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See detailKummer theory for multiquadratic or quartic cyclic number fields
Perissinotto, Flavio UL; Perucca, Antonella UL

in Uniform distribution theory (2022), 17(no. 2), 165-194

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See detailRetrait des contenus terroristes en ligne : l'Union européenne lutte contre la propagande terroriste virtuelle
Delhaise, Elise UL

in Revue du Droit des Technologies de l'Information (2022)

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See detailVoir ou être vu : analyses de visibilité depuis le site de Chèvremont (commune de Chaudfontaine, Belgique)
van Ruymbeke, Muriel UL; Nys, Gilles-Antoine

in Bulletin de la Société Géographique de Liège (2022), 1

Le site de Chèvremont est connu dans l’histoire liégeoise depuis le Haut Moyen-Âge. L’archéologie a montré que la colline a été fréquentée depuis au moins la période néolithique. Intuitivement, tous les ... [more ▼]

Le site de Chèvremont est connu dans l’histoire liégeoise depuis le Haut Moyen-Âge. L’archéologie a montré que la colline a été fréquentée depuis au moins la période néolithique. Intuitivement, tous les auteurs qui se sont rendus sur le site décrivent un endroit d’où le panorama est impressionnant. Nous tentons ici d’utiliser les analyses de visibilité pour mesurer et comparer l’ampleur de la visibilité atteinte depuis plusieurs points du plateau sommital. [less ▲]

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See detailSingle-cell transcriptional profiling and gene regulatory network modeling in Tg2576 mice reveal gender-dependent molecular features preceding Alzheimer-like pathologies
Ali, Muhammad UL; Huarte, Oihane; Heurtaux, Tony UL et al

in Molecular Neurobiology (2022), in press (doi:10.1007/s12035-022-02985-2)(in press),

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) onset and progression is influenced by a complex interplay of several environmental and genetic factors, one of them gender. Pronounced gender differences have been observed both ... [more ▼]

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) onset and progression is influenced by a complex interplay of several environmental and genetic factors, one of them gender. Pronounced gender differences have been observed both in the relative risk of developing AD and in clinical disease manifestations. A molecular level understanding of these gender disparities is still missing, but could provide important clues on cellular mechanisms modulating the disease and reveal new targets for gender-oriented disease-modifying precision therapies. We therefore present here a comprehensive single-cell analysis of disease-associated molecular gender differences in transcriptomics data from the neocortex, one of the brain regions most susceptible to AD, in one of the most widely used AD mouse models, the Tg2576 model. Cortical areas are also most commonly used in studies of post-mortem AD brains. To identify disease-linked molecular processes that occur before the onset of detectable neuropathology, we focused our analyses on an age with no detectable plaques and microgliosis. Cell-type specific alterations were investigated at the level of individual genes, pathways, and gene regulatory networks. The number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) was not large enough to build context-specific gene regulatory networks for each individual cell type, and thus, we focused on the study of cell types with dominant changes and included analyses of changes across the combination of cell types. We observed significant disease-associated gender differences in cellular processes related to synapse organization and axonogenesis, and identified a limited set of transcription factors, including Egr1 and Klf6, as key regulators of many of the disease-associated and gender-dependent gene expression changes in the model. Overall, our analyses revealed significant celltype-specific gene expression changes in individual genes, pathways and subnetworks, including gender-specific and gender-dimorphic changes in both upstream transcription factors and their downstream targets, in the Tg2576 AD model before the onset of overt disease. This opens a window into molecular events that could determine gender-susceptibility to AD, and uncovers tractable target candidates for potential gender-specific precision medicine for AD. [less ▲]

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See detailDocumenting COVID-19 for Future Historians?
Krebs, Stefan UL; Zumthurm, Tizian; Logge, Thorsten et al

in History of Intellectual Culture (2022), 1

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See detailRelevé de caducité non contradictoire
Menetrey, Séverine UL

in La semaine juridique JCP G (2022)

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See detailHeterogeneous Innovation over the Business Cycle
Manso, Gustavo; Balsmeier, Benjamin UL; Fleming, Lee

in Review of Economics and Statistics (2022)

Schumpeter (1939) claims that recessions are periods of “creative destruction,” concentrating innovation that is useful for the long-term growth of the economy. However previous research finds that ... [more ▼]

Schumpeter (1939) claims that recessions are periods of “creative destruction,” concentrating innovation that is useful for the long-term growth of the economy. However previous research finds that standard measures of firms’ innovation, such as R&D expenditures or raw patent counts, concentrate in booms. We argue that these measures do not capture shifts in firms’ innovative search strategies. We contemplate firms’ choice between exploration vs. exploitation over the business cycle and find evidence with more nuanced measures of patent characteristics that firms shift towards exploration during contractions and exploitation during expansions, with a stronger effect for firms in more cyclical industries. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Effect of Noise Level on the Accuracy of Causal Discovery Methods with Additive Noise Models
Kap, Benjamin; Aleksandrova, Marharyta UL; Engel, Thomas UL

in Communications in Computer and Information Science (2022), 1530

In recent years a lot of research was conducted within the area of causal inference and causal learning. Many methods were developed to identify the cause-effect pairs. These methods also proved their ... [more ▼]

In recent years a lot of research was conducted within the area of causal inference and causal learning. Many methods were developed to identify the cause-effect pairs. These methods also proved their ability to successfully determine the direction of causal relationships from observational real-world data. Yet in bivariate situations, causal discovery problems remain challenging. A class of methods, that also allows tackling the bivariate case, is based on Additive Noise Models (ANMs). Unfortunately, one aspect of these methods has not received much attention until now: what is the impact of different noise levels on the ability of these methods to identify the direction of the causal relationship? This work aims to bridge this gap with the help of an empirical study. We consider a bivariate case and two specific methods Regression with Subsequent Independence Test and Identification using Conditional Variances. We perform a set of experiments with an exhaustive range of ANMs where the additive noises’ levels gradually change from 1% to 10000% of the causes’ noise level (the latter remains fixed). Additionally, we consider several different types of distributions as well as linear and non-linear ANMs. The results of the experiments show that these causal discovery methods can fail to capture the true causal direction for some levels of noise. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Implementation of the EU Directives 2019/770 and 2019/771 in Luxembourg
Pflücke, Felix UL

in Journal of European Consumer and Market Law (2022), 11(3)

The Loi du 8 décembre 2021 transposed the EU maximum harmonisation Directives 2019/770 (DCD) and 2019/771 (SGD) into the Luxembourg Consumer Code (Code de la consommation). As required by the two ... [more ▼]

The Loi du 8 décembre 2021 transposed the EU maximum harmonisation Directives 2019/770 (DCD) and 2019/771 (SGD) into the Luxembourg Consumer Code (Code de la consommation). As required by the two Directives, the new rules are effective as of 1 January 2022 and replace previous national rules that transposed the minimum harmonisation Consumer Sales and Guarantees Directive 1999/44/EC. It is worth noting that Luxembourg decided not to ‘gold-plate’, that is enacting rules that go beyond an EU Directive’s minimum harmonisation standard, when implementing Directive 1999/44/EC. This report will thus demonstrate that the national rules transposing the Directives grant Luxembourg’s consumers new statutory protections. The underlying objectives of this report are to briefly examine the level of consumer protection prior to the adoption of the two Directives and to map subsequent changes. This includes whether Luxembourg decided to exercise its discretion regarding the optional provisions of Directive 2019/771, in particular Articles 3(5) and (7), 10(6), 11(2), 12, and 17(4) of the Directive. Section II of this report examines the personal and material scope as well as new definitions, Section III rules on conformity, liability, and burden of proof, Section IV remedies, and Section V commercial guarantees. Section VI concludes the report. [less ▲]

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See detailMechanistically Coupled PK (MCPK) Model to Describe Enzyme Induction and Occupancy Dependent DDI of Dabrafenib Metabolism.
Albrecht, Marco; Kogan, Yuri; Kulms, Dagmar et al

in Pharmaceutics (2022), 14(2),

Dabrafenib inhibits the cell proliferation of metastatic melanoma with the oncogenic BRAF(V600)-mutation. However, dabrafenib monotherapy is associated with pERK reactivation, drug resistance, and ... [more ▼]

Dabrafenib inhibits the cell proliferation of metastatic melanoma with the oncogenic BRAF(V600)-mutation. However, dabrafenib monotherapy is associated with pERK reactivation, drug resistance, and consequential relapse. A clinical drug-dose determination study shows increased pERK levels upon daily administration of more than 300 mg dabrafenib. To clarify whether such elevated drug concentrations could be reached by long-term drug accumulation, we mechanistically coupled the pharmacokinetics (MCPK) of dabrafenib and its metabolites. The MCPK model is qualitatively based on in vitro and quantitatively on clinical data to describe occupancy-dependent CYP3A4 enzyme induction, accumulation, and drug-drug interaction mechanisms. The prediction suggests an eight-fold increase in the steady-state concentration of potent desmethyl-dabrafenib and its inactive precursor carboxy-dabrafenib within four weeks upon 150 mg b.d. dabrafenib. While it is generally assumed that a higher dose is not critical, we found experimentally that a high physiological dabrafenib concentration fails to induce cell death in embedded 451LU melanoma spheroids. [less ▲]

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See detailMorphological principles of neuronal mitochondria
Mendelsohn, Rachel; Garcia, Guadalupe C.; Bartol, Thomas M. et al

in Journal of Comparative Neurology (2022), 530(6), 886--902

In the highly dynamic metabolic landscape of a neuron, mitochondrial membrane architectures can provide critical insight into the unique energy balance of the cell. Current theoretical calculations of ... [more ▼]

In the highly dynamic metabolic landscape of a neuron, mitochondrial membrane architectures can provide critical insight into the unique energy balance of the cell. Current theoretical calculations of functional outputs like adenosine triphosphate and heat often represent mitochondria as idealized geometries, and therefore, can miscalculate the metabolic fluxes. To analyze mitochondrial morphology in neurons of mouse cerebellum neuropil, 3D tracings of complete synaptic and axonal mitochondria were constructed using a database of serial transmission electron microscopy (TEM) tomography images and converted to watertight meshes with minimal distortion of the original microscopy volumes with a granularity of 1.64 nanometer isotropic voxels. The resulting in-silico representations were subsequently quantified by differential geometry methods in terms of the mean and Gaussian curvatures, surface areas, volumes, and membrane motifs, all of which can alter the metabolic output of the organelle. Finally, we identify structural motifs present across this population of mitochondria, which may contribute to future modeling studies of mitochondrial physiology and metabolism in neurons. [less ▲]

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See detailKara Ben Nemsi spielt Klavier. Orientalismus und Männlichkeitskrise in Karl Mays Orientzyklus (Karl May: Von Bagdad nach Stambul)
Börnchen, Stefan UL

in Zeitschrift für interkulturelle Germanistik 2022 13/01 (2022), 13/01

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See detailAn adaptive multiscale quasicontinuum approach for mechanical simulations of elastoplastic periodic lattices
Chen, Li UL; Berke, Peter; Massart, Thierry et al

in Mechanics Research Communications (2022), 126

The quasicontinuum method is a multiscale method that combines locally supported coarse-grained domains, with small regions in which the microstructural model is fully resolved. This contribution proposes ... [more ▼]

The quasicontinuum method is a multiscale method that combines locally supported coarse-grained domains, with small regions in which the microstructural model is fully resolved. This contribution proposes the first adaptive formulation of the method for microstructural elastoplasticity. The microstructural model uses an elastoplastic beam description. The indicator for refinement is the occurrence of plastic deformation, such that plasticity can only occur in fully resolved regions. An illustrative numerical example of a scratch test of an elastoplastic Kelvin lattice demonstrates the capabilities of the resulting framework. [less ▲]

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See detailStress hormone signalling inhibits Th1 polarization in a CD4 T-cell-intrinsic manner via mTORC1 and the circadian gene PER1
Capelle, Christophe M.; Chen, Anna; Zeng, Ni et al

in Immunology (2022), 165(4), 428--444

Stress hormones are believed to skew the CD4 T-cell differentiation towards a Th2 response via a T-cell-extrinsic mechanism. Using isolated primary human naïve and memory CD4 T cells, here we show that ... [more ▼]

Stress hormones are believed to skew the CD4 T-cell differentiation towards a Th2 response via a T-cell-extrinsic mechanism. Using isolated primary human naïve and memory CD4 T cells, here we show that both adrenergic- and glucocorticoid-mediated stress signalling pathways play a CD4 naïve T-cell-intrinsic role in regulating the Th1/Th2 differentiation balance. Both stress hormones reduced the Th1 programme and cytokine production by inhibiting mTORC1 signalling via two parallel mechanisms. Stress hormone signalling inhibited mTORC1 in naïve CD4 T cells (1) by affecting the PI3K/AKT pathway and (2) by regulating the expression of the circadian rhythm gene, period circadian regulator 1 (PER1). Both stress hormones induced the expression of PER1, which inhibited mTORC1 signalling, thus reducing Th1 differentiation. This previously unrecognized cell-autonomous mechanism connects stress hormone signalling with CD4 T-cell differentiation via mTORC1 and a specific circadian clock gene, namely PER1. [less ▲]

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See detailLow-Complexity Antenna Selection and Discrete Phase-Shifts Design in IRS-Assisted Multiuser Massive MIMO Networks
Abdullah, Zaid UL; Chen, Gaojie; Lambotharan, Sangarapillai et al

in IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology (2022)

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See detailNeue Perspektiven zur PISA Global Competence Messung basierend auf Reflexionen zum luxemburgischen Bildungsbericht
Andersen, Katja Natalie UL

in Zeitschrift für internationale Bildungsforschung und Entwicklungspädagogik (2022), 45(1), 33-38

In this article, the National Education Report Luxembourg 2021 with the focus on Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) is taken as the basis for developing new perspectives on the PISA Global ... [more ▼]

In this article, the National Education Report Luxembourg 2021 with the focus on Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) is taken as the basis for developing new perspectives on the PISA Global Competence measurement. In a first step, the empirical findings presented in the education report and their theoretical foundation are critically examined and impulses are shown that are significant for continuing the discussion about global competence measurement. Based on this, in a second step, the key competencies of ESD that become visible in the education report are worked out and compared with the approach of the OECD presented in the Global Competence Framework. The focus of the discussion is on transformative competence and multiliteracy competence. Based on this reflection, recommendations for the framing of the Global Competence measurement are concluded. [less ▲]

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See detailIncome Inequality, Productivity, and International Trade
Picard, Pierre M UL

in Economic Theory (2022)

This paper studies the effect of income inequality on selection and aggregate productivity in a general equilibrium model with non-homothetic preferences and product quality. The model matches the ... [more ▼]

This paper studies the effect of income inequality on selection and aggregate productivity in a general equilibrium model with non-homothetic preferences and product quality. The model matches the empirical fact that an increase in income shifts one’s consumption towards goods that have higher quality both at the intensive and extensive margins. It also implies a negative relationship between the number and quantity of goods consumed by an income group and the earnings of other income groups. The central result is that a mean-preserving spread of the income distribution negatively affects aggregate productivity through the softening of firms’ selection. In the presence of international trade, this effect is amplified with lower trade barriers or a larger number of trade partners. Furthermore, the model implies that the domestic expenditure shares and welfare gains from trade are constant across income groups. A simple quantitative exercise suggests that an income redistribution like the one induced by the US Federal taxes and transfers raises average productivity by about 3%. [less ▲]

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See detailExplicit Kummer generators for cyclotomic extensions
Hoermann, Fritz; Perucca, Antonella UL; Sgobba, Pietro UL et al

in JP Journal of Algebra, Number Theory and Applications (2022)

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See detailPreschool predictors of learning to read and spell in an additional language: a two-wave longitudinal study in a multilingual context.
Wealer, Cyril UL; Fricke, Silke; Loff, Ariana et al

in Reading and Writing (2022)

The study explores whether foundational skills of reading and spelling in preschool (age 5–6) predict literacy skills cross-linguistically in an additional language in Grade 1 (age 6–7). A sample of ... [more ▼]

The study explores whether foundational skills of reading and spelling in preschool (age 5–6) predict literacy skills cross-linguistically in an additional language in Grade 1 (age 6–7). A sample of linguistically diverse preschool children completed tasks of phonological awareness, letter-sound knowledge, verbal-short term memory, rapid automatized naming, and lexical knowledge in the language of preschool instruction Luxembourgish. The children were followed-up in Grade 1 where literacy skills were assessed in the language of schooling, i.e., German, after fve months of literacy instruction. German was a non-native language for all children. Longitudinal correlations confrm that individual diferences in single word/pseudoword reading and spelling in German in Grade 1 can be predicted by all the foundational literacy skills that were assessed in Luxembourgish. Path analyses showed that phonological awareness in Luxembourgish emerged as the strongest unique predictor of Grade 1 literacy skills in German. The second unique preschool predictor of Grade 1 literacy skills was letter-sound knowledge. Results are consistent with the view that literacy development in an additional language builds upon similar building blocks as literacy acquisition in a frst language, at least for languages that are typologically close. However, current fndings suggest that respective contributions between predictors and literacy skills in children learning to read in an additional language may vary from patterns observed in studies with children acquiring literacy in their frst language. [less ▲]

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See detailInsights from an information thermodynamics analysis of a synthetic molecular motor
Amano, Shuntaro; Esposito, Massimiliano UL; Kreidt, Elisabeth et al

in Nature Chemistry (2022), 14(5), 530-537

Information is physical, a realization that has transformed the physics of measurement and communication. However, the flow between information, energy and mechanics in chemical systems remains largely ... [more ▼]

Information is physical, a realization that has transformed the physics of measurement and communication. However, the flow between information, energy and mechanics in chemical systems remains largely unexplored. Here we analyse a minimalist autonomous chemically driven molecular motor in terms of information thermodynamics, a framework that quantitatively relates information to other thermodynamic parameters. The treatment reveals how directional motion is generated by free energy transfer from chemical to mechanical (conformational and/or co-conformational) processes by `energy flow' and `information flow'. It provides a thermodynamic level of understanding of molecular motors that is general, complements previous analyses based on kinetics and has practical implications for machine design. In line with kinetic analysis, we find that power strokes do not affect the directionality of chemically driven machines. However, we find that power strokes can modulate motor velocity, the efficiency of free energy transfer and the number of fuel molecules consumed per cycle. This may help explain the role of such (co-)conformational changes in biomachines and illustrates the interplay between energy and information in chemical systems. [less ▲]

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See detailCorporate social responsibility budgeting and spending during COVID–19 in Oman: A humanitarian response to the pandemic
Baatwah, Saeed Rabea; Al-Qadasi, Adel Ali; Al-Shehri, Amer Mohammed et al

in Finance Research Letters (2022)

COVID–19 is causing economic panic among people, governments, and businesses, requiring greater corporate social responsibility (CSR). Using a sample of Omani-listed firms, this study shows that CSR ... [more ▼]

COVID–19 is causing economic panic among people, governments, and businesses, requiring greater corporate social responsibility (CSR). Using a sample of Omani-listed firms, this study shows that CSR budgeting and spending have increased considerably during the pandemic. It also shows that CSR budgeting is positively affected by the increase in COVID–19 deaths. CSR spending increases with the number of COVID–19 confirmed and fatal cases. These findings suggest that firms resort to CSR to reduce the negative consequences of the pandemic. [less ▲]

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See detailHow different electricity pricing systems affect the energy trilemma: Assessing Indonesia's electricity market transition
Heffron, Raphael J.; Körner, Marc-Fabian; Sumarno, Theresia et al

in Energy Economics (2022), 107

Indonesia's current energy policy, which relies on cheap fossil fuels and focuses on two out of the three horns of the energy trilemma, namely, energy security and energy equity, may impede its efforts to ... [more ▼]

Indonesia's current energy policy, which relies on cheap fossil fuels and focuses on two out of the three horns of the energy trilemma, namely, energy security and energy equity, may impede its efforts to higher shares of renewable energy sources. This paper develops three generic models that allow policymakers to analyze the impact of introducing a wholesale electricity market managed under either a nodal, a zonal, or a uniform pricing system on the three horns of the energy trilemma. It evaluates the models using a simplified network representation of the Indonesian electricity sector. The results indicate that under the model assumptions made, and given the used input parameters as well as the used metrics for the three horns of the energy trilemma, a uniform pricing system might help Indonesia to balance its energy trilemma. [less ▲]

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See detailReview: Newspaper Navigator
Viola, Lorella UL

in Reviews in Digital Humanities (2022), III(6),

Created for the Library of Congress, Newspaper Navigator re-imagines how we search the rich visual content in historic newspapers. The first phase of the project utilized machine learning techniques to ... [more ▼]

Created for the Library of Congress, Newspaper Navigator re-imagines how we search the rich visual content in historic newspapers. The first phase of the project utilized machine learning techniques to extract visual content from 16.3 million digitized newspaper pages in Chronicling America. 1 This resulted in the Newspaper Navigator dataset, released in May 2020. The dataset and finetuned machine learning model 2 are in the public domain. A paper on the dataset was presented at the 2020 ACM Conference on Information Knowledge & Management (CIKM). The second phase consisted of building a search application for 1.5 million photos from the dataset. The search application was launched in September 2020. In addition to supporting faceted and keyword search, it empowers users to search by visual similarity by training an interactive machine learning model called an “AI navigator,” which enables users to retrieve photos of topics such as “baseball players” or “sailboats” even if their captions do not contain these keywords. An AI navigator can train and predict over all 1.5 million photos in a couple seconds. This new search affordance forms the basis for Benjamin Lee’s Ph. D. dissertation research, which re-imagines standard faceted search as “open faceted search.” A demo of the search application was presented at the 2020 ACM Symposium on User Interface and Software Technology (UIST). [less ▲]

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See detailMitochondrial DNA as a marker for treatment-response in post-traumatic stress disorder.
Hummel, E. M.; Piovesan, K.; Berg, F. et al

in Psychoneuroendocrinology (2022), 148

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a serious mental health condition thought to be mediated by a dysregulated stress response system. Stress, especially chronic stress, affects mitochondrial ... [more ▼]

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a serious mental health condition thought to be mediated by a dysregulated stress response system. Stress, especially chronic stress, affects mitochondrial activity and their efficiency in duplicating their genomes. Human cells contain numerous mitochondria that harbor multiple copies of their own genome, which consist of a mixture of wild type and variant mtDNA - a condition known as mitochondrial heteroplasmy. Number of mitochondrial genomes in a cell and the degree of heteroplasmy may serve as an indicator of mitochondrial allostatic load. Changes in mtDNA copy number and the proportion of variant mtDNA may be related to mental disorders and symptom severity, suggesting an involvement of mitochondrial dysfunction also in PTSD. Therefore, we examined number and composition of mitochondrial DNA before and after six weeks of inpatient psychotherapy treatment in a cohort of 60 female PTSD patients. We extracted DNA from isolated monocytes before and after inpatient treatment and quantified cellular mtDNA using multiplex qPCR. We hypothesized that treatment would lead to changes in cellular mtDNA levels and that change in mtDNA level would be associated with PTSD symptom severity and treatment response. It could be shown that mtDNA copy number and the ratio of variant mtDNA decreased during therapy, however, this change did not correlate with treatment response. Our results suggest that inpatient treatment can reduce signs of mitochondrial allostatic load, which could have beneficial effects on mental health. The quantification of mtDNA and the determination of cellular heteroplasmy could represent valuable biomarkers for the molecular characterization of mental disorders in the future. [less ▲]

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See detailSuper-Heisenberg scaling in Hamiltonian parameter estimation in the long-range Kitaev chain
Yang, Jing UL; Pang, Shengshi; Del Campo Echevarria, Adolfo UL et al

in Physical Review Research (2022)

In quantum metrology, nonlinear many-body interactions can enhance the precision of Hamiltonian parameter estimation to surpass the Heisenberg scaling. Here, we consider the the estimation of the ... [more ▼]

In quantum metrology, nonlinear many-body interactions can enhance the precision of Hamiltonian parameter estimation to surpass the Heisenberg scaling. Here, we consider the the estimation of the interaction strength in linear systems with long-range interactions and using the Kitaev chains as a case study, we establish a transition from the Heisenberg to super-Heisenberg scaling in the quantum Fisher information by varying the interaction range. We further show that quantum control can improve the prefactor of the quantum Fisher information. Our results explore the advantage of optimal quantum control and long-range interactions in many-body quantum metrology. [less ▲]

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See detailAsymptotic behaviour of large Gaussian correlated Wishart matrices
Nourdin, Ivan UL; Zheng, Guangqu

in Journal of Theoretical Probability (2022)

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See detailRandom Encounters and Information Diffusion about Product Quality
Zanaj, Skerdilajda UL

in Journal of Economics and Management Strategy (2022)

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See detailCOVID-19 and the global venture capital landscape
Bellavitis, Cristiano; Fisch, Christian UL; McNaughton, Rod

in Small Business Economics (2022), 59(3), 781-805

We assess the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on venture capital (VC) investments, documenting a significant decline in investments using a dataset of 39,527 funding rounds occurring before and during the ... [more ▼]

We assess the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on venture capital (VC) investments, documenting a significant decline in investments using a dataset of 39,527 funding rounds occurring before and during the pandemic in 130 countries. In line with our theoretical considerations, we show that this decline is more pronounced for investments characterized by higher uncertainty, namely investments in seed-stage ventures, industries affected more heavily by the COVID-19 crisis, international investments, and non-syndicated investments. Investor prominence partially moderates these effects. [less ▲]

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See detailVariational principle for optimal quantum controls in quantum metrology
Yang, Jing UL; Pang, Shengshi; Chen, Zekai et al

in Physical Review Letters (2022)

We develop a variational principle to determine the quantum controls and initial state that optimizes the quantum Fisher information, the quantity characterizing the precision in quantum metrology. When ... [more ▼]

We develop a variational principle to determine the quantum controls and initial state that optimizes the quantum Fisher information, the quantity characterizing the precision in quantum metrology. When the set of available controls is limited, the exact optimal initial state and the optimal controls are, in general, dependent on the probe time, a feature missing in the unrestricted case. Yet, for time-independent Hamiltonians with restricted controls, the problem can be approximately reduced to the unconstrained case via Floquet engineering. In particular, we find for magnetometry with a time-independent spin chain containing three-body interactions, even when the controls are restricted to one- and two-body interaction, that the Heisenberg scaling can still be approximately achieved. Our results open the door to investigate quantum metrology under a limited set of available controls, of relevance to many-body quantum metrology in realistic scenarios. [less ▲]

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See detailDistributional Change: Assessing the Contribution of Household Income Sources
Kyzyma, Iryna; Fusco, Alessio; van Kerm, Philippe UL

in Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics (2022), n/a(n/a),

We develop a decomposition of changes in household income distributions by factor components to quantify the contribution of changes over time in the association between sources of income and changes in ... [more ▼]

We develop a decomposition of changes in household income distributions by factor components to quantify the contribution of changes over time in the association between sources of income and changes in their (marginal) distributions. The two components are broken down to isolate the contribution of specific income sources. An application to the change in the distribution of household incomes in Luxembourg between 2004 and 2013 reveals contrasted results: increased association between spouse earnings, public transfers and taxes depressed the income share of poor households while changes in marginal distributions increased incomes in the upper half of the distribution. [less ▲]

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See detailTax competition and phantom FDI
Zanaj, Skerdilajda UL

in Journal of Public Economic Theory (2022)

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See detailA dichotomy for integral group rings via higher modular groups as amalgamated products
Bächle, Andreas; Janssens, Geoffrey; Jespers, Eric et al

in J. Algebra (2022), 604

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See detailEnhancing spectral quality in complex environmental matrices: Supporting suspect and non-target screening in zebra mussels with ion mobility
Menger, Frank; Celma, Alberto; Schymanski, Emma UL et al

in Environment International (2022), 170

Identification of bioaccumulating contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) via suspect and non-target screening remains a challenging task. In this study, ion mobility separation with high-resolution mass ... [more ▼]

Identification of bioaccumulating contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) via suspect and non-target screening remains a challenging task. In this study, ion mobility separation with high-resolution mass spectrometry (IM-HRMS) was used to investigate the effects of drift time (DT) alignment on spectrum quality and peak annotation for screening of CECs in complex sample matrices using data independent acquisition (DIA). Data treatment approaches (Binary Sample Comparison) and prioritisation strategies (Halogen Match, co-occurrence of features in biota and the water phase) were explored in a case study on zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) in Lake Mälaren, Sweden’s largest drinking water reservoir. DT alignment evidently improved the fragment spectrum quality by increasing the similarity score to reference spectra from on average (±standard deviation) 0.33 ± 0.31 to 0.64 ± 0.30 points, thus positively influencing structure elucidation efforts. Thirty-two features were tentatively identified at confidence level 3 or higher using MetFrag coupled with the new PubChemLite database, which included predicted collision cross-section values from CCSbase. The implementation of predicted mobility data was found to support compound annotation. This study illustrates a quantitative assessment of the benefits of IM-HRMS on spectral quality, which will enhance the performance of future screening studies of CECs in complex environmental matrices. [less ▲]

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See detailMicroglia phenotypes are associated with subregional patterns of concomitant tau, amyloid-β and α-synuclein pathologies in the hippocampus of patients with Alzheimer’s disease and dementia with Lewy bodies
Fixemer, Sonja UL; Ameli, Corrado UL; Hammer, Gaël et al

in Acta Neuropathologica Communications (2022), 10(1), 36

The cellular alterations of the hippocampus lead to memory decline, a shared symptom between Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) patients. However, the subregional deterioration ... [more ▼]

The cellular alterations of the hippocampus lead to memory decline, a shared symptom between Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) patients. However, the subregional deterioration pattern of the hippocampus differs between AD and DLB with the CA1 subfield being more severely affected in AD. The activation of microglia, the brain immune cells, could play a role in its selective volume loss. How subregional microglia populations vary within AD or DLB and across these conditions remains poorly understood. Furthermore, how the nature of the hippocampal local pathological imprint is associated with microglia responses needs to be elucidated. To this purpose, we employed an automated pipeline for analysis of 3D confocal microscopy images to assess CA1, CA3 and DG/CA4 subfields microglia responses in post-mortem hippocampal samples from late-onset AD (n = 10), DLB (n = 8) and age-matched control (CTL) (n = 11) individuals. In parallel, we performed volumetric analyses of hyperphosphorylated tau (pTau), amyloid-β (Aβ) and phosphorylated α-synuclein (pSyn) loads. For each of the 32,447 extracted microglia, 16 morphological features were measured to classify them into seven distinct morphological clusters. Our results show similar alterations of microglial morphological features and clusters in AD and DLB, but with more prominent changes in AD. We identified two distinct microglia clusters enriched in disease conditions and particularly increased in CA1 and DG/CA4 of AD and CA3 of DLB. Our study confirms frequent concomitance of pTau, Aβ and pSyn loads across AD and DLB but reveals a specific subregional pattern for each type of pathology, along with a generally increased severity in AD. Furthermore, pTau and pSyn loads were highly correlated across subregions and conditions. We uncovered tight associations between microglial changes and the subfield pathological imprint. Our findings suggest that combinations and severity of subregional pTau, Aβ and pSyn pathologies transform local microglia phenotypic composition in the hippocampus. The high burdens of pTau and pSyn associated with increased microglial alterations could be a factor in CA1 vulnerability in AD. [less ▲]

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See detailTrademarks and how they relate to the sustainability and economic outcomes of social startups
Hirschmann, Mirko UL; Block, Jörn

in Journal of Cleaner Production (2022)

Prior research shows that trademarks positively relate to startups' growth and survival. However, empirical evidence on the impact of intellectual property rights (IPRs), especially trademarks, on the ... [more ▼]

Prior research shows that trademarks positively relate to startups' growth and survival. However, empirical evidence on the impact of intellectual property rights (IPRs), especially trademarks, on the development of social startups' hybrid outcomes is limited. Our study aims to fill this gap by investigating how early trademarking relates to the sustainability and economic outcomes of social startups. Based on a sample of 485 social startups from Germany, we find that social startups that register a trademark within the first three years of their existence have both significantly higher sustainability and economic outcomes. Additionally, we identify that the geographical scope of a trademark relates differently to social startups' outcomes. Our results contribute to the emerging literature on startups’ role to achieve sustainability outcomes and to IPR research that lacks an understanding of the importance of trademarks for sustainable entrepreneurship. We provide several practical implications for social startups, impact investors, and policy-makers. [less ▲]

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See detailVers l’implémentation du modèle de Réponse à l’Intervention dans les systèmes éducatifs européens francophones ?
de Chambrier, Anne-Françoise; Dierendonck, Christophe UL

in Année Psychologique (2022), 122

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See detailInterrogating the effect of enzyme kinetics on metabolism using differentiable constraint-based models
Wilken, St Elmo; Besançon, Mathieu; Kratochvil, Miroslav UL et al

in Metabolic Engineering (2022)

Metabolic models are typically characterized by a large number of parameters. Traditionally, metabolic control analysis is applied to differential equation-based models to investigate the sensitivity of ... [more ▼]

Metabolic models are typically characterized by a large number of parameters. Traditionally, metabolic control analysis is applied to differential equation-based models to investigate the sensitivity of predictions to parameters. A corresponding theory for constraint-based models is lacking, due to their formulation as optimization problems. Here, we show that optimal solutions of optimization problems can be efficiently differentiated using constrained optimization duality and implicit differentiation. We use this to calculate the sensitivities of predicted reaction fluxes and enzyme concentrations to turnover numbers in an enzyme-constrained metabolic model of Escherichia coli. The sensitivities quantitatively identify rate limiting enzymes and are mathematically precise, unlike current finite difference based approaches used for sensitivity analysis. Further, efficient differentiation of constraint-based models unlocks the ability to use gradient information for parameter estimation. We demonstrate this by improving, genome-wide, the state-of-the-art turnover number estimates for E. coli. Finally, we show that this technique can be generalized to arbitrarily complex models. By differentiating the optimal solution of a model incorporating both thermodynamic and kinetic rate equations, the effect of metabolite concentrations on biomass growth can be elucidated. We benchmark these metabolite sensitivities against a large experimental gene knockdown study, and find good alignment between the predicted sensitivities and in vivo metabolome changes. In sum, we demonstrate several applications of differentiating optimal solutions of constraint-based metabolic models, and show how it connects to classic metabolic control analysis. [less ▲]

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See detailThe wealth (disadvantage) of single-parent households
Nolan, Brian; Palomino, Juan C.; van Kerm, Philippe UL et al

in Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science (2022), 702(1), 188-204

Wealth is a buffer against economic shocks and the intergenerational transmission of disadvantage. We investigate the wealth of single-parent households in six high-income countries that span a variety of ... [more ▼]

Wealth is a buffer against economic shocks and the intergenerational transmission of disadvantage. We investigate the wealth of single-parent households in six high-income countries that span a variety of institutional contexts and welfare regimes. Using household survey data, we show that single-parent households in all these countries are disadvantaged in the wealth they hold, compared to dual-parent households—more so in Great Britain, France, Germany, and the United States; and less so in Italy and, especially, Spain. We tease out major differences in types of wealth holdings in single- and dual-parent households. We find that the single-parent wealth deficit is not explained by differences in age or number of children but that it is influenced by education, income, homeownership, and receipt of intergenerational transfers. We discuss the policy implications of our findings, both in terms of how single parents are treated in social protection and taxation systems and, more broadly, in the supports they require if they are to overcome barriers to accumulating wealth. [less ▲]

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See detailStructural Chirality of Polar Skyrmions Probed by Resonant Elastic X-Ray Scattering
McCarter, M.R.; Iñiguez, Jorge UL; Ramesh, R. et al

in Physical Review Letters (2022)

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See detailMomentary Subjective Age is Associated with Perceived and Physiological Stress in the Daily Lives of Old and Very Old Adults
Kornadt, Anna Elena UL; Pauly, Theresa; Schilling, Oliver et al

in Psychology and Aging (2022), 37(8), 863875

Subjective age, that is the age people feel in relation to their chronological age, can vary on a day-to-day and even momentary basis. Previous long-term and daily-diary studies have shown that elevated ... [more ▼]

Subjective age, that is the age people feel in relation to their chronological age, can vary on a day-to-day and even momentary basis. Previous long-term and daily-diary studies have shown that elevated stress covaries with older subjective age. However, it is an open question whether such links can also be observed at the momentary level within a given day and go beyond self-reports of stress. Moving ahead, we investigated how two indicators of stress (self-reported: perceived stress; physiological: salivary cortisol) are associated with the age people feel on a momentary basis. We examined data from 118 older (Mage = 66.67 years) and 36 very old adults (Mage = 85.92 years) who reported their momentary subjective age and perceived stress and also provided saliva samples up to seven times a day over seven consecutive days. Dynamic structural equation models showed that both higher momentary perceived stress and higher cortisol levels preceding the measurement predicted an older momentary subjective age. In contrast, subjective age at the previous measurement did not predict subsequent stress. These effects were moderated by participant age group and grip strength, albeit not consistently. Our results corroborate and extend earlier findings that both self-reported and physiological stress are important explanatory variables for people’s subjective age variation even on relatively short time scales, and shed light on differential time-ordered dynamics between stress and subjective age in daily life. Findings also inform theoretical models of subjective age that highlight the importance of contextual, momentary influences on how old people feel and help better understand how biological and psychological processes are intertwined in later life. [less ▲]

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See detailInformation thermodynamics for deterministic chemical reaction networks
Penocchio, Emanuele UL; Avanzini, Francesco UL; Esposito, Massimiliano UL

in Journal of Chemical Physics (2022), 157(3), 034110

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See detailBritish Borders: Negotiations in Anglophone Literatures
Frenk, Joachim; Steveker, Lena UL

in Zeitschrift für Anglistik und Amerikanistik (2022), 70(2), 121-211

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See detailObserving many researchers using the same data and hypothesis reveals a hidden universe of uncertainty
Breznau, Nate; Rinke, Eike Mark; Wuttke, Alexander et al

in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2022), 119(44), 2203150119

This study explores how researchers’ analytical choices affect the reliability of scientific findings. Most discussions of reliability problems in science focus on systematic biases. We broaden the lens ... [more ▼]

This study explores how researchers’ analytical choices affect the reliability of scientific findings. Most discussions of reliability problems in science focus on systematic biases. We broaden the lens to emphasize the idiosyncrasy of conscious and unconscious decisions that researchers make during data analysis. We coordinated 161 researchers in 73 research teams and observed their research decisions as they used the same data to independently test the same prominent social science hypothesis: that greater immigration reduces support for social policies among the public. In this typical case of social science research, research teams reported both widely diverging numerical findings and substantive conclusions despite identical start conditions. Researchers’ expertise, prior beliefs, and expectations barely predict the wide variation in research outcomes. More than 95 % of the total variance in numerical results remains unexplained even after qualitative coding of all identifiable decisions in each team’s workflow. This reveals a universe of uncertainty that remains hidden when considering a single study in isolation. The idiosyncratic nature of how researchers’ results and conclusions varied is a previously underappreciated explanation for why many scientific hypotheses remain contested. These results call for greater epistemic humility and clarity in reporting scientific findings. [less ▲]

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See detailBerlin - From Castle in the Air to Creative Metropolis
Hertweck, Florian UL

in a + u ARCHITECTURE AND URBANISM (2022), 11

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See detailNational Recovery and Resilience Plan: Luxembourg
Ratti, Luca UL

in Italian Labour Law e-Journal (2022)

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See detailSafety Culture and the Positive Association of Being a Primary Care Training Practice during COVID-19: The Results of the Multi-Country European PRICOV-19 Study.
Silva, Bianca; Ožvačić Adžić, Zlata; Vanden Bussche, Pierre et al

in International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (2022)

The day-to-day work of primary care (PC) was substantially changed by the COVID-19 pandemic. Teaching practices needed to adapt both clinical work and teaching in a way that enabled the teaching process ... [more ▼]

The day-to-day work of primary care (PC) was substantially changed by the COVID-19 pandemic. Teaching practices needed to adapt both clinical work and teaching in a way that enabled the teaching process to continue, while maintaining safe and high-quality care. Our study aims to investigate the effect of being a training practice on a number of different outcomes related to the safety culture of PC practices. PRICOV-19 is a multi-country cross-sectional study that researches how PC practices were organized in 38 countries during the pandemic. Data was collected from November 2020 to December 2021. We categorized practices into training and non-training and selected outcomes relating to safety culture: safe practice management, community outreach, professional well-being and adherence to protocols. Mixed-effects regression models were built to analyze the effect of being a training practice for each of the outcomes, while controlling for relevant confounders. Of the participating practices, 2886 (56%) were non-training practices and 2272 (44%) were training practices. Being a training practice was significantly associated with a lower risk for adverse mental health events (OR: 0.83; CI: 0.70–0.99), a higher number of safety measures related to patient flow (Beta: 0.17; CI: 0.07–0.28), a higher number of safety incidents reported (RR: 1.12; CI: 1.06–1.19) and more protected time for meetings (Beta: 0.08; CI: 0.01–0.15). No significant associations were found for outreach initiatives, availability of triage information, use of a phone protocol or infection prevention measures and equipment availability. Training practices were found to have a stronger safety culture than non-training practices. These results have important policy implications, since involving more PC practices in education may be an effective way to improve quality and safety in general practice. [less ▲]

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See detail‘As Efficient as a Factory’: Architectural and Managerial Discourses on Government Office Buildings in Belgium, 1919-39
van de Maele, Jens UL

in Architectural History (2022), 65

This article investigates the impact of managerial ideologies on projects for new governmental office buildings in Belgium in the 1920s and 1930s. Following the prewar publication of F. W. Taylor’s ... [more ▼]

This article investigates the impact of managerial ideologies on projects for new governmental office buildings in Belgium in the 1920s and 1930s. Following the prewar publication of F. W. Taylor’s ‘scientific management’ theories, the scientisation of office activities was propagated by efficiency experts throughout the western world. In Belgium, as in France, the work of the mining engineer Henri Fayol was particularly influential. According to Fayol, private and public bureaucracies had to follow identical managerial principles, notably that all employees were to observe one another as much as possible. These ideas of visibility overlapped with the emphasis on transparency and open planning coming from quite a different quarter, namely Le Corbusier, Hannes Meyer and other modernist architects in the 1920s and 1930s. Yet how Fayol’s ideal was to be realised without compromising the traditional need for privacy for high-ranking office workers remained unresolved. The article explores the ideas of two crucial expert groups — architects and managerial experts — over these issues as they developed in Belgium in the inter-war years. In the 1920s, the mining engineer Max-Léo Gérard called for ministerial buildings that facilitated ‘collaborative work’ and the information scientist Paul Otlet advocated an ideal type of government offices based on an architectural diagram that facilitated mutual observation. In the 1930s, the architect Stanislas Jasinski proposed remodelling the centre of Brussels as a series of office blocks, in a design copied from Le Corbusier’s cruciform skyscrapers in the Plan Voisin. Such ideas received official endorsement with the Royal Commissariat for Administrative Reform under Louis Camu, which proposed to strengthen the societal role of governmental bureaucracy by rehousing the civil service in an enormous office complex close to the parliament. Contrasting with the idealism of these unrealised plans was one of the few government projects actually built, the Ministry of Science and Arts headquarters designed in 1929 by the in-house architect Georges Hano. [less ▲]

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See detailJoint Spatial Division and Multiplexing for FDD in Intelligent Reflecting Surface-assisted Massive MIMO Systems
Papazafeiropoulos, Anastasios; Kourtessis, Pandelis; Ntontin, Konstantinos UL et al

in IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology (2022)

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See detailChanging Routinized Household Energy Consumption Using the Example of Washing, Cooking, and Standby: A Randomized Controlled Field Experiment of Home Energy Advice
Hess, Ann-Kathrin; Schubert, Iljana; Samuel, Robin UL et al

in Cleaner and Responsible Consumption (2022)

Despite advances in understanding routines, there is little knowledge about which aspects of routinized behavior people adjust during interventions. In this study, we applied an adjusted social practice ... [more ▼]

Despite advances in understanding routines, there is little knowledge about which aspects of routinized behavior people adjust during interventions. In this study, we applied an adjusted social practice theory framework to disentangle routinized energy consumption, focusing on energy services related to washing, standby, and cooking. We investigate the potential of home energy advice to change elements of routinized behaviors, namely meanings, knowledge, and technologies. Using a randomized controlled field trial on a probabilistic sample of households, we found short-term treatment effects related to increased usage of lids during cooking and improved knowledge of IT-related energy consumption, as well as negative effects regarding multi-sockets and washing frequency. Our findings suggest that meanings (e.g., preferences underlying routinized behaviors) are less subject to change, and that sociodemographic variables are associated with routinized behaviors in complex ways. Our disentangling of energy demand into elements of routines enables us to show how home energy advice may change behaviors and knowledge. This study highlights the benefits of a multifaceted perspective for understanding household energy consumption and can be used to inform intervention and policy design. [less ▲]

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See detailMaterial Dependence and Kant’s Refutation of Idealism
Heidemann, Dietmar UL

in Topoi (2022)

The paper argues that in the Critique of Pure Reason Kant develops two anti-sceptical strategies. In the Fourth Paralogism (CPR A) he believes himself able to refute the sceptic by demonstrating that ... [more ▼]

The paper argues that in the Critique of Pure Reason Kant develops two anti-sceptical strategies. In the Fourth Paralogism (CPR A) he believes himself able to refute the sceptic by demonstrating that external perception is immediate. This strategy is rather unconvincing. In the Refutation of Idealism (CPR B) Kant promotes the material dependence of inner sense on outer sense. I show that Kant’s argument for material dependence has been widely overlooked, even though it is the strongest argument against external world scepticism he develops, since it anticipates mental content externalism while preserving transcendental idealism and empirical realism. [less ▲]

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See detailRevealing Dynamic Relations Between Mathematics Self-Concept and Perceived Achievement From Lesson to Lesson: An Experience-Sampling Study
Niepel, Christoph UL; Marsh, Herbert W.; Guo, Jiesi et al

in Journal of Educational Psychology (2022), 114(6), 1380-1393

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See detailSingle-cell transcriptomics of human iPSC differentiation dynamics reveal a core molecular network of Parkinson’s disease
Novak, Gabriela; Kyriakis, Dimitrios UL; Grzyb, Kamil UL et al

in Communications Biology (2022), 5(1), 1--19

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second-most prevalent neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons (mDA) in the midbrain. The underlying mechanisms are only partly ... [more ▼]

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second-most prevalent neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons (mDA) in the midbrain. The underlying mechanisms are only partly understood and there is no treatment to reverse PD progression. Here, we investigated the disease mechanism using mDA neurons differentiated from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) carrying the ILE368ASN mutation within the PINK1 gene, which is strongly associated with PD. Single-cell RNA sequencing (RNAseq) and gene expression analysis of a PINK1-ILE368ASN and a control cell line identified genes differentially expressed during mDA neuron differentiation. Network analysis revealed that these genes form a core network, members of which interact with all known 19 protein-coding Parkinson’s disease-associated genes. This core network encompasses key PD-associated pathways, including ubiquitination, mitochondrial function, protein processing, RNA metabolism, and vesicular transport. Proteomics analysis showed a consistent alteration in proteins of dopamine metabolism, indicating a defect of dopaminergic metabolism in PINK1-ILE368ASN neurons. Our findings suggest the existence of a network onto which pathways associated with PD pathology converge, and offers an inclusive interpretation of the phenotypic heterogeneity of PD. [less ▲]

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See detailCombinatorial analysis reveals highly coordinated early-stage immune reactions that predict later antiviral immunity in mild COVID-19 patients
Capelle, Christophe M.; Ciré, Séverine; Domingues, Olivia et al

in Cell Reports Medicine (2022), 3(4), 100600

While immunopathology has been widely studied in patients with severe COVID-19, immune responses in non-hospitalized patients have remained largely elusive. We systematically analyze 484 peripheral ... [more ▼]

While immunopathology has been widely studied in patients with severe COVID-19, immune responses in non-hospitalized patients have remained largely elusive. We systematically analyze 484 peripheral cellular or soluble immune features in a longitudinal cohort of 63 mild and 15 hospitalized patients versus 14 asymptomatic and 26 household controls. We observe a transient increase of IP10/CXCL10 and interferon-β levels, coordinated responses of dominant SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4 and fewer CD8 T cells, and various antigen-presenting and antibody-secreting cells in mild patients within 3 days of PCR diagnosis. The frequency of key innate immune cells and their functional marker expression are impaired in hospitalized patients at day 1 of inclusion. T cell and dendritic cell responses at day 1 are highly predictive for SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody responses after 3 weeks in mild but not hospitalized patients. Our systematic analysis reveals a combinatorial picture and trajectory of various arms of the highly coordinated early-stage immune responses in mild COVID-19 patients. [less ▲]

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See detailLinear stochastic thermodynamics
Forastiere, Danilo UL; Rao, Riccardo; Esposito, Massimiliano UL

in New J. Phys. (2022), 24(8), 083021

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See detailEmpirical Perturbation Analysis of Two Adversarial Attacks: Black Box versus White Box
Chitic, Raluca; Topal, Ali Osman UL; Leprevost, Franck UL

in Applied Sciences (2022), 12(14), 7339

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See detailEffective attributed network embedding with information behavior extraction
Hu, Ganglin; Pang, Jun UL; Mo, Xian

in PeerJ Computer Science (2022), 8

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See detailPaths to Cheminformatics: Q\&A with Norberto Sánchez-Cruz and Emma Schymanski
Sánchez-Cruz, Norberto; Schymanski, Emma UL

in Journal of Cheminformatics (2022), 14(1), 51

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See detailExtraction of chemical structures from literature and patent documents using open access chemistry toolkits: a case study with PFAS
Barnabas, Shadrack J.; Böhme, Timo; Boyer, Stephen K. et al

in Digital Discovery (2022)

Extracting PFAS with open source cheminformatics toolkits reveals ~1.78 million PFAS in Google Patents, ~28 K in the CORE literature repository. The extraction of chemical information from documents is a ... [more ▼]

Extracting PFAS with open source cheminformatics toolkits reveals ~1.78 million PFAS in Google Patents, ~28 K in the CORE literature repository. The extraction of chemical information from documents is a demanding task in cheminformatics due to the variety of text and image-based representations of chemistry. The present work describes the extraction of chemical compounds with unique chemical structures from the open access CORE (COnnecting REpositories) and Google Patents full text document repositories. The importance of structure normalization is demonstrated using three open access cheminformatics toolkits: the Chemistry Development Kit (CDK), RDKit and OpenChemLib (OCL). Each toolkit was used for structure parsing, normalization and subsequent substructure searching, using SMILES as structure representations of chemical molecules and International Chemical Identifiers (InChIs) for comparison. Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) were chosen as a case study to perform the substructure search, due to their high environmental relevance, their presence in both literature and patent corpuses, and the current lack of community consensus on their definition. Three different structural definitions of PFAS were chosen to highlight the implications of various definitions from a cheminformatics perspective. Since CDK, RDKit and OCL implement different criteria and methods for SMILES parsing and normalization, different numbers of parsed compounds were extracted, which were then evaluated using the three PFAS definitions. A comparison of these toolkits and definitions is provided, along with a discussion of the implications for PFAS screening and text mining efforts in cheminformatics. Finally, the extracted PFAS (~1.7 M PFAS from patents and ~27 K from CORE) were compared against various existing PFAS lists and are provided in various formats for further community research efforts. [less ▲]

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See detailEuropean Union ∙ The Data Act: The Next Step in Moving Forward to a European Data Space
Fernandez, Angelica UL

in European Data Protection Law Review (2022), (1), 108-114

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See detailThe Relation Between Executive Functions and Math Intelligence in Preschool Children: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Emslander, Valentin UL; Scherer, Ronny

in Psychological Bulletin (2022), 148(5-6), 337-369

Executive functions (EFs) are key skills underlying other cognitive skills that are relevant to learning and everyday life. Although a plethora of evidence suggests a positive relation between the three ... [more ▼]

Executive functions (EFs) are key skills underlying other cognitive skills that are relevant to learning and everyday life. Although a plethora of evidence suggests a positive relation between the three EF subdimensions inhibition, shifting, and updating, and math skills for schoolchildren and adults, the findings on the magnitude of and possible variations in this relation are inconclusive for preschool children and several narrow math skills (i.e., math intelligence). Therefore, the present meta-analysis aimed to (a) synthesize the relation between EFs and math intelligence (an aggregate of math skills) in preschool children; (b) examine which study, sample, and measurement characteristics moderate this relation; and (c) test the joint effects of EFs on math intelligence. Utilizing data extracted from 47 studies (363 effect sizes, 30,481 participants) from 2000 to 2021, we found that, overall, EFs are significantly related to math intelligence (r = .34, 95% CI [.31, .37]), as are inhibition (r = .30, 95% CI [.25, .35]), shifting (r = .32, 95% CI [.25, .38]), and updating (r = .36, 95% CI [.31, .40]). Key measurement characteristics of EFs, but neither children’s age nor gender, moderated this relation. These findings suggest a positive link between EFs and math intelligence in preschool children and emphasize the importance of measurement characteristics. We further examined the joint relations between EFs and math intelligence via meta-analytic structural equation modeling. Evaluating different models and representations of EFs, we did not find support for the expectation that the three EF subdimensions are differentially related to math intelligence. [less ▲]

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See detailDecentralisation and community engagement for better mental health services development in the conflict-affected regions of Ukraine
Klymchuk, Vitalii UL; Vysotska, Krystyna; Gorbunova, Viktoriia

in Journal of Public Mental Health (2022)

<h4>Purpose: </h4> The purpose of this paper is to explore how conflict-affected communities in Ukraine (the Lugansk region) can develop sustainable mental health services in decentralised settings. The ... [more ▼]

<h4>Purpose: </h4> The purpose of this paper is to explore how conflict-affected communities in Ukraine (the Lugansk region) can develop sustainable mental health services in decentralised settings. The main interest focuses on communities' perception of their problems and solutions that communities can create to achieve better mental health coverage. <h4>Design: </h4> /methodology/approach Series of roundtables (4 roundtables, 62 participants overall), accompanied by interactive brainstorming techniques, were conducted with communities' representatives from the East of Ukraine (Lugansk region, government-controlled area). Participants were provided with the opportunity to discuss mental health services development challenges and create affordable solutions for their communities. Results of discussions were submitted to qualitative analysis and offered to review by participants. <h4>Findings: </h4> Decentralisation in Ukraine led to allocating funds alongside responsibilities for developing the services to communities. Most of the communities appear not to be ready to acknowledge the role of mental health services, entirely relying on the existing weak psychiatric hospital-based system. Rising-awareness interactive capacity-building activities for the community leaders and decision-makers effectively promote community-based mental health services development. Five clusters of challenges were identified: leadership, coordination, and collaboration problems; infrastructure, physical accessibility, and financial problems; mental health and primary healthcare workforce shortage and lack of competencies; low awareness in mental health, available services, and high stigma; war, crises, and pandemic-related problems. Communities foresaw seven domains of actions: increasing the role of communities and service users in the initiatives of governmental bodies; establishing in the communities local coordination/working groups dedicated to mental health service development; developing the community-based spaces (hubs) for integrated services provision; embedding the mental health services in the existing services (social, administrative, healthcare); mental health advocacy and lobby lead by local leaders and service users; increasing capacity of communities in financial management, fundraising; developing of services by combining efforts and budgets of neighbouring communities. Originality The paper is original in terms of its topic (connecting decentralisation and community engagement for understanding the challenges of mental health services development) and research strategy (engagement of Ukrainian communities, qualitative analysis of the discussion results and applying the best practices and international recommendations to the local context). [less ▲]

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See detailMapping of machine learning approaches for description, prediction, and causal inference in the social and health sciences
Leist, Anja UL; Klee, Matthias UL; Kim, Jung Hyun UL et al

in Science Advances (2022), 8

Machine learning (ML) methodology used in the social and health sciences needs to fit the intended research purposes of description, prediction, or causal inference. This paper provides a comprehensive ... [more ▼]

Machine learning (ML) methodology used in the social and health sciences needs to fit the intended research purposes of description, prediction, or causal inference. This paper provides a comprehensive, systematic meta-mapping of research questions in the social and health sciences to appropriate ML approaches by incorporating the necessary requirements to statistical analysis in these disciplines. We map the established classification into description, prediction, counterfactual prediction, and causal structural learning to common research goals, such as estimating prevalence of adverse social or health outcomes, predicting the risk of an event, and identifying risk factors or causes of adverse outcomes, and explain common ML performance metrics. Such mapping may help to fully exploit the benefits of ML while considering domain-specific aspects relevant to the social and health sciences and hopefully contribute to the acceleration of the uptake of ML applications to advance both basic and applied social and health sciences research. [less ▲]

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See detailObstacles to demand response: Why industrial companies do not adapt their power consumption to volatile power generation
Leinauer, Christina; Schott, Paul; Fridgen, Gilbert UL et al

in Energy Policy (2022), 165

Various flexibility options in power systems, such as storage, grid expansion, and demand flexibility, gain increasing importance to balance the intermittent power supply of renewables. On the demand side ... [more ▼]

Various flexibility options in power systems, such as storage, grid expansion, and demand flexibility, gain increasing importance to balance the intermittent power supply of renewables. On the demand side, especially the industrial sector represents promising potential for Demand Response, i.e., the alignment of its power demand with the current power supply of renewables. However, there exist various obstacles that currently prevent companies from investing in new or (fully) exploiting existing flexibility potentials. In this paper, we investigate how economic, regulatory, technological, organizational, behavioral, informational, and competence obstacles pose barriers for companies to adjust their power consumption flexibly. For this purpose, we combine both a structured literature analysis and a case study. For the case study, we conduct 16 interviews with energy experts from companies from different industries. Our findings reveal that due to technical risk of disrupting the production process, lacking revenues, and too low cost savings, companies do not flexibilize their power consumption. Moreover, in particular, contradictory legislative incentives and missing IT standardization and interoperability represent key obstacles. Therefore, our results constitute a basis for targeted policy making in order to foster the exploitation of (existing) flexibility potential of industrial companies on the demand side. [less ▲]

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See detailDimensionality Reduction, Modelling, and Optimization of Multivariate Problems Based on Machine Learning
Alswaitti, Mohammed UL; Siddique, Kamran; Jiang, Shulei et al

in Symmetry (2022), 14(7), 1282

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See detailNon-normality, topological transitivity and expanding families
Meyrath, Thierry UL; Müller, Jürgen

in Mathematical Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society (2022), 173(3), 511-523

We investigate the behaviour of families of meromorphic functions in the neighbourhood of points of non-normality and prove certain covering properties that complement Montel’s Theorem. In particular, we ... [more ▼]

We investigate the behaviour of families of meromorphic functions in the neighbourhood of points of non-normality and prove certain covering properties that complement Montel’s Theorem. In particular, we also obtain characterisations of non-normality in terms of such properties. [less ▲]

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See detailExpression and function of resolvin RvD1(n-3 DPA) receptors in oral epithelial cells
Balta, Maria G.; Schreurs, Olav; Hansen, Trond V. et al

in European journal of oral sciences (2022), 130(4), 12883

Chronic inflammatory responses can inflict permanent damage to host tissues. Specialized pro-resolving mediators downregulate inflammation but also can have other functions. The aim of this study was to ... [more ▼]

Chronic inflammatory responses can inflict permanent damage to host tissues. Specialized pro-resolving mediators downregulate inflammation but also can have other functions. The aim of this study was to examine whether oral epithelial cells express the receptors FPR2/ALX and DRV1/GPR32, which bind RvD1(n-3 DPA) , a recently described pro-resolving mediator derived from omega-3 docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), and whether RvD1(n-3 DPA) exposure induced significant responses in these cells. Gingival biopsies were stained using antibodies to FPR2/ALX and DRV1/GPR32. Expression of FPR2/ALX and DRV1/GPR32 was examined in primary oral epithelial cells by qRT-PCR, flow cytometry, and immunofluorescence. The effect of RvD1(n-3 DPA) on intracellular calcium mobilization and transcription of beta-defensins 1 and 2, and cathelicidin was evaluated by qRT-PCR. FPR2/ALX and DRV1/GPR32 were expressed by gingival keratinocytes in situ. In cultured oral epithelial cells, FPR2/ALX was detected on the cell surface, whereas FPR2/ALX and DRV1/GPR32 were detected intracellularly. Exposure to RvD1(n-3 DPA) induced intracellular calcium mobilization, FPR2/ALX internalization, DRV1/GPR32 translocation to the nucleus, and significantly increased expression of genes coding for beta-defensin 1, beta-defensin 2, and cathelicidin. This shows that the signal constituted by RvD1(n-3 DPA) is recognized by oral keratinocytes and that this can strengthen the antimicrobial and regulatory potential of the oral epithelium. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Never‐Ending Road Towards the CEAS: Utopia, Teleology, and Depoliticisation in EU Asylum Policies
Vianelli, Lorenzo UL

in Social Inclusion (2022), 10(3), 48-57

This article explores the temporal dimension of the Common European Asylum System (CEAS) by exposing its teleological character and the effects of the latter on the governance of asylum in the European ... [more ▼]

This article explores the temporal dimension of the Common European Asylum System (CEAS) by exposing its teleological character and the effects of the latter on the governance of asylum in the European Union. Drawing on EU policy documents, the article shows how the CEAS has been presented since its inception as a teleology, that is, a process that is inexorably unfolding towards a specific outcome to be reached in an indefinite time in the future. The outcome consists in the establishment of a common area of protection constituted by a level playing field in which asylum seekers and beneficiaries of international protection will be treated alike regardless of the place of residence. Such a teleological narrative informing the CEAS paves the way to overly optimistic expectations on the possibilities of implementation, which in turn result in an overestimation of the potential of harmonisation. By discussing the limitations of harmonisation in relation to the reception of asylum seekers, this article calls into question the possibility of a homogeneous area of protection where equivalent conditions are offered to all asylum seekers across the EU. Such a homogeneous space is utopian because harmonisation does not aim to eradicate differences but rather to mitigate them, thus tolerating diverse arrangements. The article, therefore, argues that the level playing field projected by the CEAS constitutes a promise that has two key effects: First, it depoliticises the CEAS itself by framing problems as technical issues, requiring technical solutions; second, it paves the way to further EU intervention in this field. [less ▲]

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See detailPer una riconcettualizzazione delle cause della povertà lavorativa
Ratti, Luca UL

in QRS - Quaderni di Rassegna Sindacale (2022)

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See detailOrigin of Interface Limitation in Zn(O,S)/CuInS2‑Based Solar Cells
Sood, Mohit UL; Bombsch, Jakob; Lomuscio, Alberto UL et al

in ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces (2022), 14

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See detailAn Axiomatic Approach to the Measurement of Comparative Female Disadvantage
Chakravarty, Satya; Chattopadhyay, Nachiketa; d'Ambrosio, Conchita UL

in Social Indicators Research (2022), 164

Female comparative disadvantage refers to the mismatch of the female with respect to achievements in different dimensions of human well-being in comparison with the corresponding achievements of the male ... [more ▼]

Female comparative disadvantage refers to the mismatch of the female with respect to achievements in different dimensions of human well-being in comparison with the corresponding achievements of the male. This paper axiomatically derives a general family of female comparative disadvantage indicators which has very important policy implications. The axioms employed are shown to be ‘independent’. An empirical illustration of the general index is provided using the UNDP data on mean years of schooling, life expectancy at birth and gross national income per capita in 2018. Results show that female comparative disadvantage is not necessarily related to standard measures of human development, such as the HDI, and is present even in countries reaching very high human development. The factor where policy intervention is needed the most is income. [less ▲]

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See detailPredicting Patch Correctness Based on the Similarity of Failing Test Cases
Tian, Haoye UL; Li, Yinghua UL; Pian, Weiguo UL et al

in ACM Transactions on Software Engineering and Methodology (2022)

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See detailNetwork Traffic Modeling and Prediction Using Graph Gaussian Processes
MEHRIZI, Sajad; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL

in IEEE Access (2022)

Traffic modeling and prediction is a vital task for designing efficient resource allocation strategies in telecommunication networks. This is challenging because network traffic data exhibits complex ... [more ▼]

Traffic modeling and prediction is a vital task for designing efficient resource allocation strategies in telecommunication networks. This is challenging because network traffic data exhibits complex nonlinear spatiotemporal interactions. Moreover, the data can have missing values when traffic statistic collection is unavailable in certain nodes. In this paper, we introduce a graph Gaussian Process (GP) model for this challenging problem. The GP is a Bayesian non-parametric model and highly flexible in capturing complex patterns in the data. Additionally, it provides uncertainty information which can be exploited for robust resource allocation problems. The developed graph GP model is almost free of hyper-parameter tuning, can accurately capture short-term and long-term temporal patterns and can infer missing values by learning spatiotemporal interactions among the nodes in the network. Subsequently, we approximate the intractable posterior distribution using Variational Bayes (VB) algorithm which can be efficiently implemented. Finally, we evaluate the accuracy of the proposed model for predicting the data traffic using two real-world network datasets. Our simulation results shows that the proposed model can achieve better prediction accuracy with respect to the state-of-the-art approaches [less ▲]

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See detailRegulation of N6-Methyladenosine after Myocardial Infarction
Vausort, Mélanie; Niedolistek, Magdalena; Lumley, Andrew I. et al

in Cells (2022), 11(15), 2271

Development of heart failure (HF) after myocardial infarction (MI) is responsible for premature death. Complex cellular and molecular mechanisms are involved in this process. A number of studies have ... [more ▼]

Development of heart failure (HF) after myocardial infarction (MI) is responsible for premature death. Complex cellular and molecular mechanisms are involved in this process. A number of studies have linked the epitranscriptomic RNA modification N6-methyladenosine (m6A) with HF, but it remains unknown how m6A affects the risk of developing HF after MI. We addressed the regulation of m6A and its demethylase fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) after MI and their association with HF. Using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, we observed an increase of m6A content in the infarcted area of rat hearts subjected to coronary ligation and a decrease in blood. FTO expression measured by quantitative PCR was downregulated in the infarcted hearts. In whole blood samples collected at the time of reperfusion in MI patients, m6A content was lower in patients who developed HF as attested by a 4-month ejection fraction (EF) of ≤40 as compared to patients who did not develop HF (EF \textgreater 50\%). M6A content was higher in females. These results show that m6A measured in blood is associated with HF development after MI and motivate further investigation of the potential role of m6A as a novel epitranscriptomics biomarker and therapeutic target of HF. [less ▲]

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See detailReactionary Education in the USA
Tebaldi, Catherine UL

in Social Anthropology (2022)

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See detailEU Law, In-Work Poverty, and Vulnerable Workers
Ratti, Luca UL; Garcia Munoz Alhambra, Manuel Antonio UL

in European Law Open (2022), (3), 733747

The focus of the present contribution is the role of European Union (EU) law in shaping the working conditions of four groups of vulnerable workers. It assesses to what extent the impact of EU law favours ... [more ▼]

The focus of the present contribution is the role of European Union (EU) law in shaping the working conditions of four groups of vulnerable workers. It assesses to what extent the impact of EU law favours, on these particular groups, an increased risk of In-Work Poverty (IWP) and explores whether the recent attention to IWP at EU level and the latest initiatives adopted may change the picture in the near future. The purpose is, therefore, to contribute to the debate on the role of EU law and policy in structuring vulnerability from the perspective of IWP. What is commonly known as EU labour law is a fragmentary legal corpus that has grown in a rather patchwork fashion as part of a social dimension of the European project that was, broadly speaking, functional to the logic of market integration. This originates in the early division of competences between the EU and the Member States in the Treaty of Rome, which left labour law and social protection outside the EU sphere of action. It partly explains why the protection of workers, particularly those that do not engage in cross-border situations, does not seem to be the EU’s primary goal, or at least it is not formulated as contrary to other potentially clashing rationales such as market integration, flexibility, enhanced competitiveness and so on. The prevention of IWP was not, in any case, one of the concerns of the original European project. Yet, EU law has produced several pieces of legislation that directly or indirectly contribute to shaping the working conditions of European workers, including those more exposed to IWP. The paper assesses the relevant EU legal framework and discusses its impact on the working conditions of those more at risk of IWP. It concludes by estimating the potential of a series of recent initiatives to enhance the protection of the most vulnerable workers, thus making a positive change. [less ▲]

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See detailReasoning on conflicting information: An empirical study of Formal Argumentation
Guillaume, Mathieu UL; Cramer, Marcos UL; van der Torre, Leon UL et al

in PLoS ONE (2022), 17(8 August),

According to the Argumentative Theory, human reasoning has an argumentative function, which consists of devising and evaluating arguments for and against various claims. It is however unclear how humans ... [more ▼]

According to the Argumentative Theory, human reasoning has an argumentative function, which consists of devising and evaluating arguments for and against various claims. It is however unclear how humans handle conflicting claims they face in everyday life (i.e., “Bob is telling me that Alice is at the library” vs. “Charles is telling me that Alice is at home”). We here investigate human argumentative reasoning in the light of Formal Argumentation, a research field that develops formal methods to give a normative account of argumentation and reasoning about conflicting information. In Formal Argumentation, multiple argumentation semantics that allow selecting sets of jointly acceptable arguments have been proposed. Nonetheless, it is unclear which of these semantics predicts best how humans evaluate the acceptability of conflicting arguments. We conducted an empirical study in which 130 young adults judged natural language arguments. We instructed them to draw the attack relation between the given arguments and to evaluate the acceptability of each of these arguments. Our results show that human judgments on the existence and directionality of attacks between the arguments conform to theoretical predictions from Formal Argumentation. We further found out that some less well-known argumentation semantics predicted human evaluation better than the most well-known semantics. These findings support the cognitive plausibility of variants of Formal Argumentation and bring new insights into reasoning about conflicting information. [less ▲]

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See detailPersonalised meta-path generation for heterogeneous graph neural networks
Zhong, Zhiqiang; Li, Cheng-Te; Pang, Jun UL

in Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery (2022), 36(6), 2299-2333

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See detailPUBA: Privacy-Preserving User-Data Bookkeeping and Analytics
Fetzer, Valerie; Keller, Marcel; Maier, Sven et al

in Proceedings on Privacy Enhancing Technologies (2022), 2022(2),

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See detailSubjective age, worry and risk-related perceptions in older adults in times of a pandemic
Tingvold, Maiken UL; Albert, Isabelle UL; Hoffmann, Martine et al

in PLoS ONE (2022)

During the Covid-19 pandemic, older people have been in the spotlight of the public debate. Given their higher risk of severe outcomes of the disease, they have been described as especially vulnerable and ... [more ▼]

During the Covid-19 pandemic, older people have been in the spotlight of the public debate. Given their higher risk of severe outcomes of the disease, they have been described as especially vulnerable and as a burden to others and society. We thus wanted to investigate how older people’s perception of their own age, that is their subjective age, as well as their Covid-19 related risks and worries were related during the pandemic and whether these relationships varied according to participants’ subjective health. We used data from the longitudinal CRISIS study which was conducted in the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg in June and October 2020. Participants were aged 60–98 and responded on questionnaires regarding their subjective age, worry of falling ill with Covid-19, perceived risk of contracting the virus, perceived risk of falling seriously ill if they contracted Covid-19, as well as their subjective health and covariates. Three cross-lagged panel models were constructed to explore the longitudinal, bidirectional relationships between the variables. Cross-sectionally, a higher subjective age was related to more perceived risk of a serious course of disease. Longitudinally, subjective age and worry did not show any significant association over time, and neither did subjective age and perceived risk of contracting the virus. However, subjective health significantly moderated the relationship of worry and subjective age, showing different trajectories in the relationship depending on whether subjective health was good or bad. Higher perceived risk of falling seriously ill increased subjective age over time. Again, subjective health moderated this relationship: the perceived risk of falling seriously ill affected subjective age only for those with better subjective health. Our findings show the interactive relationship between subjective age and Covid-19 related cognitions and emotions and provide guidance for identifying older people that are most susceptible for negative age-related communication during the pandemic. [less ▲]

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See detailIdentifying the psychological processes delineating non-harmful from problematic binge-watching: a machine learning analytical approach
Flayelle, Maèva; Elhai, J.D.; Maurage, Pierre et al

in Telematics and Informatics (2022), 74

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See detailKac-Rice formula for transverse intersections
Stecconi, Michele UL

in Analysis and Mathematical Physics (2022), 12

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See detailDoes blockchain technology democratize entrepreneurial finance? An empirical comparison of ICOs, venture capital, and REITs
Fisch, Christian UL; Meoli, Michele; Vismara, Silvio

in Economics of Innovation and New Technology (2022), 31(1–2), 7089

Initial coin offerings (ICOs) are one of the major innovations that characterize the digital revolution of financial markets. Among the expectations created by the digital revolution is the ... [more ▼]

Initial coin offerings (ICOs) are one of the major innovations that characterize the digital revolution of financial markets. Among the expectations created by the digital revolution is the democratization of entrepreneurial finance, defined in terms of the creation of more equality regarding the access to financial resources by categories known to be underrepresented among potential entrepreneurs. Following this line of research, we investigate, through two complementary empirical studies, whether gender, ethnicity, and geography affect the choice of ICOs vs. traditional financing alternatives. Additionally, we assess whether these characteristics increase the amount of money an entrepreneur can raise. In Study I, we compare 390 ICO ventures to a sample of 1,078 VC-backed blockchain ventures, identifying a negative correlation between the choice of an ICO (vs. VC-backing) and a location in an urban area. In Study II, we compare 160 ICO ventures to 163 real estate investment trusts (REITs), reaffirming the results of Study I. The findings show significant participation and likelihood of successful campaigns for ethnical minorities in ICOs, with the latter also being able to collect, ceteris paribus, larger amounts of funding. In contrast, female entrepreneurs do not have higher chances to participate nor raise funds in ICOs. [less ▲]

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See detailNative defects in monolayer GaS and GaSe: Electrical properties and thermodynamic stability
Barragan-Yani, Daniel; Polfus, Jonathan M.; Wirtz, Ludger UL

in Physical Review Materials (2022), 6(11), 114002

Structural, electronic, and thermodynamic properties of native defects in GaS and GaSe monolayers are investigated by means of accurate ab initio calculations. Based on their charge transition levels we ... [more ▼]

Structural, electronic, and thermodynamic properties of native defects in GaS and GaSe monolayers are investigated by means of accurate ab initio calculations. Based on their charge transition levels we assess the influence of the studied defects on the electrical properties of the monolayers. Specifically, we show that native defects do not behave as shallow dopants and their presence cannot account for the experimentally observed intrinsic doping. In addition, we predict that native defects are efficient compensation and recombination centers. Besides pointing out their detrimental nature, we also calculate the corresponding finite-temperature formation energies and provide a window of growth conditions able to reduce the concentration of all relevant native defects. [less ▲]

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See detailActive Terminal Identification, Channel Estimation, and Signal Detection for Grant-Free NOMA-OTFS in LEO Satellite Internet-of-Things
Zhou, Xingyu; Ying, Keke; Gao, Zhen et al

in IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications ( Early Access ) (2022)

This paper investigates the massive connectivity of low Earth orbit (LEO) satellite-based Internet-of-Things (IoT) for seamless global coverage. We propose to integrate the grant-free non-orthogonal ... [more ▼]

This paper investigates the massive connectivity of low Earth orbit (LEO) satellite-based Internet-of-Things (IoT) for seamless global coverage. We propose to integrate the grant-free non-orthogonal multiple access (GF-NOMA) paradigm with the emerging orthogonal time frequency space (OTFS) modulation to accommodate the massive IoT access, and mitigate the long round-trip latency and severe Doppler effect of terrestrial–satellite links (TSLs). On this basis, we put forward a two-stage successive active terminal identification (ATI) and channel estimation (CE) scheme as well as a low-complexity multi-user signal detection (SD) method. Specifically, at the first stage, the proposed training sequence aided OTFS (TS-OTFS) data frame structure facilitates the joint ATI and coarse CE, whereby both the traffic sparsity of terrestrial IoT terminals and the sparse channel impulse response are leveraged for enhanced performance. Moreover, based on the single Doppler shift property for each TSL and sparsity of delay-Doppler domain channel, we develop a parametric approach to further refine the CE performance. Finally, a least square based parallel time domain SD method is developed to detect the OTFS signals with relatively low complexity. Simulation results demonstrate the superiority of the proposed methods over the state-of-the-art solutions in terms of ATI, CE, and SD performance confronted with the long round-trip latency and severe Doppler effect. [less ▲]

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See detailAsymptotic error distribution for the Riemann approximation of integrals driven by fractional Brownian motion
Garino, Valentin; Nourdin, Ivan UL; Vallois, Pierre

in Electronic Journal of Probability (2022)

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See detailTrade Secret Protection and R&D Investment of Family Firms
Hussinger, Katrin UL; Issah, Wunnam

in Family Business Review (2022)

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See detailThroughput Maximization for Backscatter- and Cache-Assisted Wireless Powered UAV Technology
Tran Dinh, Hieu UL; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL; Ottersten, Björn UL

in IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology (2022), 71(5), 5187-5202

This paper investigates a wireless powered unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) communication network with backscatter and caching technologies. Specifically, we assume a self-energized UAV with a cache memory ... [more ▼]

This paper investigates a wireless powered unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) communication network with backscatter and caching technologies. Specifically, we assume a self-energized UAV with a cache memory is deployed as a flying backscatter device (BD), term the UAV-enabled BD (UB), to relay the source’s signals to the destination. Whereas the source S can act as a wireless charging station or a base station to supply power or transmit information to the UB using the dynamic time splitting (DTS) method. The UAV utilizes its harvested energy for backscattering (i.e., passive communication) and transmit information (i.e., active communication) to the destination. In this context, we aim to maximize the total throughput by jointly optimizing the DTS ratio and the UB’s trajectory with caching capability at the UB. The formulation is troublesome to solve since it is a non-convex problem. To find solutions, we decompose the original problem into two sub-problems, whereas we first optimize the DTS ratio for a given UB’s trajectory and the UB’s trajectory optimization for a given DTS ratio. By using the KKT conditions, a closed-form expression for the optimal value of the DTS ratio is obtained, greatly reducing the computation time. Moreover, the solution of the second sub-problem can be acquired by adopting the successive convex approximation (SCA) technique. Consequently, an efficient alternating algorithm is proposed by leveraging the block coordinate descent (BCD) method. To show the advantages of the proposed BCD-based algorithm, we also provide the solution of the original problem applying the inner approximation (IA) method. Finally, the intensive numerical results demonstrate that our proposed schemes achieve significant throughput gain in comparison to the benchmark schemes. [less ▲]

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See detailA NEW CONCEPT AND ALGORITHM TO TRANSFER BRITTLE AND ARBITRARY LOAD-SLIP CURVES INTO AN EFFECTIVE SHEAR RESISTANCE SUITABLE FOR EUROCODE 4
Kozma, Andras UL; Girao Coelho, Ana M.; Yang, Jie UL et al

in JOURNAL OF THEORETICAL AND APPLIED MECHANICS (2022), 60(4), 705-718

This paper proposes a new concept and algorithm to transfer brittle and arbitrary load-slip curves into an effective shear resistance suitable for Eurocode 4. This algorithm is specifically for ... [more ▼]

This paper proposes a new concept and algorithm to transfer brittle and arbitrary load-slip curves into an effective shear resistance suitable for Eurocode 4. This algorithm is specifically for demountable shear connections of composite beams which do not exhibit ductile behaviour as required in EC4. The algorithm is validated with numerical finite element models which have been calibrated against experimental results. The algorithm extends the scope of the code to cover demountable shear connections: it allows the EC4 (EN 1994-1-1) rules remain applicable for the evaluation of the plastic bending resistance of composite beams with partial shear connection. [less ▲]