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See detailMolecular basis for higher affinity of SARS-CoV-2 spike RBD for human ACE2 receptor
Julián M. Delgado; Nalvi Duro; David M. Rogers et al

in Wiley (2021)

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See detailFrictional interactions for non-localised beam-to-beam and beam-inside-beam contact
Magliulo, Marco; Lengiewicz, Jakub UL; Zilian, Andreas UL et al

in International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering (2021), 122(7), 1706-1731

This contribution presents the extensions of beam-to-beam and beam-inside-beam contact schemes of the same authors towards frictional interactions. Since the schemes are based on the beams’ true surfaces ... [more ▼]

This contribution presents the extensions of beam-to-beam and beam-inside-beam contact schemes of the same authors towards frictional interactions. Since the schemes are based on the beams’ true surfaces (instead of surfaces implicitly deduced from the beams’ centroid lines), the presented enhancements are not only able to account for frictional sliding in the beams’ axial directions, but also in the circumferential directions. Both the frictional beam-to-beam approach as well as the frictional beam-inside-beam approach are applicable to shear-deformable and shear-undeformable beams, as well as to beams with both circular and elliptical cross-sections (although the cross-sections must be rigid). A penalty formulation is used to treat unilateral and frictional contact constraints. FE implementation details are discussed, where automatic differentiation techniques are used to derive the implementations. Simulations involving large sliding displacements and large deformations are presented for both beam-to-beam and beam-inside-beam schemes. All simulation results are compared to those of the frictionless schemes. [less ▲]

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See detailPerceived loneliness and the role of cultural and intergenerational belonging: the case of Portuguese first‑generation immigrants in Luxembourg
Albert, Isabelle UL

in European Journal of Ageing (2021)

The risk of loneliness for migrants, particularly in older age, has been documented across multiple studies. Migration is a life-changing transition. While often retaining links to their country of origin ... [more ▼]

The risk of loneliness for migrants, particularly in older age, has been documented across multiple studies. Migration is a life-changing transition. While often retaining links to their country of origin, an important developmental task for migrants is the establishment of bonds in the receiving country. Drawing on recent studies, I will explore the role of cultural and intergenerational belonging in order to identify both protective and risk factors regarding loneliness in middle and older age in a sample of first-generation immigrants from Portugal living in Luxembourg. The sample comprises N = 131 participants (51.9% female) between the ages of 41 and 80 (M = 56.08; SD = 7.80) who have on average spent M = 31.71 years (SD = 8.81) in Luxembourg and raised children in Luxembourg. They took part in the IRMA project (‘Intergenerational Relations in the Light of Migration and Ageing’) which was funded by the Fonds National de la Recherche Luxembourg. A standardised questionnaire assessed socio-demographic data, aspects of cultural belonging (i.e. cultural attachment to both countries, bicultural identity orientation, acculturative stress), intergenerational belonging (i.e. family cohesion, family conflict, perceived intergenerational value consensus) and perceived loneliness. Results showed that while cultural and intergenerational belonging were protective factors, the strongest predictors for participants’ perceived loneliness were cultural identity conflict and, even more so, intergenerational conflict. Our findings suggest that establishing roots and bonds in the host country is a protective factor against loneliness, whereas the feeling of not fitting in is a strong risk factor. [less ▲]

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See detailAdaptive Waveform Design for Automotive Joint Radar-Communication Systems
Dokhanchi, Sayed Hossein; Mysore Rama Rao, Bhavani Shankar UL; Alaeekerahroodi, Mohammad UL et al

in IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology (2021), 70(5), 4273-4290

Unified waveform design for automotive joint radar-communications (JRC) leverages the scarce spectrum efficiently and has become a key topic for investigation of late. Designing such a waveform ... [more ▼]

Unified waveform design for automotive joint radar-communications (JRC) leverages the scarce spectrum efficiently and has become a key topic for investigation of late. Designing such a waveform necessitates meeting the requirements of both systems, thereby making it a challenging task. The contribution of this paper is to formulate the JRC design problem into an optimization problem and propose an algorithm to maximize the signal-to-clutter-plus-noise-ratio (SCNR) of radar system and signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) at communicating vehicle, simultaneously. Central to this are the exploitation of the communication link to acquire environment/ channel information and enhance radar tasks, flexibility to impart trade-off between the two systems during design as well the formulation of the optimization problem to include sidelobe constraints and yield solutions robust to Doppler shifts. The designed waveforms exhibit enhanced radar performance in terms of probability of detection and communication performance in terms of bit error rate (BER), while taking into account the trade-off between two systems. The numerical simulations corroborate the claim of optimized performance with environment/ channel information, ease of effecting trade-off and the use of design flexibility. [less ▲]

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See detailDifferent concepts for creating antibacterial yet biocompatible surfaces: adding bactericidal element, grafting therapeutic agent through COOH plasma polymer and their combination
Permyakova, Elizaveta S.; Manakhov, Anton M.; Kiryukhantsev-Korneev, Philipp V. et al

in Applied Surface Science (2021)

Antibacterial coatings have become a rapidly developing field of research, strongly stimulated by the increasing urgency of identifying alternatives to the traditional administration of antibiotics. Such ... [more ▼]

Antibacterial coatings have become a rapidly developing field of research, strongly stimulated by the increasing urgency of identifying alternatives to the traditional administration of antibiotics. Such coatings can be deposited onto implants and other medical devices and prevent the inflammations caused by hospital-acquired infections. Nevertheless, the design of antibacterial yet biocompatible and bioactive surfaces is a challenge that biological community has faced for many years but the “materials of dream” have not yet been developed. In this work, the biocompatible yet antibacterial multi-layered films were prepared by a combination of magnetron sputtering (TiCaPCON film), ion implantation (Ag-doped TiCaPCON film), plasma polymerization (COOH layer), and final immobilization of gentamicin (GM) and heparin (Hepa) molecules. The layer chemistry was thoroughly investigated by means of FTIR and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies. It was found that the immobilization of therapeutic components occurs throughout the entire thickness of the plasma-deposited COOH layer. The influence of each type of bactericide (Ag+ ions, GM, and Hepa) on antibacterial activity and cell proliferation was analyzed. Our films were cytocompatible and demonstrated superior bactericidal efficiency toward antibiotic-resistant bacterial E. coli K261 strain. Increased toxicity while using the combination of Ag nanoparticles and COOH plasma polymer is discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailNF-κB and TNF Affect the Astrocytic Differentiation from Neural Stem Cells
Grandbarbe, Luc UL; Michelucci, Alessandro UL; Heuschling, Paul UL et al

in Cells (2021)

The NF-κB signaling pathway is crucial during development and inflammatory processes. We have previously shown that NF-κB activation induces dedifferentiation of astrocytes into neural progenitor cells ... [more ▼]

The NF-κB signaling pathway is crucial during development and inflammatory processes. We have previously shown that NF-κB activation induces dedifferentiation of astrocytes into neural progenitor cells (NPCs). Here, we provide evidence  that the NF-κB pathway plays also a fundamental role during the differentiation of NPCs into astrocytes. First, we show that the NF-κB pathway is essential to initiate astrocytic differentiation as its early inhibition induces NPC apoptosis and impedes their differentiation. Second, we demonstrate that persistent NF-κB activation affects NPC-derived astrocyte differentiation. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-treated NPCs show NF-κB activation, maintain their multipotential and proliferation properties, display persistent expression of immature markers and inhibit astrocyte markers. Third, we analyze the effect of  NF-κB activation on the main known astrocytic differentiation pathways, such as NOTCH and JAK-STAT. Our findings suggest that the NF-κB pathway plays a dual fundamental role during NPC differentiation into astrocytes: it promotes astrocyte specification, but its persistent activation impedes their differentiation. [less ▲]

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See detailActor‑critic learning‑based energy optimization for UAV access and backhaul networks
Yuan, Yaxiong UL; Lei, Lei UL; Vu, Thang Xuan UL et al

in EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking (2021)

In unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)-assisted networks, UAV acts as an aerial base station which acquires the requested data via backhaul link and then serves ground users (GUs) through an access network. In ... [more ▼]

In unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)-assisted networks, UAV acts as an aerial base station which acquires the requested data via backhaul link and then serves ground users (GUs) through an access network. In this paper, we investigate an energy minimization problem with a limited power supply for both backhaul and access links. The difficul- ties for solving such a non-convex and combinatorial problem lie at the high compu- tational complexity/time. In solution development, we consider the approaches from both actor-critic deep reinforcement learning (AC-DRL) and optimization perspectives. First, two offline non-learning algorithms, i.e., an optimal and a heuristic algorithms, based on piecewise linear approximation and relaxation are developed as benchmarks. Second, toward real-time decision-making, we improve the conventional AC-DRL and propose two learning schemes: AC-based user group scheduling and backhaul power allocation (ACGP), and joint AC-based user group scheduling and optimization-based backhaul power allocation (ACGOP). Numerical results show that the computation time of both ACGP and ACGOP is reduced tenfold to hundredfold compared to the offline approaches, and ACGOP is better than ACGP in energy savings. The results also verify the superiority of proposed learning solutions in terms of guaranteeing the feasibility and minimizing the system energy compared to the conventional AC-DRL. [less ▲]

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See detailA Discrete Element Framework for Modeling the Mechanical Behaviour of Snow PART II: Model Validation
Peters, Bernhard UL; Kabore, Brice Wendlassida UL; Mark, Michael et al

in Granular Matter (2021), 23(2), 43

A micro-scale modelling approach of snow based on the extension of the classical discrete element method (DEM) has been presented in the first part of this study. This modelling approach is employed to ... [more ▼]

A micro-scale modelling approach of snow based on the extension of the classical discrete element method (DEM) has been presented in the first part of this study. This modelling approach is employed to predict the mechanical response of snow under compression dependent on strain rate, initial density and temperature. Results obtained under a variety of conditions are validated with experimental data for both micro- and macro-scale, in particular the broad range between ductile i.e.~low deformation rates and brittle i.e.~high deformation rates regimes are investigated. For this purpose snow is assumed to be composed of ice grains that are inter-connected by a network of bonds between neighbouring grains. This arrangement represents the micro-scale of which the interaction is described by inter-granular collision and bonding. Hence, the response on a macro-scale is largely determined by inter-granular collisions and deformation and failure of bonds during a loading cycle. Consequently, validation was first carried out on micro-scale deformations at different loading rates and temperatures. Hereafter, macro-scale simulations of confined and unconfined, deformation-controlled compression tests have been predicted and were successfully compared to experimental data reported in literature. [less ▲]

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See detailA Discrete Element Framework for Modeling the Mechanical Behaviour of Snow PART I: Mechanical Behaviour and Numerical Model
Kabore, Brice Wendlassida UL; Peters, Bernhard UL; Michael, Mark et al

in Granular Matter (2021), 23(2), 42

A framework for investigating the mechanics of snow is proposed based on an advanced micro-scale approach. Varying strain rates, densities and temperatures are taken into account. Natural hazards i.e ... [more ▼]

A framework for investigating the mechanics of snow is proposed based on an advanced micro-scale approach. Varying strain rates, densities and temperatures are taken into account. Natural hazards i.e. snow avalanches are triggered by snow deforming at low rates, while a large group of industrial applications concerning driving safety or winter sport activities require an understanding of snow behaviour under high deformation rates. On the micro-scale, snow is considered to consist of ice grains joined by ice bonds to build a porous structure. Deformation and failure of bonds and the inter-granular collisions of ice grains determine the macroscopic response under mechanical load. Therefore, this study proposes an inter-granular bond and collision model for snow based on the discrete element method (DEM) to describe interaction on a grain-scale. It aims at predicting the mechanical behaviour of ice particles under different strain rates using a unified approach. Thus, the proposed algorithm predicts the displacement of each individual grains due to inter-granular forces and torques that derive from bond deformation and grain collision. For this purpose, the inter-granular characteristics are approximated by an elastic viscous-plastic material law which is based on the temperature-dependent properties of poly-crystalline ice Ih. [less ▲]

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See detailD'ÉROS À AGAPÉ : LE CANTIQUE DES CANTIQUES, PHÈDRE DE JEAN RACINE ET PARTAGE DE MIDI DE PAUL CLAUDEL
Deregnoncourt, Marine UL

in Théâtres du Monde (2021), 31(2021), 175-187

Cet article s’intéresse à trois œuvres qu’à priori tout oppose : Le Cantique des Cantiques, Phèdre de Jean Racine et Partage de midi de Paul Claudel. À l’instar des protagonistes du Cantique des Cantiques ... [more ▼]

Cet article s’intéresse à trois œuvres qu’à priori tout oppose : Le Cantique des Cantiques, Phèdre de Jean Racine et Partage de midi de Paul Claudel. À l’instar des protagonistes du Cantique des Cantiques, Hippolyte et Aricie (Phèdre de Jean Racine) et Mesa et Ysé (Partage de midi de Paul Claudel) sont des êtres qui vivent un amour initiatique. Ils n’ont de cesse de se fuir et de se (re) chercher. C’est la nostalgie d’Éros et d’Agapé. En tant que drame du désir, de l’amour et de l’altérité intrinsèque à l’humanité et en tant que texte biblique axé sur l’amour et la prière, Le Cantique des Cantiques fait l’objet de nombreuses relectures et de commentaires divers et variés. La problématique à laquelle se consacre cet article est : « comment et pourquoi pouvons-nous considérer Hippolyte et Aricie dans Phèdre de Jean Racine et Mesa et Ysé dans Partage de midi de Paul Claudel comme étant des figures archétypales modernes du Cantique des Cantiques ? ». Pour tenter de répondre à cette problématique, cinq critères vont nous guider tout au long de notre étude : le lyrisme formel, un espace ouvert et fermé, la présence et l’absence, la féminité et le sacré. [less ▲]

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See detailPhèdre de Jean Racine et Partage de midi de Paul Claudel : Un théâtre poétique, entre présence et absence (entre voix parlée et silence musical)
Deregnoncourt, Marine UL

in Théâtres du Monde (2021), 31(2021), 187-197

La problématique de cet article, divisé en trois parties, peut se formuler comme suit : « Comment, entre présence et absence, la voix parlée alterne-t-elle avec le silence musical dans Phèdre de Jean ... [more ▼]

La problématique de cet article, divisé en trois parties, peut se formuler comme suit : « Comment, entre présence et absence, la voix parlée alterne-t-elle avec le silence musical dans Phèdre de Jean Racine et Partage de midi de Paul Claudel ? ». La première partie de cette étude constitue un versant théorique. Nous tenterons de cerner ce qu’il faut précisément entendre par « théâtre poétique ». Nous nous axerons ensuite plus particulièrement sur le corpus théâtral choisi, à savoir Phèdre de Jean Racine et Partage de midi de Paul Claudel. Les présupposés théoriques préalablement définis dans la première partie vont nous permettre d’aborder, dans une deuxième partie, Phèdre de Jean Racine et Partage de midi de Paul Claudel pour tenter d’y déceler une alternance spécifique entre la voix et le silence et tenter de démontrer ainsi que ces deux pièces de théâtre se construisent comme un opéra syllabé, à défaut d’être chanté. La frontière et la lisière entre la voix et le silence sont donc, au sein de ce corpus, extrêmement poreuses. Quant à notre troisième partie, elle envisage plus spécifiquement la voix et le silence comme des concepts opératoires pour mener une réflexion méta-poétique sur le théâtre. [less ▲]

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See detailElectrical Control over Phonon Polarization in Strained Graphene
Sonntag, Jens; Reichardt, Sven UL; Beschoten, Bernd et al

in Nano Letters (2021), 21(7), 2898--2904

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See detailLocating Faults with Program Slicing: An Empirical Analysis
Soremekun, Ezekiel UL; Kirschner, Lukas; Böhme, Marcel et al

in Empirical Software Engineering (2021), 26(3), 1-45

Statistical fault localization is an easily deployed technique for quickly determining candidates for faulty code locations. If a human programmer has to search the fault beyond the top candidate ... [more ▼]

Statistical fault localization is an easily deployed technique for quickly determining candidates for faulty code locations. If a human programmer has to search the fault beyond the top candidate locations, though, more traditional techniques of following dependencies along dynamic slices may be better suited. In a large study of 457 bugs (369 single faults and 88 multiple faults) in 46 open source C programs, we compare the effectiveness of statistical fault localization against dynamic slicing. For single faults, we find that dynamic slicing was eight percentage points more effective than the best performing statistical debugging formula; for 66% of the bugs, dynamic slicing finds the fault earlier than the best performing statistical debugging formula. In our evaluation, dynamic slicing is more effective for programs with single fault, but statistical debugging performs better on multiple faults. Best results, however, are obtained by a hybrid approach: If programmers first examine at most the top five most suspicious locations from statistical debugging, and then switch to dynamic slices, on average, they will need to examine 15% (30 lines) of the code. These findings hold for 18 most effective statistical debugging formulas and our results are independent of the number of faults (i.e. single or multiple faults) and error type (i.e. artificial or real errors). [less ▲]

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See detailVoice for Health: The Use of Vocal Biomarkers from Research to Clinical Practice
Fagherazzi, Guy UL; Fischer, Aurelie; Ismael, Muhannad et al

in Digital Biomarkers (2021), 5(1), 78-88

Diseases can affect organs such as the heart, lungs, brain, muscles, or vocal folds, which can then alter an individual’s voice. Therefore, voice analysis using artificial intelligence opens new ... [more ▼]

Diseases can affect organs such as the heart, lungs, brain, muscles, or vocal folds, which can then alter an individual’s voice. Therefore, voice analysis using artificial intelligence opens new opportunities for healthcare. From using vocal biomarkers for diagnosis, risk prediction, and remote monitoring of various clinical outcomes and symptoms, we offer in this review an overview of the various applications of voice for health-related purposes. We discuss the potential of this rapidly evolving environment from a research, patient, and clinical perspective. We also discuss the key challenges to overcome in the near future for a substantial and efficient use of voice in healthcare. [less ▲]

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See detailQuasicircles and width of Jordan curves in CP1
bonsante, francesco; danciger, jeffrey; maloni, sara et al

in Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society (2021), 53(2), 507--523

We study a notion of "width" for Jordan curves in CP1, paying special attention to the class of quasicircles. The width of a Jordan curve is defined in terms of the geometry of its convex hull in ... [more ▼]

We study a notion of "width" for Jordan curves in CP1, paying special attention to the class of quasicircles. The width of a Jordan curve is defined in terms of the geometry of its convex hull in hyperbolic three-space. A similar invariant in the setting of anti de Sitter geometry was used by Bonsante-Schlenker to characterize quasicircles amongst a larger class of Jordan curves in the boundary of anti de Sitter space. By contrast to the AdS setting, we show that there are Jordan curves of bounded width which fail to be quasicircles. However, we show that Jordan curves with small width are quasicircles. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessments of working memory: a tool for differentiating between language disorder and language difference in multilingual contexts?
Wealer, Cyril UL; Engel de Abreu, Pascale UL

in ANAE: Approche Neuropsychologique des Apprentissages chez l'Enfant (2021), 33(171), 194-204

Diagnosing language disorders in bilingual children represents a clini- cal challenge because of similarities in the language proficiency profile between typically developing bilingual children and ... [more ▼]

Diagnosing language disorders in bilingual children represents a clini- cal challenge because of similarities in the language proficiency profile between typically developing bilingual children and monolingual chil- dren with a language disorder. Measures of working memory are less dependent on accumulated knowledge than traditional language tests and might help to differentiate a language disorder from a language dif- ference related to experiences with a language. [less ▲]

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See detailChronique de droit des marchés financiers
Conac, Pierre-Henri UL

in Revue des Sociétés (2021)

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See detailCanonical representations of fingers and dots trigger an automatic activation of number semantics: an EEG study on 10-year-old children
Marlair, Cathy; Lochy, Aliette UL; Buyle, Margot et al

in Neuropsychologia (2021)

Over the course of development, children must learn to map a non-symbolic representation of magnitude to a more precise symbolic system. There is solid evidence that finger and dot representations can ... [more ▼]

Over the course of development, children must learn to map a non-symbolic representation of magnitude to a more precise symbolic system. There is solid evidence that finger and dot representations can facilitate or even predict the acquisition of this mapping skill. While several behavioral studies demonstrated that canonical representations of fingers and dots automatically activate number semantics, no study so far has investigated their cerebral basis. To examine these questions, 10-year-old children were presented a behavioral naming task and a Fast Periodic Visual Stimulation EEG paradigm. In the behavioral task, children had to name as fast and as accurately as possible the numbers of dots and fingers presented in canonical and non-canonical configurations. In the EEG experiment, one category of stimuli (e.g., canonical representation of fingers or dots) was periodically inserted (1/5) in streams of another category (e.g., non-canonical representation of fingers or dots) presented at a fast rate (4 Hz). Results demonstrated an automatic access to number semantics and bilateral categorical responses at 4 Hz/5 for canonical representations of fingers and dots. Some differences between finger and dot configuration’s processing were nevertheless observed and are discussed in light of an effortful-automatic continuum hypothesis. [less ▲]

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See detailInspecting the Mechanism of Quantitative Easing in the Euro Area
Koijen, Ralph; Koulischer, François UL; Benoît, Nguyen et al

in Journal of Financial Economics (2021)

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See detailThe Balance Between Security, Privacy and Data Protection in IoT Data Sharing: a Critique to Traditional "Security&Privacy" Surveys
Chiara, Pier Giorgio UL

in European Data Protection Law Review (2021), 7(1), 18-30

The paper examines the normative challenges of the Internet of Things (IoT), in particular, taking into account today’s debate on privacy, data protection, and security issues brought about by IoT. Three ... [more ▼]

The paper examines the normative challenges of the Internet of Things (IoT), in particular, taking into account today’s debate on privacy, data protection, and security issues brought about by IoT. Three different layers of complexity are under scrutiny. They regard (i) moral and political theories on the concept of ‘security’; (ii) whether and to what extent information security technologies, in the context of IoT, may affect fundamental rights, such as privacy and data protection; and, (iii) new legal challenges for individual and group privacy and data protection. The overall aim of the paper is, on the one hand, to stress basic differences between privacy and data protection and why the distinction matters vis-à-vis the flow of information and data sharing on IoT. On the other hand, the intent is to stress the different meanings security has in this context, since the word is often used interchangeably to address information security, cybersecurity, or safety issues. We should take these distinctions firm, when striking balances between privacy, data protection, and ‘security’ on IoT. [less ▲]

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See detailGP2: The Global Parkinson's Genetics Program
Krüger, Rejko UL; The Global Parkinson's Genetics Program, ; The Global Parkinson's Genetics Program,

in Movement Disorders (2021), 36(4), 842-851

To facilitate the rapid expansion of our understanding of the genetic architecture of PD, both in terms of the depth and global context of this knowledge, we have created the Global Parkinson's Genetics ... [more ▼]

To facilitate the rapid expansion of our understanding of the genetic architecture of PD, both in terms of the depth and global context of this knowledge, we have created the Global Parkinson's Genetics Program (GP2; www.gp2.org). GP2 is the first supported resource project of the Aligning Science Across Parkinson's (ASAP) initiative, an audacious effort supporting PD research.9 GP2 is geared toward creating a worldwide collaborative effort that will first dramatically accelerate the identification of genetic contributors to disease and second establish a network of researchers who can best leverage this understanding to research, diagnose, and treat PD worldwide. Here we describe our mission, the path we have proposed to achieve this, and the core principles of data democratization, transparency, and diversity. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Sources of Financing Constraints
Steri, Roberto UL; Nikolov, B.; Schmid, L.

in Journal of Financial Economics (2021)

In order to identify the relevant sources of firms' financing constraints, we ask what financial frictions matter for corporate policies. To that end, we build, solve, and estimate a range of dynamic ... [more ▼]

In order to identify the relevant sources of firms' financing constraints, we ask what financial frictions matter for corporate policies. To that end, we build, solve, and estimate a range of dynamic models of corporate investment and financing, embedding a host of financial frictions. We focus on limited enforcement, moral hazard, and trade-off models. All models share a common technology, but differ in the friction generating financing constraints. Using panel data on Compustat firms for the period 1980-2015 and a more recent dataset on private firms from Orbis, we determine which features of the observed data allow to distinguish among the models, and we assess which model or model combination performs best at rationalizing observed corporate investment and financing policies across various samples. Our tests, based on empirical policy function benchmarks, favor trade-off models for larger Compustat firms, limited commitment models for smaller firms, and moral hazard models for private firms. Our estimates point to significant financing constraints due to agency frictions and highlight the importance of identifying their relevant sources for firm valuation. [less ▲]

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See detailFaceless Evil in Popular Culture. Introduction
Thiltges, Sébastian UL; Kohns, Oliver UL

in Cultural Express (2021), (6),

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See detailÉvaluation de la mémoire de travail : un outil de différenciation entre trouble du langage et différence du langage dans des contextes multilingues ?
Wealer, Cyril UL; Engel de Abreu, Pascale UL

in ANAE: Approche Neuropsychologique des Apprentissages chez l'Enfant (2021), 33(171), 194-204

Diagnostiquer les troubles du langage chez les enfants bilingues repré- sente un défi clinique en raison des similitudes dans le profil de compé- tence linguistique entre les enfants bilingues au ... [more ▼]

Diagnostiquer les troubles du langage chez les enfants bilingues repré- sente un défi clinique en raison des similitudes dans le profil de compé- tence linguistique entre les enfants bilingues au développement typique et les enfants monolingues avec un trouble du langage. Les mesures de la mémoire de travail dépendent moins des connaissances accumulées que les tests de langage traditionnels et pourraient contribuer à différen- cier un trouble du langage d’une différence de langage liée aux expé- riences avec une langue. [less ▲]

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See detailGeographical Stratification of Green Urban Areas
Picard, Pierre M UL; Tran, Thi Thu Huyen UL

in Journal of Economic Geography (2021)

This article studies the provision of urban green areas in cities where residents have preferences for the size of and access to those areas. At the optimum, the number of urban green spaces is a ... [more ▼]

This article studies the provision of urban green areas in cities where residents have preferences for the size of and access to those areas. At the optimum, the number of urban green spaces is a nonmonotone function of distance to the city center, while the sizes and distances to other urban green areas increase as one moves to the urban fringe. This article empirically investigates those properties for the 300 largest European cities by using the Global Monitoring Environment Services Urban Atlas database (European Environmental Agency). The empirical analysis confirms the nonmonotone relationship between the number of urban green spaces and the distance to the city center. The distance between two parks also increases as one moves toward the urban fringe. [less ▲]

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See detailCooperative energy management of multi-energy hub systems considering demand response programs and ice storage
Bahmani, Ramin UL; Karimi, Hamid; Jadid, Shahram

in International Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems (2021)

Energy hub systems integrate various energy sources and interconnect different energy carriers in order to enhance the flexibility of the system. In this paper, a cooperative framework is proposed in ... [more ▼]

Energy hub systems integrate various energy sources and interconnect different energy carriers in order to enhance the flexibility of the system. In this paper, a cooperative framework is proposed in which a network of energy hubs collaborate together and share their resources in order to reduce their costs. Each hub has several sources including CHP, boiler, renewable sources, electrical chiller, and absorption chiller. Moreover, energy storages are considered for electrical, heating, and cooling systems in order to increase the flexibility of energy hubs. Unlike the methods based on Nash-equilibrium points, which find the equilibrium point and have no guarantee for optimality of the solution, the employed cooperative method finds the optimal solution for the problem. We utilize the Shapley value to allocate the overall gain of the hub’s coalition based on the contribution and efficiency of the energy hubs. The proposed method is modeled as a mixed integer linear programming problem, and the cost of network energy hubs are decreased in the cooperative operation, which shows the efficiency of this model. The results show 18.89, 10.23, and 8.72% improvement for hub1, hub2, and hub3, respectively, by using the fair revenue mechanism. [less ▲]

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See detailThe role of flexibility in the light of the COVID-19 pandemic and beyond: Contributing to a sustainable and resilient energy future in Europe
Heffron, Raphael J.; Körner, Marc-Fabian; Schoepf, Michael UL et al

in Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews (2021), 140

The energy sector provides fuel for much of everyday life, particularly economically and socially. Fighting against the COVID-19 pandemic, a well-functioning and resilient energy sector is vital for ... [more ▼]

The energy sector provides fuel for much of everyday life, particularly economically and socially. Fighting against the COVID-19 pandemic, a well-functioning and resilient energy sector is vital for maintaining the operation of critical infrastructures, including, most importantly, the health sector, and timely economic recovery. Notwithstanding its importance in everyday life and crises, the energy sector itself is currently in a complex and far-reaching transformation to combat climate change whilst supporting the transition to a low-carbon economy and society, mainly through the development of variable renewable energy sources (RES) such as wind and solar photovoltaics. This paper highlights the need for energy resilience as countries face the triple challenge of the COVID-19 health crisis, the consequent economic crisis, and the climate crisis. Focusing on Europe, it is advanced here that with the ability to balance fluctuating electricity generation and demand, flexibility allows the energy sector to utilise low-carbon RES reliably, ensuring a more resilient and sustainable energy future. This paper derives five urgent policy recommendations for Europe that address possible impacts of COVID-19 on the economic and societal prerequisites for flexibility in energy systems. [less ▲]

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See detailUniversal Hall conductance scaling in non-Hermitian Chern insulators
Groenendijk, Solofo; Schmidt, Thomas UL; Meng, Tobias

in Physical Review Research (2021)

We investigate the Hall conductance of a two-dimensional Chern insulator coupled to an environment causing gain and loss. Introducing a biorthogonal linear response theory, we show that sufficiently ... [more ▼]

We investigate the Hall conductance of a two-dimensional Chern insulator coupled to an environment causing gain and loss. Introducing a biorthogonal linear response theory, we show that sufficiently strong gain and loss lead to a characteristic nonanalytical contribution to the Hall conductance. Near its onset, this contribution exhibits a universal power law with a power 3/2 as a function of Dirac mass, chemical potential, and gain strength. Our results pave the way for the study of non-Hermitian topology in fermionic transport experiments. [less ▲]

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See detailSignal-Based Properties of Cyber-Physical Systems: Taxonomy and Logic-based Characterization
Boufaied, Chaima UL; Jukss, Maris; Bianculli, Domenico UL et al

in Journal of Systems and Software (2021), 174

The behavior of a cyber-physical system (CPS) is usually defined in terms of the input and output signals processed by sensors and actuators. Requirements specifications of CPSs are typically expressed ... [more ▼]

The behavior of a cyber-physical system (CPS) is usually defined in terms of the input and output signals processed by sensors and actuators. Requirements specifications of CPSs are typically expressed using signal-based temporal properties. Expressing such requirements is challenging, because of (1) the many features that can be used to characterize a signal behavior; (2) the broad variation in expressiveness of the specification languages (i.e., temporal logics) used for defining signal-based temporal properties. Thus, system and software engineers need effective guidance on selecting appropriate signal behavior types and an adequate specification language, based on the type of requirements they have to define. In this paper, we present a taxonomy of the various types of signal-based properties and provide, for each type, a comprehensive and detailed description as well as a formalization in a temporal logic. Furthermore, we review the expressiveness of state-of-the-art signal-based temporal logics in terms of the property types identified in the taxonomy. Moreover, we report on the application of our taxonomy to classify the requirements specifications of an industrial case study in the aerospace domain, in order to assess the feasibility of using the property types included in our taxonomy and the completeness of the latter. [less ▲]

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See detailShortcuts to Squeezed Thermal States
Dupays, Léonce UL; Chenu, Aurélia UL

in Quantum (2021)

Squeezed state in harmonic systems can be generated through a variety of techniques, including varying the oscillator frequency or using nonlinear two-photon Raman interaction. We focus on these two ... [more ▼]

Squeezed state in harmonic systems can be generated through a variety of techniques, including varying the oscillator frequency or using nonlinear two-photon Raman interaction. We focus on these two techniques to drive an initial thermal state into a final squeezed thermal state with controlled squeezing parameters—amplitude and phase—in arbitrary time. The protocols are designed through reverse engineering for both unitary and open dynamics. Control of the dissipation is achieved using stochastic processes, readily implementable via, e.g., continuous quantum measurements. Importantly, this allows controlling the state entropy and can be used for fast thermalization. The developed protocols are thus suited to generate squeezed thermal states at controlled temperature in arbitrary time. [less ▲]

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See detailTowards the assessment of realistic hybrid precoding in millimeter wave MIMO systems with hardware impairments
Papazafeiropoulos, Anastasios K; Papageorgiou, Georgios K; Kolawole, Oluwatayo Y et al

in IET Communications (2021), 15(12), 1606-1619

Hybrid processing in millimeter wave (mmWave) communication has been proposed as a solution to reduce the cost and energy consumption by reducing the number of radio-frequency (RF) chains. However, the ... [more ▼]

Hybrid processing in millimeter wave (mmWave) communication has been proposed as a solution to reduce the cost and energy consumption by reducing the number of radio-frequency (RF) chains. However, the impact of the inevitable residual transceiver hardware impairments (RTHIs), including the residual additive transceiver hardware impairments (RATHIs) and the amplified thermal noise (ATN), has not been sufficiently studied in mmWave hybrid processing. In this work, the hybrid precoder and combiner are designed, which include both digital and analog processing by taking into account the RATHIs and the ATN. In particular, a thorough study is provided to shed light on the degradation of the spectral efficiency (SE) of the practical system. The outcomes show the steady degradation of the performance by the ATN across all SNR values, which becomes increasingly critical for higher values of its variance. Furthermore, it is shown that RATHIs result in degradation of the system only in the high SNR regime. Hence, their impact in mmWave system operating at low SNRs might be negligible. Moreover, an increase concerning the number of streams differentiates the impact between the transmit and receive RATHIs with the latter having a more severe effect. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the Secrecy Performance of NOMA-Based Integrated Satellite Multiple-Terrestrial Relay Networks With Hardware Impairments
Guo, Kefeng; An, Kang; Zhou, Feng et al

in IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology (2021), 70

Integrated satellite terrestrial networks and non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) have been confirmed to be promising and effective approaches to achieve substantial performance gains for future ... [more ▼]

Integrated satellite terrestrial networks and non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) have been confirmed to be promising and effective approaches to achieve substantial performance gains for future wireless paradigms. This paper studies the effect of hardware impairments (HIs) on the secrecy performance of NOMA-based integrated satellite multiple-terrestrial relay networks (ISMTRNs). Particularly, we consider two important wiretapping cases: Case I, colluding case: all eavesdroppers cooperatively overhear the information; and Case II, non-colluding case: one eavesdropper with the best wiretapping quality is chosen to overhear the main channel information. Specially, the closed-form expressions for the secrecy outage probability (SOP) of the considered NOMA-based ISMTRNs in the presence of the above two eavesdropping cases and partial relay selection scheme are obtained. To obtain further insights in high signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) regime, the asymptotic analysis of SOP with two considered cases are also derived, which give efficient means to evaluate the benefit of NOMA scheme and the impacts of HIs on the SOP. Moreover, we obtain Monte Carlo (MC) simulations for the secrecy energy efficiency (SEE). [less ▲]

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See detailBurden of rare variants in synaptic genes in patients with severe tinnitus: An exome based extreme phenotype study
Amanat, Sana; Gallego-Martinez, Alvaro; Sollini, Joseph et al

in EBioMedicine (2021), 66(103309),

Background: tinnitus is a heterogeneous condition associated with audio logical and/or mental disorders. Chronic, severe tinnitus is reported in 1% of the population and it shows a relevant heritability ... [more ▼]

Background: tinnitus is a heterogeneous condition associated with audio logical and/or mental disorders. Chronic, severe tinnitus is reported in 1% of the population and it shows a relevant heritability, according to twins, adoptees and familial aggregation studies. The genetic contribution to severe tinnitus is unknown since large genomic studies include individuals with self-reported tinnitus and large heterogeneity in the phenotype. The aim of this study was to identify genes for severe tinnitus in patients with extreme phenotype. Methods: for this extreme phenotype study, we used three different cohorts with European ancestry (Spanish with Meniere disease (MD), Swedish tinnitus and European generalized epilepsy). In addition, four independent control datasets were also used for comparisons. Whole-exome sequencing was performed for the MD and epilepsy cohorts and whole-genome sequencing was carried out in Swedish with tinnitus. Findings: we found an enrichment of rare missense variants in 24 synaptic genes in a Spanish cohort, the most significant being PRUNE2, AKAP9, SORBS1, ITGAX, ANK2, KIF20B and TSC2 (p < 2E−04), when they were compared with reference datasets. This burden was replicated for ANK2 gene in a Swedish cohort with 97 tinnitus individuals, and in a subset of 34 Swedish patients with severe tinnitus for ANK2, AKAP9 and TSC2 genes (p < 2E−02). However, these associations were not significant in a third cohort of 701 generalized epilepsy individuals without tinnitus. Gene ontology (GO) and gene-set enrichment analyses revealed several pathways and biological processes involved in severe tinnitus, including membrane trafficking and cytoskeletal protein binding in neurons. Interpretation: a burden of rare variants in ANK2, AKAP9 and TSC2 is associated with severe tinnitus. ANK2, encodes a cytoskeleton scaffolding protein that coordinates the assembly of several proteins, drives axonal branching and influences connectivity in neurons. [less ▲]

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See detailImmersive Robotic Telepresence for Remote Educational Scenarios
Botev, Jean UL; Rodríguez Lera, Francisco J.

in Sustainability (2021)

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See detailTowards global flood mapping onboard low cost satellites with machine learning
Mateo‑Garcia, Gonzalo; Veitch‑Michaelis, Joshua; Smith, Lewis et al

in Scientific Reports (2021), 11(7249 (2021)),

Spaceborne Earth observation is a key technology for flood response, offering valuable information to decision makers on the ground. Very large constellations of small, nano satellites— ’CubeSats’ are a ... [more ▼]

Spaceborne Earth observation is a key technology for flood response, offering valuable information to decision makers on the ground. Very large constellations of small, nano satellites— ’CubeSats’ are a promising solution to reduce revisit time in disaster areas from days to hours. However, data transmission to ground receivers is limited by constraints on power and bandwidth of CubeSats. Onboard processing offers a solution to decrease the amount of data to transmit by reducing large sensor images to smaller data products. The ESA’s recent PhiSat-1 mission aims to facilitate the demonstration of this concept, providing the hardware capability to perform onboard processing by including a power-constrained machine learning accelerator and the software to run custom applications. This work demonstrates a flood segmentation algorithm that produces flood masks to be transmitted instead of the raw images, while running efficiently on the accelerator aboard the PhiSat-1. Our models are trained on WorldFloods: a newly compiled dataset of 119 globally verified flooding events from disaster response organizations, which we make available in a common format. We test the system on independent locations, demonstrating that it produces fast and accurate segmentation masks on the hardware accelerator, acting as a proof of concept for this approach. [less ▲]

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See detailRevisiting the VCCFinder approach for the identification of vulnerability-contributing commits
Riom, Timothée UL; Sawadogo, Delwende Donald Arthur UL; Allix, Kevin UL et al

in Empirical Software Engineering (2021), 26

Detecting vulnerabilities in software is a constant race between development teams and potential attackers. While many static and dynamic approaches have focused on regularly analyzing the software in its ... [more ▼]

Detecting vulnerabilities in software is a constant race between development teams and potential attackers. While many static and dynamic approaches have focused on regularly analyzing the software in its entirety, a recent research direction has focused on the analysis of changes that are applied to the code. VCCFinder is a seminal approach in the literature that builds on machine learning to automatically detect whether an incoming commit will introduce some vulnerabilities. Given the influence of VCCFinder in the literature, we undertake an investigation into its performance as a state-of-the-art system. To that end, we propose to attempt a replication study on the VCCFinder supervised learning approach. The insights of our failure to replicate the results reported in the original publication informed the design of a new approach to identify vulnerability-contributing commits based on a semi-supervised learning technique with an alternate feature set. We provide all artefacts and a clear description of this approach as a new reproducible baseline for advancing research on machine learning-based identification of vulnerability-introducing commits [less ▲]

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See detailExtensional Higher-Order Paramodulation in Leo-III
Steen, Alexander UL; Benzmüller, Christoph UL

in Journal of Automated Reasoning (2021), 65

Leo-III is an automated theorem prover for extensional type theory with Henkin semantics and choice. Reasoning with primitive equality is enabled by adapting paramodulation-based proof search to higher ... [more ▼]

Leo-III is an automated theorem prover for extensional type theory with Henkin semantics and choice. Reasoning with primitive equality is enabled by adapting paramodulation-based proof search to higher-order logic. The prover may cooperate with multiple external specialist reasoning systems such as first-order provers and SMT solvers. Leo-III is compatible with the TPTP/TSTP framework for input formats, reporting results and proofs, and standardized communication between reasoning systems, enabling e.g. proof reconstruction from within proof assistants such as Isabelle/HOL. Leo-III supports reasoning in polymorphic first-order and higher-order logic, in all normal quantified modal logics, as well as in different deontic logics. Its development had initiated the ongoing extension of the TPTP infrastructure to reasoning within non-classical logics. [less ▲]

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See detailPersistence of birth mode-dependent effects on gut microbiome composition, immune system stimulation and antimicrobial resistance during the first year of life
Busi, Susheel Bhanu UL; de Nies, Laura UL; Habier, Janine UL et al

in ISME Communications (2021)

Caesarean section delivery (CSD) disrupts mother-to-neonate transmission of specific microbial strains and functional repertoires as well as linked immune system priming. Here we investigate whether ... [more ▼]

Caesarean section delivery (CSD) disrupts mother-to-neonate transmission of specific microbial strains and functional repertoires as well as linked immune system priming. Here we investigate whether differences in microbiome composition and impacts on host physiology persist at 1 year of age. We perform high-resolution, quantitative metagenomic analyses of the gut microbiomes of infants born by vaginal delivery (VD) or by CSD, from immediately after birth through to 1 year of life. Several microbial populations show distinct enrichments in CSD-born infants at 1 year of age including strains of Bacteroides caccae, Bifidobacterium bifidum and Ruminococcus gnavus, whereas others are present at higher levels in the VD group including Faecalibacterium prausnitizii, Bifidobacterium breve and Bifidobacterium kashiwanohense. The stimulation of healthy donor-derived primary human immune cells with LPS isolated from neonatal stool samples results in higher levels of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in the case of CSD extracts over time, compared to extracts from VD infants for which no such changes were observed during the first year of life. Functional analyses of the VD metagenomes at 1 year of age demonstrate a significant increase in the biosynthesis of the natural antibiotics, carbapenem and phenazine. Concurrently, we find antimicrobial resistance (AMR) genes against several classes of antibiotics in both VD and CSD. The abundance of AMR genes against synthetic (including semi-synthetic) agents such as phenicol, pleuromutilin and diaminopyrimidine are increased in CSD children at day 5 after birth. In addition, we find that mobile genetic elements, including phages, encode AMR genes such as glycopeptide, diaminopyrimidine and multidrug resistance genes. Our results demonstrate persistent effects at 1 year of life resulting from birth mode-dependent differences in earliest gut microbiome colonisation. [less ▲]

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See detailPanorama de droit de la consommation 2020
Poillot, Elise UL; Aubry, Hélène; Sauphanor, Natacha

in Recueil Dalloz (2021)

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See detailThe optional measures of deposit guarantee schemes: towards a new bank crisis management paradigm?
Bodellini, Marco UL

in European Journal of Legal Studies (2021)

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See detailReconfigurable Intelligent Surface Optimal Placement in Millimeter-Wave Networks
Ntontin, Konstantinos UL; Boulogeorgos, Alexandros-Apostolos A.; Selimis, Dimitrios et al

in IEEE Open Journal of the Communications Society (2021), 2

This work discusses the optimal reconfigurable intelligent surface placement in highly-directional millimeter wave links. In particular, we present a novel system model that takes into account the ... [more ▼]

This work discusses the optimal reconfigurable intelligent surface placement in highly-directional millimeter wave links. In particular, we present a novel system model that takes into account the relationship between the transmission beam footprint at the RIS plane and the RIS size. Subsequently, based on the model we derive the end-to-end expression of the received signal power and, furthermore, provide approximate closed-form expressions in the case that the RIS size is either much smaller or at least equal to the transmission beam footprint. Moreover, building upon the expressions, we derive the optimal RIS placement that maximizes the end-to-end signal-to-noise ratio. Finally, we substantiate the analytical findings by means of simulations, which reveal important trends regarding the optimal RIS placement according to the system parameters. [less ▲]

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See detailAn Automated Framework for the Extraction of Semantic Legal Metadata from Legal Texts
Sleimi, Amin UL; Sannier, Nicolas UL; Sabetzadeh, Mehrdad UL et al

in Empirical Software Engineering (2021), 26(3), 43

Semantic legal metadata provides information that helps with understanding and interpreting legal provisions. Such metadata is therefore important for the systematic analysis of legal requirements ... [more ▼]

Semantic legal metadata provides information that helps with understanding and interpreting legal provisions. Such metadata is therefore important for the systematic analysis of legal requirements. However, manually enhancing a large legal corpus with semantic metadata is prohibitively expensive. Our work is motivated by two observations: (1) the existing requirements engineering (RE) literature does not provide a harmonized view on the semantic metadata types that are useful for legal requirements analysis; (2) automated support for the extraction of semantic legal metadata is scarce, and it does not exploit the full potential of artificial intelligence technologies, notably natural language processing (NLP) and machine learning (ML). Our objective is to take steps toward overcoming these limitations. To do so, we review and reconcile the semantic legal metadata types proposed in the RE literature. Subsequently, we devise an automated extraction approach for the identified metadata types using NLP and ML. We evaluate our approach through two case studies over the Luxembourgish legislation. Our results indicate a high accuracy in the generation of metadata annotations. In particular, in the two case studies, we were able to obtain precision scores of 97,2% and 82,4%, and recall scores of 94,9% and 92,4%. [less ▲]

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See detailReplication of a Novel Parkinson's Locus in a European Ancestry Population
Grover, Sandeep; Kumar-Sreelatha, Ashwin Ashok; Bobbili, Dheeraj R. et al

in Movement Disorders (2021)

ABSTRACT Background A recently published East Asian genome-wide association study of Parkinson;s disease (PD) reported 2 novel risk loci, SV2C and WBSCR17. Objectives The objective of this study were to ... [more ▼]

ABSTRACT Background A recently published East Asian genome-wide association study of Parkinson;s disease (PD) reported 2 novel risk loci, SV2C and WBSCR17. Objectives The objective of this study were to determine whether recently reported novel SV2C and WBSCR17 loci contribute to the risk of developing PD in European and East Asian ancestry populations. Methods We report an association analysis of recently reported variants with PD in the COURAGE-PD cohort (9673 PD patients; 8465 controls) comprising individuals of European and East Asian ancestries. In addition, publicly available summary data (41,386 PD patients; 476,428 controls) were pooled. Results Our findings confirmed the role of the SV2C variant in PD pathogenesis (rs246814, COURAGE-PD PEuropean = 6.64 × 10−4, pooled PD P = 1.15 × 10−11). The WBSCR17 rs9638616 was observed as a significant risk marker in the East Asian pooled population only (P = 1.16 × 10−8). Conclusions Our comprehensive study provides an up-to-date summary of recently detected novel loci in different PD populations and confirmed the role of SV2C locus as a novel risk factor for PD irrespective of the population or ethnic group analyzed. © 2021 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society [less ▲]

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See detailA cut finite element method for spatially resolved energy metabolism models in complex neuro-cell morphologies with minimal remeshing
Farina, Sofia UL; Claus, Susanne; Hale, Jack UL et al

in Advanced Modeling and Simulation in Engineering Sciences (2021), 8

A thorough understanding of brain metabolism is essential to tackle neurodegenerative diseases. Astrocytes are glial cells which play an important metabolic role by supplying neurons with energy. In ... [more ▼]

A thorough understanding of brain metabolism is essential to tackle neurodegenerative diseases. Astrocytes are glial cells which play an important metabolic role by supplying neurons with energy. In addition, astrocytes provide scaffolding and homeostatic functions to neighboring neurons and contribute to the blood–brain barrier. Recent investigations indicate that the complex morphology of astrocytes impacts upon their function and in particular the efficiency with which these cells metabolize nutrients and provide neurons with energy, but a systematic understanding is still elusive. Modelling and simulation represent an effective framework to address this challenge and to deepen our understanding of brain energy metabolism. This requires solving a set of metabolic partial differential equations on complex domains and remains a challenge. In this paper, we propose, test and verify a simple numerical method to solve a simplified model of metabolic pathways in astrocytes. The method can deal with arbitrarily complex cell morphologies and enables the rapid and simple modification of the model equations by users also without a deep knowledge in the numerical methods involved. The results obtained with the new method (CutFEM) are as accurate as the finite element method (FEM) whilst CutFEM disentangles the cell morphology from its discretisation, enabling us to deal with arbitrarily complex morphologies in two and three dimensions. [less ▲]

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See detailNon-universal Scaling of Thermoelectric Efficiency in 3D and 2D Thermoelectric Semiconductors
Octavian, Kevin; Hasdeo, Eddwi Hesky UL

in Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (2021), 12

We performed the first-principles calculation on common thermoelectric semiconductors Bi2Te3, Bi2Se3, SiGe, and PbTe in bulk three-dimension (3D) and two-dimension (2D). We found that miniaturization of ... [more ▼]

We performed the first-principles calculation on common thermoelectric semiconductors Bi2Te3, Bi2Se3, SiGe, and PbTe in bulk three-dimension (3D) and two-dimension (2D). We found that miniaturization of materials does not generally increase the thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) according to the Hicks and Dresselhaus (HD) theory. For example, ZT values of 2D PbTe (0.32) and 2D SiGe (0.04) are smaller than their 3D counterparts (0.49 and 0.09, respectively). Meanwhile, the ZT values of 2D Bi2Te3 (0.57) and 2D Bi2Se3 (0.43) are larger than the bulks (0.54 and 0.18, respectively), which agree with HD theory. The HD theory breakdown occurs because the band gap and band flatness of the materials change upon dimensional reduction. We found that flat bands give a larger electrical conductivity (σ) and electronic thermal conductivity (κel) in 3D materials, and smaller values in 2D materials. In all cases, maximum ZT values increase proportionally with the band gap and saturate for the band gap above 10 kBT. The 2D Bi2Te3 and Bi2Se3 obtain a higher ZT due to the flat corrugated bands and narrow peaks in their DOS. Meanwhile, the 2D PbTe violates HD theory due to the flatter bands it exhibits, while 2D SiGe possesses a small gap Dirac-cone band. [less ▲]

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See detailReturns to Educational and Occupational Attainment in Cognitive Performance for Middle-Aged South Korean Men and Women
Ford, Katherine Joy UL; Leist, Anja UL

in Gerontology and Geriatric Medicine (2021), 7

Background: Gender differences in late middle-age cognitive performance may be explained by differences in educational or occupational attainment rates, or gender-patterned returns of similar education ... [more ▼]

Background: Gender differences in late middle-age cognitive performance may be explained by differences in educational or occupational attainment rates, or gender-patterned returns of similar education and occupation to cognitive reserve. We tested these competing hypotheses in the historically highly gender unequal context of South Korea. Methods: Data came from the 2006 wave of the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging. We included adults aged 45–65 years. Using quantile regression decompositions, we decomposed cognitive performance differences across quantiles into differences due to rates of educational and occupational attainment and differences due to divergent returns to those characteristics. Results: Gender-based cognitive performance differences across deciles were driven by differences in rates of educational and occupational attainment, while the returns to these characteristics were similar for both genders. Conclusions: Findings suggest that educational and occupational characteristics contribute to cognitive performance similarly in men and women, but discordant rates of these characteristics contribute to performance gaps. [less ▲]

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See detailMonitoring and prediction of hurricane tracks using GPS tropospheric products
Ejigu, Yohannes Getachew; Teferle, Felix Norman UL; Klos, Anna UL et al

in GPS Solutions (2021), (76),

We have reconstructed integrated water vapor (IWV) using the zenith wet delays to track the properties of hurricanes and explore their spatial and temporal distributions estimated from 922 GPS stations ... [more ▼]

We have reconstructed integrated water vapor (IWV) using the zenith wet delays to track the properties of hurricanes and explore their spatial and temporal distributions estimated from 922 GPS stations. Our results show that a surge in GPS-derived IWV occurred at least six hours prior to the landfall of two major hurricanes (Harvey and Irma) that struck the Gulf and East Coasts of the USA in 2017. We observed enhanced IWV, in particular, for the two hurricanes landfall locations. The observed variations exhibit a correlation with the precipitation value constructed from GPM/IMERG satellite mission coinciding with hurricane storm front passage. We used GPS-IWV data as inputs for spaghetti line plots for our path predictions, helping us predict the paths of Hurricanes Harvey and Irma. Hence, a directly estimable zenith wet delay sourced from GPS that has not been previously reported can serve as an additional resource for improving the monitoring of hurricane paths. [less ▲]

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See detailLimites de la compétence pour ordonner des mesures d'instruction en France
Cuniberti, Gilles UL

in La Semaine juridique - Edition générale (2021)

L’arrêt opère un revirement de jurisprudence en jugeant que, lorsqu’il n’est pas compétent au fond, le juge français a une compétence limitée pour ordonner des mesures d’instructions sur le fondement de ... [more ▼]

L’arrêt opère un revirement de jurisprudence en jugeant que, lorsqu’il n’est pas compétent au fond, le juge français a une compétence limitée pour ordonner des mesures d’instructions sur le fondement de l’article 35 du Règlement (UE) n° 1215/2012 (Bruxelles Ibis), même lorsqu’elles doivent s’exécuter sur le territoire français. Concernant des mesures visant à obtenir la communication de documents en possession des parties adverses, elles doivent avoir pour objet de prémunir la partie demanderesse contre un risque de dépérissement d’éléments de preuve dont la conservation pouvait commander la solution du litige. Le juge français ne peut ordonner une mesure visant seulement à établir des faits, ou à déterminer les chances de succès d’une action au fond. [less ▲]

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See detailPeripheral decarboxylase inhibitors paradoxically induce aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase
Krüger, Rejko UL; Pavelka, Lukas UL; Mollenhauer, Brit et al

in NPJ Parkinson's Disease (2021)

Peripheral decarboxylase inhibitors (PDIs) prevent the conversion of levodopa to dopamine in the blood by the enzyme aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC). Alterations in enzyme activity may ... [more ▼]

Peripheral decarboxylase inhibitors (PDIs) prevent the conversion of levodopa to dopamine in the blood by the enzyme aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC). Alterations in enzyme activity may contribute to the required higher dosages of levodopa observed in many patients with Parkinson’s disease. We evaluated the effect of levodopa/PDI use on serum AADC enzyme activity. Serum AADC enzyme activity was evaluated in three independent cohorts of patients with Parkinson’s disease or parkinsonism (n = 301) and compared between patients on levodopa/PDI vs. patients not on this medication. AADC enzyme activity was elevated in 62% of patients on levodopa/PDI treatment, compared to 19% of patients not on levodopa/PDI (median 90 mU/L vs. 50 mU/L, p < 0.001). Patients with elevated AADC activity had longer disease duration and higher doses of levodopa/PDI. These findings may implicate that peripheral AADC induction could underlie a waning effect of levodopa, necessitating dose increases to maintain a sustained therapeutic effect. [less ▲]

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See detailShort-Packet Communications for MIMO NOMA Systems over Nakagami-m Fading: BLER and Minimum Blocklength Analysis
Tran, Duc Dung UL; Sharma, Shree Krishna UL; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL et al

in IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology (2021)

Recently, ultra-reliable and low-latency communications (URLLC) using short-packets has been proposed to fulfill the stringent requirements regarding reliability and latency of emerging applications in 5G ... [more ▼]

Recently, ultra-reliable and low-latency communications (URLLC) using short-packets has been proposed to fulfill the stringent requirements regarding reliability and latency of emerging applications in 5G and beyond networks. In addition, multiple-input multiple-output non-orthogonal multiple access (MIMO NOMA) is a potential candidate to improve the spectral efficiency, reliability, latency, and connectivity of wireless systems. In this paper, we investigate short-packet communications (SPC) in a multiuser downlink MIMO NOMA system over Nakagami-m fading, and propose two antenna-user selection methods considering two clusters of users having different priority levels. In contrast to the widely-used long data-packet assumption, the SPC analysis requires the redesign of the communication protocols and novel performance metrics. Given this context, we analyze the SPC performance of MIMO NOMA systems using the average block error rate (BLER) and minimum blocklength, instead of the conventional metrics such as ergodic capacity and outage capacity. More specifically, to characterize the system performance regarding SPC, asymptotic (in the high signal-to-noise ratio regime) and approximate closed-form expressions of the average BLER at the users are derived. Based on the asymptotic behavior of the average BLER, an analysis of the diversity order, minimum blocklength, and optimal power allocation is carried out. The achieved results show that MIMO NOMA can serve multiple users simultaneously using a smaller blocklength compared with MIMO OMA, thus demonstrating the benefits of MIMO NOMA for SPC in minimizing the transmission latency. Furthermore, our results indicate that the proposed methods not only improve the BLER performance, but also guarantee full diversity gains for the respective users. [less ▲]

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See detailIntroduction. Children, Young People and Borders: A Multidisciplinary Outlook.
Venken, Machteld UL; Kaisto, Virpi; Brambilla, Chiara

in Journal of Borderlands Studies (2021), 36(2), 149-158

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See detailChildren, Young People, and Borders: A Multidisciplinary Outlook
Venken, Machteld UL; Kaisto, Virpi; Brambilla, Chiara

in Journal of Borderlands Studies (2021), 36(2),

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See detailModelling of mineral construction and demolition waste dynamics through a combination of geospatial and image analysis
Bogoviku, Lorenc; Waldmann, Daniele UL

in Journal of Environmental Management (2021), 282

As the construction sector is shifting towards circular economy models, the role of mineral construction materials as main waste fraction in terms of volumes is crucial. A characterization of this mineral ... [more ▼]

As the construction sector is shifting towards circular economy models, the role of mineral construction materials as main waste fraction in terms of volumes is crucial. A characterization of this mineral stock, as well as the waste derived from it is decisive in ensuring the application of the best practices of circular economy. This paper describes a methodology for assessing the mineral building stock through a combination of geospatial and image analysis. By analysing old topographic maps, buildings are grouped according to their building age into different typologies and based on these maps the construction and demolition activity is evaluated. The mineral stock is assessed and estimations of the mineral construction and demolition waste (CDW) is generated for different stochastic scenarios. This methodology is applied exemplarily on the country of Luxembourg. It was found that the total mineral construction stock for Luxembourg is 276.75 Mt and has been growing at a rate of 20.81% to 24.39% in the last 30 years. Furthermore, the study identified a mean age of the urban building stock of about 60 years and a typical maximum building lifetime of 122 years. Based on the stochastic projections the mineral CDW generated from the existing building stock is expected to be up to 226.9 Mt by 2100, while if future building scenarios are considered, it can be as high as 885.3 Mt. The annual CDW production is expected to be sufficient for a viable concrete recycling activity if regulations on the waste volume flows are made available. [less ▲]

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See detailDeep sequencing of sncRNAs reveals hallmarks and regulatory modules of the transcriptome during Parkinson’s disease progression
Krüger, Rejko UL; Kern, Fabian; Fehlmann, Tobias et al

in Nature Aging (2021)

Noncoding RNAs have diagnostic and prognostic importance in Parkinson’s disease (PD). We studied circulating small non coding RNAs (sncRNAs) in two large-scale longitudinal PD cohorts (Parkinson’s ... [more ▼]

Noncoding RNAs have diagnostic and prognostic importance in Parkinson’s disease (PD). We studied circulating small non coding RNAs (sncRNAs) in two large-scale longitudinal PD cohorts (Parkinson’s Progression Markers Initiative (PPMI) and Luxembourg Parkinson’s Study (NCER-PD)) and modeled their impact on the transcriptome. Sequencing of sncRNAs in 5,450 blood samples of 1,614 individuals in PPMI yielded 323 billion reads, most of which mapped to microRNAs but covered also other RNA classes such as piwi-interacting RNAs, ribosomal RNAs and small nucleolar RNAs. Dysregulated microRNAs associated with disease and disease progression occur in two distinct waves in the third and seventh decade of life. Originating predominantly from immune cells, they resemble a systemic inflammation response and mitochondrial dysfunction, two hall marks of PD. Profiling 1,553 samples from 1,024 individuals in the NCER-PD cohort validated biomarkers and main findings by an independent technology. Finally, network analysis of sncRNA and transcriptome sequencing from PPMI identified regulatory modules emerging in patients with progressing PD [less ▲]

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See detailA computer-guided design tool to increase the efficiency of cellular conversions
Del Sol Mesa, Antonio UL

in Nature Communications (2021)

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See detailAutomotive Squint-forward-looking SAR: High Resolution and Early Warning
Hu, Ruizhi UL; Mysore Rama Rao, Bhavani Shankar UL; Murtada, Ahmed Abdelnaser Elsayed UL et al

in IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Signal Processing (2021)

Forward-looking automotive radars can sense long-distant targets to enable early warning, but the lateral resolution is limited. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) techniques can achieve very high azimuth ... [more ▼]

Forward-looking automotive radars can sense long-distant targets to enable early warning, but the lateral resolution is limited. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) techniques can achieve very high azimuth resolution but cannot resolve targets in the forward direction. As a trade-off, squint-forward-looking SAR (SFL-SAR) can perform 2D imaging on a distant area squint to the moving direction, providing both high resolution and early warning. In this paper, we analyzed and derived the constraints of automotive SFL-SAR to satisfy both the required resolution and braking distance. Simulations and imaging results verified the analysis. [less ▲]

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See detailMachine Learning Force Fields
Oliver T. Unke; Stefan Chmiela; Huziel E. Sauceda et al

in Chemical Reviews (2021)

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See detailStatistical mechanics of active Ornstein-Uhlenbeck particles
Martin, David; O’Byrne, Jérémy; Cates, Michael E. et al

in Physical Review. E. (2021)

We study the statistical properties of active Ornstein-Uhlenbeck particles (AOUPs). In this simplest of models, the Gaussian white noise of overdamped Brownian colloids is replaced by a Gaussian colored ... [more ▼]

We study the statistical properties of active Ornstein-Uhlenbeck particles (AOUPs). In this simplest of models, the Gaussian white noise of overdamped Brownian colloids is replaced by a Gaussian colored noise. This suffices to grant this system the hallmark properties of active matter, while still allowing for analytical progress. We study in detail the steady-state distribution of AOUPs in the small persistence time limit and for spatially varying activity. At the collective level, we show AOUPs to experience motility-induced phase separation both in the presence of pairwise forces or due to quorum-sensing interactions. We characterize both the instability mechanism leading to phase separation and the resulting phase coexistence. We probe how, in the stationary state, AOUPs depart from their thermal equilibrium limit by investigating the emergence of ratchet currents and entropy production. In the small persistence time limit, we show how fluctuation-dissipation relations are recovered. Finally, we discuss how the emerging properties of AOUPs can be characterized from the dynamics of their collective modes. [less ▲]

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See detailEnd-to-end Precoding Validation over a Live GEO Satellite Forward Link
Krivochiza, Jevgenij UL; Merlano Duncan, Juan Carlos UL; Querol, Jorge UL et al

in IEEE Access (2021)

In this paper we demonstrate end-to-end precoded multi-user multiple-input singleoutput (MU-MISO) communications over a live GEO satellite link. Precoded communications enable full frequency reuse (FFR ... [more ▼]

In this paper we demonstrate end-to-end precoded multi-user multiple-input singleoutput (MU-MISO) communications over a live GEO satellite link. Precoded communications enable full frequency reuse (FFR) schemes in satellite communications (SATCOM) to achieve broader service availability and higher spectrum efficiency than with the conventional four-color (4CR) and twocolor (2CR) reuse approaches. In this scope, we develop an over-the-air test-bed for end-to-end precoding validations.We use an actual multi-beam satellite to transmit and receive precoded signals using the DVB-S2X standard based gateway and user terminals. The developed system is capable of end-to-end real-time communications over the satellite link including channel measurements and precompensation. It is shown, that by successfully canceling inter-user interference in the actual satellite FFR link precoding brings gains in terms of enhanced SINR and increased system goodput. [less ▲]

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See detailCross-Linking Ligation and Sequencing of Hybrids (qCLASH) Reveals an Unpredicted miRNA Targetome in Melanoma Cells
Kozar, Ines UL; Philippidou, Demetra UL; Margue, Christiane UL et al

in Cancers (2021)

MicroRNAs are key post-transcriptional gene regulators often displaying aberrant expression patterns in cancer. As microRNAs are promising disease-associated biomarkers and modulators of responsiveness to ... [more ▼]

MicroRNAs are key post-transcriptional gene regulators often displaying aberrant expression patterns in cancer. As microRNAs are promising disease-associated biomarkers and modulators of responsiveness to anti-cancer therapies, a solid understanding of their targetome is crucial. Despite enormous research efforts, the success rates of available tools to reliably predict microRNAs (miRNA)-target interactions remains limited. To investigate the disease-associated miRNA targetome, we have applied modified cross-linking ligation and sequencing of hybrids (qCLASH) to BRAF-mutant melanoma cells. The resulting RNA-RNA hybrid molecules provide a comprehensive and unbiased snapshot of direct miRNA-target interactions. The regulatory effects on selected miRNA target genes in predicted vs. non-predicted binding regions was validated by miRNA mimic experiments. Most miRNA–target interactions deviate from the central dogma of miRNA targeting up to 60% interactions occur via non-canonical seed pairing with a strong contribution of the 3′ miRNA sequence, and over 50% display a clear bias towards the coding sequence of mRNAs. miRNAs targeting the coding sequence can directly reduce gene expression (miR-34a/CD68), while the majority of non-canonical miRNA interactions appear to have roles beyond target gene suppression (miR-100/AXL). Additionally, non-mRNA targets of miRNAs (lncRNAs) whose interactions mainly occur via non-canonical binding were identified in melanoma. This first application of CLASH sequencing to cancer cells identified over 8 K distinct miRNA–target interactions in melanoma cells. Our data highlight the importance non-canonical interactions, revealing further layers of complexity of post-transcriptional gene regulation in melanoma, thus expanding the pool of miRNA–target interactions, which have so far been omitted in the cancer field. [less ▲]

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See detailElectron hydrodynamics of anomalous Hall materials
Hasdeo, Eddwi Hesky UL; Ekström, Carl Johan Ingvar UL; Idrisov, Edvin UL et al

in Physical Review. B (2021), 103(12), 125106

We study two-dimensional electron systems in the hydrodynamic regime. We show that a geometrical Berry curvature modifies the effective Navier-Stokes equation for viscous electron flow in topological ... [more ▼]

We study two-dimensional electron systems in the hydrodynamic regime. We show that a geometrical Berry curvature modifies the effective Navier-Stokes equation for viscous electron flow in topological materials. For small electric fields, the Hall current becomes negligible compared to the viscous longitudinal current. In this regime, we highlight an unconventional Poiseuille flow with an asymmetric profile and a deviation of the maximum of the current from the center of the system. In a two-dimensional infinite geometry, the Berry curvature leads to current whirlpools and an asymmetry of potential profile. This phenomenon can be probed by measuring the asymmetric non-local resistance profile. [less ▲]

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See detailNanoscale Phononic Analog of the Ranque-Hilsch Vortex Tube
Medrano Sandonas, Leonardo UL; Rodríguez Méndez, Álvaro; Gutierrez, Rafael et al

in Physical Review Applied (2021), 15(034008),

Thermal management is a current global challenge that must be addressed exhaustively. We propose the design of a nanoscale phononic analog of the Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube in which heat flowing at a given ... [more ▼]

Thermal management is a current global challenge that must be addressed exhaustively. We propose the design of a nanoscale phononic analog of the Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube in which heat flowing at a given temperature is split into two different streams going to the two ends of the device, inducing a temperature asymmetry. Our nanoscale prototype consists of two carbon nanotubes (capped and open) connected by molecular chains. The results show that the structural asymmetry in the contact regions is the key factor for producing the flux asymmetry and, hence, the induced temperature-bias effect. The effect can be controlled by tuning the thermal-equilibration temperature, the number of chains, and the chain length. Deposition on a substrate adds another variable to the manipulation of the flux asymmetry but the effect vanishes at very large substrate temperatures. Our study yields insights into the thermal management in nanoscale materials, especially the crucial issue of whether the thermal asymmetry can survive phonon scattering over relatively long distances, and thus provides a starting point for the design of a nanoscale phononic analog of the Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube. [less ▲]

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See detailNonequilibrium thermodynamics of non-ideal chemical reaction networks
Avanzini, Francesco UL; Penocchio, Emanuele UL; Falasco, Gianmaria UL et al

in Journal of Chemical Physics (2021), 154

All current formulations of nonequilibrium thermodynamics of open chemical reaction networks rely on the assumption of non-interacting species. We develop a general theory that accounts for interactions ... [more ▼]

All current formulations of nonequilibrium thermodynamics of open chemical reaction networks rely on the assumption of non-interacting species. We develop a general theory that accounts for interactions between chemical species within a mean-field approach using activity coefficients. Thermodynamic consistency requires that rate equations do not obey standard mass-action kinetics but account for the interactions with concentration dependent kinetic constants. Many features of the ideal formulations are recovered. Crucially, the thermodynamic potential and the forces driving non-ideal chemical systems out of equilibrium are identified. Our theory is general and holds for any mean-field expression of the interactions leading to lower bounded free energies. [less ▲]

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See detailNeutron study of magnetic correlations in rare-earth-free Mn-Bi magnets
Malyeyev, Artem UL; Titov, Ivan; Bender, Philipp et al

in Physical Review Materials (2021), 5

We report the results of an unpolarized small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) study on Mn-Bi-based rare-earth-free permanent magnets. The magnetic SANS cross section is dominated by long-wavelength ... [more ▼]

We report the results of an unpolarized small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) study on Mn-Bi-based rare-earth-free permanent magnets. The magnetic SANS cross section is dominated by long-wavelength transversal magnetization fluctuations and has been analyzed in terms of the Guinier-Porod model and the distance distribution function. This provides the radius of gyration which, in the remanent state, ranges between about $220-240 \, \mathrm{nm}$ for the three different alloy compositions investigated. Moreover, computation of the distance distribution function in conjunction with results for the so-called $s$-parameter obtained from the Guinier-Porod model indicate that the magnetic scattering of a Mn$_{45}$Bi$_{55}$ sample has its origin in slightly shape-anisotropic structures. [less ▲]

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See detailEfficient Federated Learning Algorithm for Resource Allocation in Wireless IoT Networks
Nguyen, van Dinh UL; Sharma, Shree Krishna UL; Vu, Thang Xuan UL et al

in IEEE Internet of Things Journal (2021), 8(5), 3394-3409

Federated learning (FL) allows multiple edge computing nodes to jointly build a shared learning model without having to transfer their raw data to a centralized server, thus reducing communication ... [more ▼]

Federated learning (FL) allows multiple edge computing nodes to jointly build a shared learning model without having to transfer their raw data to a centralized server, thus reducing communication overhead. However, FL still faces a number of challenges such as non-iid distributed data and heterogeneity of user equipments (UEs). Enabling a large number of UEs to join the training process in every round raises a potential issue of the heavy global communication burden. To address these issues, we generalize the current state-of-the-art Federated Averaging (FedAvg) by adding a weight-based proximal term to the local loss function. The proposed FL algorithm runs stochastic gradient descent in parallel on a sampled subset of the total UEs with replacement during each global round. We provide a convergence upper bound characterizing the trade-off between convergence rate and global rounds, showing that a small number of active UEs per round still guarantees convergence. Next, we employ the proposed FL algorithm in wireless Internet-of-Things (IoT) networks to minimize either total energy consumption or completion time of FL, where a simple yet efficient path-following algorithm is developed for its solutions. Finally, numerical results on unbalanced datasets are provided to demonstrate the performance improvement and robustness on the convergence rate of the proposed FL algorithm over FedAvg. They also reveal that the proposed algorithm requires much less training time and energy consumption than the FL algorithm with full user participation. These observations advocate the proposed FL algorithm for a paradigm shift in bandwidth- constrained learning wireless IoT networks. [less ▲]

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See detailUrban expansion re-visited
Hesse, Markus UL

in pnd - rethinking planning (2021), 2021(1), 42-54

This paper deals with urban expansion, that is, the growth of cities and inner-urban areas, both inside and outside of the dedicated planning perimeters. My aim is to give a brief overview of how this ... [more ▼]

This paper deals with urban expansion, that is, the growth of cities and inner-urban areas, both inside and outside of the dedicated planning perimeters. My aim is to give a brief overview of how this subject matter can be discussed from a contemporary perspective, with a certain focus on big projects that have evolved in recent decades and are on the rise again. Towards that end, I will situate the subject matter in historical contexts, provide some explanation as to the 1970s and more recent dynamics, and discuss how large-scale urban projects are being implemented. While big projects pursue different ambitions—such as economic, socio-demographic or ecological goals—they are set in place by a kind of managerial urbanism, often prioritise economic gains and thus challenge urban policy and planning. The paper concludes with a call to contextualise the variegated outcomes of new urban projects and to develop appropriate methods for monitoring and assessing urban life in these quarters. [less ▲]

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See detailExplorative analysis of potential MaaS customers: An agent-based scenario
Cisterna, Carolina UL; Giorgione, Giulio UL; Viti, Francesco UL

in Transportation Research Procedia (2021)

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See detailBewertungshilfe zur Unterrichtseinheit #gemeinsamlesen
Krämer, Charlotte UL

in Programme for Innovative Teaching and Training (PITT) (2021)

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See detailVaria
Schafer, Valerie UL; Henriot, Carine

in Flux: Cahiers Scientifiques Internationaux Réseaux et Territoires (2021), 123

Numéro Varia de Flux coordonné par C. Henriot et V. Schafer

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See detailBewertungshilfe zur Unterrichtseinheit #ichhassedich
Krämer, Charlotte UL

in Programme for Innovative Teaching and Training (PITT) (2021)

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See detailZur fairen Bewertung von Lernprodukten
Krämer, Charlotte

in Programme for Innovative Teaching and Training (PITT) (2021)

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See detailEmpowering large chemical knowledge bases for exposomics: PubChemLite meets MetFrag
Schymanski, Emma UL; Kondic, Todor UL; Neumann, Steffen et al

in Journal of Cheminformatics (2021), 13(1), 19

Abstract Compound (or chemical) databases are an invaluable resource for many scientific disciplines. Exposomics researchers need to find and identify relevant chemicals that cover the entirety of ... [more ▼]

Abstract Compound (or chemical) databases are an invaluable resource for many scientific disciplines. Exposomics researchers need to find and identify relevant chemicals that cover the entirety of potential (chemical and other) exposures over entire lifetimes. This daunting task, with over 100 million chemicals in the largest chemical databases, coupled with broadly acknowledged knowledge gaps in these resources, leaves researchers faced with too much—yet not enough—information at the same time to perform comprehensive exposomics research. Furthermore, the improvements in analytical technologies and computational mass spectrometry workflows coupled with the rapid growth in databases and increasing demand for high throughput “big data” services from the research community present significant challenges for both data hosts and workflow developers. This article explores how to reduce candidate search spaces in non-target small molecule identification workflows, while increasing content usability in the context of environmental and exposomics analyses, so as to profit from the increasing size and information content of large compound databases, while increasing efficiency at the same time. In this article, these methods are explored using PubChem, the NORMAN Network Suspect List Exchange and the in silico fragmentation approach MetFrag. A subset of the PubChem database relevant for exposomics, PubChemLite, is presented as a database resource that can be (and has been) integrated into current workflows for high resolution mass spectrometry. Benchmarking datasets from earlier publications are used to show how experimental knowledge and existing datasets can be used to detect and fill gaps in compound databases to progressively improve large resources such as PubChem, and topic-specific subsets such as PubChemLite. PubChemLite is a living collection, updating as annotation content in PubChem is updated, and exported to allow direct integration into existing workflows such as MetFrag. The source code and files necessary to recreate or adjust this are jointly hosted between the research parties (see data availability statement). This effort shows that enhancing the FAIRness (Findability, Accessibility, Interoperability and Reusability) of open resources can mutually enhance several resources for whole community benefit. The authors explicitly welcome additional community input on ideas for future developments. [less ▲]

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See detailBewertungshilfe zur Unterrichtseinheit #keinfilter
Krämer, Charlotte UL; Kang, Liana; Bissen, Manuel

in Programme for Innovative Teaching and Training (PITT) (2021)

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See detailA Temporary Space Where Development and Planning Emergencies Meet? Notes on an International Building Exhibition (IBA) in the Cross- Border Territories of France and Luxembourg
Becker, Tom UL; Hesse, Markus UL

in Planning Theory and Practice (2021), 22(1), 148-154

An International Building Exhibition (IBA) is currently being planned for the cross-border area of southern Luxembourg and north-eastern France (Alzette-Belval). This planning approach, mainly known in ... [more ▼]

An International Building Exhibition (IBA) is currently being planned for the cross-border area of southern Luxembourg and north-eastern France (Alzette-Belval). This planning approach, mainly known in the German building and planning context, was developed as a temporary activity to foster planning innovation and experimentation, in order to bring both formal and informal processes and regulations forward. Some have also argued that an IBA can be considered a temporary case of planning emergency, a means for trying the unusual in settings where business as usual has failed to address important problems properly. Organising an IBA has recently become increasingly popular in other European countries, such as Austria, the Netherlands or Switzerland. The aim of this note is to address some general questions as to the particular role that this instrument can play, and what it may promise (and not) to spatial planning. We also discuss the specific framework conditions and problems the French-Luxembourgian border region is confronted with. Our comment should contribute to clarifying what the underlying problems are actually about and, more specifically, in what ways an IBA could help dealing with them. Particularly, we suggest decision-makers and practitioners to follow a practice of ‘reflection before selection’: to address the very specificities of both the region and of an IBA before turning to ‘project’-based routines. This would avoid rendering the IBA as an empty signifier or a mere branding tool, while practice remains challenged by vested interests, complex policy terrains and powerful political economies. [less ▲]

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See detailBewertungshilfe zur Unterrichtseinheit #bewegteballaden
Krämer, Charlotte UL

in Programme for Innovative Teaching and Training (PITT) (2021)

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See detailRecent Developments and Overview of the Country and Practitioner’s Reports
Cole, Mark David UL

in European Data Protection Law Review (2021), 7(1), 91-93

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See detailLe droit à la sauce piquante n°22 - Mars 2021
Hiez, David UL; Laurent, Rémi

in Le droit à la sauce piquante (2021), 22

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See detailSmall urban green areas
Picard, Pierre M UL; Tran, Thi Thu Huyen UL

in Journal of Environmental Economics and Management (2021), 106

This paper studies the size and location of small urban green areas across city spaces. Small urban green areas offer amenities that affect residential choices, land consumption and land rent. This paper ... [more ▼]

This paper studies the size and location of small urban green areas across city spaces. Small urban green areas offer amenities that affect residential choices, land consumption and land rent. This paper discusses the land use and locations of those areas and the resulting residential space allocation. It is shown that the land share dedicated to small urban green areas results from the trade-off between land value and population density and is a single peaked function of the distance to the city center. This result is confirmed by the empirical study of urban structures in the 305 largest EU cities using GIS data. This spatial pattern is shown to be robust to many measures of urban land uses. [less ▲]

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See detailAn annotation database for chemicals of emerging concern in exposome research
Meijer, Jeroen; Lamoree, Marja; Hamers, Timo et al

in Environment International (2021), 152

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See detailIntentions, concepts and conceptions of research supervision: a consideration of three disciplines
Kreber, Carolin; Wealer, Cyril UL

in Teaching in Higher Education (2021)

This interview-based study with thirty doctoral supervisors in the UK focused on the diverse goals and intentions behind their supervisory activities, from which we derived a six-dimensional model of ... [more ▼]

This interview-based study with thirty doctoral supervisors in the UK focused on the diverse goals and intentions behind their supervisory activities, from which we derived a six-dimensional model of concepts of supervision. We explored how strongly each of these concepts featured in supervisors’ intentions and whether this varied by discipline. Most of the intentions underlying the activities supervisors employed pertained to the concepts ‘Enculturation’ and ‘Functional’; far fewer pertained to the concepts ‘Emancipation’, ‘Critical Thinking’, ‘Care’ and ‘Preparation for Work and Life’. When supervisors were asked to identify the intentions behind their supervision practice more generally, not in direct reference to their activities, the functional perspective was less prominent. Some differences were observed between as well as within disciplines. The study confirms and extends previous research on concepts of graduate supervision and illustrates how supervisors’ personal views, their ‘conceptions’, of supervision can be described in relation to the six concepts. [less ▲]

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See detailZeichenhafte Überlegenheit. Zur Transgressivität des Stierwunders in der 'Silvesterlegende' Konrads von Würzburg
Bendheim, Amelie UL

in Beiträge zur mediävistischen Erzählforschung (2021), 9

Der Aufsatz befragt das Stierwunder in der ›Silvesterlegende‹ Konrads von Würzburg auf seine Funktion im Glaubensdisput zwischen Christen und Juden. Das Wunder, dessen Kraft sich über sein ... [more ▼]

Der Aufsatz befragt das Stierwunder in der ›Silvesterlegende‹ Konrads von Würzburg auf seine Funktion im Glaubensdisput zwischen Christen und Juden. Das Wunder, dessen Kraft sich über sein zeitrahmenüberschreitendes Potenzial begrün-det, vermag nicht nur christliche Überlegenheit in der erzählten Welt auszustellen, sondern erweist sich auch als offen für eine lebensweltliche, politische Inanspruchnahme. Die Heiligenlegende, die so in nicht unproblematischer Weise zum epochen-geschichtlichen Glaubenskonflikt Stellung zu beziehen vermag, rückt damit in engere Beziehung zu ›klassischen‹ Kreuzzugsepen, als es die Gattung qua Definition vermuten ließe. [less ▲]

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See detailKernel Selection in Nonparametric Regression
Halconruy, Hélène UL; Marie, Nicolas

in Mathematical Methods of Statistics (2021)

In the regression model Y=b(X)+ε, where X has a density f, this paper deals with an oracle inequality for an estimator of bf, involving a kernel in the sense of Lerasle et al. (2016), selected via the PCO ... [more ▼]

In the regression model Y=b(X)+ε, where X has a density f, this paper deals with an oracle inequality for an estimator of bf, involving a kernel in the sense of Lerasle et al. (2016), selected via the PCO method. In addition to the bandwidth selection for kernel-based estimators already studied in Lacour, Massart and Rivoirard (2017) and Comte and Marie (2020), the dimension selection for anisotropic projection estimators of f and bf is covered. [less ▲]

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See detailZeitRahmenÜberschreitungen im vormodernen Erzählen. Themenheft der Beiträge zur mediävistischen Erzählforschung
Bendheim, Amelie UL; Hammer, Martin Sebastian

in Beiträge zur mediävistischen Erzählforschung (2021)

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See detailInterdependenzen von Zeitlichkeit, Rahmung und Transgressivität im vormodernen Erzählen. Eine Einleitung
Bendheim, Amelie UL; Hammer, Martin Sebastian

in Beiträge zur mediävistischen Erzählforschung (2021), (9), 1-12

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See detailIntact pain modulation through manipulation of controllability and expectations in aging
González-Roldán, Ana María; Terrasa, Juan Lorenzo; Prats-Sedano, Maria Angeles et al

in European Journal of Pain (2021)

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See detailAccounting for Differences in Income Inequality across Countries: Tax-benefit Policy, Labour Market Structure, Returns and Demographics
Sologon, Denisa UL; van Kerm, Philippe UL; Li, Jinjing et al

in Journal of Economic Inequality (2021), 19

This paper presents a framework for studying international differences in the distribution of household income. Integrating micro-econometric and micro-simulation approaches in a decomposition analysis ... [more ▼]

This paper presents a framework for studying international differences in the distribution of household income. Integrating micro-econometric and micro-simulation approaches in a decomposition analysis, it quantifies the role of tax-benefit systems, employment and occupational structures, labour and financial market returns, and demographic composition in accounting for differences in income inequality across countries. Building upon EUROMOD (the European tax-benefit calculator) and its harmonised datasets, the model is portable and can be implemented for cross-country comparisons between any participating country. An application to the UK and Ireland—two countries that have much in common while displaying different levels of inequality—shows that differences in tax benefit rules between the two countries account for roughly half of the observed difference in disposable household income inequality. Demographic differences play negligible roles. The Irish tax-benefit system is more redistributive than UK\textquoterights due to a higher tax progressivity and higher average transfer rates. These are largely attributable to policy parameter differences, but also to differences in pre-tax, pre-transfer income distributions. [less ▲]

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See detailWho aspires to higher education? Axes of inequality, values of education and higher education aspirations in secondary schools in Luxembourg and the Swiss Canton of Bern
Hadjar, Andreas UL; Scharf, Jan; Hascher, Tina

in European Journal of Education (2021), 56(1), 9-26

This article reports a study that investigated secondary school students’ higher education aspirations (towards university studies, ISCED 6 and above) and how these differ between student groups as well ... [more ▼]

This article reports a study that investigated secondary school students’ higher education aspirations (towards university studies, ISCED 6 and above) and how these differ between student groups as well as how these are impacted by values of education. Panel data of more than 300 secondary school students in two countries, Luxembourg and Switzerland (the Swiss Canton of Bern) was analysed. Schools are structured differently in the education systems of Luxembourg and the Swiss Canton of Bern. The results of our analysis show that students in the Luxembourgish sample more often aspire to higher education than in the Swiss sample. Disparities in higher education aspirations were also more pronounced in the Luxembourgish sample, boys and students from families of low socio-economic status (SES) were less likely to aspire to higher education. While the effects of values of education are generally scarce, stimulation in terms of anticipated enjoyment and interest derived from participation in higher education seems to have a positive effect on higher education aspirations. [less ▲]

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See detailAktuelle Entwicklungen im Steuerrecht in der Informationstechnologie 2019/2020 - Teil 2
Sinnig, Julia UL; Schmittmann, Jens M.

in Kommunikation und Recht (2021), 24(3), 164-170

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See detailUn vidimus mal interprété de Pierre de Vianden, prévôt de Saint-Martin de Liège, et de Conon, seigneur de Reuland (ca. 1264-ca. 1275
Salemme, Timothy UL

in Hemecht: Zeitschrift für Luxemburger Geschichte (2021), 72(1), 76-85

The work of editing medieval documents is full of pitfalls. Among the greatest difficulties is undoubtedly that of providing a critical edition of the copy of a document contained in a cartulary. What is ... [more ▼]

The work of editing medieval documents is full of pitfalls. Among the greatest difficulties is undoubtedly that of providing a critical edition of the copy of a document contained in a cartulary. What is the level of reliability of this copy with respect to its archetype? What is the role of the editor of the cartulary as mediator between the archetype and the copy? What should be done in the presence of an abbreviated copy of a lost archetype? In this paper, we offer a case study illustrating these issues, by focussing on a vidimus issued by Pierre de Vianden and Conon de Reuland at the end of the 1260s-early 1270s reporting an agreement between Count Philippe I of Vianden and Henri V of Luxembourg. Improperly dated and misinterpreted by researchers in the course of the 20th century, this document is the object of a new analysis which places it in a totally different historical perspective. [less ▲]

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See detailInstitutional Investors and Infrastructure Investing
Kräussl, Roman UL; Andonov, Aleksandar; M. Rauh., Joshua

in Review of Financial Studies (2021), 34(8)(3880-3934),

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See detailDigitales Lesen im Deutschunterricht
Baumann, Isabell Eva UL

in Programme for Innovative Teaching and Training (PITT) (2021)

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