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See detailLes Ortsgruppenleiter au Luxembourg. Essai d'une analyse socio-économique
Majerus, Benoît UL

in Hemecht : Zeitschrift für Luxemburger Geschichte = Revue d'Histoire Luxembourgeoise (2000), 52(1), 101--122

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See detailSignal transduction of IL-6, leukemia-inhibitory factor, and oncostatin M: structural receptor requirements for signal attenuation
Anhuf, D.; Weissenbach, M.; Schmitz, J. et al

in Journal of Immunology (2000), 165(5), 2535-43

Stimulation of the IL-6R complex leads to Src homology domain containing tyrosine phosphatase 2 (SHP2) recruitment to the receptor subunit gp130 and its subsequent tyrosine phosphorylation. SHP2 is a two ... [more ▼]

Stimulation of the IL-6R complex leads to Src homology domain containing tyrosine phosphatase 2 (SHP2) recruitment to the receptor subunit gp130 and its subsequent tyrosine phosphorylation. SHP2 is a two-SH2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase that is activated by many cytokines and growth factors. SHP2 counteracts the activation of transcription factors of the STAT family and the induction of IL-6-responsive genes. Tyrosine 759 of gp130, the signal transducing subunit of the IL-6R complex, is essential for the phosphorylation of SHP2. Mutation of tyrosine 759 to phenylalanine leads to an enhanced inducibility of IL-6-dependent genes. Here we demonstrate that no further tyrosines in the cytoplasmic part of gp130 are required for the phosphorylation of SHP2. We also tested whether the tyrosine 759 motifs in both subunits of the gp130 dimer are required for SHP2 association and tyrosine phosphorylation. Interestingly, one SHP2-recruiting phosphotyrosine motif in a single chain of the gp130 dimer is sufficient to mediate SHP2 association to the gp130 receptor subunit and its tyrosine phosphorylation as well as to attenuate IL-6-dependent gene induction. Furthermore, we show that repression of gene induction via Y759 does not require the presence of the SHP2 and STAT recruitment sites within the same receptor subunit, but within the same receptor complex. The Y759 motif in gp130 also attenuates gene induction mediated by the oncostatin M and leukemia inhibitory factor receptor complexes, which both contain gp130 as the shared subunit. [less ▲]

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See detailDécision de la Cour de Justice des Communautés européennes, 17 novembre 1998
Cuniberti, Gilles UL

in Recueil Dalloz (2000)

Compétence internationale en matière de mesures conservatoires.

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See detailElastic properties of single-crystalline and consolidated nano-structured yttrium oxide at room temperature.
Baller, Jörg UL; Krüger, Jan-Kristian UL; Birringer, R. et al

in Journal of Physics : Condensed Matter (2000), 12(25), 5403-5409

High resolution Brillouin spectroscopy was used to characterize the elastic stiffness properties of consolidated nano-crystalline yttrium oxide as well as of the related single-crystalline state. Defect ... [more ▼]

High resolution Brillouin spectroscopy was used to characterize the elastic stiffness properties of consolidated nano-crystalline yttrium oxide as well as of the related single-crystalline state. Defect enriched grain boundaries are discussed as sources for the extremely soft elastic properties of the nano-crystalline state. [less ▲]

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See detailOlivier Bouck, un protestant des Pays-Bas ‘sauvé’ par l’électeur palatin (1564). Entre raison d’État et diplomatie
Weis, Monique UL

in Bulletin de la Société royale d’histoire du protestantisme belge (2000), 124

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See detailExpression patterns of L-plastin isoform in normal and carcinomatous breast tissues.
Lapillonne, A.; Coue, O.; Friederich, Evelyne UL et al

in Anticancer research (2000), 20(5A), 3177-82

Plastins are members of a family of actin-binding proteins which exhibit a tissue-specific expression pattern. L-plastin, which is specifically expressed in hematopoietic cell lineage, has been proposed ... [more ▼]

Plastins are members of a family of actin-binding proteins which exhibit a tissue-specific expression pattern. L-plastin, which is specifically expressed in hematopoietic cell lineage, has been proposed to be involved in the control of cell adhesion and motility. This protein is also frequently expressed in cell lines derived from mammary solid tumors and therefore might be involved in cancer invasion and metastasis. We have analysed plastin expression in normal and carcinomatous breast tissues in vivo by immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting approaches using specific plastin isoform antibodies. L-plastin was not detected in normal epithelial cells of the mammary gland whereas a staining of myoepithelial cells was observed in 50% of the cases. In breast carcinomas, a significant immunostaining of malignant epithelial cells was observed in 4 of the 29 cases analysed (13.8%). No correlation between L-plastin expression and tumor size, histological grade or lymph node status was observed. In contrast, L-plastin was found expressed in 4 of the 11 estrogen and progesterone receptors negative tumors (p = 0.039). The potential role of plastin expression in the tumor process is discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailResults of relative gravimeter measurements at the ICAG97 intercomparison
Becker, M.; Berrino, G.; Camacho, A. G. et al

in Bulletin d'information du Bureau Gravimétrique International (2000), (85), 61-72

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See detailMenschenwürde als Grenze der Programmfreiheit
Cole, Mark UL; Dörr, Dieter

in Kommunikation und Recht (2000)

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See detailThe Eurodiab Substudy 2 study group. Infections and vaccinations as risk factors for childhood type1(insulin dependent) diabetes mellitus: a multicentre case control investigation
De Beaufort, Carine UL

in Diabetologia (2000), 43

Aims/hypothesis. To determine if vaccinations and infections are associated with the subsequent risk of Type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus in childhood. Method. Seven centres in Europe with ... [more ▼]

Aims/hypothesis. To determine if vaccinations and infections are associated with the subsequent risk of Type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus in childhood. Method. Seven centres in Europe with access to population-based registers of children with Type I diabetes diagnosed under 15 years of age participated in a case-control study of environmental risk factors. Control children were chosen at random in each centre either from population registers or from schools and policlinics. Data on maternal and neonatal infections, common childhood infections and vaccinations were obtained for 900 cases and 2302 control children from hospital and clinic records and from parental responses to a questionnaire or interview. Results. Infections early in the child's life noted in the hospital record were found to be associated with an increased risk of diabetes, although the odds ratio of 1.61 (95% confidence limits 1.11, 2.33) was significant only after adjustment for confounding variables. None of the common childhood infectious diseases was found to be associated with diabetes and neither was there evidence that any common childhood vaccination modified the risk of diabetes. Pre-school day-care attendance, a proxy measure for total infectious disease exposure in early childhood, was found, however, to be inversely associated with diabetes, with a pooled odds ratio of 0.59 (95% confidence limits 0.46, 0.76) after adjustment for confounding variables. Conclusion/interpretation. It seems likely that the explanation for these contrasting findings of an increased risk associated with perinatal infections coupled with a protective effect of pre-school day care lies in the age-dependent modifying influence of infections on the developing immune system [less ▲]

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See detailMoving Beyond Sprawl. Aufbruch der Stadt ins 21. Jahrhundert.
Hesse, Markus UL

in Kommune (2000), 18(8), 73-78

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See detailIs Transport Infrastructure Effective?
Hesse, Markus UL

in Standort: Zeitschrift für Angewandte Geographie (2000), 24(3), 59-60

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See detailExchange-stiffness constant in cold-worked and nanocrystalline Ni measured by elastic small-angle neutron scattering
Michels, Andreas UL; Weissmüller, J.; Wiedenmann, A. et al

in Journal of Applied Physics (2000), 87(9), 5953-5955

We present a new method for determining the exchange-stiffness constant A of a ferromagnetic bulk material by field-dependent elastic small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). In the limit of high applied ... [more ▼]

We present a new method for determining the exchange-stiffness constant A of a ferromagnetic bulk material by field-dependent elastic small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). In the limit of high applied magnetic field H, for which the scattering volume is a single magnetic domain and the magnetization is nearly aligned with the direction of the applied field, a combination of micromagnetics theory with neutron scattering formalism suggests closed-form expressions for the differential scattering cross section as a function of the scattering vector and of H. Based on these results it is suggested that the exchange-stiffness constant can be extracted from experimental SANS data recorded as a function of H. At ambient temperature we have applied this method to polycrystalline cold-worked Ni and nanocrystalline electrodeposited Ni, finding exchange-stiffness constants of (8.2±0.2)×10−12 and (7.6±0.3)×10−12  J/m, respectively. Measurement at 5 K yields a value of (9.2±0.2)×10−12 J/m for the nanocrystalline sample, a temperature dependence that agrees qualitatively with data in the literature. In addition to the value of A, the technique supplies information on the spatial structure of the magnetic anisotropy field. [less ▲]

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See detailAggregation in Models with Quantity Constraints. The CES Aggregation Function
Entorf, Horst; Sneessens, Henri UL

in Empirical Economics (2000), 25(1), 35-59

This paper is devoted to the problem of aggregation in models with quantity constraints. The focus is on quantity rationing macroeconomic (QRM) models where the micromarket outcome can be written as the ... [more ▼]

This paper is devoted to the problem of aggregation in models with quantity constraints. The focus is on quantity rationing macroeconomic (QRM) models where the micromarket outcome can be written as the minimum of several variables and where the diversity of situations across micromarkets is explicitly recognized. The aggregation result given in this paper generalizes that of Lambert (1988) to employment functions with more than two components, and leads to approximate aggregate functions of the CES variety. The approximation used can accomodate general variance-covariance structures. Simulation experiments show that the approximation error remains within reasonable bounds (1±4%). It thus seems that the CES formulation can accomodate a large variety of situations. It remains in particular valid when the (restrictive) conditions required to obtain the CES function as an exact result (independently and identically distributed Weibull variables) are not satisfied. [less ▲]

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See detailPCR/SSCP detects reliably and efficiently DNA sequence variations in large scale screening projects.
Miterski, B.; Krüger, Rejko UL; Wintermeyer, P. et al

in Combinatorial chemistry & high throughput screening (2000), 3(3), 211-8

A simple and fast method with high reliability is necessary for the identification of mutations, polymorphisms and sequence variants (MPSV) within many genes and many samples, e.g. for clarifying the ... [more ▼]

A simple and fast method with high reliability is necessary for the identification of mutations, polymorphisms and sequence variants (MPSV) within many genes and many samples, e.g. for clarifying the genetic background of individuals with multifactorial diseases. Here we review our experience with the polymerase chain reaction/single-strand conformation polymorphism (PCR/SSCP) analysis to identify MPSV in a number of genes thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of multifactorial neurological disorders, including autoimmune diseases like multiple sclerosis (MS) and neurodegenerative disorders like Parkinson s disease (PD). The method is based on the property of the DNA that the electrophoretic mobility of single stranded nucleic acids depends not only on their size but also on their sequence. The target sequences were amplified, digested into fragments ranging from 50-240 base pairs (bp), heat-denatured and analysed on native polyacrylamide (PAA) gels of different composition. The analysis of a great number of different PCR products demonstrates that the detection rate of MPSV depends on the fragment lengths, the temperature during electrophoresis and the composition of the gel. In general, the detection of MPSV is neither influenced by their location within the DNA fragment nor by the type of substitution, i.e., transitions or transversions. The standard PCR/SSCP system described here provides high reliability and detection rates. It allows the efficient analysis of a large number of DNA samples and many different genes. [less ▲]

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See detailDiaphragmatic hernia and Fryns syndrome phenotype in partial trisomy 22
De Beaufort, Carine UL; Schneider, F.; Chafai, R. et al

in Genetic Counseling (2000), 11(2), 181-182

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See detailThe biochemical metabolite screen in the Munich ENU Mouse Mutagenesis Project: determination of amino acids and acylcarnitines by tandem mass spectrometry.
Rolinski, B.; Arnecke, R.; Dame, T. et al

in Mammalian Genome (2000), 11(7), 547-51

BACKGROUND: Gene mutations often result in altered protein expression and, in turn, lead to changes in metabolite levels in one or more distinct biochemical pathways. Traditional analytical methods for ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Gene mutations often result in altered protein expression and, in turn, lead to changes in metabolite levels in one or more distinct biochemical pathways. Traditional analytical methods for metabolite determination are usually time consuming, expensive, and, thus, not suitable for high throughput analysis. However, recent developments in electrospray-tandem-mass-spectrometry allow comprehensive metabolite scanning from very small amounts of blood with high speed, cost effectiveness, and accuracy. METHODS: A blood spot from a filter paper equivalent to 3 microl of blood was punched out and transferred to a 96-well microtiter plate. After addition of a set of 14 stable isotope-labeled internal standards, amino acids and acylcarnitines were extracted with methanol. The dried residue was derivatized with butanolic hydrochloric acid and subjected to MSMS analysis. RESULTS: Acyl-carnitines were all determined by a precursor ion scan of 85 Da. Neutral loss scanning of 102 Da was suitable for the quantitation of threonine, serine, proline, histidine, alanine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, methionine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, isoleucine/leucine and valine. Glycine was detected by a loss of a 56-Da fragment, whereas a 119-Da loss was suitable for the measurement of citrulline, ornithine, arginine, and lysine. Specific problems encountered: owing to their identical molecular weight, isoleucine and leucine could not be quantitated separately, and, owing to their instability, glutamine and asparagine were found to be decarboxylated to their respective acids. Determination was linear over the concentration range tested (20 to 1000 micromol/L), and intraassay and interassay coefficients of variation were in the range of 10-15%. CONCLUSION: ESI-MSMS proved to be a highly sensitive, linear, and sufficiently precise method for the quantitative determination of amino acids and acylcarnitines in mouse blood, allowing large-scale screening applications when speed and cost effectiveness are mandatory. [less ▲]

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See detailDatenexplosion erschwert Bioforschung
Schneider, Reinhard UL

in Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung (2000)

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See detailLocal semiparametric efficiency bounds under shape restrictions
Tripathi, Gautam UL

in Econometric Theory (2000), 16

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See detailParis, 1er juillet 1999
Cuniberti, Gilles UL; Kaplan, Charles

in Juris-Classeur périodique (2000)

Contrôle de la procédure suivie par les arbitres.

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See detailGenetic analysis of immunomodulating factors in sporadic Parkinson's disease.
Krüger, Rejko UL; Hardt, C.; Tschentscher, F. et al

in Journal of Neural Transmission (2000), 107(5), 553-62

Immunomodulating factors have been shown to play a role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) by biochemical methods. In order to investigate functionally important genes of the tumor necrosis ... [more ▼]

Immunomodulating factors have been shown to play a role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) by biochemical methods. In order to investigate functionally important genes of the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) pathway we studied the frequency of DNA polymorphisms in the interleukin 6 (IL6), the TNFalpha, and the TNFalpha receptor 1 (TNFR1) genes in 264 sporadic German PD patients and in 183 age and sex matched German healthy controls. Analyzing the TNFalpha-308 polymorphism we found heterozygous individuals carrying alleles 1 and 2 more frequently in patients with a relative risk of 1.56 (p = 0.046, p(c) = 0.13, chi2 = 3.98). In contrast, the frequency of the B/2 haplotype described by the TNFR1-609 and TNFRI+36 polymorphisms was significantly decreased in our PD patients group (p = 0.0097, p(c) = 0.048, chi2 = 6.69) with a relative risk reduced to 0.52. Our results suggest an involvement of immunomodulating factors in the pathogenesis of sporadic PD as revealed by a molecular genetic approach. [less ▲]

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See detailPeripheral modulation of rat knee joint afferent mechanosensitivity by nociceptin/orphanin FQ.
McDougall, Jason; Pawlak, Matthias; Hanesch, Ulrike UL et al

in Neuroscience Letters (2000), 288

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See detailDecreased prevalence of atopic diseases in children with diabetes
De Beaufort, Carine UL

in Journal of Pediatrics (2000), 137

OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that atopic diseases in early life are associated with a reduced risk (protection) for the development of type 1 diabetes in childhood. STUDY DESIGN: European centers (n ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that atopic diseases in early life are associated with a reduced risk (protection) for the development of type 1 diabetes in childhood. STUDY DESIGN: European centers (n = 8) with access to population-based type 1 diabetes registries (>90% degree of ascertainment) participated in a case control study focusing on early exposures and risk factors for type 1 diabetes. Altogether, data from 1028 members of a case group and 2744 members of a control group corresponding to 85.4% eligible members of the case group and 76.1% of the control group were analyzed. Information in this study was collected regarding atopic diseases (atopic eczema, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, and asthma). RESULTS: Atopic disease and asthma particularly are associated with significant reductions in risk of childhood type 1 diabetes. The risk reduction associated with asthma was observed reasonably consistently among the 8 study centers, which represent a wide range of diabetes incidence. Risk reductions associated with all 3 expressions of atopy were particularly marked in children whose type 1 diabetes was diagnosed in the 10- to 14-year age group. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that atopic conditions may be protective against the development of type 1 diabetes and are consistent with the immunologic concept of T(H)1 (type 1 diabetes) and T(H)2 (atopy) diseases being mutually exclusive. [less ▲]

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See detailMotive sportlicher Aktivität. Psychometrische Untersuchungen einer Kurzform der ATPA-D-Skalen
Steffgen, Georges UL; Fröhling, Ronald; Schwenkmezger, Peter

in Sportwissenschaft (2000), 30

The ATPA scales of Kenyon have become a classical instrument for the measurement of motives and attitudes. This article gives an overview of psychometric data concerning the German adaptations of this ... [more ▼]

The ATPA scales of Kenyon have become a classical instrument for the measurement of motives and attitudes. This article gives an overview of psychometric data concerning the German adaptations of this method. Using a study of young members of sports clubs (n=2133 pupils in Luxembourg, n=344 pupils in Germany) the suitability and validity of a short form of these scales are also examined. In general the item-metrical analyses, factor analyses as well as inter-correlation analyses show that the results of this short form of the ATPA-D-scales are satisfying. The findings prove the economic applicability of the scales for sport-science and motivation-oriented research studies. [less ▲]

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See detailBioinformatik: Verloren im Datendschungel ?
Schneider, Reinhard UL

in Nachrichten aus der Chemie: Zeitschrift der Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemike (2000), 48(5), 622-625

Selbst Insider dürften von der stürmischen Entwicklung der Bioinformatik in den letzten Jahren überrascht worden sein. Die Bioinformatik hat sich dabei von einer „Elfenbeinturm-Wissenschaft“ zu einer ... [more ▼]

Selbst Insider dürften von der stürmischen Entwicklung der Bioinformatik in den letzten Jahren überrascht worden sein. Die Bioinformatik hat sich dabei von einer „Elfenbeinturm-Wissenschaft“ zu einer stark anwendungsorientierten Disziplin entwickelt. Die Hochdurchsatztechnologien und die damit verbundene Quantität an Daten auf der einen Seite und die starke Nachfrage von Seiten der Industrie an einer Auswertung der Daten auf der anderen Seite haben sich als die treibenden Kräfte für den Boom in der Bioinformatik erwiesen. So wird zur Zeit beispielsweise einer der weltweit größten „Supercomputer“, seit Jahrzehnten eher das Feld von Physikern oder Meterologen, bei der Firma Celera installiert, einer Firma die das menschliche Genom entschlüsselt, und „gelernte“ Bioinformatiker sind auf dem Arbeitsmarkt fast so schwer zu finden wie Trüffel im Wald. In diesem kurzen Artikel möchte ich mich auf die derzeitigen und zukünftigen Herausforderungen im Bereich der Life Science Informatik im Rahmen von F+E-Anstrengungen beschränken und den Kernbereich der vielleicht eher akademisch orientierten Bioinformatik, wie die Algorithmenentwicklung für die zahlreichen Vorhersagemethoden und Datenbanksuchen, ausblenden. [less ▲]

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See detailPoursuivre les ‘rebelles’ au-delà des frontières. Les répercussions diplomatiques de l’affaire Thomas van Thielt (1567)
Weis, Monique UL

in Bulletin de la Société royale d’histoire du protestantisme belge (2000), 126

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See detailFritz März: Personengeschichte der Pädagogik. Bad Heilbrunn: Klinkhardt 1998
Priem, Karin UL

in Paedagogica Historica (2000), 35

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See detailConnection between type A and E factorizations and construction of satellite algebras
del Sol Mesa, Antonio UL

in Journal of Physics: A Mathematical and General (2000)

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See detailD. Hoffmann & K. Neumann (Hg.): Die gegenwärtige Struktur der Erzie­hungswissenschaft. Zum Selbstverständnis einer undisziplinierten Disziplin. Weinheim: Beltz 1998
Priem, Karin UL

in Schweizerische Zeitschrift fur Bildungswissenschaften = Rivista svizzera di scienze dell'educazione = Revue suisse des sciences de l'education (2000), 1(1), 245-247

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See detailINTERPRO
Apweiler, R.; Attwood, T. K.; Bairoch, A. et al

in Bioinformatics (2000)

InterPro is a new integrated documentation resource for protein families, domains and functional sites, developed as a means of rationalising the complementary efforts of the PROSITE, PRINTS, Pfam and ... [more ▼]

InterPro is a new integrated documentation resource for protein families, domains and functional sites, developed as a means of rationalising the complementary efforts of the PROSITE, PRINTS, Pfam and ProDom database projects. Merged annotations from PRINTS, PROSITE and Pfam form the InterPro core. Each combined InterPro entry includes functional descriptions and literature references, and links are made back to the relevant parent database(s), allowing users to see at a glance whether a particular family or domain has associated patterns, profiles, fingerprints, etc.. Merged and individual entries (i.e., those that have no counterpart in the companion resources) are assigned unique accession numbers. The first release of InterPro contains around 2,400 entries, representing families, domains, repeats and sites of post-translational modification (PTMs) encoded by 4,300 regular expressions, profiles, fingerprints and Hidden Markov Models (HMMs). Each InterPro entry lists all the matches against SWISS-PROT and TrEMBL (more than 370,000 hits in total). The database is accessible for text-based searches at http://www.ebi.ac.uk/ interpro/. [less ▲]

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See detailCytoplasmic STAT proteins associate prior to activation
Haan, Serge UL; Kortylewski, M.; Behrmann, Iris UL et al

in Biochemical Journal (2000), 345 Pt 3

The commonly accepted model of STAT factor activation at the cytoplasmic part of the receptor assumes that signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) are recruited from a cytoplasmic pool ... [more ▼]

The commonly accepted model of STAT factor activation at the cytoplasmic part of the receptor assumes that signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) are recruited from a cytoplasmic pool of monomeric STAT proteins. Based on a previous observation that non-phosphorylated STAT3-Src homology 2 domains dimerize in vitro, we investigated whether the observed dimerization is of physiological relevance within the cellular context. We show that STAT1 and STAT3 are pre-associated in non-stimulated cells. Apparently, these complexes are not able to translocate into the nucleus. We provide evidence that the event of STAT activation is more complex than previously assumed. [less ▲]

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See detailSignalling of interleukin-6 type cytokines via gp130, leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) receptor and oncostatin M receptor
Behrmann, Iris UL; Hermanns, H. M.; Haan, Claude UL et al

in European Cytokine Network (2000), 11(3), 491-2

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See detailThe large-scale Munich ENU-mouse-mutagenesis screen.
Soewarto, D.; Fella, C.; Teubner, A. et al

in Mammalian Genome (2000), 11(7), 507-10

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See detailInvolvement of alpha-synuclein in Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders.
Krüger, Rejko UL; Muller, T.; Riess, O.

in Journal of Neural Transmission (2000), 107(1), 31-40

A major step in the elucidation of the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders was the identification of a mutation in the alpha-synuclein gene in autosomal dominant Parkinson's disease (PD). Alpha ... [more ▼]

A major step in the elucidation of the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders was the identification of a mutation in the alpha-synuclein gene in autosomal dominant Parkinson's disease (PD). Alpha-synuclein is the main component of Lewy bodies (LB), the neuropathological hallmark of PD. Moreover, a fragment of alpha-synuclein (NAC) is the second major component of amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recent studies of other neurodegenerative disorders such as dementia with LB (DLB), multiple system atrophy (MSA) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) also revealed intracellular accumulations of alpha-synuclein in affected brain regions. This may indicate that these disorders partially share common pathogenic mechanisms. Recent data provide first insights into the physiological function of alpha-synuclein and support the concept of an essential role of alpha-synuclein in neurodegeneration. Increasing knowledge on the pathogenic molecular mechanisms of neurodegeneration and of the pathophysiological function of alpha-synuclein in particular may influence future development of therapeutic strategies in neurodegenerative disorders. [less ▲]

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See detailFourteen against One: EU Member States’ Response to Freedom Party Participation in the Austrian Government
Happold, Matthew UL

in International and Comparative Law Quarterly (2000), 49

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See detailJunge Ausländer: politisch integriert?
Willems, Helmut UL

in DJI-Bulletin (2000), (Heft 50), 4-4

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See detailDielectric investigations of a chiral monomer and side chain polymer
Gouda, F.; Kutub, Abdul A; Fodor-csorba, K. et al

in Molecular Crystals and Liquid Crystals (2000), 352

The dynamics of different collective and non-collective modes in a chiral liquid crystalline monomer and its side-chain polymer have been studied by dielectric spectroscopy. The monomer system enabled us ... [more ▼]

The dynamics of different collective and non-collective modes in a chiral liquid crystalline monomer and its side-chain polymer have been studied by dielectric spectroscopy. The monomer system enabled us to study the temperature dependence of the dielectric permittivity when crossing the transition from the SmA* phase directly to the crystal phase. Although the polymer system has a SmA* to SmC* transition, we found that the temperature dependence of the dielectric permittivity is radically different from the normally observed behaviour in these phases. The contributions from the soft and Goldstone modes, respectively, are extremely low, a result which is related to the very low value of the spontaneous polarization of the material. At lower temperatures in the SmC* phase, a very weak dielectric absorption located around 50 kHz is observed and discussed in terms of the liberational motion of side chains around the polymer main chain. [less ▲]

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See detailPertussis toxin-sensitive G(i)-proteins and intracellular calcium sensitivity of vasoconstriction in the intact rat tail artery
Spitzbarth-Régrigny, E.; Petitcolin, M. A.; Bueb, Jean-Luc UL et al

in British Journal of Pharmacology (2000), 131(7), 1337-44

1. We studied the involvement of pertussis toxin (PTX)-sensitive G-proteins in the sensitivity of arterial constriction to intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)](i)) mobilization. 2. Vasoconstriction was ... [more ▼]

1. We studied the involvement of pertussis toxin (PTX)-sensitive G-proteins in the sensitivity of arterial constriction to intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)](i)) mobilization. 2. Vasoconstriction was measured in vitro in perfused, de-endothelialized rat tail arteries loaded with the calcium-sensitive dye, fura-2 and treated or not with PTX (30 - 1000 ng ml(-1)). Arteries were stimulated with noradrenaline (NA, 0.1 - 100 microM) or KCl (15 - 120 mM). 3. KCl elicited a smaller vasoconstrictor response (E(max)=94+/-8 mmHg) than NA (E(max)=198+/-9 mmHg) although [Ca(2+)](i) mobilization was similar (E(max)=123+/-8 and 135+/-7 nM for KCl and NA, respectively). PTX (1000 ng ml(-1)) had no effect on [Ca(2+)](i) mobilization but lowered NA- (but not KCl-) induced vasoconstriction (E(max)=118+/-7 mmHg). 4. G(i/o)-proteins were revealed by immunoblotting with anti-G(i alpha) and anti-G(o alpha) antibodies in membranes prepared from de-endothelialized tail arteries. [alpha(32)P]-ADP-ribosylation of G-proteins by PTX (1000 ng ml(-1)) was demonstrated in the intact rat tail artery (pixels in the absence of PTX: 3150, presence: 25053). 5. In conclusion, we suggest that smooth muscle cells possess a PTX-sensitive G(i)-protein-mediated intracellular pathway which amplifies [Ca(2+)](i) sensitivity of contraction in the presence of agonists such as NA. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict
Happold, Matthew UL

in Yearbook of International Humanitarian Law (2000), 3

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See detailOptic, electrooptic and dielectric properties of novel antiferroelectric liquid crystal compounds
Jägemalm, P.; Lagerwall, Jan UL; Dahlgren, A et al

in Ferroelectrics (2000)

The optic, electrooptic and dielectric spectroscopy characterisation of novel four-ring thiophene-based chiral esters comprising suitably 5,5’-disubstituted 2,2’-bithiophene (antiferroelectrics) is ... [more ▼]

The optic, electrooptic and dielectric spectroscopy characterisation of novel four-ring thiophene-based chiral esters comprising suitably 5,5’-disubstituted 2,2’-bithiophene (antiferroelectrics) is reported. The two compounds exhibit interesting hysteresis in their phase sequences, and we show that even whole phases (e.g. their relatively wide ferri-phases) may be suppressed by the surface interactions in thin cells. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the coexistence of SmC* and SmCa* phases in binary chiral-dopant antiferroelectric mixtures
Lagerwall, Jan UL; Parghi, D. D.; Heppke, Gerd et al

in Ferroelectrics (2000), 244

We present the results from investigations on a series of binary chiral- dopant liquid-crystalline mixtures. The racemic host materials possess tilted smectic phases with varying strengths of synclinic ... [more ▼]

We present the results from investigations on a series of binary chiral- dopant liquid-crystalline mixtures. The racemic host materials possess tilted smectic phases with varying strengths of synclinic and anticlinic ordering (SmC and SmCalt phases respectively). The dopants used were either a strongly synclinic-favouring non liquid-crystalline chiral material (commonly used in FLC chiral-dopant mixtures) or a strongly anticlinic (antiferroelectric) material ((S)-MHPOBC). The electrooptic and dielectric properties of the mixtures were investigated in test cells of different thickness and the influence of each mixture component on the observed physical properties is discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailEditorial
Tröhler, Daniel UL

in Neue Pestalozzi-Blätter (2000), 6(1), 1-1

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See detailChild Soldiers in International Law: The Legal Regulation of Children’s Participation in Hostilities
Happold, Matthew UL

in Netherlands International Law Review (2000), 48

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See detailReguläres Delisting und deutsches Gesellschaftsrecht
Zetzsche, Dirk Andreas UL

in NZG. Neue Zeitschrift für Gesellschaftsrecht (2000)

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See detailEconomic growth and the elasticity of substitution: Two theorems and some suggestions
Klump, Rainer UL; De La Grandville, O.

in American Economic Review (2000), 90(1), 282-291

[No abstract available]

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See detailEditorial
Tröhler, Daniel UL

in Neue Pestalozzi-Blätter (2000), 6(2), 1-1

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See detailFrom developmental biology to developmental toxicology.
Balling, Rudi UL; Hrabe de Angelis, M.

in Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences (2000), 919

Progress derived from the human genome project will have tremendous impact on toxicology. Questions concerning genetic susceptibility or resistance to toxic compound exposure and the dissection of the ... [more ▼]

Progress derived from the human genome project will have tremendous impact on toxicology. Questions concerning genetic susceptibility or resistance to toxic compound exposure and the dissection of the molecular mechanisms involved will be at the forefront of future toxicological research. In recent years, it was recognized that many of the molecular control mechanisms of embryogenesis have been conserved during evolution. The relevance of these observations for toxicology and the application of genetic approaches using mouse mutants as a tool for functional genome analysis are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailAccurate transfer function determination for superconducting gravimeters
Van Camp, Michel; Wenzel, H.-G.; Schott, P. et al

in Geophysical Research Letters (2000), 27(1), 37-40

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See detailMutation analysis and association studies of the UCHL1 gene in German Parkinson's disease patients.
Wintermeyer, P.; Krüger, Rejko UL; Kuhn, W. et al

in Neuroreport (2000), 11(10), 2079-82

Recently, an Ile93Met substitution has been identified in the ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCHL1) gene in a single German PD family with autosomal dominant inheritance. To determine whether ... [more ▼]

Recently, an Ile93Met substitution has been identified in the ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCHL1) gene in a single German PD family with autosomal dominant inheritance. To determine whether mutations in the UCHL1 gene are causative for Parkinson's disease (PD) a detailed mutation analysis was performed in a large sample of German sporadic and familial PD patients. We found no disease-causing mutation in the coding region of the UCHL1 gene. Direct sequencing revealed six intronic polymorphisms in the UCHL1 gene. Analysis of an S18Y polymorphism in exon 3 of the UCHL1 gene in sporadic PD patients and controls showed carriers of allele 2 (tyrosine) significantly less frequent in patients with a reduced risk of 0.57 (CI = 0.36-0.88; p = 0.012, p(c) = 0.047, chi2 = 6.31). Our study shows that sequence variations in the coding region of UCHL1 are a rare event. A protective effect of a certain UCHL1 variant in the pathogenesis of sporadic PD is suggested, underlining the relevance of UCHL1 in neurodegeneration. [less ▲]

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See detailMutterschutz als Prävention. Überlegungen zu einem neugefundenen Text Pestalozzis
Tröhler, Daniel UL

in Neue Pestalozzi-Blätter (2000), 6(1), 42-44

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See detailExperiences of Siblings of Children with Physical Disabilities: An Empirical Investigation
Pit-Ten Cate, Ineke UL; Loots, G. M. P.

in Disability and Rehabilitation (2000), 22(9), 399-408

PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the experiences of Dutch siblings of children with physical disabilities (n=43). METHOD: Interviews were conducted to investigate experiences of siblings in 3 ... [more ▼]

PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the experiences of Dutch siblings of children with physical disabilities (n=43). METHOD: Interviews were conducted to investigate experiences of siblings in 3 areas: the sibling relationship, the relationship with parents, and the relationship with others. The siblings also completed a coping response inventory. RESULTS: The siblings reported difficulties in undertaking activities and in communicating with their brother/sister with a disability. Most siblings worried about the future and the health of their brother/sister with a disability. The siblings reported open communication and trust as the main characteristics of the relationship with their parents. They acknowledged their parents' attempts to treat all children equally, although parents were not always successful in doing so. Having a sibling with a disability did not cause problems in the relationship with friends. The awkward reactions of strangers caused the siblings much annoyance and distress. Siblings in this sample used more approach coping strategies than avoidance strategies, t(34) = 2.37, p < 0.05. CONCLUSION: The brothers and sisters generally did not experience many significant problems, however, a minority of the children did experience problems for which they would like help. In addition, they reported joys as well as problems. [less ▲]

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See detailCES production functions and economic growth
Klump, Rainer UL; Preissler, H.

in Scandinavian Journal of Economics (2000), 102(1), 41-56

We examine inconsistencies and controversies related to the use of CES production functions in growth models. First, we show that not all variants of CES functions commonly used are consistently specified ... [more ▼]

We examine inconsistencies and controversies related to the use of CES production functions in growth models. First, we show that not all variants of CES functions commonly used are consistently specified. Second, using a simple growth model, we find that a higher elasticity of substitution leads to a higher steady state and makes the emergence of permanent growth more probable. It is also pointed out that the effect of a higher elasticity of substitution on the speed of convergence depends on the relative scarcity of the factors of production. Finally, we discuss possible explanations of variations in the elasticity of substitution. [less ▲]

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See detailMeasuring the exchange-stiffness constant of nanocrystalline solids by elastic small-angle neutron scattering
Michels, Andreas UL; Weissmüller, J.; Wiedenmann, A. et al

in Philosophical Magazine Letters (2000), 80

In ferromagnets with a non-uniform magnetocrystalline and/or magnetoelastic anisotropy, such as nanocrystalline or cold-worked polycrystalline materials, the static magnetic microstructure gives rise to ... [more ▼]

In ferromagnets with a non-uniform magnetocrystalline and/or magnetoelastic anisotropy, such as nanocrystalline or cold-worked polycrystalline materials, the static magnetic microstructure gives rise to elastic magnetic small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). The paper explores a method for determining the exchange-stiffness constant A by analysis of the dependence of the elastic SANS cross-section on the applied magnetic field. Experimental results for A and for the spin-wave stiffness constant D in cold-worked or nanocrystalline Ni and Co are found to agree with literature data obtained by inelastic neutron scattering on single-crystal specimens. [less ▲]

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See detailThe clinical-chemical screen in the Munich ENU Mouse Mutagenesis Project: screening for clinically relevant phenotypes.
Rathkolb, B.; Decker, T.; Fuchs, E. et al

in Mammalian Genome (2000), 11(7), 543-6

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See detail«Henri Michaux à visage découvert»
Roelens, Nathalie UL

in Les Cahiers bleus (2000)

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See detailDiversification de la structure de production : Analyse en panel des branches industrielles luxembourgeoises
Bourgain, Arnaud UL; Guarda, Paolo; Pieretti, Patrice UL

in Cahiers Economiques de Bruxelles (2000), (167), 275-298

A weakly diversified macro-economic structure is characterised by an excessive concentration of production in certain dominant branches. It is hard to evaluate the impact of policies aimed at this problem ... [more ▼]

A weakly diversified macro-economic structure is characterised by an excessive concentration of production in certain dominant branches. It is hard to evaluate the impact of policies aimed at this problem, because an increase in diversification can be more apparent than real. Business cycle effects can temporarily diminish the part held by dominant branches, giving the impression of structural change. In this article, growth by branch is separated into trend and cycle components using an “error-components” approach. On the one hand, the trend growth components can reveal changes in the macro-economic structure: a true increase in diversification requires lower trend growth rates in the dominant branches. On the other hand, cyclical growth components help to assess the nature of diversification itself: if cyclical shocks are strongly correlated across sectors, diversification will bring few advantages. An application to value added growth in Luxembourg’s industrial branches shows how increasing diversification decreased volatility of the sector as a whole. [less ▲]

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See detailDouai, 1er avril 1999
Cuniberti, Gilles UL

in Clunet (2000)

Compétence internationale en matière de voies d’exécution.

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See detailRezension: Über Mehrsprachigkeit. Festschrift für Gundula List, Gogolin, I., Graap, S. & List G.
Hu, Adelheid UL

in Französisch Heute (2000), 1(1),

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See detailMeasuring postglacial rebound with GPS and absolute gravity
Larson, Kristine M.; van Dam, Tonie UL

in Geophysical Research Letters (2000), 27(23), 3925-3928

We compare vertical rates of deformation derived from continuous Global Positioning System (GPS) observations and episodic measurements of absolute gravity. We concentrate on 4 sites in a region of North ... [more ▼]

We compare vertical rates of deformation derived from continuous Global Positioning System (GPS) observations and episodic measurements of absolute gravity. We concentrate on 4 sites in a region of North America experiencing postglacial rebound. The rates of uplift from gravity and GPS agree within one standard deviation for all sites. The GPS vertical deformation rates are signi cantly more precise than the gravity rates, primarily because of the denser temporal spacing provided by continuous GPS tracking. We conclude that continuous GPS observations are more cost e cient and provide more precise estimates of vertical deformation rates than campaign style gravity observations where systematic errors are di cult to quantify. [less ▲]

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See detailElectrooptic and dielectric properties of new antiferroelectric liquid crystal mixtures
Andersson, G.; Dabrowski, R.; Drzewinski, W. et al

in Ferroelectrics (2000), 244

Two new antiferroelectric liquid crystal mixtures based on optically active hydroxyesters have been studied with respect to their electro-optic and dielectric behavior. The mixtures exhibit only a SmA ... [more ▼]

Two new antiferroelectric liquid crystal mixtures based on optically active hydroxyesters have been studied with respect to their electro-optic and dielectric behavior. The mixtures exhibit only a SmA* phase above SmCa* and show a stable antiferroelectric order over a broad temperature range (≈100°C). Electro-optic as well as dielectric studies suggest that the SmCa*-SmA* transition is second order. In thin cells signs of a sur- face-induced SmC* phase has also been observed. We present the rele- vant characteristics for three different electro-optic modes which could be exploited in these materials, including the very fast linear mode for sub-threshold voltages. [less ▲]

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See detail17beta-estradiol prevents programmed cell death in cardiac myocytes.
Pelzer, T.; Neumann, M.; deJager, T. et al

in Biochemical and biophysical research communications (2000), 268(1), 192-200

The cardioprotective effects of estrogens are clearly established. However, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Because programmed cell death (apoptosis) probably contributes to the loss of ... [more ▼]

The cardioprotective effects of estrogens are clearly established. However, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Because programmed cell death (apoptosis) probably contributes to the loss of cardiac myocytes in heart failure and because estrogens prevent apoptosis in breast cancer cells, we investigated whether the loss of cardiac myocytes by programmed cell death could be prevented by physiological doses of 17beta-estradiol. Apoptosis of cultured cardiac myocytes was induced by staurosporine. 17beta-estradiol (10 nM) had an antiapoptotic effect as determined by morphological analysis, vital staining using the Hoechst dye 33342 and terminal transferase dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL). As a potential mechanism for the antiapoptotic effect of 17beta-estradiol we found a reduced activity of the ICE-like protease caspase-3 in hormone-treated myocytes. Furthermore, inhibition of apoptosis by estradiol was associated with a reduced activity of NF-kappaB transcription factors, particularly p65/RelA and p50. To our knowledge, these data provide the first indication that 17beta-estradiol in physiological concentrations inhibits apoptosis in cardiac myocytes. The antiapoptotic effect of estrogens might contribute to the known cardioprotective effect of estrogens and provides a starting point for the development of future treatment options. [less ▲]

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See detailIndependance of guarantees ont first demand, comparative analyse with bills and notes
Prüm, André UL

in Journal of the Japanese Institute of International Business Law (2000), 28(5), 537

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See detailLes 'Eurorégions': l'exemple Saar-Lor-Lux.
Schulz, Christian UL

in Problèmes Economiques (2000), (2661), 16-18

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See detailPlacental transfer and decay of maternally acquired antimeasles antibodies in Nigerian children
Hartter, H. K.; Oyedele, O. I.; Dietz, K. et al

in Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal (2000), 19(7), 635-641

Background. In developing countries vaccination against measles virus (MV) is generally administered at 9 months of age, although it is well- documented that protection of most infants by passively ... [more ▼]

Background. In developing countries vaccination against measles virus (MV) is generally administered at 9 months of age, although it is well- documented that protection of most infants by passively acquired maternal MV antibodies is waning before immunization is given. The purpose of this study was to investigate the decay of maternally derived MV antibodies in Nigerian infants as well as to compare a German and Nigerian cohort of paired mothers and newborns regarding the placental transfer efficiency of MV-specific IgG and total IgG antibodies. Methods. MV-specific IgG antibodies were measured with a commercially available MV-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, a recombinant hemagglutinin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay as well as a neutralization assay. Total IgG values were determined with a standard immunoturbidimetric test. Results. Anti-MV IgG titers were twice as high in German newborns as in Nigerian newborns. An increased concentration of immunoglobulins transferred via the placenta was found only in the German cohort. High concentrations of total maternal IgG reduced the concentration of MV-specific as well as total IgG that crossed the placenta. Furthermore only 17% of the 4-month-old Nigerian infants were still protected against measles. Antibodies had a biologic half-life of 33 days and a biochemical half-life of 48 days. Conclusions. Our findings demonstrate that the decay of passively acquired MV antibodies occurred even more rapidly than expected resulting in susceptibility to MV in most of the 4-month-old infants in Nigeria. Furthermore transfer of maternal anti-MV IgG and total IgG antibodies to the newborn was more efficient in the German cohort compared with the Nigerian group. These findings suggest the use of alternative vaccination strategies in developing countries to possibly reduce the window of susceptibility against measles. [less ▲]

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See detailWas darf Fernsehen? - Diskussionsbericht zum 1. Mainzer Mediengespräch
Cole, Mark UL

in Kommunikation und Recht (2000)

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See detailGenetic influence on the development of Parkinson's disease.
Riess, O.; Kuhn, W.; Krüger, Rejko UL

in Journal of neurology (2000), 247 Suppl 2

In the last few years, the genetic contribution to Parkinson's disease has gained major attention and resulted in the identification of four gene loci in autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive ... [more ▼]

In the last few years, the genetic contribution to Parkinson's disease has gained major attention and resulted in the identification of four gene loci in autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive Parkinson's disease. Several mutations in two genes have been shown to be responsible for neuronal cell death in Parkinson's disease. One of the gene products involved, alpha-synuclein, is a major component of Lewy bodies, the neuropathological feature of Parkinson's disease. In contrast, mutations in the parkin gene are associated with parkinsonism without Lewy body pathology. The elucidation of polygenic changes in the dopamine pathway, mitochondrial dysfunction, and of xenobiotic metabolism is technically now possible by means of association and genotype studies. The increasing knowledge of the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease at a molecular level will have important implications for the development of individual therapeutic strategies to prevent disease progression. [less ▲]

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See detailVillin-like actin-binding proteins are expressed ubiquitously in Arabidopsis.
Klahre, U.; Friederich, Evelyne UL; Kost, B. et al

in Plant physiology (2000), 122(1), 35-48

In an attempt to elucidate the biological function of villin-like actin-binding proteins in plants we have cloned several genes encoding Arabidopsis proteins with high homology to animal villin. We found ... [more ▼]

In an attempt to elucidate the biological function of villin-like actin-binding proteins in plants we have cloned several genes encoding Arabidopsis proteins with high homology to animal villin. We found that Arabidopsis contains at least four villin-like genes (AtVLNs) encoding four different VLN isoforms. Two AtVLN isoforms are more closely related to mammalian villin in their primary structure and are also antigenically related, whereas the other two contain significant changes in the C-terminal headpiece domain. RNA and promoter/beta-glucuronidase expression studies demonstrated that AtVLN genes are expressed in all organs, with elevated expression levels in certain types of cells. These results suggest that AtVLNs have less-specialized functions than mammalian villin, which is found only in the microvilli of brush border cells. Immunoblot experiments using a monoclonal antibody against pig villin showed that AtVLNs are widely distributed in a variety of plant tissues. Green fluorescent protein fused to full-length AtVLN and individual AtVLN headpiece domains can bind to both animal and plant actin filaments in vivo. [less ▲]

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See detailUmweltschutz in Frankreich - eine stille Revolution?
Schulz, Christian UL

in Dokumente : Zeitschrift für den deutsch-französischen Dialog = Documents : revue du dialogue franco-allemand (2000), 56(5), 369-378

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See detailGenome-wide, large-scale production of mutant mice by ENU mutagenesis.
Hrabe de Angelis, M. H.; Flaswinkel, H.; Fuchs, H. et al

in Nature Genetics (2000), 25(4), 444-7

In the post-genome era, the mouse will have a major role as a model system for functional genome analysis. This requires a large number of mutants similar to the collections available from other model ... [more ▼]

In the post-genome era, the mouse will have a major role as a model system for functional genome analysis. This requires a large number of mutants similar to the collections available from other model organisms such as Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans. Here we report on a systematic, genome-wide, mutagenesis screen in mice. As part of the German Human Genome Project, we have undertaken a large-scale ENU-mutagenesis screen for dominant mutations and a limited screen for recessive mutations. In screening over 14,000 mice for a large number of clinically relevant parameters, we recovered 182 mouse mutants for a variety of phenotypes. In addition, 247 variant mouse mutants are currently in genetic confirmation testing and will result in additional new mutant lines. This mutagenesis screen, along with the screen described in the accompanying paper, leads to a significant increase in the number of mouse models available to the scientific community. Our mutant lines are freely accessible to non-commercial users (for information, see http://www.gsf.de/ieg/groups/enu-mouse.html). [less ▲]

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See detailAge and residual cholesterol efflux affect HDL cholesterol levels and coronary artery disease in ABCA1 heterozygotes
Clee, S. M.; Kastelein, J. J.; van Dam, M. et al

in Journal of Clinical Investigation (2000), 106(10), 1263-1270

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See detailDer Relativismus in Platons Protagoras-Kritik
Heidemann, Dietmar UL

in Méthexis: Rivista Internazionale di Filosofia Antica (2000), 13

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See detailOm att-vara-med-andra. Pedagogikens svårighet såsom politikens svårighet.
Biesta, Gert UL

in Utbildning & demokrati (2000), 9(3), 71-89

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See detailTermination of IL-6-induced STAT activation is independent of receptor internalization but requires de novo protein synthesis
Thiel, S.; Sommer, U.; Kortylewski, M. et al

in FEBS Letters (2000), 470(1), 15-9

The interleukin-6 (IL-6) receptor complex comprises the IL-6 receptor (IL-6R, gp80) and the signal transducer gp130. Binding of IL-6 to its receptor results in dimerization of gp130, activation of the Jak ... [more ▼]

The interleukin-6 (IL-6) receptor complex comprises the IL-6 receptor (IL-6R, gp80) and the signal transducer gp130. Binding of IL-6 to its receptor results in dimerization of gp130, activation of the Jak/STAT pathway, and in a down-regulation of IL-6 binding sites by endocytosis. The STAT activation after stimulation is transient, being maximal after 15-30 min and disappearing after 60-90 min. The mechanism which leads to the termination of the signal is still unknown.In this paper we have studied whether the down-modulation of the STAT signal requires the endocytosis of the receptor complex. Our results suggest that the desensitization of the IL-6 signal is not due to internalization of the receptor complex but requires de novo protein synthesis. [less ▲]

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See detailInvestment Stimulation, with Some Reference to Housing
Drèze, J.H.; Durré, A.; Sneessens, Henri UL

in Recherches Economiques de Louvain (2000), 66(1), 33-53

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See detailCharacterization of the interaction between zyxin and members of the Ena/vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein family of proteins.
Drees, B.; Friederich, Evelyne UL; Fradelizi, J. et al

in The Journal of biological chemistry (2000), 275(29), 22503-11

Zyxin contains a proline-rich N-terminal domain that is similar to the C-terminal domain in the ActA protein of the bacteria, Listeria monocytogenes. We screened the entire amino acid sequence of human ... [more ▼]

Zyxin contains a proline-rich N-terminal domain that is similar to the C-terminal domain in the ActA protein of the bacteria, Listeria monocytogenes. We screened the entire amino acid sequence of human zyxin for Mena-interacting peptides and found that, as with ActA, proline-rich sequences were the sole zyxin sequences capable of binding to Ena/vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) family members in vitro. From this information, we tested zyxin mutants in which the proline-rich sequences were altered. The reduction in Mena/VASP binding was confirmed by peptide tests, immunoprecipitation, and ectopic expression of zyxin variants at the surface of mitochondria. By transfection assays we showed that zyxin interaction with Mena/VASP in vivo enhances the production of actin-rich structures at the apical surface of cells. Microinjection into cells of peptides corresponding to the first proline-rich sequence of zyxin caused the loss of Mena/VASP from focal contacts. Furthermore, these peptides reduced the degree of spreading of cells replated after trypsinization. We conclude that zyxin and proteins that harbor similar proline-rich repeats contribute to the positioning of Mena/VASP proteins. The positioning of Ena/VASP family members appears to be important when the actin cytoskeleton is reorganized, such as during spreading. [less ▲]

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See detailBegrifflichkeit und Interkulturelles Lernen. Eine Replik auf Edmondson & House (1999)
Hu, Adelheid UL

in Zeitschrift für Fremdsprachenforschung (2000), 11(1), 130-136

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See detailHeteroduplex mobility assay (HMA) pre-screening: An improved strategy for the rapid identification of inserts selected from phage-displayed peptide libraries
Fack, F.; Deroo, S.; Kreis, Stephanie UL et al

in Molecular Diversity (2000), 5(1), 7-12

Phage-displayed peptide libraries represent an efficient tool to isolate peptides that bind a given target molecule. After several selection rounds, generally a large pool of target binding phages is ... [more ▼]

Phage-displayed peptide libraries represent an efficient tool to isolate peptides that bind a given target molecule. After several selection rounds, generally a large pool of target binding phages is obtained. Conventional analysis of the selected phage population involves extensive sequencing of many clones, most of which can be identical. We have adapted the Heteroduplex Mobility Assay (HMA) for pre-screening of phage inserts that were amplified by direct colony PCR of ELISA-positive clones. This strategy allowed for the rapid and reproducible assignment of insert sequences to different 'heteroduplex migration groups'. Sequence analysis of only one representative of each HMA migration group then completes the characterisation of the binding phage population. In our model experiments, only 16% of HMA pre-screened clones required further sequence analysis. [less ▲]

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See detailNationality and the European Union : competing identities in the visual design of four European cities.
de Saint-Georges, Ingrid UL; Norris, Sigrid

in Visual Sociology (2000), (15), 65-78

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See detailSoftware für die Virtuelle Hauptversammlung
Zetzsche, Dirk Andreas UL; Blank, W.

in Kommunikation und Recht (2000)

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See detailLPP, an actin cytoskeleton protein related to zyxin, harbors a nuclear export signal and transcriptional activation capacity.
Petit, M. M.; Fradelizi, J.; Golsteyn, R. M. et al

in Molecular biology of the cell (2000), 11(1), 117-29

The LPP gene is the preferred translocation partner of the HMGIC gene in a subclass of human benign mesenchymal tumors known as lipomas. Here we have characterized the LPP gene product that shares 41% of ... [more ▼]

The LPP gene is the preferred translocation partner of the HMGIC gene in a subclass of human benign mesenchymal tumors known as lipomas. Here we have characterized the LPP gene product that shares 41% of sequence identity with the focal adhesion protein zyxin. LPP localizes in focal adhesions as well as in cell-to-cell contacts, and it binds VASP, a protein implicated in the control of actin organization. In addition, LPP accumulates in the nucleus of cells upon treatment with leptomycin B, an inhibitor of the export factor CRM1. The nuclear export of LPP depends on an N-terminally located leucine-rich sequence that shares sequence homology with well-defined nuclear export signals. Moreover, LPP displays transcriptional activation capacity, as measured by GAL4-based assays. Altogether, these results show that the LPP protein has multifunctional domains and may serve as a scaffold upon which distinct protein complexes are assembled in the cytoplasm and in the nucleus. [less ▲]

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See detailThe odd-even effect in multiplication: parity rule or familiarity with even numbers?
Lochy, Aliette UL; Seron, X.; Delazer, M. et al

in Memory and Cognition (2000), 28(3), 358-65

This study questions the evidence that a parity rule is used during the verification of multiplication. Previous studies reported that products are rejected faster when they violate the expected parity ... [more ▼]

This study questions the evidence that a parity rule is used during the verification of multiplication. Previous studies reported that products are rejected faster when they violate the expected parity, which was attributed to the use of a rule (Krueger, 1986; Lemaire & Fayol, 1995). This experiment tested an alternative explanation of this effect: the familiarity hypothesis. Fifty subjects participated in a verification task with contrasting types of problems (even x even, odd x odd, mixed). Some aspects of our results constitute evidence against the use of the parity rule: False even answers were rejected slowly, even when the two operands were odd. We suggest that the odd-even effect in verification of multiplication could not be due to the use of the parity rule, but rather to a familiarity with even numbers (three quarters of products are indeed even). [less ▲]

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See detailContext and interaction. How to asses Dewey's influence on educational reform in Europe?
Biesta, Gert UL; Miedema, S.

in Studies in Philosophy & Education (2000), 19

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See detailIndependence: In or Out of Europe? An Independent Scotland and the European Union
Happold, Matthew UL

in International and Comparative Law Quarterly (2000), 49

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See detailA mouse model for valproate teratogenicity: parental effects, homeotic transformations, and altered HOX expression.
Faiella, A.; Wernig, M.; Consalez, G. G. et al

in Human Molecular Genetics (2000), 9(2), 227-36

Valproate (VPA) is one of several effective anti-epileptic and mood-stabilizing drugs, many of which are also potent teratogens in humans and several other mammalian species. Variable teratogenicity among ... [more ▼]

Valproate (VPA) is one of several effective anti-epileptic and mood-stabilizing drugs, many of which are also potent teratogens in humans and several other mammalian species. Variable teratogenicity among inbred strains of laboratory mice suggests that genetic factors influence susceptibility. While studying the genetic basis for VPA teratogenicity in mice, we discovered that parental factors influence fetal susceptibility to induced malformations. Detailed examination of these malformations revealed that many were homeotic transformations. To test whether VPA, like retinoic acid (RA), alters HOX expression, pluripotent human embryonal carcinoma cells were treated with VPA or RA and Hox expression assessed. Altered expression of specific Hox genes may thus account for the homeotic transformations and other malformations found in VPA-treated fetuses. [less ▲]

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See detailReview of "Econometric Methods" by Jack Johnston and John DiNardo
Tripathi, Gautam UL

in Econometric Theory (2000), 16

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See detailDifferential inhibition of IL-6-type cytokine-induced STAT activation by PMA
Terstegen, L.; Maassen, B. G.; Radtke, S. et al

in FEBS Letters (2000), 478(1-2), 100-4

Prior activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases by phorbol 13-myristate 12-acetate (PMA) results in an inhibition of interleukin (IL)-6-induced activation of the Janus kinase/signal transducer and ... [more ▼]

Prior activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases by phorbol 13-myristate 12-acetate (PMA) results in an inhibition of interleukin (IL)-6-induced activation of the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) signaling pathway which is most likely mediated by the induction of suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 and requires the specific SHP2 binding site Y759 of the IL-6 signal transducer gp130. In this study, we demonstrate that PMA inhibits STAT activation by IL-6 and the related cytokine leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) but not by oncostatin M (OSM). Since the LIF receptor also contains an SHP2 recruitment site whereas the OSM receptor lacks such a module, we propose that two SHP2 binding modules within a homo- or heterodimeric receptor are necessary to mediate the PMA inhibitory effect. [less ▲]

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See detailLa directive sur le commerce électronique
Prüm, André UL

in Revue de Droit Bancaire et Financier (2000), (4), 1620-9435

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See detailFormation of Porous Silicon Filter Structures with Different Properties on Small Areas
Arens-Fischer, R.; Krüger, M.; Thönissen, M. et al

in Journal of Porous Materials (2000), 7 (1/2/3)

Porous silicon (PS) layer systems have a broad range of possible applications. An advantage is the good control of the refractive index and the etch rate of the layers by the applied current density and ... [more ▼]

Porous silicon (PS) layer systems have a broad range of possible applications. An advantage is the good control of the refractive index and the etch rate of the layers by the applied current density and the time respectively. For micro-optical devices you need patterned PS. For some optical devices it is not sufficient to have only one filter but it is necessary to form filters with different properties on a small area. We applied a method (M. Frank, U.B. Schallenberg, N. Kaiser, and W. Buß, in Conference on Miniaturized Systems with Microoptics and Micromechanics, edited by M.E. Moamedi, L.J. Hornbeck, and K.S.J. Pister (SPIE, San Jose, 1997), SPIE Proceedings Series 3008, p. 265) to PS which fits this goal by the following steps: fabrication of the desired reflectors below each other and partial removal of upper reflectors with reactive ion etching (RIE). The technological aspects of patterning PS after the fabrication are an important topic of this work. Problems are discussed in detail and solutions are given. [less ▲]

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See detailDécision de la Cour de cassation, 1ère Civ., 17 novembre 1999
Cuniberti, Gilles UL

in Revue Critique de Droit International Privé (2000)

Notion de décision susceptible d’accueil en France.

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See detailAn International Reference Station for Inter-comparison of Absolute Gravimeters (ISIAG) in Walferdange, Luxembourg: The GRAVILUX Project
D'OREYE, N.; van Dam, Tonie UL; Francis, Olivier UL

in Bulletin d'Information du Bureau Gravimétrique International (2000), (86), 27-36

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See detailUsing GPS and Gravity to Infer Ice Mass Changes in Greenland
van Dam, Tonie UL; Larson, Kristine; Wahr, John et al

in EOS (2000), 81(37), 421-427

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