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See detailRecht, Poesie und liberale Demokratie Überlegungen zu Voßkuhle, Kohlhaas und Kleist
van der Walt, Johan Willem Gous UL

in Zeitschrift für Kulturphilosophie (2021), 15(2), 169-187

This article looks at the relation between law, literature and liberal democracy with specific reference to Heinrich von Kleist's Michael Kohlhaas

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See detailTaxing Data-driven Business: Toward Datapoint Pricing
Zetzsche, Dirk Andreas UL; Anker-Sorensen, L.

in World Tax Journal (2021)

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See detailPreface of the special issue ‘Logic, argumentation and AI’ in JLC
Dong, Huimin; Pang, Jun UL; Wang, Yi

in Journal of Logic and Computation (2021), 31(8), 1901-1902

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See detailHistory in the Era of Massive Data
Clavert, Frédéric UL

in Geschichte und Gesellschaft (2021), 47(1), 175--194

Abstract This article draws on the experience of the Luxembourg Centre for Contemporary and Digital History (C2DH) research project, ``\#ww1 the centenary of the Great War on Twitter,'' to contemplate ... [more ▼]

Abstract This article draws on the experience of the Luxembourg Centre for Contemporary and Digital History (C2DH) research project, ``\#ww1 the centenary of the Great War on Twitter,'' to contemplate what it means to use born-digital and big data primary sources, both as a methodology and as a contribution to the field of memory studies and contemporary history more broadly. It discusses the notion of distant reading in order to show the interest of multiscale reading in the framework of big data. It also elaborates upon the use of reflexive thinking in terms of what we really study when using this kind of primary source materials (tweets and, more generally, feeds of borndigital sources), namely: temporalities and information circulation. [less ▲]

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See detailColor Vision: Decoding Color Space
Retter, Talia UL; Webster, Michael A.

in Current Biology (2021), 31(3), 122-124

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See detailThermodynamics of Active Field Theories: Energetic Cost of Coupling to Reservoirs
Markovich, Tomer; Fodor, Etienne UL; Tjhung, Elsen et al

in PHYSICAL REVIEW X (2021), 11(2),

The hallmark of active matter is the autonomous directed motion of its microscopic constituents driven by consumption of energy resources. This motion leads to the emergence of large-scale dynamics and ... [more ▼]

The hallmark of active matter is the autonomous directed motion of its microscopic constituents driven by consumption of energy resources. This motion leads to the emergence of large-scale dynamics and structures without any equilibrium equivalent. Though active field theories offer a useful hydrodynamic description, it is unclear how to properly quantify the energetic cost of the dynamics from such a coarse-grained description. We provide a thermodynamically consistent framework to identify the energy exchanges between active systems and their surrounding thermostat at the hydrodynamic level. Based on linear irreversible thermodynamics, we determine how active fields couple with the underlying reservoirs at the basis of nonequilibrium driving. This approach leads to evaluating the rate of heat dissipated in the thermostat, as a measure of the cost to sustain the system away from equilibrium, which is related to the irreversibility of the active field dynamics. We demonstrate the applicability of our approach in two popular active field theories: (i) the dynamics of a conserved density field reproducing active phase separation and (ii) the coupled dynamics of density and polarization describing motile deformable droplets. Combining numerical and analytical approaches, we provide spatial maps of dissipated heat, compare them with the irreversibility measure of the active field dynamics, and explore how the overall dissipated heat varies with the emerging order. [less ▲]

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See detailEditorial comments for the special issue on digital innovation management
Pinkwart, Andreas; Block, Jörn; Proksch, Dorian et al

in International Journal of Innovation and Technology Management (2021), 18(2), 2002001

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See detailDesign of a 2-Bit Neural Network Quantizer for Laplacian Source
Peric, Zoran; Savic, Milan; Simic, Nikola et al

in Entropy (2021), 23(8), 933

Achieving real-time inference is one of the major issues in contemporary neural network applications, as complex algorithms are frequently being deployed to mobile devices that have constrained storage ... [more ▼]

Achieving real-time inference is one of the major issues in contemporary neural network applications, as complex algorithms are frequently being deployed to mobile devices that have constrained storage and computing power. Moving from a full-precision neural network model to a lower representation by applying quantization techniques is a popular approach to facilitate this issue. Here, we analyze in detail and design a 2-bit uniform quantization model for Laplacian source due to its significance in terms of implementation simplicity, which further leads to a shorter processing time and faster inference. The results show that it is possible to achieve high classification accuracy (more than 96% in the case of MLP and more than 98% in the case of CNN) by implementing the proposed model, which is competitive to the performance of the other quantization solutions with almost optimal precision. [less ▲]

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See detailSabrina Göbel und Lisa Groß besprechen den Sammelband von Karin Jurzyk: Doing und Undoing Family. Konzeptionelle und empirische Entwicklungen
Göbel, Sabrina UL; Groß, Lisa

in Zeitschrift für Soziologie der Erziehung und Sozialisation (2021), 1(41), 111-112

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See detailThe Breuer-Major Theorem in total variation: improved rates under minimal regularity
Nourdin, Ivan UL; Nualart, David; Peccati, Giovanni UL

in Stochastic Processes and Their Applications (2021), 131

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See detailSuspending is Believing
Raleigh, Thomas UL

in Synthese (2021), 198

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See detailNot All Doom and Gloom: How Energy-Intensive and Temporally Flexible Data Center Applications May Actually Promote Renewable Energy Sources
Fridgen, Gilbert UL; Körner, Marc-Fabian; Walters, Steffen et al

in Business and Information Systems Engineering (2021)

To achieve a sustainable energy system, a further increase in electricity generation from renewable energy sources (RES) is imperative. However, the development and implementation of RES entail various ... [more ▼]

To achieve a sustainable energy system, a further increase in electricity generation from renewable energy sources (RES) is imperative. However, the development and implementation of RES entail various challenges, e.g., dealing with grid stability issues due to RES’ intermittency. Correspondingly, increasingly volatile and even negative electricity prices question the economic viability of RES-plants. To address these challenges, this paper analyzes how the integration of an RES-plant and a computationally intensive, energy-consuming data center (DC) can promote investments in RES-plants. An optimization model is developed that calculates the net present value (NPV) of an integrated energy system (IES) comprising an RES-plant and a DC, where the DC may directly consume electricity from the RES-plant. To gain applicable knowledge, this paper evaluates the developed model by means of two use-cases with real-world data, namely AWS computing instances for training Machine Learning algorithms and Bitcoin mining as relevant DC applications. The results illustrate that for both cases the NPV of the IES compared to a stand-alone RES-plant increases, which may lead to a promotion of RES-plants. The evaluation also finds that the IES may be able to provide significant energy flexibility that can be used to stabilize the electricity grid. Finally, the IES may also help to reduce the carbon-footprint of new energy-intensive DC applications by directly consuming electricity from RES-plants. [less ▲]

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See detailSingle-cell sequencing of human midbrain reveals glial activation and a Parkinson-specific neuronal state.
Smajic, Semra UL; Prada-Medina, Cesar A.; Landoulsi, Zied UL et al

in Brain : a journal of neurology (2021)

Idiopathic Parkinson's disease is characterized by a progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons, but the exact disease etiology remains largely unknown. To date, Parkinson's disease research has mainly ... [more ▼]

Idiopathic Parkinson's disease is characterized by a progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons, but the exact disease etiology remains largely unknown. To date, Parkinson's disease research has mainly focused on nigral dopaminergic neurons, although recent studies suggest disease-related changes also in non-neuronal cells and in midbrain regions beyond the substantia nigra. While there is some evidence for glial involvement in Parkinson's disease, the molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. The aim of this study was to characterize the contribution of all cell types of the midbrain to Parkinson's disease pathology by single-nuclei RNA sequencing and to assess the cell type-specific risk for Parkinson's disease employing the latest genome-wide association study. We profiled >41 000 single-nuclei transcriptomes of postmortem midbrain from six idiopathic Parkinson's disease patients and five age-/sex-matched controls. To validate our findings in a spatial context, we utilized immunolabeling of the same tissues. Moreover, we analyzed Parkinson's disease-associated risk enrichment in genes with cell type-specific expression patterns. We discovered a neuronal cell cluster characterized by CADPS2 overexpression and low TH levels, which was exclusively present in IPD midbrains. Validation analyses in laser-microdissected neurons suggest that this cluster represents dysfunctional dopaminergic neurons. With regard to glial cells, we observed an increase in nigral microglia in Parkinson's disease patients. Moreover, nigral idiopathic Parkinson's disease microglia were more amoeboid, indicating an activated state. We also discovered a reduction in idiopathic Parkinson's disease oligodendrocyte numbers with the remaining cells being characterized by a stress-induced upregulation of S100B. Parkinson's disease risk variants were associated with glia- and neuron-specific gene expression patterns in idiopathic Parkinson's disease cases. Furthermore, astrocytes and microglia presented idiopathic Parkinson's disease-specific cell proliferation and dysregulation of genes related to unfolded protein response and cytokine signaling. While reactive patient astrocytes showed CD44 overexpression, idiopathic Parkinson's disease-microglia revealed a pro-inflammatory trajectory characterized by elevated levels of IL1B, GPNMB, and HSP90AA1. Taken together, we generated the first single-nuclei RNA sequencing dataset from the idiopathic Parkinson's disease midbrain, which highlights a disease-specific neuronal cell cluster as well as 'pan-glial' activation as a central mechanism in the pathology of the movement disorder. This finding warrants further research into inflammatory signaling and immunomodulatory treatments in Parkinson's disease. [less ▲]

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See detailUnderstanding Attentional Biases in Severe Alcohol Use Disorder: A Combined Behavioral and Eye-Tracking Perspective.
Bollen, Zoé; D'Hondt, Fabien; Dormal, Valérie et al

in Alcohol and alcoholism (Oxford, Oxfordshire) (2021), 56(1), 1-7

RATIONALE: Severe alcohol use disorder (SAUD) is a psychiatric condition linked to cerebral and cognitive consequences. SAUD is notably characterized by an overactivation of the reflexive/reward system ... [more ▼]

RATIONALE: Severe alcohol use disorder (SAUD) is a psychiatric condition linked to cerebral and cognitive consequences. SAUD is notably characterized by an overactivation of the reflexive/reward system when confronted with alcohol-related cues. Such overreactivity generates a preferential allocation of attentional resources toward these cues, labeled as attentional biases (AB). Theoretical assumptions have been made regarding the characteristics of AB and their underlying processes. While often considered as granted, these assumptions remain to be experimentally validated. AIMS: We first identify the theoretical assumptions made by previous studies exploring the nature and role of AB. We then discuss the current evidence available to establish their validity. We finally propose research avenues to experimentally test them. METHODS: Capitalizing on a narrative review of studies exploring AB in SAUD, the current limits of the behavioral measures used for their evaluation are highlighted as well as the benefits derived from the use of eye-tracking measures to obtain a deeper understanding of their underlying processes. We describe the issues related to the theoretical proposals on AB and propose research avenues to test them. Four experimental axes are proposed, respectively, related to the determination of (a) the genuine nature of the mechanisms underlying AB; (b) their stability over the disease course; (c) their specificity to alcohol-related stimuli and (d) their reflexive or controlled nature. CONCLUSIONS: This in-depth exploration of the available knowledge related to AB in SAUD, and of its key limitations, highlights the theoretical and clinical interest of our innovative experimental perspectives capitalizing on eye-tracking measures. [less ▲]

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See detailPredicting correlated outcomes from molecular data
Rauschenberger, Armin UL; Glaab, Enrico UL

in Bioinformatics (2021), 37(21), 38893895

Motivation: Multivariate (multi-target) regression has the potential to outperform univariate (single-target) regression at predicting correlated outcomes, which frequently occur in biomedical and ... [more ▼]

Motivation: Multivariate (multi-target) regression has the potential to outperform univariate (single-target) regression at predicting correlated outcomes, which frequently occur in biomedical and clinical research. Here we implement multivariate lasso and ridge regression using stacked generalisation. Results: Our flexible approach leads to predictive and interpretable models in high-dimensional settings, with a single estimate for each input-output effect. In the simulation, we compare the predictive performance of several state-of-the-art methods for multivariate regression. In the application, we use clinical and genomic data to predict multiple motor and non-motor symptoms in Parkinson’s disease patients. We conclude that stacked multivariate regression, with our adaptations, is a competitive method for predicting correlated outcomes. Availability and Implementation: The R package joinet is available on GitHub (https://github.com/rauschenberger/joinet) and CRAN (https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=joinet). [less ▲]

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See detailSmarter charging: Power allocation accounting for travel time of electric vehicle drivers
Fridgen, Gilbert UL; Thimmel, Markus; Weibelzahl, Martin et al

in Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment (2021), 97

Growing electric vehicle (EV) dissemination will increase charging infrastructure installation at home. Similar daily routines are associated with high peak loads due to simultaneous EV charging. However ... [more ▼]

Growing electric vehicle (EV) dissemination will increase charging infrastructure installation at home. Similar daily routines are associated with high peak loads due to simultaneous EV charging. However, predominantly residential power transmission is not designed for such high loads, yielding charging bottlenecks and restricting future charging at home. Addressing such bottleneck situations and including the EV driver perspective, we introduce a power allocation mechanism that considers the total travel time of the upcoming trip, consisting of actual driving time and time required for charging externally (including the detour to public charging facilities). Assuming that travel time generally negatively correlates with EV driver utility, our optimization model maximizes the resulting utility of EV drivers. Avoiding unnecessary external charging stops due to an insufficient state of charge at the time of departure, our approach generates travel time savings that increase overall EV driver utility. We illustrate our approach using exemplary cases. [less ▲]

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See detailDiagnostics and correction of batch effects in large-scale proteomic studies: a tutorial.
Čuklina, Jelena; Lee, Chloe H.; Williams, Evan UL et al

in Molecular systems biology (2021), 17(8), 10240

Advancements in mass spectrometry-based proteomics have enabled experiments encompassing hundreds of samples. While these large sample sets deliver much-needed statistical power, handling them introduces ... [more ▼]

Advancements in mass spectrometry-based proteomics have enabled experiments encompassing hundreds of samples. While these large sample sets deliver much-needed statistical power, handling them introduces technical variability known as batch effects. Here, we present a step-by-step protocol for the assessment, normalization, and batch correction of proteomic data. We review established methodologies from related fields and describe solutions specific to proteomic challenges, such as ion intensity drift and missing values in quantitative feature matrices. Finally, we compile a set of techniques that enable control of batch effect adjustment quality. We provide an R package, "proBatch", containing functions required for each step of the protocol. We demonstrate the utility of this methodology on five proteomic datasets each encompassing hundreds of samples and consisting of multiple experimental designs. In conclusion, we provide guidelines and tools to make the extraction of true biological signal from large proteomic studies more robust and transparent, ultimately facilitating reliable and reproducible research in clinical proteomics and systems biology. [less ▲]

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See detailInternational Organisations and the Proliferation of Scientised Global Reporting, 1947–2019
Zapp, Mike UL

in Global Society: Journal of Interdisciplinary International Relations (2021)

As novel instruments in global governance, international organisations’ (IOs) global reports have emerged in all policy sectors in the more recent period. Drawing on an original dataset of N = 363 ... [more ▼]

As novel instruments in global governance, international organisations’ (IOs) global reports have emerged in all policy sectors in the more recent period. Drawing on an original dataset of N = 363 editions from N = 95 explicitly global reports from the period 1947–2019, this study documents the rise of reporting and uses citation and content analyses to examine the changing role of science. Reporting based on scientific research and quantitative indicators increases over time and across all sectors, yet particularly striking since the late 1980s and most in sectors dealing with human development and the environment. Drawing on arguments from world society theory, the sociology of quantification and post-truth approaches, this work argues that while reports provide IOs with new legitimacy in science-based governance, their scientised and quantified nature is likely to make IO activities the target of antiscientific populist rhetoric and critical arguments about a reductionist interpretation of science. [less ▲]

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See detailKulturen des Reparierens und die Lebensdauer der Dinge (Teil 1)
Krebs, Stefan UL; Schabacher, Gabriele; Weber, Heike

in TU: Zeitschrift für Technik im Unterricht (2021), 46(2), 5-13

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See detailChanges in Neighborhood-Level Socioeconomic Disadvantage and Older Americans’ Cognitive Functioning
Settels, Jason UL; Leist, Anja UL

in Health and Place (2021)

Background: While associations of neighborhood conditions with cognitive functioning at older ages have been established, few studies have investigated with a dynamic perspective if changing neighborhood ... [more ▼]

Background: While associations of neighborhood conditions with cognitive functioning at older ages have been established, few studies have investigated with a dynamic perspective if changing neighborhood socioeconomic conditions affect older residents’ cognitive declines, and which putative factors mediate this relationship. Method: Using data from waves 2 (2010–2011) and 3 (2015–2016) of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP) survey (n = 1837), ordinary least squares regressions and mediation analyses were conducted, adjusting for multiple confounders and testing eight putative mediators. Results: Worsening neighborhood socioeconomic circumstances were associated with cognitive declines. Changes in depressive symptoms, sizes of close social networks, and physical activity substantially mediated this relationship. Discussion: While 18.10% of the total effect occurred through these mechanisms, further pathways may work through contextual- and individual-level variables not assessed in the NSHAP. [less ▲]

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See detailAttitudes towards Multiculturalism in Luxembourg: Measurement Invariance and Factor Structure of the Multicultural Ideology Scale
Stogianni, Maria UL; Murdock, Elke UL; He, Jia et al

in International Journal of Intercultural Relations (2021), 82

In the present study, we examined the dimensionality and the measurement invariance of the Multicultural Ideology Scale (MCI), and mean differences across different cultural groups within the multilingual ... [more ▼]

In the present study, we examined the dimensionality and the measurement invariance of the Multicultural Ideology Scale (MCI), and mean differences across different cultural groups within the multilingual, multicultural context of Luxembourg. Luxembourg is a unique context to study attitudes towards diversity because 47.4% of the citizens are non-nationals (i.e. economic migrants, sojourners, refugees) and minority and majority are increasingly difficult to define. Our sample included 1,488 participants from diverse ethnic backgrounds who completed the survey in German, French or English. In contrast to previous findings, our analyses on responses to the MCI scale produced a two-dimensional structure, distinguishing between positive and negative attitudes towards multiculturalism. The factor structure was partially invariant across ethnocultural groups: Configural and metric invariance were established across natives and non-natives and different language versions. Scalar invariance was only established across gender groups. Natives and male participants reported the most negative attitudes towards multiculturalism. We discuss the importance of assessing measurement invariance and provide recommendations to improve the assessment of psychological multiculturalism. [less ▲]

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See detailOccurrence and Distribution of Pharmaceuticals and Their Transformation Products in Luxembourgish Surface Waters
Singh, Randolph UL; Lai, Adelene UL; Krier, Jessy UL et al

in ACS Environmental Au (2021)

Pharmaceuticals and their transformation products (TPs) are continuously released into the aquatic environment via anthropogenic activity. To expand knowledge on the presence of pharmaceuticals and their ... [more ▼]

Pharmaceuticals and their transformation products (TPs) are continuously released into the aquatic environment via anthropogenic activity. To expand knowledge on the presence of pharmaceuticals and their known TPs in Luxembourgish rivers, 92 samples collected during routine monitoring events between 2019 and 2020 were investigated using nontarget analysis. Water samples were concentrated using solid-phase extraction and then analyzed using liquid chromatography coupled to a high-resolution mass spectrometer. Suspect screening was performed using several open source computational tools and resources including Shinyscreen (https://git-r3lab.uni.lu/eci/shinyscreen/), MetFrag (https://msbi.ipb-halle.de/MetFrag/), PubChemLite (https://zenodo.org/record/4432124), and MassBank (https://massbank.eu/MassBank/). A total of 94 pharmaceuticals, 88 confirmed at a level 1 confidence (86 of which could be quantified, two compounds too low to be quantified) and six identified at level 2a, were found to be present in Luxembourg rivers. Pharmaceutical TPs (12) were also found at a level 2a confidence. The pharmaceuticals were present at median concentrations up to 214 ng/L, with caffeine having a median concentration of 1424 ng/L. Antihypertensive drugs (15), psychoactive drugs (15), and antimicrobials (eight) were the most detected groups of pharmaceuticals. A spatiotemporal analysis of the data revealed areas with higher concentrations of the pharmaceuticals, as well as differences in pharmaceutical concentrations between 2019 and 2020. The results of this work will help guide activities for improving water management in the country and set baseline data for continuous monitoring and screening efforts, as well as for further open data and software developments. [less ▲]

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See detailEducational Robotics and Robot Creativity: An Interdisciplinary Dialogue
Gubenko, Alla UL; Kirsch, Christiane; Smilek, Jan Nicola et al

in Frontiers in Robotics and AI (2021)

There is a growing literature concerning robotics and creativity. Although some authors claim that robotics in classrooms may be a promising new tool to address the creativity crisis in school, we often ... [more ▼]

There is a growing literature concerning robotics and creativity. Although some authors claim that robotics in classrooms may be a promising new tool to address the creativity crisis in school, we often face a lack of theoretical development of the concept of creativity and the mechanisms involved. In this article, we will first provide an overview of existing research using educational robotics to foster creativity. We show that in this line of work the exact mechanisms promoted by robotics activities are rarely discussed. We use a confluence model of creativity to account for the positive effect of designing and coding robots on students' creative output. We focus on the cognitive components of the process of constructing and programming robots within the context of existing models of creative cognition. We address as well the question of the role of meta-reasoning and emergent strategies in the creative process. Then, in the second part of the article, we discuss how the notion of creativity applies to robots themselves in terms of the creative processes that can be embodied in these artificial agents. Ultimately, we argue that considering how robots and humans deal with novelty and solve open-ended tasks could help us to understand better some aspects of the essence of creativity. [less ▲]

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See detailToken Economy
Sunyaev, Ali; Kannengießer, Niclas; Beck, Roman et al

in Business and Information Systems Engineering (2021)

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See detailDie Offenbarung des Geheimen? Mittelalterliche Gottesurteile als Erkenntnisquelle und ihr Niederschlag in der mittelhochdeutschen Literatur
Sieburg, Heinz UL

in Das Mittelalter. Perspektiven mediävistischer Forschung. Beihefte 15 (2021), 15

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See detailTechRisk
Zetzsche, Dirk Andreas UL; Arner, Douglas; Buckley, Ross

in Singapore Journal of Legal Studies (2021)

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See detailMethod Optimization of Skin Biopsy-Derived Fibroblast Culture for Reprogramming Into Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells
Mommaerts, Kathleen; Bellora, Camille; Lambert, Pauline et al

in Biopreservation and Biobanking (2021)

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See detailA randomized controlled trial of an Internet-based emotion regulation intervention for sexual health: study protocol
Fischer, Vinicius Jobim; Andersson, Gerhard; Billieux, Joel et al

in Trials (2021), 22

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See detailThe induced metric on the boundary of the convex hull of a quasicircle in hyperbolic and anti de Sitter geometry
Bonsante, Francesco; Danciger, Jeff; Maloni, Sara et al

in Geometry and Topology (2021), 25-6

Celebrated work of Alexandrov and Pogorelov determines exactly which metrics on the sphere are induced on the boundary of a compact convex subset of hyperbolic three-space. As a step toward a ... [more ▼]

Celebrated work of Alexandrov and Pogorelov determines exactly which metrics on the sphere are induced on the boundary of a compact convex subset of hyperbolic three-space. As a step toward a generalization for unbounded convex subsets, we consider convex regions of hyperbolic three-space bounded by two properly embedded disks which meet at infinity along a Jordan curve in the ideal boundary. In this setting, it is natural to augment the notion of induced metric on the boundary of the convex set to include a gluing map at infinity which records how the asymptotic geometry of the two surfaces compares near points of the limiting Jordan curve. Restricting further to the case in which the induced metrics on the two bounding surfaces have constant curvature K∈[−1,0) and the Jordan curve at infinity is a quasicircle, the gluing map is naturally a quasisymmetric homeomorphism of the circle. The main result is that for each value of K, every quasisymmetric map is achieved as the gluing map at infinity along some quasicircle. We also prove analogous results in the setting of three-dimensional anti de Sitter geometry. Our results may be viewed as universal versions of the conjectures of Thurston and Mess about prescribing the induced metric on the boundary of the convex core of quasifuchsian hyperbolic manifolds and globally hyperbolic anti de Sitter spacetimes. [less ▲]

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See detailEditorial: Celebrating the Diversity of Genetic Research to Dissect the Pathogenesis of Parkinson's Disease
Farrer, Matthew J.; Bardien, Soraya; Hattori, Nobutaka et al

in Frontiers in Neurology (2021), 12

Parkinson's disease (PD) is the fastest growing neurological disorder worldwide, taking into account age-standardized rates for prevalence, disability and deaths (1). PD is characterized by a clinical ... [more ▼]

Parkinson's disease (PD) is the fastest growing neurological disorder worldwide, taking into account age-standardized rates for prevalence, disability and deaths (1). PD is characterized by a clinical symptomatology involving both motor and non-motor symptoms. According to the Global Burden of Disease study (2018), the global burden of this disorder has more than doubled over the past two decades from 2.5 million patients in 1990 to 6.1 million patients in 2016 (2). In this editorial and eBook, we highlight the research done on PD by members of a global consortium known as the Genetic Epidemiology of Parkinson's disease (GEoPD) Consortium. We begin the editorial by providing a brief history of how GEoPD was started and how it has subsequently developed into an international endeavor. We then briefly summarize the completed and ongoing projects, and conclude with the future vision of this unique consortium. [less ▲]

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See detailBook review of : Alain Atten, D'Hobitz. Novell (Kanephora, 9), Luxembourg: Kremart Edition, 2020 ; 174 p.
Weis, Monique UL

in Hemecht: Zeitschrift für Luxemburger Geschichte (2021), 73(4), 509-510

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See detailReview of: Tommaso Milani, 'Hendrik de Man and social democracy: The idea of planning in Western Europe, 1914-1940'
van de Maele, Jens UL

in Journal of Belgian History (2021), (1-2), 183-185

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See detailWhat Factors Contribute to the Meaning of Work? A Validation of Morin’s Meaning of Work Questionnaire
Pignault, Anne; Houssemand, Claude UL

in Psicologia, Reflexão e Crítica (2021), 34(1),

Background: Considering the recent and current evolution of work and the work context, the meaning of work is becoming an increasingly relevant topic in research in the social sciences and humanities ... [more ▼]

Background: Considering the recent and current evolution of work and the work context, the meaning of work is becoming an increasingly relevant topic in research in the social sciences and humanities, particularly in psychology. In order to understand and measure what contributes to the meaning of work, Morin (2003) constructed a 30-item questionnaire that has become predominant and has repeatedly been used in research in occupational psychology and by practitioners in the field. Nevertheless, it has been validated only in part. Method: Meaning of work questionnaire was conducted in French with 366 people (51.3% of women; age: (M = 39.11, SD = 11.25); 99.2% of whom were employed with the remainder retired). Three sets of statistical analyses were run on the data. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis were conducted on independent samples. Results: The questionnaire described a five-factor structure. These dimensions (Success and Recognition at work and of work, α= .90; Usefulness, α= .88; Respect for work, α= .88; Value from and through work, α= .83; Remuneration, α= .85) are all attached to a general second-order latent meaning of work factor (α= .96). Conclusions: Validation of the scale, and implications for health in the workplace and career counseling practices, are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Impact of Parental Presence on their Children during Painful Medical Procedures:A Systematic Review
Rheel, Emma; Malfliet, Anneleen; van Ryckeghem, Dimitri UL et al

in Pain Medicine (2021), 28

Objective: Whether parental presence during their children's painful medical procedures is advantageous with regard to child's pain-related outcomes is questionable. Research regarding this topic is ... [more ▼]

Objective: Whether parental presence during their children's painful medical procedures is advantageous with regard to child's pain-related outcomes is questionable. Research regarding this topic is equivocal and additional questions, such as whether levels of parental involvement may play a role as well, remain to be assessed. The purpose of this systematic review is to summarize and critically appraise the literature regarding the impact of parental presence versus absence during their children's painful medical procedures on the child's pain-related outcomes. Methods: The review protocol was registered on Prospero (ID CRD42018116614). A systematic search in PubMed, Web of Science, and PsycArticles resulted in 22 eligible studies incorporating 2157 participants. Studies were considered eligible if they included children (≤ 18 years old) undergoing a painful medical procedure and compared parental presence and/or involvement with parental absence during the procedure. Results: The children's pain-related outcomes included self-reported pain intensity, self-reported fear, anxiety and distress, observed pain-related behavior, and physiological parameters. Overall, evidence points in the direction of beneficial effects of parental presence versus absence with regard to children's self-reported pain intensity and physiological parameters, whereas mixed findings were recorded for children's self-reported fears, anxiety and distress, and observed pain-related behaviors. Conclusions: : In order to provide clear recommendations on how to involve the parent during the procedure, as well as for which type of children and parents parental presence has the best effects, further research is needed, as indicated in this review. [less ▲]

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See detailThe benefits, costs and feasibility of a low incidence COVID-19 strategy
Czypionka, T.; Iftekhar, E.; Prainsack, B. et al

in The Lancet Regional Health - Europe (2021), 12(100193),

In the summer of 2021, European governments removed most NPIs after experiencing prolonged second and third waves of the COVID-19 pandemic. Most countries failed to achieve immunization rates high enough ... [more ▼]

In the summer of 2021, European governments removed most NPIs after experiencing prolonged second and third waves of the COVID-19 pandemic. Most countries failed to achieve immunization rates high enough to avoid resurgence of the virus. Public health strategies for autumn and winter 2021 have ranged from countries aiming at low incidence by re-introducing NPIs to accepting high incidence levels. However, such high incidence strategies almost certainly lead to the very consequences that they seek to avoid: restrictions that harm people and economies. At high incidence, the important pandemic containment measure ‘test-trace-isolate-support’ becomes inefficient. At that point, the spread of SARS-CoV-2 and its numerous harmful consequences can likely only be controlled through restrictions. We argue that all European countries need to pursue a low incidence strategy in a coordinated manner. Such an endeavour can only be successful if it is built on open communication and trust. [less ▲]

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See detailThe fall in income inequality during COVID-19 in four European countries
Clark, Andrew; d'Ambrosio, Conchita UL; Lepinteur, Anthony UL

in Journal of Economic Inequality (2021), 19

We here use panel data from the COME-HERE survey to track income inequality during COVID-19 in France, Germany, Italy, and Spain. Relative inequality in equivalent household disposable income among ... [more ▼]

We here use panel data from the COME-HERE survey to track income inequality during COVID-19 in France, Germany, Italy, and Spain. Relative inequality in equivalent household disposable income among individuals changed in a hump-shaped way between January 2020 and January 2021, with an initial rise from January to May 2020 being more than reversed by September 2020. Absolute inequality also fell over this period. Due to the pandemic some households lost more than others, and government compensation schemes were targeted towards the poorest, implying that on average income differences decreased. Generalized Lorenz domination reveals that these distributive changes reduced welfare in Italy. [less ▲]

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See detailSystem Modelling and Design Aspects of Next Generation High Throughput Satellites
Sharma, Shree Krishna UL; Querol, Jorge UL; Maturo, Nicola UL et al

in IEEE Communications Letters (2021), 69

As compared to terrestrial systems, the design of Satellite Communication (SatCom) systems require a different approach due to differences in terms of wave propagation, operating frequency, antenna ... [more ▼]

As compared to terrestrial systems, the design of Satellite Communication (SatCom) systems require a different approach due to differences in terms of wave propagation, operating frequency, antenna structures, interfering sources, limitations of onboard processing, power limitations and transceiver impairments. In this regard, this letter aims to identify and discuss important modeling and design aspects of the next generation High Throughput Satellite (HTS) systems. First, communication models of HTSs including the ones for multibeam and multicarrier satellites, multiple antenna techniques, and for SatCom payloads and antennas are highlighted and discussed. Subsequently, various design aspects of SatCom transceivers including impairments related to the transceiver, payload and channel, and traffic-based coverage adaptation are presented. Finally, some open topics for the design of next generation HTSs are identified and discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailWhat is Negation in a System 2020?
Gabbay, Dov M. UL

in IfCoLog Journal of Logics and Their Applications (2021), 8(7), 1977--2034

The notion of negation is basic to any formal or informal logical system. When any such system is presented to us, it is presented either as a system without negation or as a system with some form of ... [more ▼]

The notion of negation is basic to any formal or informal logical system. When any such system is presented to us, it is presented either as a system without negation or as a system with some form of negation. In both cases we are supposed to know intuitively whether there is no negation in the system or whether the form of negation presented in the system is indeed as claimed. To be more specific, suppose Robinson Crusoe writes a logical system with Hilbert type axioms and rules, which includes a unary connective *A. He puts the document in a bottle and let it lose at sea. We find it and take a look. We ask: is the connective "*" a negation in the system? Yet the notion of what is negation in a formal system is not clear. When we see a unary connective *A, (A a wff) together with some other axioms for some additional connectives, how can we tell whether *A is indeed a form of negation of A? Are there some axioms which the connective "*" must satisfy in order to qualify * as a negation? [less ▲]

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See detailCrowdsourced COVID-19 Collections: A brief overview
Zumthurm, Tizian UL

in International Public History (2021)

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See detailUn arrêt sans dire droit
Menetrey, Séverine UL

in Journal des Tribunaux (2021)

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See detailPost-growth perspectives in Economic Geography
Schulz, Christian UL; Braun, Boris

in Die Erde (2021), 152(4), 213-217

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See detailNormalization as a mediator of emotion during unemployment
Houssemand, Claude UL; Rosato, Valeria; Thill, Steve et al

in Anxiety, Stress and Coping (2021)

Meta-analyses indicated detrimental effects on some psychological dimensions from job loss and extended periods of unemployment. This study analyses three phenomena: causes attributed to unemployment ... [more ▼]

Meta-analyses indicated detrimental effects on some psychological dimensions from job loss and extended periods of unemployment. This study analyses three phenomena: causes attributed to unemployment; processes for coping with unemployment; and the emotional impact of joblessness. Using an SEM approach, a model is created in which unemployment normalization acts as a mediator between locus of control and emotions. Method: questionnaires from 260 unemployed people in Luxembourg provided data on perceived control, coping, and emotions. Participants who attribute their situation to bad luck, believe more strongly that unemployment is due to external factors beyond their control, and recognize unemployment as being a common occurrence in life. Such cognitive attribution of unemployment has effects on job seekers’ emotions. Those who perceive unemployment in a more positive light experience more positive emotions and fewer negative affects. Negative perceptions of unemployment have no effect on the generation of positive emotion, but have an influence on negative affects. Finally, the influence of perceived-control on emotion is not direct, but is mediated by processes of unemployment normalization. Understanding how unemployed people perceive and experience their situations could help them be more effective in their search for new employment [less ▲]

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See detailThermalization Induced by Quantum Scattering
Jacob, Samuel L.; Esposito, Massimiliano UL; Parrondo, Juan M. R. et al

in PRX Quantum (2021), 2

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See detailBook review: Saintetés politiques du IXe au XVIIIe siècle: Autour de la Lotharingie-Dorsale catholique
Dubuisson, Bastien UL

in Moyen Age: Revue d'Histoire et de Philologie (2021), 127(1),

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See detailJérôme Denis, Le Travail invisible des données. Éléments pour une sociologie des infrastructures scripturales Paris, Presses des Mines, 2018, 206 pages
Schafer, Valerie UL

in Questions de Communication (2021), 38

Recension de Jérôme Denis, Le Travail invisible des données. Éléments pour une sociologie des infrastructures scripturales, Paris, Presses des Mines, 2018, 206 pages

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See detailArticle 47 of the Charter in the Opinion procedure
Neframi, Eleftheria UL

in European Papers (2021)

This paper affirms that external relations are outside the scope of Article 47 of the Charter. This does not however mean that the principle of judicial protection and the right of access to an ... [more ▼]

This paper affirms that external relations are outside the scope of Article 47 of the Charter. This does not however mean that the principle of judicial protection and the right of access to an independent tribunal have only an internal EU law dimension. In Opinion 1/17, The Court of Justice could assess the CETA’s compatibility with the right of access to an independent tribunal without having recourse to Article 47 of the Charter, on the ground either of the principle of autonomy or of the compatibility with the substantive provisions of the common commercial policy. This paper argues that while judicial protection as part of the autonomy claim could meet some conceptual limits, promoting judicial protection as part of the common commercial policy could reinforce the perception that the Union is a credible and influential actor in international trade and in international procedural law. [less ▲]

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See detailEfficient Algorithms for Constant-Modulus Analog Beamforming
Arora, Aakash UL; Tsinos, Christos; Mysore Rama Rao, Bhavani Shankar UL et al

in IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing (2021)

The use of a large-scale antenna array (LSAA) has become an important characteristic of multi-antenna communication systems to achieve beamforming gains. For example, in millimeter wave (mmWave) systems ... [more ▼]

The use of a large-scale antenna array (LSAA) has become an important characteristic of multi-antenna communication systems to achieve beamforming gains. For example, in millimeter wave (mmWave) systems, an LSAA is employed at the transmitter/receiver end to combat severe propagation losses. In such applications, each antenna element has to be driven by a radio frequency (RF) chain for the implementation of fully-digital beamformers. This strict requirement significantly increases the hardware cost, complexity, and power consumption. Therefore, constant-modulus analog beamforming (CMAB) becomes a viable solution. In this paper, we consider the scaled analog beamforming (SAB) or CMAB architecture and design the system parameters by solving the beampattern matching problem. We consider two beampattern matching problems. In the first case, both the magnitude and phase of the beampattern are matched to the given desired beampattern whereas in the second case, only the magnitude of the beampattern is matched. Both the beampattern matching problems are cast as a variant of the constant-modulus least-squares problem. We provide efficient algorithms based on the alternating majorization-minimization (AMM) framework that combines the alternating minimization and the MM frameworks and the conventional-cyclic coordinate descent (C-CCD) framework to solve the problem in each case. We also propose algorithms based on a new modified-CCD (M-CCD) based approach. For all the developed algorithms we prove convergence to a Karush-Kuhn-Tucker (KKT) point (or a stationary point). Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed algorithms converge faster than state-of-the-art solutions. Among all the algorithms, the M-CCD-based algorithms have faster convergence when evaluated in terms of the number of iterations and the AMM-based algorithms offer lower complexity. [less ▲]

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See detailCross-border vocational training as processes of cross-border learning
Funk, Ines; Nienaber, Birte UL; Dörrenbächer, H. Peter

in Europa Regional (2021), 26(4), 17-30

In recent years cross-border vocational educational training (VET) in cross-border regions has gained more and more importance. The overall research question is how regional learning processes are shaped ... [more ▼]

In recent years cross-border vocational educational training (VET) in cross-border regions has gained more and more importance. The overall research question is how regional learning processes are shaped by bilateral cross-border formal learning agreements in a border region. Therefore, we build our own model of regional learning in border regions on WELLBROCK et al. (2012) following an integrated conceptual perspective and focusing on the actor’s perspective. The development of this transboundary VET by a variety of actors can be considered to form an intra- und interregional learning process. The interpretation of the structures regarding the conceptual findings reveals that the learning processes in the Saarland-Lorraine border region are dynamic and depend on key actors with expert knowledge as well as advantageous regional characteristics. [less ▲]

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See detailThe EU’s Future of Data-Driven Finance
Zetzsche, Dirk Andreas UL; Buckley, Ross; Arner, Douglas et al

in Common Market Law Review (2021)

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See detailDoA Estimation Using Low-Resolution Multi-BitSparse Array Measurements
Sedighi, Saeid UL; Mysore Rama Rao, Bhavani Shankar UL; Soltanalian, Mojtaba et al

in IEEE Signal Processing Letters (2021)

This letter studies the problem of Direction of Arrival (DoA) estimation from low-resolution few-bit quantized data collected by Sparse Linear Array (SLA). In such cases, contrary to the one-bit ... [more ▼]

This letter studies the problem of Direction of Arrival (DoA) estimation from low-resolution few-bit quantized data collected by Sparse Linear Array (SLA). In such cases, contrary to the one-bit quantization case, the well known arcsine law cannot be employed to estimate the covaraince matrix of unquantized array data. Instead, we develop a novel optimization-based framework for retrieving the covaraince matrix of unquantized array data from low-resolution few-bit measurements. The MUSIC algorithm is then applied to an augmented version of the recovered covariance matrix to find the source DoAs. The simulation results show that increasing the sampling resolution to $2$ or $4$ bits per samples could significantly increase the DoA estimation performance compared to the one-bit sampling regime while the power consumption and implementation costs is still much lower in comparison to the high-resolution sampling implementations. [less ▲]

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See detailDer grenzüberschreitende Arbeitsmarkt der Großregion- Der Einfluss der COVID-19-Pandemie
Pigeron-Piroth, Isabelle UL; Funk, Ines; Nienaber, Birte UL et al

in Informationen zur Raumentwicklung (2021), (2), 74-85

This article analyzes the impact of the COVID19 pandemic related border closures on the cross-border labour market and vocational and educational training in the Greater region SaarLorLux.

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See detailCOVID19 Disease Map, a computational knowledge repository of virus-host interaction mechanisms.
Ostaszewski, Marek UL; Niarakis, Anna; Mazein, Alexander UL et al

in Molecular systems biology (2021), 17(10), 10387

We need to effectively combine the knowledge from surging literature with complex datasets to propose mechanistic models of SARS-CoV-2 infection, improving data interpretation and predicting key targets ... [more ▼]

We need to effectively combine the knowledge from surging literature with complex datasets to propose mechanistic models of SARS-CoV-2 infection, improving data interpretation and predicting key targets of intervention. Here, we describe a large-scale community effort to build an open access, interoperable and computable repository of COVID-19 molecular mechanisms. The COVID-19 Disease Map (C19DMap) is a graphical, interactive representation of disease-relevant molecular mechanisms linking many knowledge sources. Notably, it is a computational resource for graph-based analyses and disease modelling. To this end, we established a framework of tools, platforms and guidelines necessary for a multifaceted community of biocurators, domain experts, bioinformaticians and computational biologists. The diagrams of the C19DMap, curated from the literature, are integrated with relevant interaction and text mining databases. We demonstrate the application of network analysis and modelling approaches by concrete examples to highlight new testable hypotheses. This framework helps to find signatures of SARS-CoV-2 predisposition, treatment response or prioritisation of drug candidates. Such an approach may help deal with new waves of COVID-19 or similar pandemics in the long-term perspective. [less ▲]

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See detailLocalization Performance of 1-Bit Passive Radars in NB-IoT Applications using Multivariate Polynomial Optimization
Sedighi, Saeid UL; Mishra, Kumar Vijay; Mysore Rama Rao, Bhavani Shankar UL et al

in IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing (2021), 69

Several Internet-of-Things (IoT) applications provide location-based services, wherein it is critical to obtain accurate position estimates by aggregating information from individual sensors. In the ... [more ▼]

Several Internet-of-Things (IoT) applications provide location-based services, wherein it is critical to obtain accurate position estimates by aggregating information from individual sensors. In the recently proposed narrowband IoT (NB-IoT) standard, which trades off bandwidth to gain wide coverage, the location estimation is compounded by the low sampling rate receivers and limited-capacity links. We address both of these NB-IoT drawbacks in the framework of passive sensing devices that receive signals from the target-of-interest. We consider the limiting case where each node receiver employs one-bit analog-to-digital-converters and propose a novel low-complexity nodal delay estimation method using constrained-weighted least squares minimization. To support the low-capacity links to the fusion center (FC), the range estimates obtained at individual sensors are then converted to one-bit data. At the FC, we propose target localization with the aggregated one-bit range vector using both optimal and sub-optimal techniques. The computationally expensive former approach is based on Lasserre's method for multivariate polynomial optimization while the latter employs our less complex iterative joint r\textit{an}ge-\textit{tar}get location \textit{es}timation (ANTARES) algorithm. Our overall one-bit framework not only complements the low NB-IoT bandwidth but also supports the design goal of inexpensive NB-IoT location sensing. Numerical experiments demonstrate feasibility of the proposed one-bit approach with a 0.6\% increase in the normalized localization error for the small set of 20-60 nodes over the full-precision case. When the number of nodes is sufficiently large (>80), the one-bit methods yield the same performance as the full precision. [less ▲]

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See detailStreet name changes as language and identity inscription in the cityscape
Tan, Peter K.; Purschke, Christoph UL

in Linguistics Vanguard (2021), 7(s5), 1-13

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See detailA New Anti-Expertise Dilemma
Raleigh, Thomas UL

in Synthese (2021), 199

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See detailDynamical SPQEIR model assesses the effectiveness of non-pharmaceutical interventions against COVID-19 epidemic outbreaks.
Proverbio, Daniele UL; Kemp, Francoise UL; Magni, Stefano UL et al

in PloS one (2021), 16(5), 0252019

Against the current COVID-19 pandemic, governments worldwide have devised a variety of non-pharmaceutical interventions to mitigate it. However, it is generally difficult to estimate the joint impact of ... [more ▼]

Against the current COVID-19 pandemic, governments worldwide have devised a variety of non-pharmaceutical interventions to mitigate it. However, it is generally difficult to estimate the joint impact of different control strategies. In this paper, we tackle this question with an extended epidemic SEIR model, informed by a socio-political classification of different interventions. First, we inquire the conceptual effect of mitigation parameters on the infection curve. Then, we illustrate the potential of our model to reproduce and explain empirical data from a number of countries, to perform cross-country comparisons. This gives information on the best synergies of interventions to control epidemic outbreaks while minimising impact on socio-economic needs. For instance, our results suggest that, while rapid and strong lockdown is an effective pandemic mitigation measure, a combination of social distancing and early contact tracing can achieve similar mitigation synergistically, while keeping lower isolation rates. This quantitative understanding can support the establishment of mid- and long-term interventions, to prepare containment strategies against further outbreaks. This paper also provides an online tool that allows researchers and decision makers to interactively simulate diverse scenarios with our model. [less ▲]

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See detailCultural representation in Luxembourgish street naming practices
Purschke, Christoph UL

in Linguistics Vanguard (2021), 7(s5), 111

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See detailA First Look at Android Applications in Google Play related to Covid-19
Samhi, Jordan UL; Allix, Kevin UL; Bissyande, Tegawendé François D Assise UL et al

in Empirical Software Engineering (2021)

Due to the convenience of access-on-demand to information and business solutions, mobile apps have become an important asset in the digital world. In the context of the Covid-19 pandemic, app developers ... [more ▼]

Due to the convenience of access-on-demand to information and business solutions, mobile apps have become an important asset in the digital world. In the context of the Covid-19 pandemic, app developers have joined the response effort in various ways by releasing apps that target different user bases (e.g., all citizens or journalists), offer different services (e.g., location tracking or diagnostic-aid), provide generic or specialized information, etc. While many apps have raised some concerns by spreading misinformation or even malware, the literature does not yet provide a clear landscape of the different apps that were developed. In this study, we focus on the Android ecosystem and investigate Covid-related Android apps. In a best-effort scenario, we attempt to systematically identify all relevant apps and study their characteristics with the objective to provide a First taxonomy of Covid related apps, broadening the relevance beyond the implementation of contact tracing. Overall, our study yields a number of empirical insights that contribute to enlarge the knowledge on Covid-related apps: (1) Developer communities contributed rapidly to the Covid-19, with dedicated apps released as early as January 2020; (2) Covid-related apps deliver digital tools to users (e.g., health diaries), serve to broadcast information to users (e.g., spread statistics), and collect data from users (e.g., for tracing); (3) Covid-related apps are less complex than standard apps; (4) they generally do not seem to leak sensitive data; (5) in the majority of cases, Covid-related apps are released by entities with past experience on the market, mostly official government entities or public health organizations. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment and Validation of the Revised Multicultural Ideology Scale in Germany and Luxembourg
Stogianni, Maria UL; Berry, John; Grigoryev, Dmitry et al

in Psychological Reports (2021)

A revised version of the Multicultural Ideology Scale (rMCI; Berry 2020; Berry et al., 1977) is currently being developed to measure endorsement of multiculturalism in different cultural contexts. The ... [more ▼]

A revised version of the Multicultural Ideology Scale (rMCI; Berry 2020; Berry et al., 1977) is currently being developed to measure endorsement of multiculturalism in different cultural contexts. The current study, which is part of this cross-cultural research project, presents the first assessment of the rMCI scale in the German language. The measure aims to cover several attitudinal dimensions of multiculturalism, relevant to the integration of different ethnocultural groups: Cultural Maintenance, Equity/Inclusion, Social interaction, Essentialistic Boundaries, Extent of Differences, and Consequences of Diversity. Two independent datasets were acquired from Germany (N = 382) and Luxembourg (N = 148) to estimate the factor structure of the rMCI using different confirmatory factor analysis techniques. The findings suggest that a 4-factor solution, including Cultural Maintenance, Equity/Inclusion, Social interaction, and Consequences of Diversity, was the best fit for the data. Most of these subscales demonstrated adequate psychometric properties (internal consistency, convergent, and discriminant validity). The 4-factor model of the rMCI was partially invariant across the two ethnic groups and full measurement invariance was established across gender. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterizing autonomous Maxwell demons
Freitas, Nahuel; Esposito, Massimiliano UL

in Physical Review. E. (2021), 103(3), 032118

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See detailKummer theory for number fields via entanglement groups
Perucca, Antonella UL; Sgobba, Pietro UL; Tronto, Sebastiano UL

in Manuscripta Mathematica (2021)

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See detailWhat You See is What it Means! Semantic Representation Learning of Code based on Visualization
Keller, Patrick UL; Kabore, Abdoul Kader UL; Plein, Laura et al

in ACM Transactions on Software Engineering and Methodology (2021)

Recent successes in training word embeddings for NLP tasks have encouraged a wave of research on representation learning for sourcecode, which builds on similar NLP methods. The overall objective is then ... [more ▼]

Recent successes in training word embeddings for NLP tasks have encouraged a wave of research on representation learning for sourcecode, which builds on similar NLP methods. The overall objective is then to produce code embeddings that capture the maximumof program semantics. State-of-the-art approaches invariably rely on a syntactic representation (i.e., raw lexical tokens, abstractsyntax trees, or intermediate representation tokens) to generate embeddings, which are criticized in the literature as non-robustor non-generalizable. In this work, we investigate a novel embedding approach based on the intuition that source code has visualpatterns of semantics. We further use these patterns to address the outstanding challenge of identifying semantic code clones. Wepropose theWySiWiM(“What You See Is What It Means”) approach where visual representations of source code are fed into powerfulpre-trained image classification neural networks from the field of computer vision to benefit from the practical advantages of transferlearning. We evaluate the proposed embedding approach on the task of vulnerable code prediction in source code and on two variationsof the task of semantic code clone identification: code clone detection (a binary classification problem), and code classification (amulti-classification problem). We show with experiments on the BigCloneBench (Java), Open Judge (C) that although simple, ourWySiWiMapproach performs as effectively as state of the art approaches such as ASTNN or TBCNN. We also showed with datafrom NVD and SARD thatWySiWiMrepresentation can be used to learn a vulnerable code detector with reasonable performance(accuracy∼90%). We further explore the influence of different steps in our approach, such as the choice of visual representations or theclassification algorithm, to eventually discuss the promises and limitations of this research direction. [less ▲]

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See detailKulturen des Reparierens und die Lebensdauer der Dinge (Teil 2)
Krebs, Stefan UL; Schabacher, Gabriele; Weber, Heike

in TU: Zeitschrift für Technik im Unterricht (2021), 46(3), 5-13

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See detailRenewable electricity business models in a post feed-in tariff era
Rövekamp, Patrick; Schöpf, Michael; Wagon, Felix et al

in Energy (2021), 216

To expand intermittent renewable electricity sources (RESs), worldwide energy policy makers have introduced fixed feed-in tariffs (FITs). However, FITs typically expire after a limited time period. Due to ... [more ▼]

To expand intermittent renewable electricity sources (RESs), worldwide energy policy makers have introduced fixed feed-in tariffs (FITs). However, FITs typically expire after a limited time period. Due to the intermittent electricity supply of RES, market distortions, and insufficient flexibility options, exclusive participation in wholesale electricity markets might not be a viable business model for RES that no longer receive a FIT. Thus, it remains unclear which RES business models (RBMs) ensure a viable operation of RES in the post FIT era. To close this research gap, we present a typology encompassing five RBM archetypes: wholesale electricity market (1), physical power purchase agreements (2), nonphysical power purchase agreements (3), self-consumption (4), and on-site power-2-X (5). The typology includes three additional service layers, which may enhance the profitability of RBM archetypes by opening up additional revenue streams: infrastructure services (1), electricity storage services (2), and ancillary services (3). We highlight the need for new approaches to quantify the viability of RBM archetypes and services layers under different regulatory, technological, and market conditions. To prevent the imminent decommissioning of existing RESs, policy makers must shape the next era of the energy transition, weighting the implications of market-based and intervention-based energy policy approaches. [less ▲]

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See detailContribution fiscale des entreprises au Mali : étude sur données individuelles
Bertinelli, Luisito UL; Bourgain, Arnaud UL; Diamouténé, Abdoul Karim

in Mondes en Développement (2021), 195(3), 75-94

This paper analyzes the tax burden borne by a large number of Malian companies (3,474) representing the totality of the formal sector of this country. By exploiting individual firm data collected from ... [more ▼]

This paper analyzes the tax burden borne by a large number of Malian companies (3,474) representing the totality of the formal sector of this country. By exploiting individual firm data collected from financial statements and balance sheets, we highlight the determinants of effective tax rates, such as firms’ size, industry, location, and other corporate attributes. We show that larger firms do benefit from lower effective tax rates, and this result is robust to various proxies of size and is even reinforced for profit-making firms. [less ▲]

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See detailLe recours collectif luxembourgeois à l’épreuve du droit européen
Menetrey, Séverine UL

in Annales du Droit Luxembourgeois (2021)

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See detailAI in Finance – Putting the Human-in-the-Loop
Zetzsche, Dirk Andreas UL; Arner; Buckley et al

in Sydney Law Review (2021)

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See detailPINK1 deficiency impairs adult neurogenesis of dopaminergic neurons
Brown, Sarah J; Boussaad, Ibrahim UL; Jarazo, Javier UL et al

in Scientific Reports (2021)

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See detailMolecular ruler mechanism and interfacial catalysis of the integral membrane acyltransferase PatA
Anso, Itxaso; Basso, Luis G. M.; Wang, Lei et al

in Science Advances (2021), 7(42),

Glycolipids are prominent components of bacterial membranes that play critical roles not only in maintaining the structural integrity of the cell but also in modulating host-pathogen interactions. PatA is ... [more ▼]

Glycolipids are prominent components of bacterial membranes that play critical roles not only in maintaining the structural integrity of the cell but also in modulating host-pathogen interactions. PatA is an essential acyltransferase involved in the biosynthesis of phosphatidyl-myo-inositol mannosides (PIMs), key structural elements and virulence factors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We demonstrate by electron spin resonance spectroscopy and surface plasmon resonance that PatA is an integral membrane acyltransferase tightly anchored to anionic lipid bilayers, using a two-helix structural motif and electrostatic interactions. PatA dictates the acyl chain composition of the glycolipid by using an acyl chain selectivity “ruler.” We established this by a combination of structural biology, enzymatic activity, and binding measurements on chemically synthesized nonhydrolyzable acyl–coenzyme A (CoA) derivatives. We propose an interfacial catalytic mechanism that allows PatA to acylate hydrophobic PIMs anchored in the inner membrane of mycobacteria, through the use of water-soluble acyl-CoA donors. [less ▲]

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See detailKilling Stubborn Mutants with Symbolic Execution
Titcheu Chekam, Thierry UL; Papadakis, Mike UL; Cordy, Maxime UL et al

in ACM Transactions on Software Engineering and Methodology (2021), 30(2), 191--1923

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See detailEffective Link Prediction with Topological and Temporal Information using Wavelet Neural Network Embedding
Mo, Xian; Pang, Jun UL; Liu, Zhiming

in Computer Journal (2021), 64(3), 325-336

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See detailThe mainstreaming of EU affairs: a challenge for parliamentary administrations
Högenauer, Anna-Lena UL

in Journal of Legislative Studies (2021)

Past research has identified a trend towards the bureaucratisation of the parliamentary scrutiny of EU affairs. It highlighted the role of parliamentary staff in selecting relevant issues, advising on ... [more ▼]

Past research has identified a trend towards the bureaucratisation of the parliamentary scrutiny of EU affairs. It highlighted the role of parliamentary staff in selecting relevant issues, advising on subsidiarity and procedures and drafting of opinions and resolutions. However, while administrators clearly play a role, less is known about the Europeanisation of parliamentary administrations. In particular, the impact of the growing Europeanisation of sectoral committees on the Europeanisation of staff is unexplored. This article presents data from a survey of parliamentary administrations in 2021, which shows that the Europeanisation of parliamentary administrations extends beyond the main units in charge of EU affairs and affects sectoral committee staff more generally. At the same time, it reveals that the organisation of staff support for EU affairs varies greatly across the national parliaments depending on the organisation of the political scrutiny, on administrative capacity and on pre-existing units. [less ▲]

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See detailReturn migration and self-employment: is there a 'jack-of-all-trades' effect?
Mahe, Clotilde UL

in Oxford Economic Papers (2021)

With reference to Lazear’s jack-of-all-trades hypothesis, I examine whether migrants are more likely to be self-employed upon return because of the diverse work experience they gained abroad. The ... [more ▼]

With reference to Lazear’s jack-of-all-trades hypothesis, I examine whether migrants are more likely to be self-employed upon return because of the diverse work experience they gained abroad. The endogeneity between migration, human capital investment, and self-employment is addressed by exploiting exogenous cohort and regional variation in the decision to migrate in the context of Egypt, and parental labour market information. Return migrants’ higher propensity to be self-employed is shown to proceed from participating in significantly more occupations over their work history than non-migrants. In line with Lazear’s framework, estimates confirm that entrepreneurship can be learnt, and that exposure to multiple occupations matters for entrepreneurship. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Geostationary Ring: Practice and Law, Martha Mejia-Kaiser, Nijhoff/ Brill, Leiden 2020
Hofmann, Mahulena UL; Blount, Percy UL

in Air and Space Law (2021), 46(3), 475-478

The book is a comprehensive analysis of the international regime of the geostationary orbit.

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See detailBücherschau
Steveker, Lena UL; Laqué, Stephan

in Shakekespeare Jahrbuch (2021), 157

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See detailAlgorithm based on 2‐bit adaptive delta modulation and fractional linear prediction for Gaussian source coding
Peric, Zoran; Denic, Bojan; Despotovic, Vladimir UL

in IET Signal Processing (2021), 15(6), 410-423

A novel 2-bit adaptive delta modulation (ADM) algorithm is presented based on uniform scalar quantization and fractional linear prediction (FLP) for encoding the signals modelled by a Gaussian probability ... [more ▼]

A novel 2-bit adaptive delta modulation (ADM) algorithm is presented based on uniform scalar quantization and fractional linear prediction (FLP) for encoding the signals modelled by a Gaussian probability density function. The study focusses on two major areas: realization of a 2-bit adaptive quantizer based on Q-function approximation that significantly facilitates quantizer design; and implementation of a recently introduced FLP approach with the memory of two samples, which replaces the first-order linear prediction used in standard ADM algorithms and enables improved performance without increasing transmission costs. It furthermore represents the first implementation of FLP in signal encoding, therefore confirming its applicability in a real signal-processing scenario. Based on the performance analysis conducted on a real speech signal, the proposed ADM algorithm with FLP is demonstrated to outperform other 2-bit ADM baselines by a large margin for the gain in signal-to-noise ratio achieved over a wide dynamic range of input signals. The results of this research indicate that ADM with adaptive quantization based on Q-function approximation and adaptive FLP represents a promising solution for encoding/compression of correlated time-varying signals following the Gaussian distribution. [less ▲]

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See detailLinear response in large deviations theory: a method to compute non-equilibrium distributions
Freitas, Nahuel; Falasco, Gianmaria UL; Esposito, Massimiliano UL

in New J. Phys. (2021), 23(9), 093003

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See detailRadio Frequency Interference Detection Using Nonnegative Matrix Factorization
Silva, Felipe B.; Cetin, Ediz; Alves Martins, Wallace UL

in IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems (2021)

This work proposes a new pre-correlation interference detection technique based on nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) for global navigation satellite system (GNSS) signals. The proposed technique uses ... [more ▼]

This work proposes a new pre-correlation interference detection technique based on nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) for global navigation satellite system (GNSS) signals. The proposed technique uses NMF to extract the time and frequency properties of the received signal from its spectrogram. The estimated spectral shape is then compared with the spectrogram’s time slices by means of a similarity function to detect the presence of radio frequency interference (RFI). In the presence of RFI, the NMF estimated spectral shape tends to be well-defined, resulting in high similarity levels. In contrast, in the absence of RFI, the received signal is solely comprised of noise and GNSS signals resulting in a noise like spectral shape estimate, leading to considerably reduced similarity levels. The proposal exploits this different similarity levels to detect the presence of interference. Simulation results indicate that the proposed technique yields increased detection capability with low false alarm rate even in low jammer-to-noise ratio environments for both narrow and wideband interference sources without requiring fine-tuning of parameters for specific RFI types. In addition, the proposal has reduced computational complexity, when compared with an existing statistical-based detector. [less ▲]

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See detailBringing representatives back in. How political parties moderate patterns of inequality in opinion representation
Lesschaeve, Christophe UL

in European Political Science (2021)

Democratic theory argues that individuals should have their policy preferences equally represented in politics. Research on opinion congruence has often found, however, that political parties’ views are ... [more ▼]

Democratic theory argues that individuals should have their policy preferences equally represented in politics. Research on opinion congruence has often found, however, that political parties’ views are more likely to align with those of higher-income and higher educated citizens. We argue that this conclusion does not account for heterogeneity among parties. Based on an integrated dataset containing the positions of over 1,700 Belgian citizens and 11 Belgian parties on over 120 policy statements, we examine how opinion congruence inequality between privileged and underprivileged people varies between parties. We find that left-wing parties align more with underprivileged citizens than they do with privileged citizens on economic issues, while the opposite holds for right-wing parties. On cultural issues, however, both left- and right-wing parties better represent the preferences of privileged people. The exception is the radical right party Vlaams Belang, which on the cultural dimensions better represents the views of underprivileged voters. [less ▲]

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See detailA gravity analysis of refugee mobility using mobile phone data
Beine, Michel UL; Bertinelli, Luisito UL; Cömertpay, Rana UL et al

in Journal of Development Economics (2021)

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See detailHarmonic amplitude summation for frequency-tagging analysis
Retter, Talia UL; Rossion, Bruno; Schiltz, Christine UL

in Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience (2021)

In the approach of frequency tagging, stimuli that are presented periodically generate periodic responses of the brain. Following a transformation into the frequency domain, the brain’s response is often ... [more ▼]

In the approach of frequency tagging, stimuli that are presented periodically generate periodic responses of the brain. Following a transformation into the frequency domain, the brain’s response is often evident at the frequency of stimulation, F, and its higher harmonics (2F, 3F, etc.). This approach is increasingly used in neuroscience, as it affords objective measures to characterize brain function. However, whether these specific harmonic frequency responses should be combined for analysis, and if so, how, remains an outstanding issue. In most studies, higher harmonic responses have not been described or were described only individually; in other studies, harmonics have been combined with various approaches, e.g., averaging and root mean squared summation. A rationale for these approaches in the context of frequency-based analysis principles, and understanding of how they relate to the brain’s response amplitudes in the time domain, has been missing. Here, with these elements addressed, the summation of (baseline-corrected) harmonic amplitude is recommended. [less ▲]

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See detailA competitive Predator–Prey approach to enhance surveillance by UAV swarms
Stolfi, Daniel H.; Brust, Matthias R. UL; Danoy, Grégoire UL et al

in Applied Soft Computing (2021), 111

In this paper we present the competitive optimisation of a swarm of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) protecting a restricted area from a number of intruders following a Predator–Prey approach. We propose a ... [more ▼]

In this paper we present the competitive optimisation of a swarm of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) protecting a restricted area from a number of intruders following a Predator–Prey approach. We propose a Competitive Coevolutionary Genetic Algorithm (CompCGA) which optimises the parameters of the UAVs (i.e. predators) to maximise the detection of intruders, while the parameters of the intruders (i.e. preys) are optimised to maximise their intrusion success rate. Having chosen the CACOC (Chaotic Ant Colony Optimisation for Coverage) as the base mobility model for the UAVs, we propose an improved new version, where its behaviour is modified by identifying and optimising new parameters to improve the overall success rate when detecting intruders. Six case studies have been optimised using simulations by performing 30 independent runs (180 in total) of our CompCGA. Finally, we conducted a series of master tournaments (1,800,000 evaluations) using the best specimens obtained from each run and case study to test the robustness of our proposed approach against unexpected intruders. Our surveillance system improved the average percentage of intruders detected with respect to CACOC by a maximum of 126%. More than 90% of intruders were detected on average when using a swarm of 16 UAVs while CACOC’s detection rates are always under 80% in all cases. [less ▲]

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See detailTest Selection for Deep Learning Systems
Ma, Wei UL; Papadakis, Mike UL; Tsakmalis, Anestis et al

in ACM Transactions on Software Engineering and Methodology (2021), 30(2), 131--1322

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See detailHistory of Medicine: European perspectives
Majerus, Benoît UL

in European Journal for the History of Medicine and Health (2021), 78(1), 5--14

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See detailSociétés civiles, associations et autres groupements
Hiez, David UL

in Revue Trimestrielle de Droit Commercial et de Droit Economique (2021), 1

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See detailCONSOLE: intruder detection using a UAV swarm and security rings
Stolfi, Daniel H.; Brust, Matthias R. UL; Danoy, Grégoire UL et al

in Swarm Intell. (2021), 15(3), 205--235

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See detailPrecoding with Received-Interference Power Control for Multibeam Satellite Communication Systems
Lagunas, Eva UL; Perez-Neira, Ana Isabel; Martinez, Marc et al

in Frontiers in Space Technologies (2021)

Zero-Forcing (ZF) and Regularized Zero-Forcing (RZF) precoding are low-complexity sub-optimal solutions widely accepted in the satellite communications community to mitigate the resulting co-channel ... [more ▼]

Zero-Forcing (ZF) and Regularized Zero-Forcing (RZF) precoding are low-complexity sub-optimal solutions widely accepted in the satellite communications community to mitigate the resulting co-channel interference caused by aggressive frequency reuse. However, both are sensitive to the conditioning of the channel matrix, which can greatly reduce the achievable gains. This paper brings the attention to the benefits of a design that allows some residual received interference power at the co-channel users. The motivation behind this approach is to relax the dependence on the matrix inversion procedure involved in conventional precoding schemes. In particular, the proposed scheme aims to be less sensitive to the user scheduling, which is one of the key limiting factors for the practical implementation of precoding. Furthermore, the proposed technique can also cope with more users than satellite beams. In fact, the proposed precoder can be tuned to control the interference towards the co-channel beams, which is a desirable feature that is not met by the existing RZF solutions. The design is formulated as a non-convex optimization and we study various algorithms in order to obtain a practical solution. Supporting results based on numerical simulations show that the proposed precoding implementations are able to outperform the conventional ZF and RZF schemes. [less ▲]

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See detailChanges in prevalence of cognitive impairment and associated risk factors 2000–2015 in São Paulo, Brazil
Ribeiro, Fabiana UL; Duarte, Yeda Aparecida de Oliveira; Santos, Jair Lício Ferreira et al

in BMC Geriatrics (2021)

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See detailEfficient Preamble Detection and Time-of-Arrival Estimation for Single-Tone Frequency Hopping Random Access in NB-IoT
Chougrani, Houcine UL; Kisseleff, Steven UL; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL

in IEEE Internet of Things Journal (2021), 8(9), 7437-7449

The narrowband internet of things (NB-IoT) standard is a new cellular wireless technology, which has been introduced by the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) with the goal to connect massive low ... [more ▼]

The narrowband internet of things (NB-IoT) standard is a new cellular wireless technology, which has been introduced by the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) with the goal to connect massive low-cost, low-complexity and long-life IoT devices with extended coverage. In order to improve power efficiency, 3GPP proposed a new Random Access (RA) waveform for NB-IoT based on a single-tone frequencyhopping scheme. RA handles the first connection between user equipments (UEs) and the base station (BS). Through this, UEs can be identified and synchronized with the BS. In this context, receiver methods for the detection of the new waveform should satisfy the requirements on the successful user detection as well as the timing synchronization accuracy. This is not a trivial task, especially in the presence of radio impairments like carrier frequency offset (CFO) which constitutes one of the main radio impairments besides the noise. In order to tackle this problem, we propose a new receiver method for NB-IoT Physical Random Access Channel (NPRACH). The method is designed to eliminate perfectly the CFO without any additional computational complexity and supports all NPRACH preamble formats. The associated performance has been evaluated under 3GPP conditions. We observe a very high performance compared both to 3GPP requirements and to the existing state-of-the-art methods in terms of detection accuracy and complexity. [less ▲]

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See detailMagnetic control of particle trapping in a hybrid plasmonic nanopore
Maccaferri, Nicolò UL; Vavassori, Paolo; Garoli, Denis

in Applied Physics Letters (2021), 118

Plasmonic nanopores are extensively investigated as single molecules detectors. The main limitations in plasmonic nanopore technology are the too fast translocation velocity of the molecule through the ... [more ▼]

Plasmonic nanopores are extensively investigated as single molecules detectors. The main limitations in plasmonic nanopore technology are the too fast translocation velocity of the molecule through the pore and the consequent very short analysis times, as well as the possible instabilities due to local heating. An interesting approach to enable longer acquisition times is represented by the ability to stably trap the nanoparticles used to tag molecules close to the nanopore. Here, we theoretically investigate the performance of a magneto-plasmonic nanopore prepared with a thin layer of cobalt sandwiched between two gold layers. A nanopore is then coupled with a bifunctional (magnetic and plasmonic) core–shell nanoparticle made of magnetite (core) covered with a thin layer of gold (shell). By setting the magnetic configuration of the cobalt layer around the pore by an external magnetic field, it is possible to generate a nanoscale magnetic tweezer to trap the nanoparticle at a specific point. Considering a ∼10 nm diameter magnetite nanoparticle, we calculate a trapping force up to 28 pN, an order of magnitude above the force that can be obtained with standard optical or plasmonic trapping approaches. Moreover, the magnetic force pulls the nanoparticle in close contact with the plasmonic nanopore's wall, thus enabling the formation of a nanocavity enclosing a sub-10 nm3 confined electromagnetic field with an average field intensity enhancement up to 230 at near-infrared wavelengths. The presented hybrid magneto-plasmonic system points toward a strategy to improve nanopore-based biosensors for single-molecule detection and potentially for the analysis of various biomolecules. [less ▲]

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See detailDigitalisierung im Kontext von COVID-19
Andersen, Katja Natalie UL

in KiTa aktuell HRS - Fachzeitschrift für Leitungen, Fachkräfte und Träger der Kindertagesbetreuung (2021), 29(4), 85

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See detailPerceived Ageism During the Covid-19-Crisis is Longitudinally Related to Subjective Perceptions of Aging
Kornadt, Anna Elena UL; Albert, Isabelle UL; Hoffmann, Martine et al

in Frontiers in Public Health (2021)

Ageism in media and society has increased sharply during the Covid-19-crisis, with expected negative consequences for the health and well-being of older adults. The current study investigates whether ... [more ▼]

Ageism in media and society has increased sharply during the Covid-19-crisis, with expected negative consequences for the health and well-being of older adults. The current study investigates whether perceived ageism during the crisis longitudinally affects how people perceive their own aging. In June 2020, N = 611 older adults from Luxembourg [aged 60 – 98 years, Mage(SD) = 69.92(6.97)] participated in a survey on their perception of the crisis. In October 2020, N = 523 participated in a second measurement occasion. Participants reported on perceived ageism during the crisis in different domains, their self-perceptions of aging and subjective age. In latent longitudinal regression models, we predicted views on aging at T2 with perceived ageism at T1, while controlling for baseline views on aging and covariates. Perceived ageism at T1 increased self-perceptions of aging as social loss and yielded a trend for physical decline, while there were no effects on subjective age and self-perceptions of aging as continued growth. Views on aging are powerful predictors of well-being and health outcomes in later life. Our data suggest that being the target of ageism during the crisis negatively affects older adults’ self-perceptions of aging and this impact may be felt beyond the current crisis. [less ▲]

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