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See detailReview - The Lost Soldier: The Ordeal of a World War II GI from the Home Front to the Hürtgen Forest
Janz, Nina UL

in Michigan War Studies Review (2021)

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See detailEffective Link Prediction with Topological and Temporal Information using Wavelet Neural Network Embedding
Mo, Xian; Pang, Jun UL; Liu, Zhiming

in Computer Journal (2021), 64(3), 325-336

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See detailEnhancing children’s numerical skills through a play-based intervention at kindergarten and at home: a quasi-experimental study
de Chambrier, Anne-Françoise; Baye, Ariane; Tinnes-Vigne, Mélanie et al

in Early Childhood Research Quarterly (2021), 54

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See detailLongitudinal Associations between Perceived Stress and Views on Aging: Evidence for Reciprocal Relations
Wettstein, Markus; Wahl, Hans-Werner; Kornadt, Anna Elena UL

in Psychology and Aging (2021), 36(6), 752-766

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See detailDCcov: Repositioning of drugs and drug combinations for SARS-CoV-2 infected lung through constraint-based modeling.
Kishk, Ali UL; Pires Pacheco, Maria Irene UL; Sauter, Thomas UL

in iScience (2021), 24(11), 103331

The 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) became a worldwide pandemic with currently no approved effective antiviral drug. Flux balance analysis (FBA) is an efficient method to analyze metabolic networks ... [more ▼]

The 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) became a worldwide pandemic with currently no approved effective antiviral drug. Flux balance analysis (FBA) is an efficient method to analyze metabolic networks. Here, FBA was applied on human lung cells infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) to reposition metabolic drugs and drug combinations against the virus replication within the host tissue. Making use of expression datasets of infected lung tissue, genome-scale COVID-19-specific metabolic models were reconstructed. Then, host-specific essential genes and gene pairs were determined through in silico knockouts that permit reducing the viral biomass production without affecting the host biomass. Key pathways that are associated with COVID-19 severity in lung tissue are related to oxidative stress, ferroptosis, and pyrimidine metabolism. By in silico screening of Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs on the putative disease-specific essential genes and gene pairs, 85 drugs and 52 drug combinations were predicted as promising candidates for COVID-19 (https://github.com/sysbiolux/DCcov). [less ▲]

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See detailCrowdsourced COVID-19 Collections: A brief overview
Zumthurm, Tizian UL

in International Public History (2021)

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See detailSubpulse Processing for Unambiguous Doppler Estimation in Pulse-Doppler Noise Radars
Tedgue Beltrao, Gabriel UL; Alaeekerahroodi, Mohammad UL; Mysore Rama Rao, Bhavani Shankar UL et al

in IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems (2021)

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See detailReview of: Tommaso Milani, 'Hendrik de Man and social democracy: The idea of planning in Western Europe, 1914-1940'
van de Maele, Jens UL

in Journal of Belgian History (2021), (1-2), 183-185

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See detailMolecular ruler mechanism and interfacial catalysis of the integral membrane acyltransferase PatA
Anso, Itxaso; Basso, Luis G. M.; Wang, Lei et al

in Science Advances (2021), 7(42),

Glycolipids are prominent components of bacterial membranes that play critical roles not only in maintaining the structural integrity of the cell but also in modulating host-pathogen interactions. PatA is ... [more ▼]

Glycolipids are prominent components of bacterial membranes that play critical roles not only in maintaining the structural integrity of the cell but also in modulating host-pathogen interactions. PatA is an essential acyltransferase involved in the biosynthesis of phosphatidyl-myo-inositol mannosides (PIMs), key structural elements and virulence factors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We demonstrate by electron spin resonance spectroscopy and surface plasmon resonance that PatA is an integral membrane acyltransferase tightly anchored to anionic lipid bilayers, using a two-helix structural motif and electrostatic interactions. PatA dictates the acyl chain composition of the glycolipid by using an acyl chain selectivity “ruler.” We established this by a combination of structural biology, enzymatic activity, and binding measurements on chemically synthesized nonhydrolyzable acyl–coenzyme A (CoA) derivatives. We propose an interfacial catalytic mechanism that allows PatA to acylate hydrophobic PIMs anchored in the inner membrane of mycobacteria, through the use of water-soluble acyl-CoA donors. [less ▲]

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See detailCultural representation in Luxembourgish street naming practices
Purschke, Christoph UL

in Linguistics Vanguard (2021), 7(s5), 111

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See detailStreet name changes as language and identity inscription in the cityscape
Tan, Peter K.; Purschke, Christoph UL

in Linguistics Vanguard (2021), 7(s5), 1-13

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See detailHow Migration Policy Shapes the Subjective Well-Being of the Non-immigrant Population in European Countries
Tatarko, Alexander; Jurcik, Tomas; Hadjar, Andreas UL

in Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology (2021), early online

Existing studies show that there is a positive association between pro-migrant integration policies and the subjective well-being of immigrants. However, there is a lack of research elucidating the ... [more ▼]

Existing studies show that there is a positive association between pro-migrant integration policies and the subjective well-being of immigrants. However, there is a lack of research elucidating the relations between migrant integration policies and the subjective well-being of the host (i.e., non-migrant) population. This study is based on European data and uses multilevel analysis to clarify the relations between migrant integration policy (both as a whole and its eight separate components such as: Labor market mobility and Family reunion) and the subjective well-being of the non-immigrant population in European countries. We examined relations between the Migrant Integration Policy Index (MIPEX) for 22 countries in Europe and subjective well-being, as assessed by the European Social Survey (ESS) data. The results demonstrated that there is a positive relation between the MIPEX and subjective well-being for non-immigrants. Considering different components of the MIPEX separately, we found most of them being positively related to the subjective well-being of non-immigrants. As no negative relationship was identified between any of the eight MIPEX components and subjective well-being, policies in favor of immigrant integration also seem to benefit the non-immigrant population. [less ▲]

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See detailUnraveling Nanostructured Spin Textures in Bulk Magnets
Bender, Philipp Florian UL; Leliaert, Jonathan; Bersweiler, Mathias UL et al

in Small Science (2021), 1(1), 2000003

One of the key challenges in magnetism remains the determination of the nanoscopic magnetization profile within the volume of thick samples, such as permanent ferromagnets. Thanks to the large penetration ... [more ▼]

One of the key challenges in magnetism remains the determination of the nanoscopic magnetization profile within the volume of thick samples, such as permanent ferromagnets. Thanks to the large penetration depth of neutrons, magnetic small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) is a powerful technique to characterize bulk samples. The major challenge regarding magnetic SANS is accessing the real-space magnetization vector field from the reciprocal scattering data. In this letter, a fast iterative algorithm is introduced that allows one to extract the underlying two-dimensional magnetic correlation functions from the scattering patterns. This approach is used here to analyze the magnetic microstructure of Nanoperm, a nanocrystalline alloy which is widely used in power electronics due to its extraordinary soft magnetic properties. It can be shown that the computed correlation functions clearly reflect the projection of the three-dimensional magnetization vector field onto the detector plane, which demonstrates that the used methodology can be applied to probe directly spin-textures within bulk samples with nanometer-resolution. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailA First Look at Android Applications in Google Play related to Covid-19
Samhi, Jordan UL; Allix, Kevin UL; Bissyande, Tegawendé François D Assise UL et al

in Empirical Software Engineering (2021)

Due to the convenience of access-on-demand to information and business solutions, mobile apps have become an important asset in the digital world. In the context of the Covid-19 pandemic, app developers ... [more ▼]

Due to the convenience of access-on-demand to information and business solutions, mobile apps have become an important asset in the digital world. In the context of the Covid-19 pandemic, app developers have joined the response effort in various ways by releasing apps that target different user bases (e.g., all citizens or journalists), offer different services (e.g., location tracking or diagnostic-aid), provide generic or specialized information, etc. While many apps have raised some concerns by spreading misinformation or even malware, the literature does not yet provide a clear landscape of the different apps that were developed. In this study, we focus on the Android ecosystem and investigate Covid-related Android apps. In a best-effort scenario, we attempt to systematically identify all relevant apps and study their characteristics with the objective to provide a First taxonomy of Covid related apps, broadening the relevance beyond the implementation of contact tracing. Overall, our study yields a number of empirical insights that contribute to enlarge the knowledge on Covid-related apps: (1) Developer communities contributed rapidly to the Covid-19, with dedicated apps released as early as January 2020; (2) Covid-related apps deliver digital tools to users (e.g., health diaries), serve to broadcast information to users (e.g., spread statistics), and collect data from users (e.g., for tracing); (3) Covid-related apps are less complex than standard apps; (4) they generally do not seem to leak sensitive data; (5) in the majority of cases, Covid-related apps are released by entities with past experience on the market, mostly official government entities or public health organizations. [less ▲]

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See detailDesigning Pareto optimal electricity retail rates when utility customers are prosumers
Saumweber, Andrea; Wederhake, Lars; Cardoso, Gonçalo et al

in Energy Policy (2021), 156

Electric retail rate design is relevant to utilities, customers, and regulators as retail rates impact the utility's revenue as well as the customers' electricity bills. In California, regulators approve ... [more ▼]

Electric retail rate design is relevant to utilities, customers, and regulators as retail rates impact the utility's revenue as well as the customers' electricity bills. In California, regulators approve rate proposals by privately owned vertical integrated utilities. Approval, however, is subject to compliance with multiple, potentially conflicting objectives such as economic or environmental objectives. Additionally, retail rates are price signals that affect how customers use electricity services. When utility customers change their usage, they also impact the ratemaking objectives to which rates have been designed. This suggests a feedback loop, which is particularly pronounced with prosumers, as they can systematically optimize their interactions with the electricity system. Prevalent ratemaking methods may not deliver retail rates that are optimal for multiple objectives when customers are prosumers. We propose a novel ratemaking method that formalizes the problem of designing retail rates as a multi-criteria optimization problem and accounts for prosumer reactions through a simulation-based optimization approach. Through a fictive case study, we found that the resulting Pareto frontiers are useful in recognizing and balancing tradeoffs among conflicting ratemaking objectives. Additionally, our results indicate that prevailing retail rates in California are not Pareto optimal. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Contribution of Microglia to Neuroinflammation in Parkinson's Disease.
Badanjak, Katja UL; Fixemer, Sonja UL; Smajic, Semra UL et al

in International journal of molecular sciences (2021), 22(9),

With the world's population ageing, the incidence of Parkinson's disease (PD) is on the rise. In recent years, inflammatory processes have emerged as prominent contributors to the pathology of PD. There ... [more ▼]

With the world's population ageing, the incidence of Parkinson's disease (PD) is on the rise. In recent years, inflammatory processes have emerged as prominent contributors to the pathology of PD. There is great evidence that microglia have a significant neuroprotective role, and that impaired and over activated microglial phenotypes are present in brains of PD patients. Thereby, PD progression is potentially driven by a vicious cycle between dying neurons and microglia through the instigation of oxidative stress, mitophagy and autophagy dysfunctions, a-synuclein accumulation, and pro-inflammatory cytokine release. Hence, investigating the involvement of microglia is of great importance for future research and treatment of PD. The purpose of this review is to highlight recent findings concerning the microglia-neuronal interplay in PD with a focus on human postmortem immunohistochemistry and single-cell studies, their relation to animal and iPSC-derived models, newly emerging technologies, and the resulting potential of new anti-inflammatory therapies for PD. [less ▲]

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See detailDemand-Based Adaptive Multi-Beam Pattern and Footprint Planning for High Throughput GEO Satellite Systems
Jubba Honnaiah, Puneeth UL; Maturo, Nicola; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL et al

in IEEE Open Journal of the Communications Society (2021)

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See detailChemical vapor deposition of CoFe2O4 micropillar arrays with enhanced magnetic properties
Aspe, B.; Malyeyev, Artem UL; Vakilinejad, A. et al

in Journal of Alloys and Compounds (2021), 890

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See detailThe Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate and Its Relation to Cell Shape and Rigidity of Red Blood Cells from Chorea-Acanthocytosis Patients in an Off-Label Treatment with Dasatinib.
Rabe, Antonia; Kihm, Alexander; Darras, Alexis et al

in Biomolecules (2021), 11(5),

BACKGROUND: Chorea-acanthocytosis (ChAc) is a rare hereditary neurodegenerative disease with deformed red blood cells (RBCs), so-called acanthocytes, as a typical marker of the disease. Erythrocyte ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Chorea-acanthocytosis (ChAc) is a rare hereditary neurodegenerative disease with deformed red blood cells (RBCs), so-called acanthocytes, as a typical marker of the disease. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) was recently proposed as a diagnostic biomarker. To date, there is no treatment option for affected patients, but promising therapy candidates, such as dasatinib, a Lyn-kinase inhibitor, have been identified. METHODS: RBCs of two ChAc patients during and after dasatinib treatment were characterized by the ESR, clinical hematology parameters and the 3D shape classification in stasis based on an artificial neural network. Furthermore, mathematical modeling was performed to understand the contribution of cell morphology and cell rigidity to the ESR. Microfluidic measurements were used to compare the RBC rigidity between ChAc patients and healthy controls. RESULTS: The mechano-morphological characterization of RBCs from two ChAc patients in an off-label treatment with dasatinib revealed differences in the ESR and the acanthocyte count during and after the treatment period, which could not directly be related to each other. Clinical hematology parameters were in the normal range. Mathematical modeling indicated that RBC rigidity is more important for delayed ESR than cell shape. Microfluidic experiments confirmed a higher rigidity in the normocytes of ChAc patients compared to healthy controls. CONCLUSIONS: The results increase our understanding of the role of acanthocytes and their associated properties in the ESR, but the data are too sparse to answer the question of whether the ESR is a suitable biomarker for treatment success, whereas a correlation between hematological and neuronal phenotype is still subject to verification. [less ▲]

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See detailFailing forward in Economic and Monetary Union: explaining weak Eurozone financial support mechanisms
Howarth, David UL; Quaglia, Lucia

in Journal of European Public Policy (2021), 28(10), 1555-1572

In this article, we apply the ‘failing forward’ approach to analyse the negotiations on and design of reforms to Eurozone economic governance to tackle the Covid-19-related crisis of Economic and Monetary ... [more ▼]

In this article, we apply the ‘failing forward’ approach to analyse the negotiations on and design of reforms to Eurozone economic governance to tackle the Covid-19-related crisis of Economic and Monetary Union (EMU). This crisis highlights both spill-overs from major asymmetries in EMU and weaknesses in the incomplete economic governance of the Eurozone. We focus on the financial support mechanisms agreed upon after intergovernmental negotiations in major crisis situations. These reforms represent compromise solutions that reflect well-entrenched disagreements among member states. We explain why more far-reaching reforms to Eurozone economic governance – notably, the adoption of mutualized Euro-denominated debt and the generalized use of grants over loans – have not been adopted, despite the severity of the Covid-19-related crisis. These reforms – notably the Next Generation European Union (NGEU) financial package adopted in July 2020 – fail to address and, rather, contribute to existing asymmetries, thus sowing the seeds of future crises. [less ▲]

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See detailThe precautionary principle under European Union Law
Donati, Alessandra UL

in Hitotsubashi Journal of Law and Politics (2021)

By acknowledging the flexible and complex nature of the precautionary principle in EU law, the purpose of this paper is to provide a polycentric interpretation of this principle based on diversity rather ... [more ▼]

By acknowledging the flexible and complex nature of the precautionary principle in EU law, the purpose of this paper is to provide a polycentric interpretation of this principle based on diversity rather than uniformity. To achieve this objective, a methodology derived from the methodological pluralism is employed. This allows for the unitas multiplex between the different definitions and applications of the precautionary principle to be researched. The core claim of this paper is that the polycentric interpretation of the precautionary principle can be built on two concepts: anticipation and action. In the first part of this paper, I argue that anticipation implies the qualification by law and the evaluation by the science of uncertain risks. In the second part, I consider that, after having anticipated the time of action, decision-makers should act based on the precautionary principle. However, the action undertaken has different meanings and consequences from the procedural and substantive perspective. From the procedural side, the decision-makers should take into account this principle, while they remain free, on the substantive side, to adopt a precautionary measure. [less ▲]

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See detailTest Selection for Deep Learning Systems
Ma, Wei UL; Papadakis, Mike UL; Tsakmalis, Anestis et al

in ACM Transactions on Software Engineering and Methodology (2021), 30(2), 131--1322

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See detailKummer theory for number fields via entanglement groups
Perucca, Antonella UL; Sgobba, Pietro UL; Tronto, Sebastiano UL

in Manuscripta Mathematica (2021)

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See detailA competitive Predator–Prey approach to enhance surveillance by UAV swarms
Stolfi, Daniel H.; Brust, Matthias R. UL; Danoy, Grégoire UL et al

in Applied Soft Computing (2021), 111

In this paper we present the competitive optimisation of a swarm of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) protecting a restricted area from a number of intruders following a Predator–Prey approach. We propose a ... [more ▼]

In this paper we present the competitive optimisation of a swarm of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) protecting a restricted area from a number of intruders following a Predator–Prey approach. We propose a Competitive Coevolutionary Genetic Algorithm (CompCGA) which optimises the parameters of the UAVs (i.e. predators) to maximise the detection of intruders, while the parameters of the intruders (i.e. preys) are optimised to maximise their intrusion success rate. Having chosen the CACOC (Chaotic Ant Colony Optimisation for Coverage) as the base mobility model for the UAVs, we propose an improved new version, where its behaviour is modified by identifying and optimising new parameters to improve the overall success rate when detecting intruders. Six case studies have been optimised using simulations by performing 30 independent runs (180 in total) of our CompCGA. Finally, we conducted a series of master tournaments (1,800,000 evaluations) using the best specimens obtained from each run and case study to test the robustness of our proposed approach against unexpected intruders. Our surveillance system improved the average percentage of intruders detected with respect to CACOC by a maximum of 126%. More than 90% of intruders were detected on average when using a swarm of 16 UAVs while CACOC’s detection rates are always under 80% in all cases. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment and Validation of the Revised Multicultural Ideology Scale in Germany and Luxembourg
Stogianni, Maria UL; Berry, John; Grigoryev, Dmitry et al

in Psychological Reports (2021)

A revised version of the Multicultural Ideology Scale (rMCI; Berry 2020; Berry et al., 1977) is currently being developed to measure endorsement of multiculturalism in different cultural contexts. The ... [more ▼]

A revised version of the Multicultural Ideology Scale (rMCI; Berry 2020; Berry et al., 1977) is currently being developed to measure endorsement of multiculturalism in different cultural contexts. The current study, which is part of this cross-cultural research project, presents the first assessment of the rMCI scale in the German language. The measure aims to cover several attitudinal dimensions of multiculturalism, relevant to the integration of different ethnocultural groups: Cultural Maintenance, Equity/Inclusion, Social interaction, Essentialistic Boundaries, Extent of Differences, and Consequences of Diversity. Two independent datasets were acquired from Germany (N = 382) and Luxembourg (N = 148) to estimate the factor structure of the rMCI using different confirmatory factor analysis techniques. The findings suggest that a 4-factor solution, including Cultural Maintenance, Equity/Inclusion, Social interaction, and Consequences of Diversity, was the best fit for the data. Most of these subscales demonstrated adequate psychometric properties (internal consistency, convergent, and discriminant validity). The 4-factor model of the rMCI was partially invariant across the two ethnic groups and full measurement invariance was established across gender. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterizing autonomous Maxwell demons
Freitas, Nahuel; Esposito, Massimiliano UL

in Physical Review. E. (2021), 103(3), 032118

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See detailOn the distribution of the order and index for the reductions of algebraic numbers
Sgobba, Pietro UL

in Journal of Number Theory (2021)

Let \alpha_1,...,\alpha_r be algebraic numbers in a number field K generating a subgroup of rank r in K*. We investigate under GRH the number of primes p of K such that each of the orders of (\alpha_i mod ... [more ▼]

Let \alpha_1,...,\alpha_r be algebraic numbers in a number field K generating a subgroup of rank r in K*. We investigate under GRH the number of primes p of K such that each of the orders of (\alpha_i mod p) lies in a given arithmetic progression associated to (\alpha_i). We also study the primes p for which the index of (\alpha_i mod p) is a fixed integer or lies in a given set of integers for each i. An additional condition on the Frobenius conjugacy class of p may be considered. Such results are generalizations of a theorem of Ziegler from 2006, which concerns the case r=1 of this problem. [less ▲]

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See detailCONSOLE: intruder detection using a UAV swarm and security rings
Stolfi, Daniel H.; Brust, Matthias R. UL; Danoy, Grégoire UL et al

in Swarm Intell. (2021), 15(3), 205--235

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See detailSpelling patterns of plural marking and learning trajectories in French taught as a foreign language
Weth, Constanze UL; Ugen, Sonja UL; Fayol, Michel et al

in Written Language and Literacy (2021), 24(1), 81-110

Although French plural spelling has been studied extensively, the complexity of factors affecting the learning of French plural spelling are not yet fully explained, namely on the level of adjectival and ... [more ▼]

Although French plural spelling has been studied extensively, the complexity of factors affecting the learning of French plural spelling are not yet fully explained, namely on the level of adjectival and verbal plural. This study investigates spelling profiles of French plural markers of 228 multilingual grade 5 pupils with French taught as a foreign language. Three analyses on the learner performances of plural spelling in nouns, verbs and pre- and postnominal attributive adjectives were conducted (1) to detect the pupils’ spelling profiles of plural marking on the basis of the performances in the pretest, (2) to test the profiles against two psycholinguistic theories, and (3) to evaluate the impact of the training on each spelling profile in the posttest. The first analysis confirms the existing literature that pupils’ learning of French plural is not random but ordered and emphasizes the role of the position for adjectives (pre- or postnominal) on correct plural spelling. The second analysis reveals the theoretical difficulties of predicting spelling of adjectival and verbal plural. The third analysis shows that strong and poor spellers both benefit from a morphosyntactic training and provides transparency and traceability of the learning trajectories. Together, the descriptive analyses reveal clear patterns of intra-individual spelling profiles. They point to a need for further research in those areas that have empirically provided the most inconsistent results to date and that are not supported by the theories: verbs and adjectives. [less ▲]

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See detailAnimal Faces: the Question of the Gaze
Roelens, Nathalie UL

in Lexia (2021)

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See detailPredictive and interpretable models via the stacked elastic net
Rauschenberger, Armin UL; Glaab, Enrico UL; van de Wiel, Mark

in Bioinformatics (2021), 37(14), 20122016

Motivation: Machine learning in the biomedical sciences should ideally provide predictive and interpretable models. When predicting outcomes from clinical or molecular features, applied researchers often ... [more ▼]

Motivation: Machine learning in the biomedical sciences should ideally provide predictive and interpretable models. When predicting outcomes from clinical or molecular features, applied researchers often want to know which features have effects, whether these effects are positive or negative, and how strong these effects are. Regression analysis includes this information in the coefficients but typically renders less predictive models than more advanced machine learning techniques. Results: Here we propose an interpretable meta-learning approach for high-dimensional regression. The elastic net provides a compromise between estimating weak effects for many features and strong effects for some features. It has a mixing parameter to weight between ridge and lasso regularisation. Instead of selecting one weighting by tuning, we combine multiple weightings by stacking. We do this in a way that increases predictivity without sacrificing interpretability. Availability and Implementation: The R package starnet is available on GitHub: https://github.com/rauschenberger/starnet. [less ▲]

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See detailSocial robotics and deception: beyond the ethical approach
Carli, Rachele UL

in Proceedings of BNAIC/BeneLearn 2021 (2021)

Social robots are designed to directly interact with users, to collaborate with them and to act in a human-centred environment, with different degrees of automation. In order to encourage acceptability ... [more ▼]

Social robots are designed to directly interact with users, to collaborate with them and to act in a human-centred environment, with different degrees of automation. In order to encourage acceptability and trust, they are structured as so to leverage the human tendency to anthropomorphise what they interact with. It follows that some machines are able to simulate the feeling of genuine emotions or empathy, to appear needy of help, to pretend to have an own rersonality and – more in general – to induce the user to think that they are something more than mere objects. Thus, it may be argued that such interaction could lead to forms of manipulation that fall within the remit of a deceptive dynamic. Such a phenomenon is still much debated by the scientific community and raises significant concerns regarding long-term ethical and psychological repercussions on the users. This paper investigates which tools we have and which ones we may need to tackle the theme of deception in social robotics. Therefore, both ethical and legal perspectives are reconstructed, with the attempt to try to distinguish their respective scope and to emphasise their fruitful in tegration in addressing these issues. Finally, the possible relevance of fundamental human rights in human-robot interaction dynamics is dis cussed, due to their ability to reconcile ethical demands with the binding feature of legal norms. [less ▲]

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See detailEntre 'dette du sang' et 'military labour migration': les Luxembourgeois engagés dans la Légion étrangère (1831-1914)
Vecchiato, Sébastien; Kolnberger, Thomas UL

in Revue Historique des Armées (2021), 302

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See detailSoft law Evropských orgánů dohledu: nezávazné unijní akty se závaznými vnitrostátními účinky
Hubkova, Pavlina UL

in Právní rozhledy (2021), 29(17), 573-583

In the EU, some tasks in the area of financial regulation were delegated to the European Supervisory Authorities (ESAs). These EU agencies are empowered, among others, to issue guidelines and ... [more ▼]

In the EU, some tasks in the area of financial regulation were delegated to the European Supervisory Authorities (ESAs). These EU agencies are empowered, among others, to issue guidelines and recommendations, i. e. soft law acts. From the Union's point of view, these acts are not legally binding. However, in the Czech context and mainly due to their enforcement by the Czech National Bank (CNB), these acts become practically binding for their main addressees - financial institutions. Such a setting demonstrates how multilevel regulation and enforcement in the EU work. The article analyses the Czech regulatory context and the practice of the CNB in order to show that ESA soft law acts may be genuine soft law in the relation between the EU and the Member States, but they are capable to induce binding legal effects on the national level when the national competent authority decides, within its discretion, to comply with them. Based on this analysis, the article also addresses issues related to the control and possible judicial review of ESA soft law. [less ▲]

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See detailEnhanced Nonlinear Emission from Single Multilayered Metal−Dielectric Nanocavities Resonating in the Near-Infrared
Maccaferri, Nicolò UL; Zilli, Attilio; Isoniemi, Tommi et al

in ACS Photonics (2021), 8(2), 512-520

Harmonic generation mechanisms are of great interest in nanoscience and nanotechnology, since they allow generating visible light by using near-infrared radiation, which is particularly suitable for its ... [more ▼]

Harmonic generation mechanisms are of great interest in nanoscience and nanotechnology, since they allow generating visible light by using near-infrared radiation, which is particularly suitable for its countless applications in bionanophotonics and optoelectronics. In this context, multilayer metal−dielectric nanocavities are widely used for light confinement and waveguiding at the nanoscale. They exhibit intense and localized resonances that can be conveniently tuned in the near-infrared and are therefore ideal for enhancing nonlinear effects in this spectral range. In this work, we experimentally investigate the nonlinear emission properties of multilayer metal−dielectric nanocavities. By engineering their absorption efficiency and exploiting their intrinsic interface-induced symmetry breaking, we achieve an almost 2 orders of magnitude higher second-harmonic generation efficiency compared to gold nanostructures featuring the same geometry and optical resonant behavior. In particular, while both the third-order nonlinear susceptibility and conversion efficiency are comparable with those of the Au nanoresonators, we estimate a second-order nonlinear susceptibility of the order of 1 pm/V, which is comparable with that of typical nonlinear crystals. We envision that our system, which combines the advantages of both plasmonic and dielectric materials, might enable the realization of composite and multifunctional nanosystems for the efficient manipulation of nonlinear optical processes at the nanoscale. [less ▲]

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See detailEtude experimentale et numerique du comportement mecanique d'une solution innovante de pourte mixte Acier-Beton en forme de U
Turetta, Maxime; Martin, Pierre-Oliver; Khelil, Abdelouahab et al

in Revue construction métallique (2021), 1

Pour conquérir de nouvelles parts de marché ou simplement défendre ses positions sur un marché très concurrentiel, il faut sans cesse améliorer la compétitivité des procédés constructifs utilisés. La ... [more ▼]

Pour conquérir de nouvelles parts de marché ou simplement défendre ses positions sur un marché très concurrentiel, il faut sans cesse améliorer la compétitivité des procédés constructifs utilisés. La prise en compte de la réglementation incendie s’avère avoir une grande influence sur les matériaux constructifs et peut remettre en cause certains avantages de la filière métallique. Les solutions mixtes acier-béton constituent un très bon compromis, permettant d’optimiser la consommation des matériaux, de réduire les temps de montage tout en répondant aux exigences réglementaires en matière de sécurité incendie même les plus contraignantes notamment pour des établissements recevant du public (ERP), des sites sensibles ou encore des immeubles de grande hauteur (IGH). [less ▲]

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See detailBücherschau
Steveker, Lena UL; Laqué, Stephan

in Shakekespeare Jahrbuch (2021), 157

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See detailVoting and winning: perceptions of electoral integrity in consolidating democracies
Mochtak, Michal UL; Lesschaeve, Christophe UL; Glaurdic, Josip UL

in Democratization (2021), 28(8), 1423-1441

How do voters in consolidating democracies see electoral integrity? How does election affect the change in perception of electoral integrity among these voters? What role does winning play in seeing an ... [more ▼]

How do voters in consolidating democracies see electoral integrity? How does election affect the change in perception of electoral integrity among these voters? What role does winning play in seeing an election as free and fair? Building on the theory of the winner-loser gap, we answer these questions using original two-wave panel surveys we conducted before and after three parliamentary elections in Southeast Europe in 2018 and 2020. The article focuses on changes of perception of electoral integrity as a function of satisfaction with the electoral results in contexts where the quality of elections has always been at the centre of political conflict. We specifically explore the socialization effect of elections in environments with notoriously low trust in political institutions and high electoral stakes. The article goes beyond the “sore loser” hypothesis and examines voters’ both political preferences and personal characteristics potentially responsible for the change in perception of electoral integrity over the course of electoral cycle. [less ▲]

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See detailIntroduction: sémiotiques de l'archive
Fickers, Andreas UL; Dondero, Maria Guilia; Tore, Gian Maria UL et al

in Signata. Annales des Sémiotiques (2021), 12

Ce numéro de Signata vise à poser la question de l’archive d’un point de vue sémiotique et sémio-pragmatique. On entend ici par « sémiotique » non pas une discipline unique, mais une pluralité de manières ... [more ▼]

Ce numéro de Signata vise à poser la question de l’archive d’un point de vue sémiotique et sémio-pragmatique. On entend ici par « sémiotique » non pas une discipline unique, mais une pluralité de manières de questionner le sens, les formes et les valeurs au sein des disciplines historiques, sociologiques, philosophiques, linguistiques, médiatiques, artistiques, etc. Le but du dossier est ainsi la constitution d’une cartographie qui embrasse les différentes approches qui, dans le domaine de l’archive, peuvent faire émerger les questionnements liés au sens. [less ▲]

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See detailAlgorithm based on 2‐bit adaptive delta modulation and fractional linear prediction for Gaussian source coding
Peric, Zoran; Denic, Bojan; Despotovic, Vladimir UL

in IET Signal Processing (2021), 15(6), 410-423

A novel 2-bit adaptive delta modulation (ADM) algorithm is presented based on uniform scalar quantization and fractional linear prediction (FLP) for encoding the signals modelled by a Gaussian probability ... [more ▼]

A novel 2-bit adaptive delta modulation (ADM) algorithm is presented based on uniform scalar quantization and fractional linear prediction (FLP) for encoding the signals modelled by a Gaussian probability density function. The study focusses on two major areas: realization of a 2-bit adaptive quantizer based on Q-function approximation that significantly facilitates quantizer design; and implementation of a recently introduced FLP approach with the memory of two samples, which replaces the first-order linear prediction used in standard ADM algorithms and enables improved performance without increasing transmission costs. It furthermore represents the first implementation of FLP in signal encoding, therefore confirming its applicability in a real signal-processing scenario. Based on the performance analysis conducted on a real speech signal, the proposed ADM algorithm with FLP is demonstrated to outperform other 2-bit ADM baselines by a large margin for the gain in signal-to-noise ratio achieved over a wide dynamic range of input signals. The results of this research indicate that ADM with adaptive quantization based on Q-function approximation and adaptive FLP represents a promising solution for encoding/compression of correlated time-varying signals following the Gaussian distribution. [less ▲]

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See detailCABEAN: a software for the control of asynchronous Boolean networks
Su, Cui; Pang, Jun UL

in Bioinformatics (2021), 36(6), 879-881

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See detailThe degree of Kummer extensions of number fields
Perucca, Antonella UL; Sgobba, Pietro UL; Tronto, Sebastiano UL

in International Journal of Number Theory (2021)

Let K be a number field, and let \alpha_1, ... , \alpha_r be elements of K* which generate a subgroup of K* of rank r. Consider the cyclotomic-Kummer extensions of K given by K(\zeta_n, \sqrt[n_1]{\alpha ... [more ▼]

Let K be a number field, and let \alpha_1, ... , \alpha_r be elements of K* which generate a subgroup of K* of rank r. Consider the cyclotomic-Kummer extensions of K given by K(\zeta_n, \sqrt[n_1]{\alpha_1}, ... , \sqrt[n_r]{\alpha_r}), where n_i divides n for all i. There is an integer x such that these extensions have maximal degree over K(\zeta_g, \sqrt[g_1]{\alpha_1}, ... , \sqrt[g_r]{\alpha_r}), where g=\gcd(n,x) and g_i=\gcd(n_i,x). We prove that the constant x is computable. This result reduces to finitely many cases the computation of the degrees of the extensions K(\zeta_n, \sqrt[n_1]{\alpha_1}, ... , \sqrt[n_r]{\alpha_r}) over K. [less ▲]

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See detailHistory of Medicine: European perspectives
Majerus, Benoît UL

in European Journal for the History of Medicine and Health (2021), 78(1), 5--14

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See detailThe Geostationary Ring: Practice and Law, Martha Mejia-Kaiser, Nijhoff/ Brill, Leiden 2020
Hofmann, Mahulena UL; Blount, Percy UL

in Air and Space Law (2021), 46(3), 475-478

The book is a comprehensive analysis of the international regime of the geostationary orbit.

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See detailPerceived Ageism During the Covid-19-Crisis is Longitudinally Related to Subjective Perceptions of Aging
Kornadt, Anna Elena UL; Albert, Isabelle UL; Hoffmann, Martine et al

in Frontiers in Public Health (2021)

Ageism in media and society has increased sharply during the Covid-19-crisis, with expected negative consequences for the health and well-being of older adults. The current study investigates whether ... [more ▼]

Ageism in media and society has increased sharply during the Covid-19-crisis, with expected negative consequences for the health and well-being of older adults. The current study investigates whether perceived ageism during the crisis longitudinally affects how people perceive their own aging. In June 2020, N = 611 older adults from Luxembourg [aged 60 – 98 years, Mage(SD) = 69.92(6.97)] participated in a survey on their perception of the crisis. In October 2020, N = 523 participated in a second measurement occasion. Participants reported on perceived ageism during the crisis in different domains, their self-perceptions of aging and subjective age. In latent longitudinal regression models, we predicted views on aging at T2 with perceived ageism at T1, while controlling for baseline views on aging and covariates. Perceived ageism at T1 increased self-perceptions of aging as social loss and yielded a trend for physical decline, while there were no effects on subjective age and self-perceptions of aging as continued growth. Views on aging are powerful predictors of well-being and health outcomes in later life. Our data suggest that being the target of ageism during the crisis negatively affects older adults’ self-perceptions of aging and this impact may be felt beyond the current crisis. [less ▲]

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See detailReturn migration and self-employment: is there a 'jack-of-all-trades' effect?
Mahe, Clotilde UL

in Oxford Economic Papers (2021)

With reference to Lazear’s jack-of-all-trades hypothesis, I examine whether migrants are more likely to be self-employed upon return because of the diverse work experience they gained abroad. The ... [more ▼]

With reference to Lazear’s jack-of-all-trades hypothesis, I examine whether migrants are more likely to be self-employed upon return because of the diverse work experience they gained abroad. The endogeneity between migration, human capital investment, and self-employment is addressed by exploiting exogenous cohort and regional variation in the decision to migrate in the context of Egypt, and parental labour market information. Return migrants’ higher propensity to be self-employed is shown to proceed from participating in significantly more occupations over their work history than non-migrants. In line with Lazear’s framework, estimates confirm that entrepreneurship can be learnt, and that exposure to multiple occupations matters for entrepreneurship. [less ▲]

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See detailSocioeconomic and behavioural factors associated with access to and use of Personal Health Records
Paccoud, Ivana UL; Baumann, Michèle UL; Le Bihan, Etienne UL et al

in BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making (2021), 21

Background: Access to and use of digital technology are more common among people of higher socioeconomic status. These differences might be due to lack of interest, not having physical access or having ... [more ▼]

Background: Access to and use of digital technology are more common among people of higher socioeconomic status. These differences might be due to lack of interest, not having physical access or having lower intentions to use this technology. By integrating the digital divide approach and the User Acceptance of Information Technology (UTAUT) model, this study aims to further our understanding of socioeconomic factors and the mechanisms linked to different stages in the use of Personal Health Records (PHR): desire, intentions and physical access to PHR. Methods: A cross-sectional online and in-person survey was undertaken in the areas of Lorraine (France), Luxembourg, Rhineland-Palatinate and Saarland (Germany), and Wallonia (Belgium). Exploratory factor analysis was performed to group items derived from the UTAUT model. We applied linear and logistic regressions controlling for country-level heterogeneity, health and demographic factors. Results: A total of 829 individuals aged over 18 completed the questionnaire. Socioeconomic inequalities were present in the access to and use of PHR. Education and income played a significant role in individuals' desire to access their PHR. Being older than 65 years, and migrant, were negatively associated with desire to access PHR. An income gradient was found in having a physical access to PHR, while for the subgroup of respondents who expressed desire to have access, higher educational level was positively associated with intentions to regularly use PHR. In fully adjusted model testing the contribution of UTAUT-derived factors, individuals who perceived PHRs to be useful and had the necessary digital skills were more inclined to use their PHR regularly. Social influence, support and lack of anxiety in using technology were strong predictors of regular PHR use. Conclusion: The findings highlight the importance of considering all stages in PHR use: desire to access, physical access and intention to regularly use PHRs, while paying special attention to migrants and people with lower socioeconomic backgrounds who may feel financial constraints and are not able to exploit the potential of PHRs. As PHR use is expected to come with health benefits, facilitating access and regular use for those less inclined could reduce health inequalities and advance health equity. [less ▲]

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See detailA deep learning-based concept for high throughput image flow cytometry
Martin-Wortham, Julie; Recktenwald, Steffen M.; Lopes, Marcelle G. M. et al

in APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS (2021), 118(12),

We propose a flow cytometry concept that combines a spatial optical modulation scheme and deep learning for lensless cell imaging. Inspired by auto-encoder techniques, an artificial neural network mimics ... [more ▼]

We propose a flow cytometry concept that combines a spatial optical modulation scheme and deep learning for lensless cell imaging. Inspired by auto-encoder techniques, an artificial neural network mimics the optical transfer function of a particular microscope and camera for certain types of cells once trained and reconstructs microscope images from simple waveforms that are generated by cells in microfluidic flow. This eventually enables the label-free detection of cells at high throughput while simultaneously providing their corresponding brightfield images. The present work focuses on the computational proof of concept of this method by mimicking the waveforms. Our suggested approach would require a minimum set of optical components such as a collimated light source, a slit mask, and a light sensor and could be easily integrated into a ruggedized lab-on-chip device. The method is benchmarked with a well-investigated dataset of red blood cell images. [less ▲]

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See detailNo Voice, No Choice: Assessing Danish Active Labour Market Policies Using Sen’s Capability Approach.
Fernandez Urbano, Roger UL; Orton, Michael

in Work, Employment and Society (2021), 35(1), 178-188

Active Labour Market Policies (ALMPs) are the subject of ongoing interest, which has included the framing of ALMPs as the re-commodification of labour. It has also been argued that Sen’s Capability ... [more ▼]

Active Labour Market Policies (ALMPs) are the subject of ongoing interest, which has included the framing of ALMPs as the re-commodification of labour. It has also been argued that Sen’s Capability Approach (CA) offers the potential to reconsider ALMPs from a more progressive viewpoint – so, is this the case and to what extent is, or can, the CA be a helpful research and analytical tool with which to study ALMPs? These questions are addressed through a reflexive examination of a study of Danish ALMPs, which utilized the CA and key themes of capabilities promotion, voice and choice. The CA influenced all aspects of the research design, methods and analysis. It is argued that the CA is a helpful methodology in bringing a new perspective to studying ALMPs. Additionally, the study raised concerns about the trajectory of the Danish ALMPs studied and possible alternatives to current approaches. [less ▲]

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See detailHarmonic amplitude summation for frequency-tagging analysis
Retter, Talia UL; Rossion, Bruno; Schiltz, Christine UL

in Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience (2021)

In the approach of frequency tagging, stimuli that are presented periodically generate periodic responses of the brain. Following a transformation into the frequency domain, the brain’s response is often ... [more ▼]

In the approach of frequency tagging, stimuli that are presented periodically generate periodic responses of the brain. Following a transformation into the frequency domain, the brain’s response is often evident at the frequency of stimulation, F, and its higher harmonics (2F, 3F, etc.). This approach is increasingly used in neuroscience, as it affords objective measures to characterize brain function. However, whether these specific harmonic frequency responses should be combined for analysis, and if so, how, remains an outstanding issue. In most studies, higher harmonic responses have not been described or were described only individually; in other studies, harmonics have been combined with various approaches, e.g., averaging and root mean squared summation. A rationale for these approaches in the context of frequency-based analysis principles, and understanding of how they relate to the brain’s response amplitudes in the time domain, has been missing. Here, with these elements addressed, the summation of (baseline-corrected) harmonic amplitude is recommended. [less ▲]

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See detailKilling Stubborn Mutants with Symbolic Execution
Titcheu Chekam, Thierry UL; Papadakis, Mike UL; Cordy, Maxime UL et al

in ACM Transactions on Software Engineering and Methodology (2021), 30(2), 191--1923

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See detailDyPS: Dynamic, Private and Secure GWAS
Pascoal, Túlio UL; Decouchant, Jérémie UL; Boutet, Antoine et al

in Proceedings on Privacy Enhancing Technologies (2021)

Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) identify the genomic variations that are statistically associated with a particular phenotype (e.g., a disease). The confidence in GWAS results increases with the ... [more ▼]

Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) identify the genomic variations that are statistically associated with a particular phenotype (e.g., a disease). The confidence in GWAS results increases with the number of genomes analyzed, which encourages federated computations where biocenters would periodically share the genomes they have sequenced. However, for economical and legal reasons, this collaboration will only happen if biocenters cannot learn each others’ data. In addition, GWAS releases should not jeopardize the privacy of the individuals whose genomes are used. We introduce DyPS, a novel framework to conduct dynamic privacy-preserving federated GWAS. DyPS leverages a Trusted Execution Environment to secure dynamic GWAS computations. Moreover, DyPS uses a scaling mechanism to speed up the releases of GWAS results according to the evolving number of genomes used in the study, even if individuals retract their participation consent. Lastly, DyPS also tolerates up to all-but-one colluding biocenters without privacy leaks. We implemented and extensively evaluated DyPS through several scenarios involving more than 6 million simulated genomes and up to 35,000 real genomes. Our evaluation shows that DyPS updates test statistics with a reasonable additional request processing delay (11% longer) compared to an approach that would update them with minimal delay but would lead to 8% of the genomes not being protected. In addition, DyPS can result in the same amount of aggregate statistics as a static release (i.e., at the end of the study), but can produce up to 2.6 times more statistics information during earlier dynamic releases. Besides, we show that DyPS can support a larger number of genomes and SNP positions without any significant performance penalty. [less ▲]

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See detail‘It’s the political economy..!’ A moment of truth for the eurozone and the EU
Dani, Marco; Chiti, Edoardo; Mendes, Joana UL et al

in International Journal of Constitutional Law (2021), 19(1), 309327

The article discusses the Weiss dispute from a political economy perspective. It first sets this litigation in its wider context, namely the protracted transformation of the Economic and Monetary Union ... [more ▼]

The article discusses the Weiss dispute from a political economy perspective. It first sets this litigation in its wider context, namely the protracted transformation of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) over the last decade, a decade which has revealed the structural flaws in its design. It then briefly sketches the changing role of central banking, from a fixation on fighting inflation to a more recent focus on combating deflation. This helps to explain the problematic character of the Weiss rulings and the commentaries they have provoked, illustrating a general failure to consider the limits of law, the result of clinging to different parts of the EMU wreckage, on the assumption that the current constitutional framework remains viable. Finally, the article emphasizes the transformative potential of the Weiss saga. The judicial conflict lays bare the unsustainability of the present arrangements, and reveals the necessity of a choice between genuinely federal integration and coordinated dismantling of EMU. [less ▲]

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See detailParliamentary Scrutiny of Brexit in the EU-27 Pragmatic Cooperation with a Dominant European Parliament
Högenauer, Anna-Lena UL

in International Journal of Parliamentary Studies (2021), 1(2),

Concerns about a democratic deficit in the European Union reached new heights in recent years, as the organization has had to address a number of highly politicized challenges. In this context, the ... [more ▼]

Concerns about a democratic deficit in the European Union reached new heights in recent years, as the organization has had to address a number of highly politicized challenges. In this context, the question of how much oversight should be exercised by the European Parliament (ep) and national parliaments individually or collectively becomes increasingly salient. Against this background, this article argues that on the issue of Brexit the ep has been quick to carve out a role for itself. However, unlike in previous trade negotiations, national parliaments took a backseat on Brexit despite its potential impact on member states. This is largely due to the similarity of national and party positions on Brexit. In addition, the way the different interparliamentary bodies addressed Brexit reveals the limitations of these bodies in terms of their powers and the depth of their discussions. [less ▲]

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See detailCritical Assessment of MetaProteome Investigation (CAMPI): a multi-laboratory comparison of established workflows
Van Den Bossche, Tim; Kunath, Benoît UL; Schallert, Kay et al

in Nature Communications (2021), 12(1), 7305

Abstract Metaproteomics has matured into a powerful tool to assess functional interactions in microbial communities. While many metaproteomic workflows are available, the impact of method choice on ... [more ▼]

Abstract Metaproteomics has matured into a powerful tool to assess functional interactions in microbial communities. While many metaproteomic workflows are available, the impact of method choice on results remains unclear. Here, we carry out a community-driven, multi-laboratory comparison in metaproteomics: the critical assessment of metaproteome investigation study (CAMPI). Based on well-established workflows, we evaluate the effect of sample preparation, mass spectrometry, and bioinformatic analysis using two samples: a simplified, laboratory-assembled human intestinal model and a human fecal sample. We observe that variability at the peptide level is predominantly due to sample processing workflows, with a smaller contribution of bioinformatic pipelines. These peptide-level differences largely disappear at the protein group level. While differences are observed for predicted community composition, similar functional profiles are obtained across workflows. CAMPI demonstrates the robustness of present-day metaproteomics research, serves as a template for multi-laboratory studies in metaproteomics, and provides publicly available data sets for benchmarking future developments. [less ▲]

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See detailLocalization System for Lightweight Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in Inspection Tasks
Benjumea, Diego; Alcántara, Alfonso; Ramos, Agustin et al

in Sensors (2021), 21(17 5937),

This paper presents a localization system for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) especially designed to be used in infrastructure inspection, where the UAVs have to fly in challenging conditions, such as ... [more ▼]

This paper presents a localization system for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) especially designed to be used in infrastructure inspection, where the UAVs have to fly in challenging conditions, such as relatively high altitude (e.g., 15 m), eventually with poor or absent GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) signal reception, or the need for a BVLOS (Beyond Visual Line of Sight) operation in some periods. In addition, these infrastructure inspection applications impose the following requirements for the localization system: defect traceability, accuracy, reliability, and fault tolerance. Our system proposes a lightweight solution combining multiple stereo cameras with a robotic total station to comply with these requirements, providing full-state estimation (i.e., position, orientation, and linear and angular velocities) in a fixed and time-persistent reference frame. Moreover, the system can align and fuse all sensor measurements in real-time at high frequency. We have integrated this localization system in our aerial platform, and we have tested its performance for inspection in a real-world viaduct scenario, where the UAV has to operate with poor or absent GNSS signal at high altitude. [less ▲]

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See detailUAV-UGV-UMV Multi-Swarms for Cooperative Surveillance
Stolfi Rosso, Daniel UL; Brust, Matthias R. UL; Danoy, Grégoire UL et al

in Frontiers in Robotics and AI (2021), 8

In this paper we present a surveillance system for early detection of escapers from a restricted area based on a new swarming mobility model called CROMM-MS (Chaotic Rössler Mobility Model for Multi ... [more ▼]

In this paper we present a surveillance system for early detection of escapers from a restricted area based on a new swarming mobility model called CROMM-MS (Chaotic Rössler Mobility Model for Multi-Swarms). CROMM-MS is designed for controlling the trajectories of heterogeneous multi-swarms of aerial, ground and marine unmanned vehicles with important features such as prioritising early detections and success rate. A new Competitive Coevolutionary Genetic Algorithm (CompCGA) is proposed to optimise the vehicles’ parameters and escapers’ evasion ability using a predator-prey approach. Our results show that CROMM-MS is not only viable for surveillance tasks but also that its results are competitive in regard to the state-of-the-art approaches. [less ▲]

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See detailThe mainstreaming of EU affairs: a challenge for parliamentary administrations
Högenauer, Anna-Lena UL

in Journal of Legislative Studies (2021)

Past research has identified a trend towards the bureaucratisation of the parliamentary scrutiny of EU affairs. It highlighted the role of parliamentary staff in selecting relevant issues, advising on ... [more ▼]

Past research has identified a trend towards the bureaucratisation of the parliamentary scrutiny of EU affairs. It highlighted the role of parliamentary staff in selecting relevant issues, advising on subsidiarity and procedures and drafting of opinions and resolutions. However, while administrators clearly play a role, less is known about the Europeanisation of parliamentary administrations. In particular, the impact of the growing Europeanisation of sectoral committees on the Europeanisation of staff is unexplored. This article presents data from a survey of parliamentary administrations in 2021, which shows that the Europeanisation of parliamentary administrations extends beyond the main units in charge of EU affairs and affects sectoral committee staff more generally. At the same time, it reveals that the organisation of staff support for EU affairs varies greatly across the national parliaments depending on the organisation of the political scrutiny, on administrative capacity and on pre-existing units. [less ▲]

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See detailNot all elementary school teachers are scared of math
Artemenko, Christina; Masson, Nicolas UL; Georges, Carrie UL et al

in Journal of Numerical Cognition (2021)

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See detailRegulating Libra
Zetzsche, Dirk Andreas UL; Buckley, Ross; Arner, Douglas

in Oxford Journal of Legal Studies (2021)

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See detailAn Exploratory Study of COVID-19 Information on Twitter in the Greater Region
Chen, Ninghan UL; Zhong, Zhiqiang UL; Pang, Jun UL

in Big Data and Cognitive Computing (2021), 5(1), 5

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See detailHow do cross-country differences in institutional trust and trust in family explain the mixed performance effects of family management? A meta-analysis
Jaskiewicz, Peter; Block, Joern; Wagner, Dominik et al

in Journal of World Business (2021), 56(5),

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See detailThe EU’s Impact on Data-driven Finance
Zetzsche, Dirk Andreas UL; Weber; Arner, Douglas et al

in Common Market Law Review (2021)

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See detailDevelopmental changes in neural letter-selectivity: A 1-year follow-up of beginning readers
van de Walle de Ghelcke, Alice; Rossion, Bruno; Schiltz, Christine UL et al

in Developmental science (2021), 24(1), 12999

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See detailMotives and profiles of ICO investors
Fisch, Christian UL; Masiak, Christian; Vismara, Silvio et al

in Journal of Business Research (2021), 125(3), 564-576

Research on initial coin offerings (ICOs) is nascent and assesses ICOs from the perspectives of ventures and regulators. Little is known about the equally important group of investors who provide their ... [more ▼]

Research on initial coin offerings (ICOs) is nascent and assesses ICOs from the perspectives of ventures and regulators. Little is known about the equally important group of investors who provide their capital to ventures in ICOs. Using a primary dataset of 517 ICO investors, we identify and categorize the motivations to invest in ICOs using factor analysis. We find that investors are driven by ideological, technological, and financial motives. Regarding the relative importance of the motives, we find that technological motives are the most important motives to ICO investors, followed by financial and ideological motives. To further profile investors, we conduct a regression analysis to distinguish investors across different motives. For example, we show significant differences across motives with regard to investors' risk perception, sources of information, and demand for strict regulation. The implications of this study for both theory and practice are considerable. [less ▲]

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See detailWhich criteria matter when impact investors screen social enterprises?
Block, Jörn; Hirschmann, Mirko; Fisch, Christian UL

in Journal of Corporate Finance (2021), 66

Impact investors pursue both financial and social goals and have become an important source of funding for social enterprises. Our study assesses impact investor criteria when screening social enterprises ... [more ▼]

Impact investors pursue both financial and social goals and have become an important source of funding for social enterprises. Our study assesses impact investor criteria when screening social enterprises. Applying an experimental conjoint analysis to a sample of 179 impact investors, we find that the three most important criteria are the authenticity of the founding team, the importance of the societal problem targeted by the venture, and the venture’s financial sustainability. We then compare the importance of these screening criteria across different types of impact investors (i.e., donors, equity investors, and debt investors). We find that donors pay more attention to the importance of the societal problem and less attention to financial sustainability than do equity and debt investors. Additionally, equity investors place a higher value on the largescale implementation of the social project than do debt investors. We contribute to the nascent literature on impact investing by documenting how impact investors make investment decisions and by providing a nuanced view of different investor types active in this novel market. Practical implications exist for both impact investors and social enterprises. [less ▲]

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See detailIntraoperative discrimination of native meningioma and dura mater by Raman spectroscopy
Jelke, Finn; Mirizzi, Giulia; Borgmann, Felix Kleine et al

in Scientific Reports (2021)

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See detailPublic family firms and capital structure: A meta-analysis
Hansen, Christopher UL; Block, Joern

in Corporate Governance: An International Review (2021), 29(3), 297-319

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See detailUps & Downs. Reception histories in architecture
Van Gerrewey, Christophe; Peleman, David UL; Agyin, Justin et al

in OASE Journal for Architecture (2021), (108), 1-6

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See detailBlurring the boundaries: University actorhood and institutional change in global higher education
Zapp, Mike UL; Marques, Marcelo; Powell, Justin J W UL

in Comparative Education (2021), 57

Higher education (HE) scholarship often focuses on the so-called ‘entrepreneurial’ university as a consequence of new public management reforms. Simultaneously the remarkable expansion of private HE is ... [more ▼]

Higher education (HE) scholarship often focuses on the so-called ‘entrepreneurial’ university as a consequence of new public management reforms. Simultaneously the remarkable expansion of private HE is said to fragment specialize and diversify HE systems. Such diagnoses are misleading as they ignore wider environmental pressures and simultaneous changes in both public non-profit and for-profit HE. We argue that putative diversity in HE operates as a ceremonial façade behind which large-scale isomorphic change across national HE systems sectors and organizational forms occurs. Multiple causes trigger such change originating in the increasingly global HE environment including a burgeoning international HE regime accounting and accountability practices increased permeability of HE systems facilitated by open borders education markets and global science as well as (neo)liberal ideologies stressing human capital and human rights. As other organizations those in HE become subject to these pressures turning universities into more rationalized standardized and strategic actors. [less ▲]

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See detailLocal times and sample path properties of the Rosenblatt process
Kerchev, George UL; Nourdin, Ivan UL; Saksman, Eero et al

in Stochastic Processes and Their Applications (2021), 131

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See detailTarzan and chain: exploring the ICO jungle and evaluating design archetypes
Bachmann, Nina M.; Drasch, Benedict; Fridgen, Gilbert UL et al

in Electronic Markets (2021)

The phenomenon of a blockchain use case called initial coin offering (ICO) is drawing increasing attention as a novel funding mechanism. ICO is a crowdfunding type that utilizes blockchain tokens to allow ... [more ▼]

The phenomenon of a blockchain use case called initial coin offering (ICO) is drawing increasing attention as a novel funding mechanism. ICO is a crowdfunding type that utilizes blockchain tokens to allow for truly peer-to-peer investments. Although more than \$7bn has been raised globally via ICOs as at 2018, the concept and its implications are not yet entirely understood. The research lags behind in providing in-depth analyses of ICO designs and their long-term success. We address this research gap by developing an ICO taxonomy, applying a cluster analysis to identify prevailing ICO archetypes, and providing an outlook on the token value market performance for individual archetypes. We identify five ICO design archetypes and display their secondary market development from both a short-term and a long-term perspective. We contribute to an in-depth understanding of ICOs and their implications. Further, we offer practitioners tangible design and success indications for future ICOs. [less ▲]

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See detailFAIR-ifying the Exposome Journal: Templates for Chemical Structures and Transformations
Schymanski, Emma UL; Bolton, Evan E.

in Exposome (2021)

Abstract The exposome, the totality of lifetime exposures, is a new and highly complex paradigm for health and disease. Tackling this challenge requires an effort well beyond single individuals or ... [more ▼]

Abstract The exposome, the totality of lifetime exposures, is a new and highly complex paradigm for health and disease. Tackling this challenge requires an effort well beyond single individuals or laboratories, where every piece of the puzzle will be vital. The launch of this new Exposome journal coincides with the evolution of the exposome through its teenage years and into a growing maturity in an increasingly open and FAIR (findable, accessible, interoperable, reusable) world. This letter discusses how both authors and the Exposome journal alike can help increase the FAIRness of the chemical structural information and the associated metadata in the journal, aiming to capture more details about the chemistry of exposomics. The proposed chemical structure template can serve as an interoperable supplementary format that is made accessible through the website and more findable by linking the DOI of this data file to the article DOI metadata, supporting further reuse. An additional Transformations template provides authors with a means to connect predecessor (parent, substrate) molecules to successor (transformation product, metabolite) molecules and thus provide FAIR connections between observed (i.e., experimental) chemical exposures and biological responses, to help improve the public knowledgebase on exposome-related transformations. These connections are vital to extend current biochemical knowledge and to fulfil the current Exposome definition of “the cumulative measure of environmental influences and associated biological responses throughout the lifespan including exposures from the environment, diet, behaviour, and endogenous processes”. [less ▲]

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See detailDiscovering ePassport Vulnerabilities using Bisimilarity
Horne, Ross James UL; Mauw, Sjouke UL

in Logical Methods in Computer Science (2021), 17(2), 241--2452

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See detailDas Schöne und das Monströse bei Eichendorff und Shelley
Kohns, Oliver UL

in Mitteilungen des Deutschen Germanistenverbandes (2021), 68(2), 192-208

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See detailPersonal life satisfaction as a measure of societal happiness is an individualistic presumption: Evidence from fifty countries
Krys, Kuba; Park, Joonha; Kocimska-Zych, Agata et al

in Journal of Happiness Studies (2021), 22

Numerous studies document that societal happiness is correlated with individualism, but the nature of this phenomenon remains understudied. In the current paper, we address this gap and test the reasoning ... [more ▼]

Numerous studies document that societal happiness is correlated with individualism, but the nature of this phenomenon remains understudied. In the current paper, we address this gap and test the reasoning that individualism correlates with societal happiness because the most common measure of societal happiness (i.e., country-level aggregates of personal life satisfaction) is individualism-themed. With the data collected from 13,009 participants across fifty countries, we compare associations of four types of happiness (out of which three are more collectivism-themed than personal life satisfaction) with two different measures of individualism. We replicated previous findings by demonstrating that societal happiness measured as country-level aggregate of personal life satisfaction is correlated with individualism. Importantly though, we also found that the country-level aggregates of the collectivism-themed measures of happiness do not tend to be significantly correlated with individualism. Implications for happiness studies and for policy makers are signaled. [less ▲]

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See detailChronique européenne Principes du droit administratif européen
Neframi, Eleftheria UL

in Revue Française d'Administration Publique (2021)

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See detailStatistical model checking for variability-intensive systems: applications to bug detection and minimization
Cordy, Maxime UL; Lazreg, Sami UL; Papadakis, Mike UL et al

in Formal Aspects of Computing (2021), 33(6), 1147--1172

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See detailScalable Cell-Free Massive MIMO Systems: Impact of Hardware Impairments
Papazafeiropoulos, Anastasios; Björnson, Emil; Kourtessis, Pandelis et al

in IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology (2021), 70(10), 9701-9715

Scalable cell-free CF (SCF) massive multiple-input-multiple-output (mMIMO) systems is a promising technology to cover the demands for higher data rates and increasing number of users in fifth generation ... [more ▼]

Scalable cell-free CF (SCF) massive multiple-input-multiple-output (mMIMO) systems is a promising technology to cover the demands for higher data rates and increasing number of users in fifth generation (5G) networks and beyond. According to this concept, a large number of distributed access points (APs) communicates with the users in the network by means of joint coherent transmission while facing the main challenges against standard CF mMIMO systems being their high fronthaul load and computational complexity. Given that the cost-efficient deployment of such large networks requires low-cost transceivers being prone to unavoidable hardware imperfections, in this work, we focus on their impact on the advantageous SCF mMIMO systems by means of a general model accounting for both additive and multiplicative hardware impairments (HWIs). Notably, the scalability, depending on the time-variant characteristics of the network, is clearly affected by means of HWIs being time-varying. There is no other work in the literature studying the phase noise (PN) in CF mMIMO systems or in general any HWIs in SCF mMIMO systems. Hence, we derive upper and lower bounds on the uplink capacity accounting for HWIs. Especially, the lower bound is derived in closed-form by means of the theory of deterministic equivalents (DEs) and after obtaining the optimal hardware-aware (HA) partial minimum mean-squared error (PMMSE) combiner. Among the interesting findings, we observe that separate local oscillators (SLOs) outperform a common LO (CLO) architecture, and the additive transmit distortion degrades more the performance than the receive distortion. [less ▲]

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See detailLimit theorems for integral functionals of Hermite-driven processes
Garino, Valentin UL; Nourdin, Ivan UL; Nualart, David et al

in Bernoulli (2021), 27(3), 1764-1788

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See detailEvaluation of global ocean tide models based on tidal gravity observations in China
Tan, Hongbo; Francis, Olivier UL; Wu, Guiju et al

in Geodesy and Geodynamics (2021), 12(6), 451-458

Previous studies show that the calculated loading effects from global ocean tide models do not match actual measurements of gravity attraction and loading effects in Southeast Asia. In this paper, taking ... [more ▼]

Previous studies show that the calculated loading effects from global ocean tide models do not match actual measurements of gravity attraction and loading effects in Southeast Asia. In this paper, taking advantage of a unique network of gravity tidal stations all over the Chinese mainland, we compare the observed and modeled tidal loading effects on the basis of the most recent global ocean tide models. The results show that the average efficiencies of the ocean tidal loading correction for O1, K1, M2 are 77%, 73% and 59%, respectively. The loading correction efficiencies using recent ocean tidal models are better than the 40 years old Schwiderskis model at coastal stations, but relative worse at stations far from ocean. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimal Detection of Multiple Symbol-Slotted Random Access based Packet Transmissions
Kisseleff, Steven UL; Gerstacker, Wolfgang H.

in IEEE Wireless Communications Letters (2021)

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See detailDegree Adjusted Large-Scale Network Analysis Reveals Novel Putative Metabolic Disease Genes.
Badkas, Apurva UL; Nguyen, Thanh-Phuong UL; Caberlotto, Laura et al

in Biology (2021), 10(2),

A large percentage of the global population is currently afflicted by metabolic diseases (MD), and the incidence is likely to double in the next decades. MD associated co-morbidities such as non-alcoholic ... [more ▼]

A large percentage of the global population is currently afflicted by metabolic diseases (MD), and the incidence is likely to double in the next decades. MD associated co-morbidities such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and cardiomyopathy contribute significantly to impaired health. MD are complex, polygenic, with many genes involved in its aetiology. A popular approach to investigate genetic contributions to disease aetiology is biological network analysis. However, data dependence introduces a bias (noise, false positives, over-publication) in the outcome. While several approaches have been proposed to overcome these biases, many of them have constraints, including data integration issues, dependence on arbitrary parameters, database dependent outcomes, and computational complexity. Network topology is also a critical factor affecting the outcomes. Here, we propose a simple, parameter-free method, that takes into account database dependence and network topology, to identify central genes in the MD network. Among them, we infer novel candidates that have not yet been annotated as MD genes and show their relevance by highlighting their differential expression in public datasets and carefully examining the literature. The method contributes to uncovering connections in the MD mechanisms and highlights several candidates for in-depth study of their contribution to MD and its co-morbidities. [less ▲]

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See detailSustainability and finance: utopian oxymoron or achievable companionship?
Bodellini, Marco UL

in Law and Economics Yearly Review (2021)

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See detailSuspending is Believing
Raleigh, Thomas UL

in Synthese (2021), 198

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See detailApplication of Raman Spectroscopy for Detection of Histologically Distinct Areas in Formalin-fixed Paraffin-embedded (FFPE) Glioblastoma
Klamminger, Gilbert Georg; Gerardy, Jean-Jacques UL; Jelke, Finn et al

in Neuro-Oncology Advances (2021)

Background Although microscopic assessment is still the diagnostic gold standard in pathology, non-light microscopic methods such as new imaging methods and molecular pathology have considerably ... [more ▼]

Background Although microscopic assessment is still the diagnostic gold standard in pathology, non-light microscopic methods such as new imaging methods and molecular pathology have considerably contributed to more precise diagnostics. As an upcoming method, Raman spectroscopy (RS) offers a "molecular fingerprint" which could be used to differentiate tissue heterogeneity or diagnostic entities. RS has been successfully applied on fresh and frozen tissue, however more aggressively, chemically treated tissue such as formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples are challenging for RS. Methods To address this issue, we examined FFPE samples of morphologically highly heterogeneous glioblastoma (GBM) using RS in order to classify histologically defined GBM areas according to RS spectral properties. We have set up a SVM (support vector machine)-based classifier in a training cohort and corroborated our findings in a validation cohort. Results Our trained classifier identified distinct histological areas such as tumor core and necroses in GBM with an overall accuracy of 70.5% based on spectral properties of RS. With an absolute misclassification of 21 out of 471 Raman measurements, our classifier has the property of precisely distinguishing between normal appearing brain tissue and necrosis. When verifying the suitability of our classifier system in a second independent dataset, very little overlap between necrosis and normal appearing brain tissue can be detected. Conclusion These findings show that histologically highly variable samples such as GBM can be reliably recognized by their spectral properties using RS. As a conclusion, we propose that RS may serve useful as a future method in the pathological toolbox. [less ▲]

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See detailPredictors of Problematic Social Media Use in a Nationally Representative Sample of Adolescents in Luxembourg
van Duin, Claire UL; Heinz, Andreas UL; Willems, Helmut Erich UL

in International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (2021), 18(22),

Social media use has increased substantially over the past decades, especially among adolescents. A proportion of adolescents develop a pattern of problematic social media use (PSMU). Predictors of PSMU ... [more ▼]

Social media use has increased substantially over the past decades, especially among adolescents. A proportion of adolescents develop a pattern of problematic social media use (PSMU). Predictors of PSMU are insufficiently understood and researched. This study aims to investigate predictors of PSMU in a nationally representative sample of adolescents in Luxembourg. Data from the Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC) study in Luxembourg were used, in which 8687 students aged 11–18 years old participated. The data were analyzed using hierarchical multiple regression. A range of sociodemographic, social support, well-being and media use predictors were added to the model in four blocks. The predictors in the final model explained 22.3% of the variance in PSMU. The block of sociodemographic predictors explained the lowest proportion of variance in PSMU compared with the other blocks. Age negatively predicted PSMU. Of the predictors related to social support, cyberbullying perpetration was the strongest predictor of PSMU. Perceived stress and psychosomatic complaints positively predicted PSMU. The intensity of electronic media communication and preference for online social interaction were stronger predictors of PSMU than the other predictors in the model. The results indicate that prevention efforts need to consider the diverse range of predictors related to PSMU. [less ▲]

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See detailWhat is Negation in a System 2020?
Gabbay, Dov M. UL

in IfCoLog Journal of Logics and Their Applications (2021), 8(7), 1977--2034

The notion of negation is basic to any formal or informal logical system. When any such system is presented to us, it is presented either as a system without negation or as a system with some form of ... [more ▼]

The notion of negation is basic to any formal or informal logical system. When any such system is presented to us, it is presented either as a system without negation or as a system with some form of negation. In both cases we are supposed to know intuitively whether there is no negation in the system or whether the form of negation presented in the system is indeed as claimed. To be more specific, suppose Robinson Crusoe writes a logical system with Hilbert type axioms and rules, which includes a unary connective *A. He puts the document in a bottle and let it lose at sea. We find it and take a look. We ask: is the connective "*" a negation in the system? Yet the notion of what is negation in a formal system is not clear. When we see a unary connective *A, (A a wff) together with some other axioms for some additional connectives, how can we tell whether *A is indeed a form of negation of A? Are there some axioms which the connective "*" must satisfy in order to qualify * as a negation? [less ▲]

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See detailSovereign Digital Currencies: Reshaping the Design of Money and Payment Systems
Zetzsche, Dirk Andreas UL; Buckley, Ross; Arner, Douglas et al

in 15:1 Journal of Payments Strategy & Systems (2021)

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See detailOld Ways and New Ways to Handle Failing Banks across the Atlantic
Bodellini, Marco UL

in Journal of Comparative Law (2021)

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See detailUnderstanding Electoral Violence through Complex Textual Data: OSCE Monitoring Missions in Different Contexts
Mochtak, Michal UL

in Studies in Conflict and Terrorism (2021), 44(8), 646-667

The paper analyses more than 20 years of evidence on electoral violence as reported by OSCE monitoring mission reports. It identifies prevailing trends of electoral violence in the OSCE participating ... [more ▼]

The paper analyses more than 20 years of evidence on electoral violence as reported by OSCE monitoring mission reports. It identifies prevailing trends of electoral violence in the OSCE participating states in order to better understand how the phenomenon is understood and framed by leading international monitoring organizations in the region. The analysis utilizes a unique approach based on automated content analysis employing counting algorithms and latent semantic indexing. The results of the analysis show how electoral violence differs throughout the region while highlighting the qualitative variations in regional patterns of the reported incidents of election-related violence. [less ▲]

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See detailA robust protocol for the generation of human midbrain organoids
Zagare, Alise UL; Gobin, Matthieu UL; Monzel, Anna et al

in STAR Protocols (2021)

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See detailA human stem cell-derived test system for agents modifying neuronal N-methyl-d-aspartate-type glutamate receptor Ca2+-signalling
Klima, Stefanie; Brüll, Markus; Spreng, Anna-Sophie et al

in Archives of Toxicology (2021)

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See detailThe Value of Coordination in Multimarket Bidding of Grid Energy Storage
Löhndorf, Nils UL; Wozabal, David

in Operations Research (2021)

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See detailThe Twentieth-Century Ministerial Office Building as a Laboratory of Government
van de Maele, Jens UL

in Moderne Stadtgeschichte (2021), (2), 147-166

Within the historiographical field of “political architecture”, ministerial office buildings have always been a somewhat marginal subject, undeservedly deemed of secondary importance in relation to more ... [more ▼]

Within the historiographical field of “political architecture”, ministerial office buildings have always been a somewhat marginal subject, undeservedly deemed of secondary importance in relation to more “representative” types of political buildings. Dwelling on the insights of the nineteenth-century essayist Bagehot and the office historians Duffy and Gardey, my contribution postulates that from the early twentieth century onward, ministerial office architecture has become an essential functional component of any political configuration, as well as a phenomenon defined by a complex interrelationship between physical realities and managerial norms. Even though various historiographical contributions from the last two decades have successfully scrutinised the reciprocal conceptual relations between politics and architecture in relation to ministerial offices, the huge influence of internationally circulating managerial norms such as Taylorism has strangely remained under the radar. Using the example of Belgium during the interwar period, I seek to demonstrate how such norms were strongly mobilised when new ministerial office buildings were planned, and how their propagators even considered “modern” and “efficient” office architecture to be an agent of broad social reform. With this case study, I would like to call attention to the need for a transnational comparative perspective covering the intermingled domains of politics, architecture, and management. [less ▲]

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See detailRole of the Industry in the Enforcement of the Tobacco Policy: Between Necessary Mistrust and Necessary Cooperation
Tosza, Stanislaw UL

in Utrecht Law Review (2021), 17(1), 5972

Tobacco products are heavily regulated because, in particular, of their acknowledged harmfulness to health, with highly elevated prices as one of the most important means of discouraging consumption. One ... [more ▼]

Tobacco products are heavily regulated because, in particular, of their acknowledged harmfulness to health, with highly elevated prices as one of the most important means of discouraging consumption. One of the most serious threats to the effectiveness of the tobacco policy comes from the trafficking of illicit tobacco, which is much cheaper, often of lower quality, and which reduces state and EU revenues. The achievement of tobacco policy objectives, in particular the combatting of illicit tobacco trade, depends on the participation of private actors, amongst which big industry plays a crucial role. Yet, the legal landscape of enforcement duties of the tobacco industry is a patchwork of instruments, unevenly affecting different players. In particular it includes controversial agreements between the major tobacco producers and the EU and Member States, to which three out of four major producers are subject. The agreement with the fourth – PMI – was not extended by the Commission in 2016. The decision as to the extension of the remaining agreements is looming. The objective of this article is to analyse the framework of duties of the tobacco industry in the enforcement of the tobacco policy, especially against illicit tobacco, and to reflect on whether the enforcement model, including the agreements with the tobacco producers, should be kept or abandoned. [less ▲]

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