was borrowed from another version of this item.) [less ▲]

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See detailA region encompassing the FERM domain of Jak1 is necessary for binding to the cytokine receptor gp130
Hilkens, C. M.; Isharc, H.; Lillemeier, B. F. et al

in FEBS Letters (2001), 505(1), 87-91

The terminal portion of the Janus kinases (Jaks) contains a divergent FERM (Four-point-one, Ezrin, Radixin, Moesin) homology domain comprising 19 conserved hydrophobic regions. To determine the role of ... [more ▼]

The terminal portion of the Janus kinases (Jaks) contains a divergent FERM (Four-point-one, Ezrin, Radixin, Moesin) homology domain comprising 19 conserved hydrophobic regions. To determine the role of this domain in governing recruitment of Jak1, but not Jak3, to the gp130 subunit of the interleukin-6 family of cytokine receptors, the interaction of three Jak1/Jak3 chimeras with gp130 was investigated. Chimeras 1, 2 and 3 (Jak1 FERM regions 1-19, 1-18 and 1-8/Jak3, respectively) were all enzymically active. Chimeras 1 and 2 interacted with the cytoplasmic domain of gp130, although less efficiently than Jak1. Only chimera 2, however, restored gp130 signalling in Jak1-negative cells. The data are consistent with recruitment of Jak1 to gp130 through the Jak1 FERM domain, but also emphasise the likely requirement for precise Jak/receptor orientation to sustain function. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of the gamma-synuclein gene in German Parkinson's disease patients.
Krüger, Rejko UL; Schols, L.; Muller, T. et al

in Neuroscience Letters (2001), 310(2-3), 191-3

Mutations in the alpha-synuclein gene are responsible for an autosomal-dominantly inherited form of Parkinson's disease (PD) and alpha-synuclein was found to be the major component of Lewy bodies in PD ... [more ▼]

Mutations in the alpha-synuclein gene are responsible for an autosomal-dominantly inherited form of Parkinson's disease (PD) and alpha-synuclein was found to be the major component of Lewy bodies in PD. Because of the high homology to alpha-synuclein and the abundance in neuronal tissues, we investigated the gamma-synuclein gene in PD. We analyzed 262 German PD patients and 179 healthy German controls via two polymorphisms in the gamma-synuclein gene. No significant differences in the allelic or genotypic distributions of the investigated polymorphisms were observed between patients and controls. In addition no evidence for an increased risk of combined genotypes of polymorphisms in the gamma-synuclein and the alpha-synuclein gene was found. Therefore, our results do not support a major role of the gamma-synuclein gene in PD. [less ▲]

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See detailWhen Chronic Disability Meets Acute Stress: Psychological and Functional Changes
Miller, A. Cate; Pit-Ten Cate, Ineke UL; Johann-Murphy, Marjorie

in Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology. Supplement (2001), 43(3), 214-216

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See detailMobilität und Verkehr in (Post-) Suburbia - ein Ausblick.
Hesse, Markus UL

in RaumPlanung (2001), (95), 65-69

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See detailReceptor-independent effects of natural cannabinoids in rat peritoneal mast cells in vitro
Bueb, Jean-Luc UL; Lambert, D. M.; Tschirhart, Eric UL

in Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (2001), 1538(2-3), 252-9

Cannabinoids can activate CB(1) and CB(2) receptors. Since a CB(2) mRNA has been described in rat peritoneal mast cells (RPMC), we investigated a series of cannabinoids and derivatives for their capacity ... [more ▼]

Cannabinoids can activate CB(1) and CB(2) receptors. Since a CB(2) mRNA has been described in rat peritoneal mast cells (RPMC), we investigated a series of cannabinoids and derivatives for their capacity to stimulate RPMC. Effects of natural cannabinoids Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta(9)-THC), Delta(8)-THC, endocannabinoids (anandamide, palmitoylethanolamide) and related compounds (N-decanoyl-, N-lauroyl-, N-myristoyl-, N-stearoyl- and N-oleoyl-ethanolamines; N-palmitoyl derivatives (-butylamine, -cyclohexylamine, -isopropylamine); and N-palmitoyl, O-palmitoylethanolamine), and synthetic cannabinoids including WIN 55,212-2, SR141716A and SR144528 were assessed for their capacity to induce histamine release or prime RPMC stimulated by compound 48/80. Only Delta(9)-THC and Delta(8)-THC could induce non-lytic, energy- and concentration-dependent histamine releases from RPMC (respective EC(50) values: 23.5+/-1.2; 53.4+/-20.6 microM, and maxima: 71.2+/-5.5; 55.7+/-2.7% of the total RPMC histamine content). These were not blocked by CB(1) (SR141716A) or CB(2) (SR144528) antagonists, but reduced by pertussis toxin (100 ng/ml). Endocannabinoids and analogues did neither induce histamine secretion, nor prime secretion induced by compound 48/80 (0.2 microg/ml). Delta(9)-THC and Delta(8)-THC induced in vitro histamine secretion from RPMC through CB receptor-independent interactions, partly involving G(i/o) protein activation. [less ▲]

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See detailA completely foreign receptor can mediate an interferon-gamma-like response
Strobl, B.; Arulampalam, V.; Isharc, H. et al

in EMBO Journal (2001), 20(19), 5431-42

A tripartite receptor comprising the external region of the erythropoietin (Epo) receptor, the transmembrane and JAK-binding domains of the gp130 subunit of the interleukin-6 (IL-6) receptor, and a seven ... [more ▼]

A tripartite receptor comprising the external region of the erythropoietin (Epo) receptor, the transmembrane and JAK-binding domains of the gp130 subunit of the interleukin-6 (IL-6) receptor, and a seven amino acid STAT1 recruitment motif (Y440) from the interferon (IFN)-gamma receptor, efficiently mediates an IFN-gamma-like response. An analogous completely foreign chimeric receptor in which the Y440 motif is replaced with the Y905 motif from gp130 also mediates an IFN-gamma-like response, but less efficiently. The IFNGR1 signal-transducing subunit of the IFN-gamma receptor is tyrosine phosphorylated through the chimeric receptors and the endogenous IL-6 and OSM receptors. Cross phosphorylation of IFNGR1 is not, however, required for the IFN-gamma-like response through the chimeric receptors, nor does it mediate an IFN-gamma-like response to IL-6 or OSM. The data argue strongly for modular JAK/STAT signalling and against any rigid structural organization for the "pathways" involved. They emphasize the likely high degree of overlap between the signals generated from disparate JAK-receptor complexes and show that relatively minor changes in such complexes can profoundly affect the response. [less ▲]

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See detailPremiers espaces de la cohomologie de l'algèbre de Lie graduée de Nijenhuis-Richardson de l'espace des fonctions d'une variété
Poncin, Norbert UL

in Bulletin of the Belgian Mathematical Society Simon Stevin (2001), 8(1), 141-146

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See detailHow is education possible?
Vanderstraeten, Raf; Biesta, Gert UL

in Educational Philosophy and Theory (2001), 33(1), 7-21

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See detailThe neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist RP 67580, reduces the sensitization of primary afferents by substance P in the rat.
Pawlak, Matthias; Schmidt, Robert; Heppelmann, Bernd et al

in European Journal of Pain (2001), 5

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See detailStructural requirements of the interleukin-6 signal transducer gp130 for its interaction with Janus kinase 1: the receptor is crucial for kinase activation
Haan, Claude UL; Heinrich, P. C.; Behrmann, Iris UL

in Biochemical Journal (2001), 361(Pt 1), 105-11

We analysed the interaction of gp130, the common signal-transducing receptor chain of interleukin (IL)-6 type cytokines, with Jak1, the Janus family kinase which is crucial for signal transduction of this ... [more ▼]

We analysed the interaction of gp130, the common signal-transducing receptor chain of interleukin (IL)-6 type cytokines, with Jak1, the Janus family kinase which is crucial for signal transduction of this group of cytokines. With a truncated chimaeric IL-5Rbeta-gp130 receptor expressed in COS-7 cells, we show that the membrane-proximal 69 amino acids are sufficient to mediate Jak1 binding and activation. Deletion of box2 drastically reduced binding of endogenous, but not of overexpressed, Jak1. Several point mutations in the membrane-proximal region of gp130 (W652A, P671/P672A, F676A, Y683F, where W, A, P, F and Y are tryptophan, alanine, proline, phenylalanine and tyrosine) did not affect Jak1 association. However, stimulation of chimaeric receptors with the mutations P671/P672A and F676A in the interbox1/box2 region resulted in a reduced activation of STAT (signal transducer and activator of transcription) transcription factors. Most importantly, signalling by the receptor with the box1 mutation W652A was totally abrogated. Although this mutation did not affect Jak1 association, stimulation-dependent phosphorylation of Jak1 was prevented. The W652 mutation acts dominantly, since no signalling occured even when only a single cytoplasmic chain of a gp130 dimer contained the mutation. Our data demonstrate that the mere proximity of Jaks in an activated receptor complex is not sufficient to mediate their activation. Rather, it seems that parts of the receptor, including the box1 region, are involved in positioning Jaks correctly so that ligand-induced receptor dimerization and reorientation can lead to their mutual activation and subsequently to downstream signalling events. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Conference of High Contracting Parties to the Fourth Geneva Convention
Happold, Matthew UL

in Yearbook of International Humanitarian Law (2001), 4

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See detailDécision de la Cour de cassation, 1ère Civ., 2 octobre 2001
Cuniberti, Gilles UL

in Revue Critique de Droit International Privé (2001)

Portée des conventions bilatérales d’entraide judiciaire.

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See detailWo liegt die Zukunft der Steinkohle? Deutschland auf dem Rückzug - China im Aufbruch
Helfer, Malte UL

in Geographie Heute (2001), (6), 24-27

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See detailGüter- und Wirtschaftsverkehr: Merkmale, Entwicklungstendenzen und Probleme aus geographischer Sicht.
Hesse, Markus UL

in Geographie und Schule (2001), 23(134), 8-10

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See detailDifferential binding of IgG and IgA antibodies to antigenic determinants of bovine serum albumin
Hilger, C.; Grigioni, F.; De Beaufort, Carine UL et al

in Clinical and Experimental Immunology (2001), 123(3), 387-394

The aim of this study was to investigate the recognition pattern of bovine serum albumin (BSA), a major dietary protein by serum IgG and IgA antibodies. Anti-BSA IgG and IgA antibodies were measured by ... [more ▼]

The aim of this study was to investigate the recognition pattern of bovine serum albumin (BSA), a major dietary protein by serum IgG and IgA antibodies. Anti-BSA IgG and IgA antibodies were measured by ELISA technique in 3 different cohorts: 578 unselected persons, 84 new-onset insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) patients and 103 atopic persons. In order to characterize the recognition pattern of the different BSA domains, recombinant BSA and recombinant fragments covering the 3 BSA domains were produced. BSA digestion was monitored in simulated gastric fluid experiments by means of domain specific monoclonal antibodies. IgG and IgA antibody titres to native BSA were highest in DDM patients. The three major BSA domains were equally well recognized by IgG antibodies of the three cohorts. Interestingly all three study groups showed a dissociation of their IgG and IgA antibody response to the first BSA domain. The ratio of IgG to IgA antibodies recognizing this domain was 93%/42% in controls, 92%/37% in IDDM patients and 80%/47% in atopic persons. In simulated gastric fluid experiments, the first BSA domain was the first to become undetectable to specific monoclonal antibodies during digestion. In conclusion humoral IgG and IgA antibodies recognize the major BSA domains with different frequencies. The N-terminal domain of BSA, the first to be degraded during simulated gastric digestion is less well recognized by IgA antibodies. This suggests that early digestion is negatively correlated to the IgA antibody response and that the IgA response associated to the gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) and the systemic IgG antibody responses are independent. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimal Employment Subsidies and Market Structures in Industries with Unemployment
Picard, Pierre M UL

in Oxford Economic Papers (2001), 53(2), 352-372

In this paper we analyze the issue of optimal employment subsidies in imperfectly competitive industries in which a distortion in the labour market generates involuntary unemployment. As a benchmark case ... [more ▼]

In this paper we analyze the issue of optimal employment subsidies in imperfectly competitive industries in which a distortion in the labour market generates involuntary unemployment. As a benchmark case, we focus on monopolies and duopolies and on complete information between firms and government. We characterize the levels and creations of employment in the subsidized industry and we check when such employment policies are more favorable to the least productive firms. [less ▲]

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See detailLearning democracy in a world of difference.
Säfström, C.-A.; Biesta, Gert UL

in The School Field (2001), 12(5/6), 5-20

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See detailGeographical variation of presentation at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes in children: the EURODIAB Study
Levy-Marchal, C.; Patterson, C.C.; Green, A. et al

in Diabetologia (2001), 44(3), 75-80

We aimed to describe the frequency and degree of diabetic ketoacidosis in children across Europe at the time of diagnosis of Type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus and to determine if factors such ... [more ▼]

We aimed to describe the frequency and degree of diabetic ketoacidosis in children across Europe at the time of diagnosis of Type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus and to determine if factors such as age and geographical region contribute to the risk of diabetic ketoacidosis. METHODS: The study was part of the EURODIAB project. A total of 24 centres, covering a population at risk of more than 15 million children below 15 years of age, recruited 1,260 children at the time of clinical diagnosis. RESULTS: Polyuria, by far the most frequent symptom, was observed in 96% of the children. In only 25% of the children was the duration of symptoms less than 2 weeks and this proportion was larger in the under 5 year age-group (37 vs 22%; p < 0. 001). Of the 11 centres that recorded diabetic ketoacidosis status, the overall proportion with diabetic ketoacidosis (pH < 7.3) was 40% (95%-CI: 36-44%) in at least 90 % of cases. After stratification by centre, the odds ratio for diabetic ketoacidosis in the under 5 age-group was 1.02 (95%-CI:0.69-1.49) relative to the older children. There was significant variation between the 11 centres in the frequency of diabetic ketoacidosis which ranged from 26 to 67% (p = 0.002). An inverse correlation between the frequency of diabetic ketoacidosis and the background incidence rate was found in these centres (Spearman's rank correlation, rs = -0.715;p = 0.012). CONCLUSION/INTERPRETATION: Rising standards of medical information and greater awareness concurrent with an overall increase in incidence could have resulted in changes in the clinical presentation at onset of Type I childhood diabetes in Europe. [less ▲]

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See detailAlGaN/GaN Varactor Diode for Integration in HEMT Circuits
Marso, Michel UL; Wolter, M.; Javorka, P. et al

in Electronics Letters (2001), 37(2001), 1476-1478

Fabrication and characterisation of metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) diodes above an AlGaN/GaN HEMT layer system for varactor applications are reported. Device fabrication uses standard HEMT processing ... [more ▼]

Fabrication and characterisation of metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) diodes above an AlGaN/GaN HEMT layer system for varactor applications are reported. Device fabrication uses standard HEMT processing steps, allowing integration in HEMT circuits without the need of sophisticated growth or etching techniques. Capacitancevoltage measurements exhibit CMAX/CMIN ratios up to 100, tunable by the electrode geometry. These results exceed best values for published heterostructure varactor diodes. Fabrication of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs on the same layer system with identical technology prove the potential for monolithic integration. [less ▲]

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See detailTargeting of zyxin to sites of actin membrane interaction and to the nucleus.
Nix, D. A.; Fradelizi, J.; Bockholt, S. et al

in The Journal of biological chemistry (2001), 276(37), 34759-67

The localization of proteins to particular intracellular compartments often regulates their functions. Zyxin is a LIM protein found prominently at sites of cell adhesion, faintly in leading lamellipodia ... [more ▼]

The localization of proteins to particular intracellular compartments often regulates their functions. Zyxin is a LIM protein found prominently at sites of cell adhesion, faintly in leading lamellipodia, and transiently in cell nuclei. Here we have performed a domain analysis to identify regions in zyxin that are responsible for targeting it to different subcellular locations. The N-terminal proline-rich region of zyxin, which harbors binding sites for alpha-actinin and members of the Ena/VASP family, concentrates in lamellipodial extensions and weakly in focal adhesions. The LIM region of zyxin displays robust targeting to focal adhesions. When overexpressed in cells, the LIM region of zyxin causes displacement of endogenous zyxin from focal adhesions. Upon mislocalization of full-length zyxin, at least one member of the Ena/VASP family is also displaced, and the organization of the actin cytoskeleton is perturbed. Zyxin also has the capacity to shuttle between the nucleus and focal adhesion sites. When nuclear export is inhibited, zyxin accumulates in cell nuclei. The nuclear accumulation of zyxin occurs asynchronously with approximately half of the cells exhibiting nuclear localization of zyxin within 2.3 h of initiating leptomycin B treatment. Our results provide insight into the functions of different zyxin domains. [less ▲]

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See detailInterleukin-6-resistant melanoma cells exhibit reduced activation of STAT3 and lack of inhibition of cyclin E-associated kinase activity
Böhm, M.; Schulte, U.; Funk, J. O. et al

in Journal of Investigative Dermatology (2001), 117(1), 132-40

Development of cytokine resistance is an important feature of melanoma cells during tumor progression. To study the mechanisms of interleukin-6 resistance, we examined an interleukin-6 sensitive (WM35 ... [more ▼]

Development of cytokine resistance is an important feature of melanoma cells during tumor progression. To study the mechanisms of interleukin-6 resistance, we examined an interleukin-6 sensitive (WM35) and an interleukin-6 unresponsive cell line (WM9). Interleukin-6 treatment resulted in rapid inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinase 2/cyclin E activity and accumulation of the hypophosphorylated retinoblastoma protein in WM35 but not in WM9 cells. In contrast to previous reports, no differences in the expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase 2 inhibitor p21Cip1/WAF1 upon interleukin-6 treatment were found in both cell lines. Interleukin-6-induced inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinase 2 was also not due to changes in protein expression of cyclin-dependent kinase 2, cyclin E, p27Kip1 and cdc25A, a phosphatase positively regulating cyclin-dependent kinase 2 activity. As it is established that interleukin-6 resistance of WM9 cells is not caused by differential interleukin-6 receptor expression, we studied whether this is due to defective interleukin-6 signaling in which activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 is a critical step. WM9 cells showed reduced tyrosine phosphorylation, DNA binding, and delayed nuclear translocation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 as compared with WM35 cells. The kinase upstream of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, Janus kinase 1, was constitutively tyrosine-phosphorylated in WM9 cells and did not respond to interleukin-6 with increased phosphorylation. As compared with WM35 cells, interleukin-6 treatment of WM9 cells was not paralleled by reduced activity of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase-1, which suppresses activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3. Our data suggest that resistance of advanced melanoma cells to interleukin-6 is associated with reduced inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinase 2, which appears to be a consequence of a complex alteration in interleukin-6 signal transduction. [less ▲]

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See detailDie kompakte Stadt
Hesse, Markus UL

in Geographische Revue (2001), 3(1), 85-88

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See detailL'alimentation de la Sarre en électricité sous l'influence de la dérégulation du marché européen d'énergie
Helfer, Malte UL; Brücher, Wolfgang; Zwosta, Nicolai

in Revue Géographique de l'Est (2001), (1/2), 49-57

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See detailSTAT3 is constitutively activated in Hodgkin cell lines
Kube, D.; Holtick, U.; Vockerodt, M. et al

in Blood (2001), 98(3), 762-70

Hodgkin disease (HD) represents a malignant lymphoma in which the putative malignant Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg cells are rare and surrounded by abundant reactive nonmalignant cells. It has been suggested ... [more ▼]

Hodgkin disease (HD) represents a malignant lymphoma in which the putative malignant Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg cells are rare and surrounded by abundant reactive nonmalignant cells. It has been suggested that cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) are involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. The expression of the IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) complex and its link to the activation of signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) molecules in HD cell lines was investigated. Gel retardation and Western blot analyses revealed a high level of constitutively activated STAT3 in 5 of 7 HD cell lines, which could not be detected in Burkitt lymphoma cell lines. Different levels of IL-6R protein were measured in various HD cell lines: L428 and Dev cells were characterized by very low levels of gp80 and gp130, on KMH2 cells only gp130 but no gp80 was detected, whereas L540, L591, HDLM2, and L1236 were positive for both gp80 and gp130, suggesting a possible autocrine stimulation of STAT3. However, a further increase in STAT3 activation on IL-6 or IL-6/soluble IL-6R stimulation was not observed. Neutralizing monoclonal antibodies against IL-6, gp80, gp130, or both receptor subunits did not affect the proliferation or the constitutive activation of STAT molecules in HD cell lines. However, the tyrosine kinase inhibitor AG490 blocked the constitutive activation of STAT3 and inhibited spontaneous growth of HD tumor cells. The evidence suggests abnormal STAT signaling and growth regulation in Hodgkin cell lines. (Blood. 2001;98:762-770) [less ▲]

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See detailPädagogische Historiographie und Kontext
Tröhler, Daniel UL

in Zeitschrift für Pädagogische Historiographie (2001), 7(1), 26-34

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See detailEvidence from site-directed mutagenesis that the cytoplasmic domain of the beta3 subunit influences the conformational state of the alphaVbeta3 integrin ectodomain.
Schaffner-Reckinger, Elisabeth UL; Brons, N. H.; Kieffer, N.

in Thrombosis and haemostasis (2001), 85(4), 716-23

In order to explore the mechanisms leading to conformational changes of the vitronectin receptor alphavbeta3 following ligand or divalent cation binding, we have investigated the expression of epitopes ... [more ▼]

In order to explore the mechanisms leading to conformational changes of the vitronectin receptor alphavbeta3 following ligand or divalent cation binding, we have investigated the expression of epitopes known as ligand-induced binding sites (LIBS) on beta3 cytoplasmic tail mutants expressed in CHO cells. Truncation of the entire beta3 cytoplasmic domain induced constitutive LIBS exposure on alphavbeta3 and alphaIIbeta3. Deletion of the C-terminal NITY759 sequence or disruption of the NPLY747 motif by a Y747A substitution impaired extracellular conformational changes on alphavbeta3 following RGDS, echistatin or Mn2+ binding, whereas the substitutions Y747F, Y759A or Y759F allowed normal LIBS exposure. Furthermore, metabolic energy depletion totally prevented Mn2+-dependent LIBS exposure, but had only a minor effect on RGDS-induced conformational changes. Our results demonstrate that the structural integrity of the NPLY747 motif in the beta3 cytoplasmic domain, rather than potential phosphorylation of Tyr747 or Tyr759, is a prerequisite for conformational changes within the alphavbeta3 ectodomain, and suggest that two different mechanisms are responsible for RGDS- and Mn2+-dependent conformational changes. [less ▲]

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See detailENU mutagenesis: analyzing gene function in mice.
Balling, Rudi UL

in Annual Review of Genomics & Human Genetics (2001), 2

With the completion of the human genome, sequence analysis of gene function will move into the center of future genome research. One of the key strategies for studying gene function involves the genetic ... [more ▼]

With the completion of the human genome, sequence analysis of gene function will move into the center of future genome research. One of the key strategies for studying gene function involves the genetic dissection of biological processes in animal models. Mouse mutants are of particular importance for the analysis of disease pathogenesis and transgenic techniques, and gene targeting have become routine tools. Recently, phenotype-driven strategies using chemical mutagenesis have been the target of increasing interest. In this review, the current state of ENU mutagenesis and its application as a systematic tool of genome analysis are examined. [less ▲]

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See detailGravity Changes due to Continental Water Storage
van Dam, Tonie UL; Wahr, John M.; Milly, P. Chris D. et al

in Journal of the Geodetic Society of Japan (2001), 47(1), 249-254

Five years of global continental water storage variations are used to predict the effects of long-wavelength, long-period variability in water storage on gravity observations. At the sites of existing ... [more ▼]

Five years of global continental water storage variations are used to predict the effects of long-wavelength, long-period variability in water storage on gravity observations. At the sites of existing superconducting gravimeters, the modeled gravity changes have root-mean-square (RMS) values of as much as 7 mu Gals, with ranges of up to 22 mu Gals. Variations much larger than these values can be found over large regions the globe. We find that the gravity effects are predominantly annual in character. We also find that the modeled responses to water loading exhibit long-period variations that could be mistaken for secular tectonic trends when observed over a time span of a few years. [less ▲]

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See detailWissen und Problemlösekompetenz. Der Einfluß von Expertise auf den Informationsaustausch in computervermittelter Kommunikation.
Sassenberg, K.; Boos, M.; Klapproth, Florian UL

in Zeitschrift für Sozialpsychologie (2001), 32

Nach dem Collective Information Sampling-Modell von Stasser und Titus tauschen Gruppenmitglieder bei gemeinsamen Entscheidungen weniger die Informationen aus, die nur ein Mitglied kennt (ungeteilte ... [more ▼]

Nach dem Collective Information Sampling-Modell von Stasser und Titus tauschen Gruppenmitglieder bei gemeinsamen Entscheidungen weniger die Informationen aus, die nur ein Mitglied kennt (ungeteilte Informationen), als die Informationen, über die alle Mitglieder verfügen (geteilte Informationen). Dieser Befund ist für computervermittelt kommunizierende Gruppen besonders relevant, da in diesen Gruppen generell weniger Informationen erwähnt werden. In Studien an direkt kommunizierenden Gruppen wurde gezeigt, dass der Austausch ungeteilter Informationen durch den Hinweis auf die Expertise der Gruppenmitglieder gefördert werden kann. In zwei Experimenten wurden Daten an Stichproben von insgesamt 156 vorwiegend studierenden Versuchspersonenen erhoben. In Experiment I konnte der oben genannte Befund für computervermittelt kommunizierende Gruppen nicht repliziert werden. In Experiment II wurde die Hypothese bestätigt, dass ein vermehrter Austausch ungeteilter Informationen nur dann durch den Hinweis auf Expertise erreicht werden kann, wenn Expertise als spezifisches Wissen interpretiert wird. Wird Expertise dagegen als Problemlösekompetenz verstanden, bleibt der Effekt der Expertise auf den Austausch der ungeteilten Informationen aus. [less ▲]

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See detailA representation result for time-space Brownian chaos
Peccati, Giovanni UL

in Annales de l'Institut Henri Poincare (B) Probability & Statistics (2001), 37(5), 607--625

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See detailLack of involvement of pertussis toxin-sensitive G-proteins in norepinephrine-induced vasoconstriction of rat aorta smooth muscle
Petitcolin, M. A.; Vandeputte, C.; Spitzbarth-Régrigny, E. et al

in Biochemical Pharmacology (2001), 61(4), 485-91

Several studies have shown that stimulation of pertussis toxin (PTX)-sensitive G-proteins amplified alpha-adrenoceptor (alpha-AR) agonist-induced vasoconstriction in small muscular and resistance arteries ... [more ▼]

Several studies have shown that stimulation of pertussis toxin (PTX)-sensitive G-proteins amplified alpha-adrenoceptor (alpha-AR) agonist-induced vasoconstriction in small muscular and resistance arteries. The aim of this study was to assess the potential involvement of PTX-sensitive G-proteins in norepinephrine (NE)-induced constriction in a large diameter artery, the rat aorta. PTX (1 microg/mL, 2 hr; 3 microg/mL, 4 hr) did not modify concentration-response curves to NE in endothelium-denuded aortic rings. However, several lines of evidence suggested that aortic smooth muscle cells (SMC) had a PTX-sensitive G-protein pathway. [alpha-(32)P]ADP-ribosylation of G(i/o)-proteins by PTX (3 microg/mL, 4 hr) was demonstrated in situ in the intact aorta without endothelium. alpha(i/o) subunits were identified in vitro by both immunoblotting and ADP-ribosylation experiments in rat aorta SMC membranes. The measurement of G(i/o)-specific GTPase activity evidenced an effective coupling between NE receptors and G(i/o)-proteins, as NE induced an increase in basal G(i/o)-specific GTPase activity (20.7 +/- 2.8 vs 7.2 +/- 2.2 pmol P(i)/mg protein at 5 min; P < 0.05 vs basal). Co-immunoprecipitation revealed the in vitro coupling between alpha(1D)-ARs and G(i)-protein in rat aorta SMC membranes. In conclusion, we identified a PTX-sensitive G(i/o)-protein pathway in rat endothelium-denuded aorta. We showed an effective coupling between NE receptors and G(i)-proteins via alpha(1D)-ARs. Since PTX has no effect on NE-induced vasoconstriction, the PTX-sensitive G(i)-protein pathway does not play a predominant role in NE-induced responses in rat aorta SMC in contrast to small diameter muscular and resistance arteries. [less ▲]

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See detailKatja Vogt: Skepsis und Lebenspraxis. Das pyrrhonische Leben ohne Meinungen
Heidemann, Dietmar UL

in Zeitschrift für philosophische Forschung (2001), 55

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See detailStruktur und Folgen elterlicher Ungleichbehandlung von Geschwistern: Forschungsstand und -desiderate
Boll, Thomas UL; Ferring, Dieter UL; Filipp, S.-H.

in Zeitschrift für Entwicklungspsychologie und Padagogische Psychologie (2001), 33(4), 195-203

The present paper reviews the empirical literature on the structure and consequences of differential parental treatment of siblings. Starting from a conceptual clarification of differential parental ... [more ▼]

The present paper reviews the empirical literature on the structure and consequences of differential parental treatment of siblings. Starting from a conceptual clarification of differential parental treatment (DPT) and parental favoritism (PF) methods for assessing these constructs are described. Then, empirical findings concerning the consequences of DPT or PF for the individual siblings, the sibling relationship, and parent child relations are summarised. The following desiderata of research are outlined: (1) Analysis of structure and consequences of DPT in adulthood, (2) conceptualisation and measurement of DPT that differentiates between domains, actors and temporal reference as well as amount and direction, and (3) investigation of mediating processes between DPT and its various effects that is guided by theories of social comparison, justice, and emotion. [less ▲]

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See detailThe influence of variables on pseudo-Boolean functions with applications to game theory and multicriteria decision making
Marichal, Jean-Luc UL

in Discrete Applied Mathematics (2000), 107(1-3), 139-164

The power of players in a collective decision process is a central issue in game theory. For this reason, the concept of influence of players on a simple game has been introduced. More generally, the ... [more ▼]

The power of players in a collective decision process is a central issue in game theory. For this reason, the concept of influence of players on a simple game has been introduced. More generally, the influence of variables on Boolean functions has been defined and studied. We extend this concept to pseudo-Boolean functions, thus making it possible to appraise the degree of influence of any coalition of players in cooperative games. In the case of monotone games, we also point out the links with the concept of interaction among players. Although they do not have the same meaning at all, both influence and interaction functions coincide on singletons with the so-called Banzhaf power index. We also define the influence of variables on continuous extensions of pseudo-Boolean functions. In particular, the Lovász extension, also called discrete Choquet integral, is used in multicriteria decision making problems as an aggregation operator. In such problems, the degree of influence of decision criteria on the aggregation process can then be quite relevant information. We give the explicit form of this influence for the Choquet integral and its classical particular cases. [less ▲]

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See detailAn axiomatic approach of the discrete Choquet integral as a tool to aggregate interacting criteria
Marichal, Jean-Luc UL

in IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems (2000), 8(6), 800-807

The most often used operator to aggregate criteria in decision making problems is the classical weighted arithmetic mean. In many problems however, the criteria considered interact, and a substitute to ... [more ▼]

The most often used operator to aggregate criteria in decision making problems is the classical weighted arithmetic mean. In many problems however, the criteria considered interact, and a substitute to the weighted arithmetic mean has to be adopted. We show that, under rather natural conditions, the discrete Choquet integral is an adequate aggregation operator that extends the weighted arithmetic mean by the taking into consideration of the interaction among criteria. The axiomatic that supports the Choquet integral is presented and an intuitive approach is proposed as well. [less ▲]

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See detailEntropy of discrete fuzzy measures
Marichal, Jean-Luc UL; Roubens, Marc

in International Journal of Uncertainty, Fuzziness and Knowledge-Based Systems (2000), 8(6), 625-640

The concept of entropy of a discrete fuzzy measure has been recently introduced in two different ways. A first definition was proposed by Marichal in the aggregation framework, and a second one by Yager ... [more ▼]

The concept of entropy of a discrete fuzzy measure has been recently introduced in two different ways. A first definition was proposed by Marichal in the aggregation framework, and a second one by Yager in the framework of uncertain variables. We present a comparative study between these two proposals and point out their properties. We also propose a definition for the entropy of an ordinal fuzzy measure, that is, a fuzzy measure taking its values in an ordinal scale in the sense of measurement theory. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the associativity functional equation
Marichal, Jean-Luc UL

in Fuzzy Sets and Systems (2000), 114(3), 381-389

Let [a,b] be any bounded closed real interval. The class of all continuous, nondecreasing, associative functions M : [a,b]^2 --> [a,b] fulfilling the boundary conditions M(a,a)=a and M(b,b)=b is described.

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See detailOn Sugeno integral as an aggregation function
Marichal, Jean-Luc UL

in Fuzzy Sets and Systems (2000), 114(3), 347-365

The Sugeno integral, for a given fuzzy measure, is studied under the viewpoint of aggregation. In particular, we give some equivalent expressions of it. We also give an axiomatic characterization of the ... [more ▼]

The Sugeno integral, for a given fuzzy measure, is studied under the viewpoint of aggregation. In particular, we give some equivalent expressions of it. We also give an axiomatic characterization of the class of all the Sugeno integrals. Some particular subclasses, such as the weighted maximum and minimum functions are investigated as well. [less ▲]

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See detailDetermination of weights of interacting criteria from a reference set
Marichal, Jean-Luc UL; Roubens, Marc

in European Journal of Operational Research (2000), 124(3), 641-650

In this paper, we present a model allowing to determine the weights related to interacting criteria. This is done on the basis of the knowledge of a partial ranking over a reference set of alternatives ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we present a model allowing to determine the weights related to interacting criteria. This is done on the basis of the knowledge of a partial ranking over a reference set of alternatives (prototypes), a partial ranking over the set of criteria, and a partial ranking over the set of interactions between pairs of criteria. [less ▲]

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See detailSteigert Selbstvertrauen die Leistung beim Bewegungslernen
Bund, Andreas UL

in dvs-Informationen (2000), 15

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See detailTranscriptional modulation of the anti-apoptotic protein BCL-XL by the paired box transcription factors PAX3 and PAX3/FKHR
Margue, Christiane UL; Bernasconi, Michele; Barr, Frederik et al

in Oncogene (2000), 19(25), 2921

The aberrant expression of the transcription factors PAX3 and PAX3/FKHR associated with rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), solid tumors displaying muscle cell features, suggests that these proteins play an important ... [more ▼]

The aberrant expression of the transcription factors PAX3 and PAX3/FKHR associated with rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), solid tumors displaying muscle cell features, suggests that these proteins play an important role in the pathogenesis of RMS. We could previously demonstrate that one of the oncogenic functions of PAX3 and PAX3/FKHR in RMS is protection from apoptosis. BCL-XL is a prominent anti-apoptotic protein present in normal skeletal muscle and RMS cells. In the present study, we establish that BCL-XL is transcriptionally modulated by PAX3 and PAX3/FKHR, since enhanced expression of both PAX proteins stimulates transcription of endogenous BCL-XL mRNA in a cell type specific manner. Further, we present evidence that both PAX3 and PAX3/FKHR can transcriptionally activate the Bcl-x gene promoter in cotransfection assays. Using electrophoretic mobility shift assays, an ATTA binding site for PAX3 and PAX3/FKHR could be localized in the upstream promoter region (position -42 to -39). Finally, ectopic overexpression of either PAX3, PAX3/FKHR or BCL-XL can rescue tumor cells from apoptosis induced by antisense treatment. These results suggest that at least part of the anti-apoptotic effect of PAX3 and PAX3/FKHR is mediated through direct transcriptional modulation of the prominent anti-apoptotic protein BCL-XL. [less ▲]

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See detailEquivalent representations of set functions
Grabisch, Michel; Marichal, Jean-Luc UL; Roubens, Marc

in Mathematics of Operations Research (2000), 25(2), 157-178

This paper introduces four alternative representations of a set function: the Möbius transformation, the co-Möbius transformation, and the interactions between elements of any subset of a given set as ... [more ▼]

This paper introduces four alternative representations of a set function: the Möbius transformation, the co-Möbius transformation, and the interactions between elements of any subset of a given set as extensions of Shapley and Banzhaf values. The links between the five equivalent representations of a set function are emphasized in this presentation. [less ▲]

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See detailOn an axiomatization of the quasi-arithmetic mean values without the symmetry axiom
Marichal, Jean-Luc UL

in Aequationes Mathematicae (2000), 59(1-2), 74-83

Kolmogoroff and Nagumo proved that the quasi-arithmetic means correspond exactly to the decomposable sequences of continuous, symmetric, strictly increasing in each variable and reflexive functions. We ... [more ▼]

Kolmogoroff and Nagumo proved that the quasi-arithmetic means correspond exactly to the decomposable sequences of continuous, symmetric, strictly increasing in each variable and reflexive functions. We replace decomposability and symmetry in this characterization by a generalization of the decomposability. [less ▲]

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See detailDouai, 1er avril 1999
Cuniberti, Gilles UL

in Clunet (2000)

Compétence internationale en matière de voies d’exécution.

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See detailINTERPRO
Apweiler, R.; Attwood, T. K.; Bairoch, A. et al

in Bioinformatics (2000)

InterPro is a new integrated documentation resource for protein families, domains and functional sites, developed as a means of rationalising the complementary efforts of the PROSITE, PRINTS, Pfam and ... [more ▼]

InterPro is a new integrated documentation resource for protein families, domains and functional sites, developed as a means of rationalising the complementary efforts of the PROSITE, PRINTS, Pfam and ProDom database projects. Merged annotations from PRINTS, PROSITE and Pfam form the InterPro core. Each combined InterPro entry includes functional descriptions and literature references, and links are made back to the relevant parent database(s), allowing users to see at a glance whether a particular family or domain has associated patterns, profiles, fingerprints, etc.. Merged and individual entries (i.e., those that have no counterpart in the companion resources) are assigned unique accession numbers. The first release of InterPro contains around 2,400 entries, representing families, domains, repeats and sites of post-translational modification (PTMs) encoded by 4,300 regular expressions, profiles, fingerprints and Hidden Markov Models (HMMs). Each InterPro entry lists all the matches against SWISS-PROT and TrEMBL (more than 370,000 hits in total). The database is accessible for text-based searches at http://www.ebi.ac.uk/ interpro/. [less ▲]

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See detailHeteroduplex mobility assay (HMA) pre-screening: An improved strategy for the rapid identification of inserts selected from phage-displayed peptide libraries
Fack, F.; Deroo, S.; Kreis, Stephanie UL et al

in Molecular Diversity (2000), 5(1), 7-12

Phage-displayed peptide libraries represent an efficient tool to isolate peptides that bind a given target molecule. After several selection rounds, generally a large pool of target binding phages is ... [more ▼]

Phage-displayed peptide libraries represent an efficient tool to isolate peptides that bind a given target molecule. After several selection rounds, generally a large pool of target binding phages is obtained. Conventional analysis of the selected phage population involves extensive sequencing of many clones, most of which can be identical. We have adapted the Heteroduplex Mobility Assay (HMA) for pre-screening of phage inserts that were amplified by direct colony PCR of ELISA-positive clones. This strategy allowed for the rapid and reproducible assignment of insert sequences to different 'heteroduplex migration groups'. Sequence analysis of only one representative of each HMA migration group then completes the characterisation of the binding phage population. In our model experiments, only 16% of HMA pre-screened clones required further sequence analysis. [less ▲]

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See detailSignalling of interleukin-6 type cytokines via gp130, leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) receptor and oncostatin M receptor
Behrmann, Iris UL; Hermanns, H. M.; Haan, Claude UL et al

in European Cytokine Network (2000), 11(3), 491-2

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See detailThe IL-10 gene is not involved in the predisposition to inflammatory bowel disease.
Klein, Wolfram; Tromm, Andreas; Griga, Thomas et al

in Electrophoresis (2000), 21(17), 3578-3582

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See detailThe Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict
Happold, Matthew UL

in Yearbook of International Humanitarian Law (2000), 3

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See detailMenschenwürde als Grenze der Programmfreiheit
Cole, Mark UL; Dörr, Dieter

in Kommunikation und Recht (2000)

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See detailConnection between type A and E factorizations and construction of satellite algebras
del Sol Mesa, Antonio UL

in Journal of Physics: A Mathematical and General (2000)

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See detailEditorial
Tröhler, Daniel UL

in Neue Pestalozzi-Blätter (2000), 6(2), 1-1

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See detailMutterschutz als Prävention. Überlegungen zu einem neugefundenen Text Pestalozzis
Tröhler, Daniel UL

in Neue Pestalozzi-Blätter (2000), 6(1), 42-44

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See detailReguläres Delisting und deutsches Gesellschaftsrecht
Zetzsche, Dirk Andreas UL

in NZG. Neue Zeitschrift für Gesellschaftsrecht (2000)

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See detailMutation analysis and association studies of the UCHL1 gene in German Parkinson's disease patients.
Wintermeyer, P.; Krüger, Rejko UL; Kuhn, W. et al

in Neuroreport (2000), 11(10), 2079-82

Recently, an Ile93Met substitution has been identified in the ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCHL1) gene in a single German PD family with autosomal dominant inheritance. To determine whether ... [more ▼]

Recently, an Ile93Met substitution has been identified in the ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCHL1) gene in a single German PD family with autosomal dominant inheritance. To determine whether mutations in the UCHL1 gene are causative for Parkinson's disease (PD) a detailed mutation analysis was performed in a large sample of German sporadic and familial PD patients. We found no disease-causing mutation in the coding region of the UCHL1 gene. Direct sequencing revealed six intronic polymorphisms in the UCHL1 gene. Analysis of an S18Y polymorphism in exon 3 of the UCHL1 gene in sporadic PD patients and controls showed carriers of allele 2 (tyrosine) significantly less frequent in patients with a reduced risk of 0.57 (CI = 0.36-0.88; p = 0.012, p(c) = 0.047, chi2 = 6.31). Our study shows that sequence variations in the coding region of UCHL1 are a rare event. A protective effect of a certain UCHL1 variant in the pathogenesis of sporadic PD is suggested, underlining the relevance of UCHL1 in neurodegeneration. [less ▲]

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See detailUmweltschutz in Frankreich - eine stille Revolution?
Schulz, Christian UL

in Dokumente : Zeitschrift für den deutsch-französischen Dialog = Documents : revue du dialogue franco-allemand (2000), 56(5), 369-378

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See detailDielectric investigations of a chiral monomer and side chain polymer
Gouda, F.; Kutub, Abdul A; Fodor-csorba, K. et al

in Molecular Crystals and Liquid Crystals (2000), 352

The dynamics of different collective and non-collective modes in a chiral liquid crystalline monomer and its side-chain polymer have been studied by dielectric spectroscopy. The monomer system enabled us ... [more ▼]

The dynamics of different collective and non-collective modes in a chiral liquid crystalline monomer and its side-chain polymer have been studied by dielectric spectroscopy. The monomer system enabled us to study the temperature dependence of the dielectric permittivity when crossing the transition from the SmA* phase directly to the crystal phase. Although the polymer system has a SmA* to SmC* transition, we found that the temperature dependence of the dielectric permittivity is radically different from the normally observed behaviour in these phases. The contributions from the soft and Goldstone modes, respectively, are extremely low, a result which is related to the very low value of the spontaneous polarization of the material. At lower temperatures in the SmC* phase, a very weak dielectric absorption located around 50 kHz is observed and discussed in terms of the liberational motion of side chains around the polymer main chain. [less ▲]

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See detailFritz März: Personengeschichte der Pädagogik. Bad Heilbrunn: Klinkhardt 1998
Priem, Karin UL

in Paedagogica Historica (2000), 35

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See detailFrom parathyroid to thymus, via glial cells.
Balling, Rudi UL; Erben, R. G.

in Nature Medicine (2000), 6(8), 860-1

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See detailContext and interaction. How to asses Dewey's influence on educational reform in Europe?
Biesta, Gert UL; Miedema, S.

in Studies in Philosophy & Education (2000), 19

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See detailRank n swapping algebra for PGLn Fock--Goncharov X moduli space
Sun, Zhe UL

in Mathematische Annalen (2000)

The rank $n$ swapping multifraction algebra is a field of cross ratios up to $(n+1)\times (n+1)$-determinant relations equipped with a Poisson bracket, called the {\em swapping bracket}, defined on the ... [more ▼]

The rank $n$ swapping multifraction algebra is a field of cross ratios up to $(n+1)\times (n+1)$-determinant relations equipped with a Poisson bracket, called the {\em swapping bracket}, defined on the set of ordered pairs of points of a circle using linking numbers. Let $D_k$ be a disk with $k$ points on its boundary. The moduli space $\mathcal{X}_{\operatorname{PGL}_n,D_k}$ is the building block of the Fock--Goncharov $\mathcal{X}$ moduli space for any general surface. Given any ideal triangulation of $D_k$, we find an injective Poisson algebra homomorphism from the rank $n$ Fock--Goncharov algebra for $\mathcal{X}_{\operatorname{PGL}_n,D_k}$ to the rank $n$ swapping multifraction algebra with respect to the Atiyah--Bott--Goldman Poisson bracket and the swapping bracket. Two such injective Poisson algebra homomorphisms related to two ideal triangulations $\mathcal{T}$ and $\mathcal{T}'$ are compatible with each other under the flips. [less ▲]

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See detail«Henri Michaux à visage découvert»
Roelens, Nathalie UL

in Les Cahiers bleus (2000)

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See detailOptic, electrooptic and dielectric properties of novel antiferroelectric liquid crystal compounds
Jägemalm, P.; Lagerwall, Jan UL; Dahlgren, A et al

in Ferroelectrics (2000)

The optic, electrooptic and dielectric spectroscopy characterisation of novel four-ring thiophene-based chiral esters comprising suitably 5,5’-disubstituted 2,2’-bithiophene (antiferroelectrics) is ... [more ▼]

The optic, electrooptic and dielectric spectroscopy characterisation of novel four-ring thiophene-based chiral esters comprising suitably 5,5’-disubstituted 2,2’-bithiophene (antiferroelectrics) is reported. The two compounds exhibit interesting hysteresis in their phase sequences, and we show that even whole phases (e.g. their relatively wide ferri-phases) may be suppressed by the surface interactions in thin cells. [less ▲]

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See detailElectrical Control of the Reflectance of Porous Silicon Layers
Thönissen, M.; Marso, Michel UL; Arens-Fischer, R. et al

in Journal of Porous Materials (2000), 7((1/2/3),), 205-208

In this paper we demonstrate the filling of porous silicon (PS) layers with liquid crystals (LC’s) in order to control the reflectance electrically. The preparation of PS and the choice of the right group ... [more ▼]

In this paper we demonstrate the filling of porous silicon (PS) layers with liquid crystals (LC’s) in order to control the reflectance electrically. The preparation of PS and the choice of the right group of LC’s will be presented. Especially an oxidation of PS is necessary so that the methods and parameters of oxidation will also be discussed. As a first result the increasing and decreasing of the thickness oscillations in the reflectance as a function of the applied voltage can be observed. [less ▲]

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