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See detailJoint Precoding and On-Board Beamforming for Multiple gateway Multibeam Satellite Systems
Joroughi, Vahid UL

in Submitted to IEEE Journal on Selected topic in Communication (JSAC) (in press)

This paper aims to design joint precoding and onboard beamforming of a multiple gateway multibeam satellite system, either in a hybrid space-ground mode, or in a totally on-board one. In such an ... [more ▼]

This paper aims to design joint precoding and onboard beamforming of a multiple gateway multibeam satellite system, either in a hybrid space-ground mode, or in a totally on-board one. In such an architecture, with employing high throughput full frequency reuse pattern over both user and feeder links, each gateway serves a cluster of adjacent beams such that the adjacent clusters are served through a set of gateways that are located at different geographical areas. However, such a system brings in two challenges to overcome. First, the interference in both user and feeder links is the bottleneck of the whole system and applying interference mitigation techniques becomes necessary. Second, as the data demand increases, the ground and space segments should employ extensive bandwidth resources in the feeder link accordingly. This entails embedding an extra number of gateways aiming to support a fair balance between the increasing demand and the corresponding required feeder link resources. To solve these problems, this study investigates the impact of employing a joint multiple gateway architecture and on-board beamforming scheme. It is shown that by properly designing the on-board beamforming scheme, the number of gateways can be kept affordable even if the data demand increases. Moreover, Zero Forcing (ZF) precoding techniques are considered to cope with the interference in both user and feeder links which embed in the following premises: (i) each gateway constructs a part of block ZF precoding matrix, (ii) the satellite and gateways perform the precoding scheme, and (iii) a joint design of ZF precoding and on-board beamforming at the payload of the satellite so that no signal processing scheme is conceived at the gateways. The provided simulation results depict the performance gain obtained by our proposed schemes. [less ▲]

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See detailStructural changes in the labor market and the rise of early retirement in France and Germany
Batyra, Anna; de la Croix, David; Pierrard, Olivier et al

in German Economic Review (in press)

The rise of early retirement in Europe is typically attributed to the European system of taxes and transfers. A model with an imperfectly competitive labor market allows us to consider also the effects of ... [more ▼]

The rise of early retirement in Europe is typically attributed to the European system of taxes and transfers. A model with an imperfectly competitive labor market allows us to consider also the effects of bargaining power and of matching efficiency on pre-retirement. We find that lower bargaining power of workers and declining matching efficiency have been important determinants of early retirement in France and Germany. These structural changes, combined with early-retirement transfers and population aging, are also consistent with the employment and unemployment rates, labor share and seniority premia. [less ▲]

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See detailSafety-aware Location Privacy in VANET: Evaluation and Comparison
Emara, Karim Ahmed Awad El-Sayed UL

in IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology (in press)

VANET safety applications broadcast cooperative awareness messages (CAM) periodically to provide vehicles with continuous updates about the surrounding traffic. The periodicity and the spatiotemporal ... [more ▼]

VANET safety applications broadcast cooperative awareness messages (CAM) periodically to provide vehicles with continuous updates about the surrounding traffic. The periodicity and the spatiotemporal information contained in these messages allow a global adversary to track vehicle movements. Many privacy schemes have been proposed for VANET, but only few schemes consider their impact on safety applications. Also, each scheme is evaluated using inconsistent metrics and unrealistic vehicle traces, which makes comparing the actual performance of different schemes in the wild more difficult. In this paper, we aim to fill this gap and compare different privacy schemes not only in terms of the privacy gained but also their impact on safety applications. A distortion-based privacy metric is initially proposed and compared with other popular privacy metrics showing its effectiveness in measuring privacy. A practical safety metric which is based on Monte Carlo analysis is then proposed to measure the QoS of two safety applications: forward collision warning and lane change warning. Using realistic vehicle traces, six state-of-the-art VANET privacy schemes are evaluated and compared in terms of the proposed privacy and safety metrics. Among the evaluated schemes, it was found that the coordinated silent period scheme achieves the best privacy and QoS levels but fully synchronized silence among all vehicles is a practical challenge. The CAPS and CADS schemes provide a practical compromise between privacy and safety since they employ only the necessary silence periods to prevent tracking and avoid changing pseudonyms in trivial situations. [less ▲]

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See detailMarital Patterns and Income Inequality
Dupuy, Arnaud UL; Weber, Simon

in Economica (in press)

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See detailOn the comprehensibility and perceived privacy protection of indirect questioning techniques
Hoffmann, Adrian; Waubert de Puiseau, Berenike; Schmidt, Alexander F. UL et al

in Behavior Research Methods (in press)

On surveys that assess sensitive personal attributes, indirect questioning aims at increasing respondents’ willingness to answer truthfully by protecting confidentiality. However, the assumption that ... [more ▼]

On surveys that assess sensitive personal attributes, indirect questioning aims at increasing respondents’ willingness to answer truthfully by protecting confidentiality. However, the assumption that subjects understand questioning procedures fully and trust them to protect their privacy is tested rarely. In a scenario-based design, we compared four indirect questioning procedures in terms of comprehensibility and perceived privacy protection. All indirect questioning techniques were found less comprehensible for respondents than a conventional direct question used for comparison. Less-educated respondents experienced more difficulties when confronted with any indirect questioning technique. Regardless of education, the Crosswise Model was found most comprehensible among the four indirect methods. Indirect questioning was perceived to increase privacy protection in comparison to a direct question. Unexpectedly, comprehension and perceived privacy protection did not correlate. We recommend assessing these factors separately in future evaluations of indirect questioning. [less ▲]

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See detailConcentration bounds for geometric Poisson functionals: logarithmic Sobolev inequalities revisited
Peccati, Giovanni UL; Bachmann, Sascha

in Electronic Journal of Probability (in press)

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See detailTen Quick Tips for Biomarker Discovery and Validation Analyses Using Machine Learning
Diaz-Uriarte, R.; Gómez de Lope, Elisa UL; Giugno, R. et al

in PLoS Computational Biology (in press)

High-throughput experimental methods for biosample profiling and growing collections of clinical and health record data provide ample opportunities for biomarker discovery and medical decision support ... [more ▼]

High-throughput experimental methods for biosample profiling and growing collections of clinical and health record data provide ample opportunities for biomarker discovery and medical decision support. However, many of the new data types, including single-cell omics and high-resolution cellular imaging data, also pose particular challenges for data analysis. A high dimensionality of the data in relation to small numbers of available samples, influences of additive and multiplicative noise, large numbers of uninformative or redundant data features, outliers, confounding factors and imbalanced sample group numbers are all common characteristics of current biomedical data collections. While first successes have been achieved in developing clinical decision support tools using multifactorial omics data, there is still an unmet need and great potential for earlier, more accurate and robust diagnostic and prognostic tools for many complex diseases. Here, we provide a set of broadly applicable tips to address some of the most common pitfalls and limitations for biomarker signature development, including supervised and unsupervised machine learning, feature selection and hypothesis testing approaches. In contrast to previous guidelines discussing detailed aspects of quality control, statistics or study reporting, we give a broader overview of the typical challenges and sort the quick tips to address them chronologically by the study phase (starting with study design, then covering consecutive phases of biomarker signature discovery and validation, see also the overview in Fig. 1). While these tips are not comprehensive, they are chosen to cover what we consider as the most frequent, significant, and practically relevant issues and risks in biomarker development. By pointing the reader to further relevant literature on the covered aspects of biomarker discovery and validation, we hope to provide an initial guideline and entry point into the more detailed technical and application-specific aspects of this field. [less ▲]

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See detailMultiple Sets Exponential Concentration and Higher Order Eigenvalues
Gozlan, Nathael; Herry, Ronan UL

in Potential Analysis (in press)

On a generic metric measured space, we introduce a notion of improved concentration of measure that takes into account the parallel enlargement of k distinct sets. We show that the k-th eigenvalues of the ... [more ▼]

On a generic metric measured space, we introduce a notion of improved concentration of measure that takes into account the parallel enlargement of k distinct sets. We show that the k-th eigenvalues of the metric Laplacian gives exponential improved concentration with k sets. On compact Riemannian manifolds, this allows us to recover estimates on the eigenvalues of the Laplace-Beltrami operator in the spirit of an inequality of Chung, Grigor’yan & Yau, Upper bounds for eigenvalues of the discrete and continuous Laplace operators. Adv. Math. 117(2), 165–178 (1996). [less ▲]

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See detailDistance-based social index numbers: a unifying approach
Bossert, Walter; d'Ambrosio, Conchita UL; Weber, Shlomo

in Journal of Mathematical Economics (in press)

We present a unified approach to the design of social index numbers. Our starting point is a model that employs an exogenously given partition of the population into subgroups. Three classes of group ... [more ▼]

We present a unified approach to the design of social index numbers. Our starting point is a model that employs an exogenously given partition of the population into subgroups. Three classes of group-dependent measures of deprivation are characterized. The three groups are nested and, beginning with the largest of these, we narrow them down by successively adding two additional axioms. This leads to a parameterized class the members of which are based on the differences between the income (or wealth) levels of an individual and those who are better off. We then proceed to show that our measures are sufficiently general to accommodate a plethora of indices, including measures of inequality and polarization as well as distance-based measures of phenomena such as diversity and fractionalization. [less ▲]

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See detaile3-service: an ontology for needs-driven real-world service bundling in a multi-supplier setting
De Kinderen, Sybren UL; de Leenheer, Pieter; Gordijn, Jaap et al

in Applied Ontology (in press)

Businesses increasingly offer their services electronically via the Web. Take for example an Internet Service Provider. An ISP offers a variety of services, including raw bandwidth, IP connectivity, and ... [more ▼]

Businesses increasingly offer their services electronically via the Web. Take for example an Internet Service Provider. An ISP offers a variety of services, including raw bandwidth, IP connectivity, and Domain Name resolution. Although in some cases a single service already satisfies a customer need, in many situations a customer need is so complex that a bundle of services is needed to satisfy the need, as with the ISP example. In principle, each service in a bundle can be provisioned by a different supplier. This paper proposes an ontology, e3service , that can be used to formally capture customer needs, services, and multisupplier service bundles of these. In addition, this paper contributes a process called PCM2 to reason with the ontology. First, a customer need is identified for which desired consequences are elicited. Then, the desired set of consequences is matched with consequences associated with services. The matching process results in a service bundle, satisfying the customer need, containing services that each can be provided by different suppliers. PCM2 is inspired by a family of formal reasoning methods called Propose-Critique-Modify (PCM). However, whereas PCM methods emphasize solution generation from a given set of requirements, our reasoning process treats the space of requirements as a first class citizen. Hence PCM2 : the requirements space and solution space are equally important. How the reasoning and matching process practically works, is illustrated by an industry strength case study in the healthcare domain. [less ▲]

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See detailSemiparametric estimation of McKean-Vlasov SDEs
Belomestny, Denis; Pilipauskaite, Vytauté UL; Podolskij, Mark UL

in Annales de l'Institut Henri Poincaré (B) Probabilités et Statistiques (in press)

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See detailThe EU’s Impact on Data-driven Finance
Zetzsche, Dirk Andreas UL; Buckley, Ross; Arner, Douglas et al

in Common Market Law Review (in press)

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See detailBook review: Bessey, Valérie et Werner Paravicini: Guerre des manifestes : Charles le Téméraire et ses ennemis (1465-1475)
Genot, Gilles UL

in Hemecht: Zeitschrift für Luxemburger Geschichte (in press)

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See detailSmart Bound Selection for the Verification of UML/OCL Class Diagrams
Clarisó, Robert; Gonzalez Perez, Carlos Alberto UL; Cabot, Jordi

in IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering (in press)

Correctness of UML class diagrams annotated with OCL constraints can be checked using bounded verification techniques, e.g., SAT or constraint programming (CP) solvers. Bounded verification detects faults ... [more ▼]

Correctness of UML class diagrams annotated with OCL constraints can be checked using bounded verification techniques, e.g., SAT or constraint programming (CP) solvers. Bounded verification detects faults efficiently but, on the other hand, the absence of faults does not guarantee a correct behavior outside the bounded domain. Hence, choosing suitable bounds is a non-trivial process as there is a trade-off between the verification time (faster for smaller domains) and the confidence in the result (better for larger domains). Unfortunately, bounded verification tools provide little support in the bound selection process. In this paper, we present a technique that can be used to (i) automatically infer verification bounds whenever possible, (ii) tighten a set of bounds proposed by the user and (iii) guide the user in the bound selection process. This approach may increase the usability of UML/OCL bounded verification tools and improve the efficiency of the verification process. [less ▲]

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See detailMomentary Subjective Age is Associated with Perceived and Physiological Stress in the Daily Lives of Old and Very Old Adults
Kornadt, Anna Elena UL; Pauly, Theresa; Schilling, Oliver et al

in Psychology and Aging (in press)

Subjective age, that is the age people feel in relation to their chronological age, can vary on a day-to-day and even momentary basis. Previous long-term and daily-diary studies have shown that elevated ... [more ▼]

Subjective age, that is the age people feel in relation to their chronological age, can vary on a day-to-day and even momentary basis. Previous long-term and daily-diary studies have shown that elevated stress covaries with older subjective age. However, it is an open question whether such links can also be observed at the momentary level within a given day and go beyond self-reports of stress. Moving ahead, we investigated how two indicators of stress (self-reported: perceived stress; physiological: salivary cortisol) are associated with the age people feel on a momentary basis. We examined data from 118 older (Mage = 66.67 years) and 36 very old adults (Mage = 85.92 years) who reported their momentary subjective age and perceived stress and also provided saliva samples up to seven times a day over seven consecutive days. Dynamic structural equation models showed that both higher momentary perceived stress and higher cortisol levels preceding the measurement predicted an older momentary subjective age. In contrast, subjective age at the previous measurement did not predict subsequent stress. These effects were moderated by participant age group and grip strength, albeit not consistently. Our results corroborate and extend earlier findings that both self-reported and physiological stress are important explanatory variables for people’s subjective age variation even on relatively short time scales, and shed light on differential time-ordered dynamics between stress and subjective age in daily life. Findings also inform theoretical models of subjective age that highlight the importance of contextual, momentary influences on how old people feel and help better understand how biological and psychological processes are intertwined in later life. [less ▲]

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See detailNon-normality, topological transitivity and expanding families
Meyrath, Thierry UL; Müller, Jürgen

in Mathematical Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society (in press)

We investigate the behaviour of families of meromorphic functions in the neighbourhood of points of non-normality and prove certain covering properties that complement Montel’s Theorem. In particular, we ... [more ▼]

We investigate the behaviour of families of meromorphic functions in the neighbourhood of points of non-normality and prove certain covering properties that complement Montel’s Theorem. In particular, we also obtain characterisations of non-normality in terms of such properties. [less ▲]

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See detailCentral Banks and Regulation of Cryptocurrencies
Nabilou, Hossein UL; Prüm, André UL

in Review of Banking & Financial Law (in press)

This paper explores the interface between central banks and cryptocurrencies. Focusing on the European Central Bank (ECB), it identifies the potential threats that the rise of cryptocurrencies would pose ... [more ▼]

This paper explores the interface between central banks and cryptocurrencies. Focusing on the European Central Bank (ECB), it identifies the potential threats that the rise of cryptocurrencies would pose to the basic and ancillary tasks of the ECB, in particular, its monetary policy operations and the exercise of its supervisory functions over credit institutions and payment systems. The paper finds that cryptocurrencies can potentially have both direct – through their potential impact on the price stability and monetary policy, and central banks’ monopoly over issuing base money – and indirect effects on central banks, mainly through the institutions and systems that fall under the ECB’s scope of competence. To address the challenges posed by cryptocurrencies, the ECB may take both legal (including supervisory and oversight) measures and non-legal (or technical) measures. With respect to technical measures, the ECB - to the extent falling within the scope of its competence - may focus on improving the efficiency of existing payment systems and addressing the existing frictions in market infrastructures to indirectly affect the cryptocurrency markets. Alternatively, it can venture into issuing Central Bank Digital Currency (CBDC). Regarding legal measures, central banks could envisage regulating cryptocurrencies either directly or indirectly. However, as the most significant potential impact of cryptocurrencies on central banks is likely to be indirect through the impact of cryptocurrencies on the banking and payment systems, and given the limitations on the ECB’s mandate and its regulatory and supervisory tools, it is apposite for the ECB to consider using indirect strategies and tools to influence cryptocurrency markets. This indirect approach can be implemented through the ECB’s existing supervisory and oversight powers over the banking and payment systems. This paper specifies the direct and indirect measures and assesses their merits in addressing the concerns about cryptocurrencies. [less ▲]

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See detailWell-being and working from home during COVID-19
Schifano, Sonia UL; Clark, Andrew; Greiff, Samuel UL et al

in Information Technology and People (in press)

Purpose – The authors track the well-being of individuals across five European countries during the course of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and relate their well-being to working from ... [more ▼]

Purpose – The authors track the well-being of individuals across five European countries during the course of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and relate their well-being to working from home. The authors also consider the role of pandemic-policy stringency in affecting well-being in Europe. Design/methodology/approach – The authors have four waves of novel harmonised longitudinal data in France, Italy, Germany, Spain and Sweden, covering the period May–November 2020. Well-being is measured in five dimensions: life satisfaction, a worthwhile life, loneliness, depression and anxiety. A retrospective diary indicates whether the individual was working in each month since February 2020 and if so whether at home or not at home. Policy stringency is matched in per country at the daily level. The authors consider both cross- section and panel regressions and the mediating and moderating effects of control variables, including household variables and income. Findings – Well-being among workers is lower for those who work from home, and those who are not working have the lowest well-being of all. The panel results are more mitigated, with switching into working at home yielding a small drop in anxiety. The panel and cross-section difference could reflect adaptation or the selection of certain types of individuals into working at home. Policy stringency is always negatively correlated with well-being. The authors find no mediation effects. The well-being penalty from working at home is larger for the older, the better-educated, those with young children and those with more crowded housing. Originality/value – The harmonised cross-country panel data on individuals’ experiences during COVID-19 are novel. The authors relate working from home and policy stringency to multiple well-being measures. The authors emphasise the effect of working from home on not only the level of well-being but also its distribution. [less ▲]

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See detailApplications of convex analysis within mathematics
Aragón Artacho, Francisco Javier UL; Borwein, J. M.; Martín-Márquez, V. et al

in Mathematical Programming (in press)

In this paper, we study convex analysis and its theoretical applications. We first apply important tools of convex analysis to Optimization and to Analysis. We then show various deep applications of ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we study convex analysis and its theoretical applications. We first apply important tools of convex analysis to Optimization and to Analysis. We then show various deep applications of convex analysis and especially infimal convolution in Monotone Operator Theory. Among other things, we recapture the Minty surjectivity theorem in Hilbert space, and present a new proof of the sum theorem in reflexive spaces. More technically, we also discuss autoconjugate representers for maximally monotone operators. Finally, we consider various other applications in mathematical analysis. [less ▲]

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See detailIntelligent Blockchain-based Edge Computing via Deep Reinforcement Learning: Solutions and Challenges
Nguyen, Dinh C; Nguyen, van Dinh UL; Ding, Ming et al

in IEEE Network (in press)

The convergence of mobile edge computing (MEC) and blockchain is transforming the current computing services in wireless Internet-of-Things networks, by enabling task offloading with security enhancement ... [more ▼]

The convergence of mobile edge computing (MEC) and blockchain is transforming the current computing services in wireless Internet-of-Things networks, by enabling task offloading with security enhancement based on blockchain mining. Yet the existing approaches for these enabling technologies are isolated, providing only tailored solutions for specific services and scenarios. To fill this gap, we propose a novel cooperative task offloading and blockchain mining (TOBM) scheme for a blockchain-based MEC system, where each edge device not only handles computation tasks but also deals with block mining for improving system utility. To address the latency issues caused by the blockchain operation in MEC, we develop a new Proof-of-Reputation consensus mechanism based on a lightweight block verification strategy. To accommodate the highly dynamic environment and high-dimensional system state space, we apply a novel distributed deep reinforcement learning-based approach by using a multi-agent deep deterministic policy gradient algorithm. Experimental results demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed TOBM scheme in terms of enhanced system reward, improved offloading utility with lower blockchain mining latency, and better system utility, compared to the existing cooperative and non-cooperative schemes. The paper concludes with key technical challenges and possible directions for future blockchain-based MEC research. [less ▲]

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See detailFamily income and material deprivation: do they matter for sleep quality and quantity in early life? Evidence from a longitudinal study.
Barazzetta, Marta UL; Ghislandi, Simone

in Sleep (in press)

Study Objectives: The aim of the present paper is to investigate the determinants of sleeping patterns in children up to age 9 on a large and geographically homogeneous sample of British children and ... [more ▼]

Study Objectives: The aim of the present paper is to investigate the determinants of sleeping patterns in children up to age 9 on a large and geographically homogeneous sample of British children and parents, focusing in particular on the role of economic and social factors, specifically on income. Methods: The data of this study come from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a long-term health research project that recruited over 14,000 pregnant women who were due to give birth between April 1991 and December 1992 in Bristol and its surrounding areas, including some of Somerset and Gloucestershire. Logistic regression models for the sleep problems dummies and log-linear models for the sleep quantity. Results: One additional item in the material deprivation index is associated to an increase of around 10% to 20% in the odds of having at least one sleep problem. Similarly, children from the richest families are less likely to have any sleep problem up to 115 months (around 20% reduction in the odds). Mother’s characteristics (i.e. education and mental health in the pregnancy period) are also significant predictors. Sleep quantity does not vary much and is not sensitive to socioeconomic factors. Conclusion: Exposure to income-related inequalities affects child sleep. Further research is needed in order to understand if sleep in early life influence future health and economic trajectories. [less ▲]

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See detailDiversifizierung von Kindertagesbetreuungsangeboten durch mixed economy of care: Eine vergleichende Perspektive aus Luxemburg und Deutschland.
Schmitz, Anett UL; Wiltzius, Martine UL; Mierendorff, Johanna

in Zeitschrift für Soziologie der Erziehung und Sozialisation = Journal for Sociology of Education and Socialization (in press)

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See detailDo banks and microfinance institutions compete? Microevidence from Madagascar
Leon, Florian UL; Baraton, Pierrick

in Economic Development and Cultural Change (in press)

This paper examines whether the loan strategy of a microfinance institution is shaped by the entry of a bank. Specifically, we investigate whether the distance between a borrower of a microfinance ... [more ▼]

This paper examines whether the loan strategy of a microfinance institution is shaped by the entry of a bank. Specifically, we investigate whether the distance between a borrower of a microfinance institution and the closest bank influences loan conditions provided by the microfinance institution. We use an original panel dataset of 32,374 loans granted to 14,834 borrowers provided by one of the largest microfinance institutions in Madagascar between 2008 and 2014. We find that the closer a bank is located to a given MFI borrower, the larger the loan obtained and the less collateral required. We also find that the effect is stronger for clients that could be more easily caught by banks (i.e., large firms and clients without a previous relationship with the MFI). [less ▲]

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See detailWhen the Going Gets Tough, Do the Tough Go Shopping?
Pan, Xiaodan; Dresner, Martin; Mantin, Binyamin UL

in Journal of Business Logistics (in press)

This study examines the impacts of consumer confidence on stockpiling behavior and, subsequently, retail inventory management. We show how stockpiling behavior evolved during the “Great Recession” of 2008 ... [more ▼]

This study examines the impacts of consumer confidence on stockpiling behavior and, subsequently, retail inventory management. We show how stockpiling behavior evolved during the “Great Recession” of 2008-2009 as consumer confidence waned and demonstrate the impact of this development on inventory management. Drawing on the two-segment household inventory theory consisting of non-stockpiling and stockpiling segments, we use a panel dataset (2005-2015) to calibrate household inventory holdings. This dataset then serves as input for a retailer-level case study. Our empirical analysis reveals significant impacts from changing stockpiling behavior. When consumer confidence is low, both stockpiling and non-stockpiling segments respond by reducing weekly consumption rates; however, the stockpiling segment also significantly lengthens the time between shopping trips, and ultimately increases the duration of inventory holdings. These changes to consumption and stockpiling add complexity to inventory planning, requiring retailers to carefully adjust inventory levels to maintain service levels. [less ▲]

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See detailA look into the future of the COVID-19 pandemic in Europe: an expert consultation
Iftekhar, E. N.; Priesemann, V.; Balling, Rudolf UL et al

in The Lancet Regional Health Europe (in press)

How will the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic develop in the coming months and years? Based on an expert survey, we examine key aspects that are likely to influence the COVID-19 pandemic in ... [more ▼]

How will the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic develop in the coming months and years? Based on an expert survey, we examine key aspects that are likely to influence the COVID-19 pandemic in Europe. The challenges and developments will strongly depend on the progress of national and global vaccination programs, the emergence and spread of variants of concern (VOCs), and public responses to non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs). In the short term, many people remain unvaccinated, VOCs continue to emerge and spread, and mobility and population mixing are expected to increase. Therefore, lifting restrictions too much and too early risk another damaging wave. This challenge remains despite the reduced opportunities for transmission given vaccination progress and reduced indoor mixing in summer 2021. In autumn 2021, increased indoor activity might accelerate the spread again, whilst a necessary reintroduction of NPIs might be too slow. The incidence may strongly rise again, possibly filling intensive care units, if vaccination levels are not high enough. A moderate, adaptive level of NPIs will thus remain necessary. These epidemiological aspects combined with economic, social, and health-related consequences provide a more holistic perspective on the future of the COVID-19 pandemic. [less ▲]

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See detailFinite-Time Attitude Synchronization with Distributed Discontinuous Protocols
Wei, Jieqiang; Zhang, Silun; Adaldo, Antonio et al

in IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control (in press)

The finite-time attitude synchronization problem is considered in this paper, where the rotation of each rigid body is expressed using the axis-angle representation. Two discontinuous and distributed ... [more ▼]

The finite-time attitude synchronization problem is considered in this paper, where the rotation of each rigid body is expressed using the axis-angle representation. Two discontinuous and distributed controllers using the vectorized signum function are proposed, which guarantee almost global and local convergence, respectively. Filippov solutions and non-smooth analysis techniques are adopted to handle the discontinuities. Sufficient conditions are provided to guarantee finite-time convergence and boundedness of the solutions. Simulation examples are provided to verify the performances of the control protocols designed in this paper. [less ▲]

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See detailMothers’ and fathers’ reflective functioning and its association with parenting behaviors and cortisol reactivity during a conflict interaction with their adolescent children
Decarli, Alessandro; Schulz, André UL; Pierrehumbert, Blaise et al

in Emotion (in press)

We assessed parental reflective functioning (PRF) with the Parent Development Interview - Revised, and investigated its association with parenting behaviors, i.e., autonomy support and psychological ... [more ▼]

We assessed parental reflective functioning (PRF) with the Parent Development Interview - Revised, and investigated its association with parenting behaviors, i.e., autonomy support and psychological control (operationalized in terms of behaviors promoting and undermining autonomy relatedness), and stress responses (cortisol reactivity) during a parent-child conflict interaction task (Family Interaction Task). Participants were 40 mothers and 28 fathers, who took part in the study together with their adolescent children (N = 49). Mothers had significantly lower PRF and displayed more psychologically controlling behaviors in the interaction with their children than fathers. Rather than sex per se, high levels of PRF were the best predictors of autonomy support, whereas lower levels of PRF predicted more psychological control. Higher levels of PRF were also the best predictor for lower levels of parenting stress. Stress in the context of parenting was neither related to autonomy support nor to psychological control, which were best predicted by divorced family status. The findings point to the potential utility of interventions aimed at improving PRF and stress management in the context of parenting, especially in divorced families, given their protective effects on parenting behaviors. [less ▲]

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See detailFedFog: Network-Aware Optimization of Federated Learning over Wireless Fog-Cloud System
Nguyen, van Dinh UL; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL; Ottersten, Björn UL et al

in IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications (in press)

Federated learning (FL) is capable of performing large distributed machine learning tasks across multiple edge users by periodically aggregating trained local parameters. To address key challenges of ... [more ▼]

Federated learning (FL) is capable of performing large distributed machine learning tasks across multiple edge users by periodically aggregating trained local parameters. To address key challenges of enabling FL over a wireless fogcloud system (e.g., non-i.i.d. data, users’ heterogeneity), we first propose an efficient FL algorithm based on Federated Averaging (called FedFog) to perform the local aggregation of gradient parameters at fog servers and global training update at the cloud. Next, we employ FedFog in wireless fog-cloud systems by investigating a novel network-aware FL optimization problem that strikes the balance between the global loss and completion time. An iterative algorithm is then developed to obtain a precise measurement of the system performance, which helps design an efficient stopping criteria to output an appropriate number of global rounds. To mitigate the straggler effect, we propose a flexible user aggregation strategy that trains fast users first to obtain a certain level of accuracy before allowing slow users to join the global training updates. Extensive numerical results using several real-world FL tasks are provided to verify the theoretical convergence of FedFog. We also show that the proposed co-design of FL and communication is essential to substantially improve resource utilization while achieving comparable accuracy of the learning model. [less ▲]

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See detailAmbient Backscatter Assisted Co-Existence in Aerial-IRS Wireless Networks
Solanki, Sourabh UL; Gautam, Sumit; Sharma, Shree Krishna et al

in IEEE Open Journal of the Communications Society (in press)

Ambient backscatter communication (AmBC) is an emerging technology that has the potential to offer spectral- and energy-efficient solutions for the next generation wireless communications networks ... [more ▼]

Ambient backscatter communication (AmBC) is an emerging technology that has the potential to offer spectral- and energy-efficient solutions for the next generation wireless communications networks, especially for the Internet of Things (IoT). Intelligent reflecting surfaces (IRSs) are also perceived to be an integral part of the beyond 5G systems to complement the traditional relaying scheme. To this end, this paper proposes a novel system design that enables the co-existence of a backscattering secondary system with the legacy primary system. This co-existence is primarily driven by leveraging the AmBC technique in IRS-assisted unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) networks. More specifically, an aerial-IRS mounted on a UAV is considered to be employed for cooperatively relaying the transmitted signal from a terrestrial primary source node to a user equipment on the ground. Meanwhile, capitalizing on the AmBC technology, a backscatter capable terrestrial secondary node transmits its information to a terrestrial secondary receiver by modulating and backscattering the ambient relayed radio frequency signals from the UAV-IRS. We comprehensively analyze the performance of the proposed design framework with co-existing systems by deriving the outage probability and ergodic spectral efficiency expressions. Moreover, we also investigate the asymptotic behaviour of outage performance in high transmit power regimes for both primary and secondary systems. Importantly, we analyze the performance of the primary system by considering two different scenarios i.e., optimal phase shifts design and random phase shifting at IRS. Finally, based on the analytical performance assessment, we present numerical results to provide various useful insights and also provide simulation results to corroborate the derived theoretical results. [less ▲]

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See detailCan the Plight of the European Banking Structural Reforms be a Blessing in Disguise?
Nabilou, Hossein UL

in European Business Organization Law Review (in press)

One of the problems perceived to be at the heart of the global financial crisis was an amalgamation of various commercial and investment banking activities under one entity, as well as the ... [more ▼]

One of the problems perceived to be at the heart of the global financial crisis was an amalgamation of various commercial and investment banking activities under one entity, as well as the interconnectedness of the banking entities with other financial institutions, investment funds, and the shadow banking system. This paper focuses on various measures that aim to structurally separate the banking entities and their core functions from riskier financial activities such as (proprietary) trading or investments in alternative investment funds. Although banking structural reforms in the EU, UK, and the US have taken different forms, their common denominator is the separation of core banking functions from certain trading or securities market activities. Having reviewed the arguments for and against banking structural reforms and their varieties in major jurisdictions, including the EU, UK, US, France, and Germany, the paper argues that a more nuanced approach to introducing such measures at the EU level is warranted. Given the different market structures across the Atlantic and the lack of conclusive evidence on the beneficial impact of banking structural reforms, the paper concludes that the withdrawal of the banking structural reforms proposal by the European Commission has been a prudent move. It seems that in the absence of concrete evidence, experimenting with structural reforms at the Member-State level would be less costly and would provide for opportunities for learning from smaller mistakes that could pave the way for a more optimal approach to introducing banking structural reforms at the European level in the future. [less ▲]

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See detailMaking Elections Work: Accountability with Selection and Control
Anesi, Vincent UL; Buisseret, Peter

in American Economic Journal. Microeconomics (in press)

We study the limits of dynamic electoral accountability when voters are uncertain about politicians’ characteristics (adverse selection) and their actions (moral hazard). Existing work argues that voters ... [more ▼]

We study the limits of dynamic electoral accountability when voters are uncertain about politicians’ characteristics (adverse selection) and their actions (moral hazard). Existing work argues that voters cannot achieve their first-best payoff. This is attributed to inherent deficiencies of the electoral contract, including voters’ inability to pre-commit, and the restriction to a binary retention-replacement decision. We provide conditions under which, despite these constraints, voters can obtain arbitrarily close to the first-best payoff in an equilibrium of the electoral interaction. Our paper resolves that there need not be a trade-off between selection and control. [less ▲]

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See detailInvariant density adaptive estimation for ergodic jump diffusion processes over anisotropic classes
Amorino, Chiara UL; Gloter, Arnaud

in Journal of Statistical Planning and Inference (in press)

We consider the solution of a multivariate stochastic differential equation with Levy-type jumps and with unique invariant probability measure with density μ. We assume that a continuous record of ... [more ▼]

We consider the solution of a multivariate stochastic differential equation with Levy-type jumps and with unique invariant probability measure with density μ. We assume that a continuous record of observations is available. In the case without jumps, Reiss and Dalalyan [7] and Strauch [24] have found convergence rates of invariant density estimators, under respectively isotropic and anisotropic H ̈older smoothness constraints, which are considerably faster than those known from standard multivariate density estimation. We extend the previous works by obtaining, in presence of jumps, some estimators which have the same convergence rates they had in the case without jumps for d ≥ 2 and a rate which depends on the degree of the jumps in the one-dimensional setting. We propose moreover a data driven bandwidth selection procedure based on the Goldenshluger and Lepski method [11] which leads us to an adaptive non-parametric kernel estimator of the stationary density μ of the jump diffusion X. [less ▲]

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See detailLocal scaling limits of Lévy driven fractional random fields
Pilipauskaite, Vytauté UL; Surgailis, Donatas

in Bernoulli (in press)

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See detailA Bayesian framework to identify random parameter fields based on the copula theorem and Gaussian fields: Application to polycrystalline materials
Rappel, Hussein UL; Wu, Ling; Noels, Ludovic et al

in Journal of Applied Mechanics (in press)

For many models of solids, we frequently assume that the material parameters do not vary in space, nor that they vary from one product realization to another. If the length scale of the application ... [more ▼]

For many models of solids, we frequently assume that the material parameters do not vary in space, nor that they vary from one product realization to another. If the length scale of the application approaches the length scale of the micro-structure however, spatially fluctuating parameter fi elds (which vary from one realization of the fi eld to another) can be incorporated to make the model capture the stochasticity of the underlying micro-structure. Randomly fluctuating parameter fields are often described as Gaussian fields. Gaussian fi elds however assume that the probability density function of a material parameter at a given location is a univariate Gaussian distribution. This entails for instance that negative parameter values can be realized, whereas most material parameters have physical bounds (e.g. the Young's modulus cannot be negative). In this contribution, randomly fluctuating parameter fi elds are therefore described using the copula theorem and Gaussian fi elds, which allow di fferent types of univariate marginal distributions to be incorporated, but with the same correlation structure as Gaussian fields. It is convenient to keep the Gaussian correlation structure, as it allows us to draw samples from Gaussian fi elds and transform them into the new random fields. The bene fit of this approach is that any type of univariate marginal distribution can be incorporated. If the selected univariate marginal distribution has bounds, unphysical material parameter values will never be realized. We then use Bayesian inference to identify the distribution parameters (which govern the random fi eld). Bayesian inference regards the parameters that are to be identi fied as random variables and requires a user-defi ned prior distribution of the parameters to which the observations are inferred. For the homogenized Young's modulus of a columnar polycrystalline material of interest in this study, the results show that with a relatively wide prior (i.e. a prior distribution without strong assumptions), a single specimen is su ciffient to accurately recover the distribution parameter values. [less ▲]

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See detailNetwork Identifiability from Intrinsic Noise
Goncalves, Jorge UL; Hayden, David; Yuan, Ye

in IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control (in press)

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See detailTeachers’ assessments of students’ achievements: The ecological validity of studies using case vignettes
Krolak-Schwerdt, Sabine UL; Hörstermann, Thomas UL; Glock, Sabine et al

in Journal of Experimental Education (in press)

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See detail„Ich will mein altes Leben zurück“ – Einblicke in die veränderten Beziehungen, Aktivitäten und das Wohlbefinden luxemburgischer Kinder in der Pandemie
Kirsch, Claudine UL; Neumann, Sascha

in Diskurs Kindheits- und Jugendforschung (in press)

The Covid-19 pandemic has changed children's lives. This paper presents the changes during the pandemic of children’s well-being, relationships and everyday activities from the perspective of six to ... [more ▼]

The Covid-19 pandemic has changed children's lives. This paper presents the changes during the pandemic of children’s well-being, relationships and everyday activities from the perspective of six to twelve-year-olds in Luxembourg. The data draw on interviews carried out in 2020 and standardised surveys in 2020 and 2021. The results show that all children were affected by the pandemic but experienced it differently. Many children expressed fears and worries right at the beginning of the pandemic and these emotions intensified over time. Their leisure time activities shifted from more outside to more domestic activities during the pandemic which in our view corresponds to an intermediate “domestication of childhood”. The survey in the summer of 2021 confirms that many of these changes remained or intensified. [less ▲]

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See detailAsymptotic Analysis of Max-Min Weighted SINR for IRS-Assisted MISO Systems with Hardware Impairments
Papazafeiropoulo, Anastasios; Pan, Cunhua; Elbir, Ahmet et al

in IEEE Wireless Communications Letters (in press)

We focus on the realistic maximization of the up-link minimum-signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) of a general multiple-input-single-output (MISO) system assisted by an intelligent reflecting ... [more ▼]

We focus on the realistic maximization of the up-link minimum-signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) of a general multiple-input-single-output (MISO) system assisted by an intelligent reflecting surface (IRS) in the large system limit accounting for HIs. In particular, we introduce the HIs at both the IRS (IRS-HIs) and the transceiver HIs (AT-HIs), usually neglected despite their inevitable impact. Specifically, the deterministic equivalent analysis enables the derivation of the asymptotic weighted maximum-minimum SINR with HIs by jointly optimizing the HIs-aware receiver, the transmit power, and the reflect beamforming matrix (RBM). Notably, we obtain the optimal power allocation and reflect beamforming matrix with low overhead instead of their frequent necessary computation in conventional MIMO systems based on the instantaneous channel information. Monte Carlo simulations verify the analytical results which show the insightful interplay among the key parameters and the degradation of the performance due to HIs. [less ▲]

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See detailA minimal realization technique for the dynamical structure function of a class of LTI systems
Goncalves, Jorge UL; Yuan, Ye; Rai, Anurag et al

in IEEE Transactions on Control of Network Systems (in press)

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See detailInterindividual differences in responses to global inequality
Reese, Gerhard UL; Proch, Jutta; Cohrs, J. Christopher

in Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy (in press)

One of humanity’s most pressing problems is the inequality between people from “developed” and “developing” countries, which counteracts joint efforts to combat other large scale problems. Little is known ... [more ▼]

One of humanity’s most pressing problems is the inequality between people from “developed” and “developing” countries, which counteracts joint efforts to combat other large scale problems. Little is known about the psychological antecedents that affect the perception of and behavioral responses to global inequality. Based on, and extending, Duckitt’s (2001) dual-process model, the current research examines psychological antecedents that may explain how people in an industrialized Western country respond to global inequality. In two studies (N1 = 116, N2 = 117), we analyzed the relationship between the Big Five and justice constructs, right-wing authoritarianism (RWA), social dominance orientation (SDO), and behavioral intentions to reduce global inequality. Two-group path analysis revealed support for the dual-process model in that RWA and SDO were important predictors of behavioral intentions and partially acted as mediators between personality and such intentions. Moreover, justice sensitivity explained variance beyond the “classic” DPM variables. In Study 2, we additionally assessed individuals’ global social identification and perceived injustice of global inequality that explained additional variance. Extending previous work on the dual-process model, these findings demonstrate that individual and group-based processes predict people’s responses to global inequality and uncover potentials to promote behavior in the interest of global justice. [less ▲]

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See detailHigh-performance modeling of concrete ageing
Habera, Michal UL; Zilian, Andreas UL

in Proceedings in Applied Mathematics and Mechanics (in press)

Long-term behaviour of concrete structural elements is very important for evaluation of its health and serviceability range. The phenomena that must be considered are complex and lead to coupled ... [more ▼]

Long-term behaviour of concrete structural elements is very important for evaluation of its health and serviceability range. The phenomena that must be considered are complex and lead to coupled multiphysics formulations. Such formulations are difficult not only from physical perspective, but also from computational perspective. In this contribution attention to computational efficiency and effective implementation is payed. Presented model for concrete ageing is based on microprestress-solidification (MPS) theory of Bazant [1], Kunzel’s model for heat and moisture transport [2] and Mazars model for damage [3]. Ageing linear viscoelastic response, which is immanent to MPS theory and concrete creep, leads to ordinary differetial equation for internal variables solved for every quadrature/nodal point. Numerical structure of the finite element discretisation is examined. Few simplifications on physical model lead to a very efficient linear algebra problem for which standard preconditioned Krylov solvers are reviewed. In parallel, weak and strong scaling tests are performed. All results are produced within open-source finite element framework FEniCS [4]. These models are usually a basis for more involved thermo-hygro-chemo-mechanical (THCM) models with migrating chemical species. It is anticipated, that presented results will help practitioners or other structural engineerers with the choice of suitable and efficient methods for long-term concrete modeling. [less ▲]

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See detailNitsche’s method for two and three dimensional NURBS patch coupling
Nguyen, Vinh-Phu; Kerfriden, Pierre; Brino, Marco et al

in Computational Mechanics (in press)

We present a Nitche’s method to couple non-conforming two and three-dimensional NURBS (Non Uniform Rational B-splines) patches in the context of isogeometric analysis (IGA). We present results for linear ... [more ▼]

We present a Nitche’s method to couple non-conforming two and three-dimensional NURBS (Non Uniform Rational B-splines) patches in the context of isogeometric analysis (IGA). We present results for linear elastostatics in two and and three-dimensions. The method can deal with surface-surface or volume-volume coupling, and we show how it can be used to handle heterogeneities such as inclusions. We also present preliminary results on modal analysis. This simple coupling method has the potential to increase the applicability of NURBS-based isogeometric analysis for practical applications. [less ▲]

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See detailSmoking related warning messages formulated as questions positively influence short-term smoking behaviour
Müller, Barbara; Ritter, Simone; Glock, Sabine UL et al

in Journal of Health Psychology (in press)

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See detailChallenges in completing EMU: asymmetric competition vs fiscal harmonisation. A case study of the Benelux countries
Danescu, Elena UL

in Journal of Contemporary European Research (2023)

This paper aims to investigate the concept, context and socio-economic consequences of fiscal competition in the integrated economic space of EMU in completion, to pinpoint the positive and negative ... [more ▼]

This paper aims to investigate the concept, context and socio-economic consequences of fiscal competition in the integrated economic space of EMU in completion, to pinpoint the positive and negative factors at work via a case study of the Benelux countries – both founder members of the EU and pioneers of EMU – and to examine the impact on European and international regulations in the field. In particular, it will endeavour to provide a comprehensive interpretation of fiscal policy in the Benelux countries via a comparative approach and from a historical perspective. It will look at the development of respective domestic fiscal policies, driven by national interests and by membership of a Community that is subject to requirements in terms of harmonisation and taxation, but also by constant contact (and frequent clashes) with the multilateral international environment. [less ▲]

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See detailCorporate Managers, Price Noise and the Investment Factor
Lehnert, Thorsten UL

in Financial Innovation (2022), 8(61),

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See detailBetting Against Noisy Beta
Lehnert, Thorsten UL

in Journal of Finance and Data Science (2022), 8(-), 55-68

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See detailWhich Factors Play a Role in Coco Issuance? Evidence from European Banks.
Wolff, Christian UL

in The Journal of Derivatives (2022), (Fall),

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See detailThe Wasserstein Impact Measure (WIM): A practical tool for quantifying prior impact in Bayesian statistics
Ley, Christophe UL; Ghaderinezhad, Fatemeh; Serrien, Ben

in Computational Statistics and Data Analysis (2022), 174

The prior distribution is a crucial building block in Bayesian analysis, and its choice will impact the subsequent inference. It is therefore important to have a convenient way to quantify this impact, as ... [more ▼]

The prior distribution is a crucial building block in Bayesian analysis, and its choice will impact the subsequent inference. It is therefore important to have a convenient way to quantify this impact, as such a measure of prior impact will help to choose between two or more priors in a given situation. To this end a new approach, the Wasserstein Impact Measure (WIM), is introduced. In three simulated scenarios, the WIM is compared to two competitor prior impact measures from the literature, and its versatility is illustrated via two real datasets. [less ▲]

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See detailContrôler la dette publique pour garantir la paix. Quelques réflexions juridiques sur la modernité du 4e article préliminaire du projet de paix perpétuelle de Kant
Allemand, Frederic UL

in Estudos Kantianos (2022)

In the 'century of debt' that was the Enlightenment, Immanuel Kant was well aware of the pecuniary power that borrowing represents for any state and the realisation of its civil and/or military ambitions ... [more ▼]

In the 'century of debt' that was the Enlightenment, Immanuel Kant was well aware of the pecuniary power that borrowing represents for any state and the realisation of its civil and/or military ambitions. The 4th preliminary article of the Perpetual Peace Project forbids the use of debt for military purposes: "National debts must not be contracted in order to support the interests of the state outside". While he does not subscribe in every respect to Hume's pessimism about the very principle of public debt, Kant shares some of his criticisms. The hierarchy of types of debts established according to their modalities of constitution (internal/external financing, limited/unlimited) and their uses (civil/military) testifies to a series of axiological judgments on debt that suggest the basic elements of a legal regime of public debt. The present contribution aims at analysing the 4th preliminary article in the light of the economic, financial and political context of Prussia and other European states at the end of the 18th century. It compares Kant's position on public debt with those of his contemporaries (Hume, Diderot) and of the classical economists (Melon, Smith...). It also identifies the legal characteristics of Kant's framework of public debt and underlines its scope and limits. [less ▲]

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See detailBenchmarking of univariate pleiotropy detection methods applied to epilepsy
Adesoji, Oluyomi M.; Schulz, Herbert; May, Patrick UL et al

in Human Mutation (2022), 43(9), 1314-1332

AbstractPleiotropy is a widespread phenomenon that may increase insight into the etiology of biological and disease traits. Since genome-wide association studies frequently provide information on a single ... [more ▼]

AbstractPleiotropy is a widespread phenomenon that may increase insight into the etiology of biological and disease traits. Since genome-wide association studies frequently provide information on a single trait only, only univariate pleiotropy detection methods are applicable, with yet unknown comparative performance. Here, we compared five such methods with respect to their ability to detect pleiotropy, including meta-analysis, ASSET, cFDR, CPBayes, and PLACO, by performing extended computer simulations that varied the underlying etiological model for pleiotropy for a pair of traits, including the number of causal variants, degree of traits’ overlap, effect sizes as well as trait prevalence, and varying sample sizes. Our results indicate that ASSET provides the best trade-off between power and protection against false positives. We then applied ASSET to a previously published ILAE consortium dataset on complex epilepsies, comprising genetic generalized epilepsy and focal epilepsy cases and corresponding controls. We identified a novel candidate locus at 17q21.32 and confirmed locus 2q24.3, previously identified to act pleiotropically on both epilepsy subtypes by a mega-analysis. Functional annotation, tissue-specific expression and regulatory function analysis as well as Bayesian co-localization analysis corroborated this result, rendering 17q21.32 a worthwhile candidate for follow-up studies on pleiotropy in epilepsies.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailWho benefits from air service agreements? The case of international air cargo operations
Wu, You UL; Lange, Anne UL; Mantin, Binyamin UL

in Transportation Research Part B: Methodological (2022), 163

Air service agreements between countries spell out diverse provisions, such as reciprocal capacity allocations. We analyze how such agreements, which regulate total capacity in markets, affect total ... [more ▼]

Air service agreements between countries spell out diverse provisions, such as reciprocal capacity allocations. We analyze how such agreements, which regulate total capacity in markets, affect total welfare and its distribution. We consider the interactions between two competing cargo airlines, their end customers, logistics service providers—who serve as intermediaries between the former two agent types—as well as the policy makers. Accounting for demand uncertainty, we model this interaction as a two-stage game. In the first stage, the policy makers coordinate equal capacity allocations to the two asset providers, whereas in the second stage, the asset providers compete over prices in the spot market. Solving the model, we characterize the pricing strategies employed by the two competing capacity-constrained asset providers in the spot market when facing price sensitive demand from end customers. We further analyze the corresponding capacity decisions. We then compare this coordinated competitive setting with a collaborative setting where the two asset providers can (virtually) merge and act as a monopoly. We find that, compared with the monopoly setting, the coordinated duopoly results in lower capacity, lower profits to the asset providers, larger benefits to both end customers and logistics service providers, and overall lower total welfare. These results suggest that policy makers shall hold an open attitude towards a higher level of cooperation among the asset providers. We carry out robustness checks to verify our insights hold with three, rather than two, asset providers, with different demand distributions, when capacity is costly and when asymmetric capacities are allowed in the spot market. [less ▲]

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See detailLe droit à la sauce piquante n°27 - Aout 2022
Hiez, David UL; Laurent, Rémi

in Le droit à la sauce piquante (2022), 27

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See detailL-invariants of Artin motives
Dimitrov, Mladen; Maksoud, Alexandre UL

in Annales mathématiques du Québec (2022)

We compute Benois L-invariants of weight 1 cuspforms and of their adjoint representations and show how this extends Gross’ p-adic regulator to Artin motives which are not critical in the sense of Deligne ... [more ▼]

We compute Benois L-invariants of weight 1 cuspforms and of their adjoint representations and show how this extends Gross’ p-adic regulator to Artin motives which are not critical in the sense of Deligne. Benois’ construction depends on the choice of a regular submodule which is well understood when the representation is p-regular, as it then amounts to the choice of a “motivic” p-refinement. The situation is dramatically different in the p-irregular case, where the regular submodules are parametrized by a flag variety and thus depend on continuous parameters. We are nevertheless able to show in some examples, how Hida theory and the geometry of the eigencurve can be used to detect a finite number of choices of arithmetic and “mixed-motivic” significance. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Failure of “Yugoslavia’s Last Chance”: Ante Marković and his Reformists in the 1990 Elections
Glaurdic, Josip UL; Filipovic, Vladimir; Lesschaeve, Christophe UL

in Nationalities Papers (2022)

The last Prime Minister of Yugoslavia Ante Marković was considered by many within the country and in the international community to be Yugoslavia’s last chance for a peaceful transition toward democracy ... [more ▼]

The last Prime Minister of Yugoslavia Ante Marković was considered by many within the country and in the international community to be Yugoslavia’s last chance for a peaceful transition toward democracy and capitalism. In spite of his popularity, the Reformist party he created failed decisively in the first democratic elections of 1990. We expose the reasons for this failure by analyzing electoral, economic, and sociodemographic data on the level of more than two hundred Yugoslav municipalities where the Reformists put forward their candidates. Our analysis shows that the party’s failure had little to do with the voters’ exposure to the effects of the free market reforms undertaken by Marković’s federal government during this period. Instead, the Reformists’ results were largely determined by the communities’ ethnic makeup and interethnic balance. The Reformists suffered at the hands of a strong negative campaign by the Serbian regime of Slobodan Milošević, and they were squeezed out by the ethnically based parties that benefited from voters behaving strategically in the electoral marketplace dominated by questions of nationalism. The analysis presented here offers important lessons for our understanding of Yugoslavia’s breakup, post-communist transitions in general, and electoral politics in societies on the verge of ethnic conflict. [less ▲]

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See detailOne step ahead: mapping the Italian and German cybersecurity laws against the proposal for a NIS2 directive
Schmitz, Sandra UL; Chiara, Pier Giorgio UL

in International Cybersecurity Law Review (2022)

With the COVID-19 pandemic accelerating digital transformation of the Single Market, the European Commission also speeded up the review of the first piece of European Union (EU)-wide cybersecurity ... [more ▼]

With the COVID-19 pandemic accelerating digital transformation of the Single Market, the European Commission also speeded up the review of the first piece of European Union (EU)-wide cybersecurity legislation, the NIS Directive. Originally foreseen for May 2021, the Commission presented the review as early as December 2020 together with a Proposal for a NIS2 Directive. Almost in parallel, some Member States strengthened (or adopted) national laws beyond the scope of the NIS Directive to respond adequately to the fast-paced digital threat landscape. Against this backdrop, the article investigates the national interventions in the field of cybersecurity recently adopted by Italy and Germany. In order to identify similarities and divergences of the Italian and German national frameworks with the European Commission’s Proposal for a NIS2 Directive, the analysis will focus on selected aspects extrapolated from the Commission Proposal, namely: i) the enlarged scope; ii) detailed cybersecurity risk-management measures; iii) more stringent supervisory measures; and, iv) stricter enforcement requirements, including harmonised sanctions across the EU. The article concludes that the national cybersecurity legal frameworks under scrutiny already match the core of the proposed changes envisaged by the NIS2 Proposal. [less ▲]

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See detailGRN Mutations Are Associated with Lewy Body Dementia
Reho, Paolo; Koga, Shunsuke; Shah, Zalak et al

in Movement Disorders (2022)

ABSTRACT Background Loss-of-function mutations in GRN are a cause of familial frontotemporal dementia, and common variants within the gene have been associated with an increased risk of developing ... [more ▼]

ABSTRACT Background Loss-of-function mutations in GRN are a cause of familial frontotemporal dementia, and common variants within the gene have been associated with an increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Although TDP-43-positive inclusions are characteristic of GRN-related neurodegeneration, Lewy body copathology has also been observed in many GRN mutation carriers. Objective The objective of this study was to assess a Lewy body dementia (LBD) case–control cohort for pathogenic variants in GRN and to test whether there is an enrichment of damaging mutations among patients with LBD. Methods We analyzed whole-genome sequencing data generated for 2591 European-ancestry LBD cases and 4032 neurologically healthy control subjects to identify disease-causing mutations in GRN. Results We identified six heterozygous exonic GRN mutations in seven study participants (cases: n = 6; control subjects: n = 1). Each variant was predicted to be pathogenic or likely pathogenic. We found significant enrichment of GRN loss-of-function mutations in patients with LBD compared with control subjects (Optimized Sequence Kernel Association Test P = 0.0162). Immunohistochemistry in three definite LBD cases demonstrated Lewy body pathology and TDP-43-positive neuronal inclusions. Conclusions Our findings suggest that deleterious GRN mutations are a rare cause of familial LBD. © 2022 International Parkinson Movement Disorder Society. This article has been contributed to by U.S. Government employees and their work is in the public domain in the USA. [less ▲]

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See detailRezension zu Jonas Springer, Die Bundeswehr und die Belgischen Streikräfte in Deutschland
Brüll, Christoph UL

in Wissenschaftlicher Literaturanzeiger (2022), 61(2),

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See detailEnergy Efficiency Optimization for Backscatter Enhanced NOMA Cooperative V2X Communications under Imperfect CSI
Khan, Wali Ullah UL; Jamshed, Muhammad Ali; Lagunas, Eva UL et al

in IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems (2022)

Automotive-Industry 5.0 will use beyond fifth-generation (B5G) technologies to provide robust, computationally intelligent, and energy-efficient data sharing among various onboard sensors, vehicles, and ... [more ▼]

Automotive-Industry 5.0 will use beyond fifth-generation (B5G) technologies to provide robust, computationally intelligent, and energy-efficient data sharing among various onboard sensors, vehicles, and other devices. Recently, ambient backscatter communications (AmBC) have gained significant interest in the research community for providing battery-free communications. AmBC can modulate useful data and reflect it towards near devices using the energy and frequency of existing RF signals. However, obtaining channel state information (CSI) for AmBC systems would be very challenging due to no pilot sequences and limited power. As one of the latest members of multiple access technology, non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) has emerged as a promising solution for connecting large-scale devices over the same spectral resources in B5G wireless networks. Under imperfect CSI, this paper provides a new optimization framework for energy-efficient transmission in AmBC enhanced NOMA cooperative vehicle-to-everything (V2X) networks. We simultaneously minimize the total transmit power of the V2X network by optimizing the power allocation at BS and reflection coefficient at backscatter sensors while guaranteeing the individual quality of services. The problem of total power minimization is formulated as non-convex optimization and coupled on multiple variables, making it complex and challenging. Therefore, we first decouple the original problem into two sub-problems and convert the nonlinear rate constraints into linear constraints. Then, we adopt the iterative sub-gradient method to obtain an efficient solution. For comparison, we also present a conventional NOMA cooperative V2X network without AmBC. Simulation results show the benefits of our proposed AmBC enhanced NOMA cooperative V2X network in terms of total achievable energy efficiency. [less ▲]

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See detailGeneralising from conventional pipelines using deep learning in high‑throughput screening workfows
Garcia Santa Cruz, Beatriz UL; Sölter, Jan; Gomez Giro, Gemma UL et al

in Scientific Reports (2022)

The study of complex diseases relies on large amounts of data to build models toward precision medicine. Such data acquisition is feasible in the context of high-throughput screening, in which the quality ... [more ▼]

The study of complex diseases relies on large amounts of data to build models toward precision medicine. Such data acquisition is feasible in the context of high-throughput screening, in which the quality of the results relies on the accuracy of the image analysis. Although state-of-the-art solutions for image segmentation employ deep learning approaches, the high cost of manually generating ground truth labels for model training hampers the day-to-day application in experimental laboratories. Alternatively, traditional computer vision-based solutions do not need expensive labels for their implementation. Our work combines both approaches by training a deep learning network using weak training labels automatically generated with conventional computer vision methods. Our network surpasses the conventional segmentation quality by generalising beyond noisy labels, providing a 25% increase of mean intersection over union, and simultaneously reducing the development and inference times. Our solution was embedded into an easy-to-use graphical user interface that allows researchers to assess the predictions and correct potential inaccuracies with minimal human input. To demonstrate the feasibility of training a deep learning solution on a large dataset of noisy labels automatically generated by a conventional pipeline, we compared our solution against the common approach of training a model from a small manually curated dataset by several experts. Our work suggests that humans perform better in context interpretation, such as error assessment, while computers outperform in pixel-by-pixel fne segmentation. Such pipelines are illustrated with a case study on image segmentation for autophagy events. This work aims for better translation of new technologies to real-world settings in microscopy-image analysis. [less ▲]

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See detailParental Assortative Mating and the Intergenerational Transmission of Human Capital
Bingley, Paul; Cappellari, Lorenzo; Tatsiramos, Konstantinos UL

in Labour Economics (2022), 77

We study the contribution of parental educational assortative mating to the intergenerational transmission of educational attainment. We develop an empirical model for educational correlations within the ... [more ▼]

We study the contribution of parental educational assortative mating to the intergenerational transmission of educational attainment. We develop an empirical model for educational correlations within the family in which parental educational sorting can translate into intergenerational transmission jointly by both parents, or transmission can originate from each parent independently. Estimating the model using educational attainment from Danish population-based administrative data for over 400,000 families, we find that on aver- age 75 percent of the intergenerational correlation in education is driven by the joint contribution of the par- ents. We also document a 38 percent decline of assortative mating in education for parents born between the early 1920s and the early 1950s. While the raw correlations also show decreases in father- and mother- specific intergenerational transmissions of educational attainment, our model shows that once we decompose all factors of intergenerational mobility, the share of intergenerational transmission accounted for by parent-specific factors increased from 7 to 27 percent; an increase compensated by a corresponding fall in joint intergenerational transmission from both parents, leaving total intergenerational persistence un- changed. The mechanisms of intergenerational transmission have changed, with an increased importance of one-to-one parent-child relationships. [less ▲]

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See detailLinear system identifiability from single-cell data
Aalto, Atte UL; Lamoline, François UL; Goncalves, Jorge UL

in Systems and Control Letters (2022), 165

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See detailSome Prevalent Sets in Multifractal Analysis: How Smooth is Almost Every Function in T_p^\alpha(x)
Loosveldt, Laurent UL; Nicolay, Samuel

in Journal of Fourier Analysis and Applications (2022), 28(4),

We present prevalent results concerning generalized versions of the $T_p^\alpha$ spaces, initially introduced by Calderón and Zygmund. We notably show that the logarithmic correction appearing in the ... [more ▼]

We present prevalent results concerning generalized versions of the $T_p^\alpha$ spaces, initially introduced by Calderón and Zygmund. We notably show that the logarithmic correction appearing in the quasi-characterization of such spaces is mandatory for almost every function; it is in particular true for the Hölder spaces, for which the existence of the correction was showed necessary for a specific function. We also show that almost every function from $T_p^α (x0 )$ has α as generalized Hölder exponent at $x_0$. [less ▲]

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See detailFurther resource multiplication at more advanced ages? Interactions between education, parental socioeconomic status, and age in their impacts upon health
Settels, Jason UL

in Sociology Compass (2022)

While scholarship has shown that socioeconomic status creates fine-grained gradients in health, there is debate regarding whether having higher amounts of one socioeconomic resource amplifies (resource ... [more ▼]

While scholarship has shown that socioeconomic status creates fine-grained gradients in health, there is debate regarding whether having higher amounts of one socioeconomic resource amplifies (resource multiplication) or reduces (resource substitution) the health benefits of  one's other socioeconomic resources. A further question is whether these processes are accentuated or diminished at more advanced ages. Using the 2016 and 2018 waves of the United States General Social Survey (N = 2995) and logistic regression analyses, this study reveals processes of resource multiplication between respondents' education and both parental education and parental occupational prestige in their effects upon self-rated health. Furthermore, these processes are accentuated at more advanced ages. Additionally, these interactive effects remain significant after controlling for respondent-level total family income and occupational prestige, suggesting mechanisms beyond actualized socioeconomic circumstances. These findings raise concerns regarding less educated older persons coming from less advantaged backgrounds. Accordingly, policies and programs should help equalize social circumstances early in the life course, to produce more salubrious trajectories with advancing age. [less ▲]

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See detailPRÉSERVE-MOI ! DES JOURNAUX INTIMES À CEUX DE CONFINEMENT DANS LES ARCHIVES DU WEB
Schafer, Valerie UL

in Le Temps des Médias (2022)

Souvent éphémères, les pages personnelles, les blogs et aujourd’hui les écritures de soi et intimes sur les réseaux socio-numériques, jusqu’aux journaux de confinement nés lors de la crise COVID, sont ... [more ▼]

Souvent éphémères, les pages personnelles, les blogs et aujourd’hui les écritures de soi et intimes sur les réseaux socio-numériques, jusqu’aux journaux de confinement nés lors de la crise COVID, sont toutefois partiellement préservés dans les archives du Web. En explorant leur conservation, notamment au sein de la Bibliothèque nationale de France, et les limites et défis que posent ces sources nativement numériques, il s’agit de saisir les enjeux de préservation de ces contenus personnels, intimes, littéraires, vernaculaires, multimédias, mais aussi les possibilités de recherche qu’ils offrent pour l’histoire du numérique et de ses cultures. [less ▲]

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See detailCompte-rendu de l'ouvrage: Fake News & viralité avant Internet. Les lapins du Père- Lachaise et autres légendes médiatiques
Schafer, Valerie UL

in Le Temps des Médias (2022), 38

Recension de l'ouvrage : Roy Pinker, Fake News & viralité avant Internet. Les lapins du Père- Lachaise et autres légendes média- tiques, Paris, CNRS Éditions, 2020, 231 pages.

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See detailLe corpus hagiographique de Trèves au début du XVIe siècle. Enquête stylométrique et premiers résultats
Dubuisson, Bastien UL

in Bulletin du Centre d'Études Médiévales d'Auxerre (2022)

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See detailPolitik im Museum und die Politik der Museen
Pauly, Michel UL

in Forum für Politik, Gesellschaft und Kultur in Luxemburg (2022), (426), 62-65

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See detailDetermination of the angle of repose of hard metal granules
Just, Marvin UL; Medina Peschiutta, Alexander UL; Hippe, Frankie et al

in Powder Technology (2022), 407

The angle of repose is a quantity that delivers direct information about the flowability of granular material. It is therefore desirable to have a reliable experimental method for its determination. Based ... [more ▼]

The angle of repose is a quantity that delivers direct information about the flowability of granular material. It is therefore desirable to have a reliable experimental method for its determination. Based on the well-established funnel method with continuous mass flow, an extension is introduced which allows increasing the precision and reproducibility of the angle of repose measurements. A modified experimental setup is presented which exploits asymmetries in the alignment of the mechanical setup to gain more precision in the determination of the angle of repose. This experimental setup is combined with an evaluation method based on automated image analysis. The first results for a set of metal powders are presented. [less ▲]

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See detailThe role of common genetic variation in presumed monogenic epilepsies
Campbell, Ciarán; Leu, Costin; Feng, Yen-Chen Anne et al

in eBioMedicine (2022), 81

Summary: Background The developmental and epileptic encephalopathies (DEEs) are the most severe group of epilepsies which co-present with developmental delay and intellectual disability (ID). DEEs usually ... [more ▼]

Summary: Background The developmental and epileptic encephalopathies (DEEs) are the most severe group of epilepsies which co-present with developmental delay and intellectual disability (ID). DEEs usually occur in people without a family history of epilepsy and have emerged as primarily monogenic, with damaging rare mutations found in 50% of patients. Little is known about the genetic architecture of patients with DEEs in whom no pathogenic variant is identified. Polygenic risk scoring (PRS) is a method that measures a person's common genetic burden for a trait or condition. Here, we used PRS to test whether genetic burden for epilepsy is relevant in individuals with DEEs, and other forms of epilepsy with ID. Methods: Genetic data on 2,759 cases with DEEs, or epilepsy with ID presumed to have a monogenic basis, and 447,760 population-matched controls were analysed. We compared PRS for ‘all epilepsy’, ‘focal epilepsy’, and ‘genetic generalised epilepsy’ (GGE) between cases and controls. We performed pairwise comparisons between cases stratified for identifiable rare deleterious genetic variants and controls. Findings 0.0002) relative to controls, which explain between 0.08% and 3.3% of phenotypic variance. PRS was increased in cases both with and without an identified deleterious variant of major effect, and there was no significant difference in PRS between the two groups. Interpretation: We provide evidence that common genetic variation contributes to the aetiology of DEEs and other forms of epilepsy with ID, even when there is a known pathogenic variant of major effect. These results provide insight into the genetic underpinnings of the severe epilepsies and warrant a shift in our understanding of the aetiology of the DEEs as complex, rather than monogenic, disorders. [less ▲]

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See detailArbeitskreis Historische Kartographie - Tagungsbericht
Uhrmacher, Martin UL

in KN – Journal of Cartography and Geographic Information (2022), 2(2022), 35-40

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See detailLa représentation interculturelle du désastre nucléaire entre appropriation et écart : deux exemples luxembourgeois
Thiltges, Sébastian UL

in Relief: Revue Électronique de Littérature Française (2022), 16(1), 210226

In Luxembourg, nuclear power stations have been part of literary imaginary since the end of the 1970s. This imaginary is fueled by the opposition against two nuclear projects on the Moselle River, and by ... [more ▼]

In Luxembourg, nuclear power stations have been part of literary imaginary since the end of the 1970s. This imaginary is fueled by the opposition against two nuclear projects on the Moselle River, and by the major nuclear accidents which have marked recent human history over the last decades. From this context, this contribution seeks to bring to light the multiple links between ecology and nuclear power, and as a corollary between the two research fields, within the framework of literary and cultural studies, of ecocriticism and nuclear criticism. Based on the shared key problematics of the latter (temporality, geography, and subjectivity), the analysis of two francophone literary works published in Luxembourg then explores two seemingly diametrically opposed ways of describing the intercultural dimension of the nuclear disaster: one imagining cultural appropriation based on geographical relocalisation, the other highlighting the gap between the event and its perception. [less ▲]

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See detailGöttliche Protokolle, Bitcoin-Jünger und schattenhafte Herrscher: Über die religiösen Anwandlungen und ideologischen Verstrickungen der Blockchain-Technologie
Becker, Katrin UL

in Jahrbuch für Technikphilosophie (2022), 8

Starting with an overview of the functioning and applications of blockchain, the paper sheds light on the core promise of this technology, namely, to overcome of the need for institutionally legitimized ... [more ▼]

Starting with an overview of the functioning and applications of blockchain, the paper sheds light on the core promise of this technology, namely, to overcome of the need for institutionally legitimized intermediaries and to provide the subject with new possibilities for self-determined management of its own and communal lives. With reference to the philosopher Pierre Legendre, the paper first analyses the worldview underlying this promise in terms of cultural theory. Then the focus is directed towards the ideological entanglements as well as the religious elements that one encounters in the discursive environment of the technology. In view of this, it will be critically questioned to what extent one can really speak of decentralization and the abolition of middlemen. The paper thus aims to show why blockchain technology and its fields of applications require a critical discussion. [less ▲]

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See detailDigital Twin for Human–Robot Interactions by Means of Industry 4.0 Enabling Technologies
Gallala, Abir; Kumar, Atal Anil UL; Hichri, Bassem UL et al

in Sensors (2022), 22(13), 1-17

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See detailCritical research and entrepreneurship: A cross‐disciplinary conceptual typology
Dey, pascal; Fletcher, Denise Elaine UL; Verduijn, karen

in International Journal of Management Reviews (2022)

Critical perspectives of entrepreneurship have gained increasing traction over the last two decades. The transformative potential of critical research resides in challenging some of entrepreneurship ... [more ▼]

Critical perspectives of entrepreneurship have gained increasing traction over the last two decades. The transformative potential of critical research resides in challenging some of entrepreneurship research’s epistemological, ontological and theoretical assumptions, with a view to offering a range of alternatives. Critical research in entrepreneurship has remained fragmented, however, due to its heterogeneous theoretical lineages and compartmentalized and niche interests. Addressing this situation, our objective is to intensify the space of critique in entrepreneurship research by offering a theoretically-informed typology that delineates different manifestations of ‘criticalness’. Our overarching contribution is to advance a typology distinguishing four ideal-types of critical entrepreneurship research based on its evaluative emphases (referred to as ‘valence’) and the meta-theoretical assumptions informing its critical operation (called ‘paradigmatic orientation’). By demonstrating the variegated political, ethical and ideological interests and preoccupations that critical studies serve within different management sub-disciplines, the typology provides a conceptual vocabulary for making sense of and synthesizing critical perspectives across scholarly boundaries. Also, it helps to reposition understandings of critique as gestures of negativity by stimulating a greater appreciation of the generative potential of critique and the theoretical and philosophical possibilities that this can bring to our scholarly community. [less ▲]

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See detailReview Fighters Across Frontiers - Transnational Resistance in Europe, 1936-48
Zaagsma, Gerben UL

in Francia-Recensio (2022), 2022(2),

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See detailBIGDML—Towards accurate quantum machine learning force fields for materials
Huziel E. Sauceda; Stefan Chmiela; Tkatchenko, Alexandre UL

in Nature Communications (2022)

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See detailCoronavirus Conspiracy Theories in Southeast Europe: (Non-)Believers, Social Network Bubbles, and the Discourse of Blame
Glaurdic, Josip UL; Lesschaeve, Christophe UL; Mochtak, Michal UL

in Problems of Post-Communism (2022)

Using survey and social network evidence from Southeast Europe, we advance the understanding of conspiracy theories and politics related to the coronavirus pandemic in three ways: (1) we show that beliefs ... [more ▼]

Using survey and social network evidence from Southeast Europe, we advance the understanding of conspiracy theories and politics related to the coronavirus pandemic in three ways: (1) we show that beliefs in coronavirus conspiracy theories are related to ideological support for a nationalist vision of society and socialist vision of the economy; (2) we also show that both conspiracy believers and nonbelievers are living in bubbles of the like-minded; and (3) we use the tools of natural language processing to elucidate the unambiguous differences in the discourse related to the coronavirus used by conspiracy believers and nonbelievers. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterization of unconventional sand-based substrates for adsorption of micropollutants in nature-based systems
Brunhoferova, Hana UL; Venditti, Silvia UL; Hansen, Joachim UL

in Journal of Environmental Management (2022)

The focus of this study is the characterization of unconventional sand-based substrates used in our previous project EmiSûre, (Interreg Greater Region (German federal states Rhineland-Palatinate and ... [more ▼]

The focus of this study is the characterization of unconventional sand-based substrates used in our previous project EmiSûre, (Interreg Greater Region (German federal states Rhineland-Palatinate and Saarland, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, regions Wallonia and Lorraine from Belgium and France, respectively), 2017–2021). The project aimed to develop and test alternative, nature-based technologies for the elimination of micropollutants (MPs) from municipal wastewater. For the characterization, two approaches were chosen. In the first approach, adsorption kinetics with a single compound allowed a perception of the adsorption capacity of the studied substrates compared to conventional substrates (granular activated carbons). This knowledge was completed by the second approach: an implementation of the studied substrates in packed-bed columns, which treated a mixture of 27 MPs in tap water for 10 months. Additionally, all three substrates (bentonite sand, sand with 15% activated biochar and sand with 15% zeolite) were characterized for physical and chemical properties, and the microbial potential of the activated and non-activated biochar was examined. From the studies, it is clear that the sand with an admixture of activated biochar is the most efficient sorbent in terms of single compound adsorption in batch (dye) and adsorption of 27 MPs on packed-bed columns. In contrast to the two other substrates, it shows long-term stable removal efficiencies. In the packed-bed columns, 18 out of 27 compounds were removed on average with high efficiency (80–99%), which is impressive, if we consider the variety of the compounds examined (pharmaceuticals, herbicides, pesticides, etc.) and their removal in conventional treatments. Addi- tionally, adsorption models were created for the experimental data of all compounds adsorbed on the substrate with an admixture of activated biochar resulting in the best fit with the combined Langmuir-Freundlich model. These satisfying results suggest the application of the sand-based substrate with an admixture of activated biochar for further research and possibly upscale installations with the aim to offer and prove a reasonable and efficient alternative for MPs elimination from municipal wastewater. [less ▲]

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See detailEsch ville verte - Une expo autour du plan Stübben
Scuto, Denis UL

in Tageblatt (2022)

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See detailEvaluating Technology-Enhanced, STEAM-Based Remote Teaching With Parental Support in Luxembourgish Early Childhood Education
Haas, Ben; Lavicza, Zsolt; Houghton, Tony et al

in Frontiers in Education (2022), 7(872479), 1-12

During COVID-19 confinement, we observed numerous challenges in using educational technology in early childhood Science–Technology–Engineering–Arts–Mathematics (STEAM) education in Luxembourg. Thus, we ... [more ▼]

During COVID-19 confinement, we observed numerous challenges in using educational technology in early childhood Science–Technology–Engineering–Arts–Mathematics (STEAM) education in Luxembourg. Thus, we designed a conceptual framework on parent-assisted remote teaching with active uses of educational technology supported by cycles of design-based research. After a previous study utilizing computer-aided design (CAD) software and three-dimensional (3D) printing in primary education, we used our initial findings to work with 12 early childhood students (ages 4–6), together with their teachers and parents in the second remote teaching period in Luxembourg. We created a STEAM modeling task with CAD software on robots and collected data through chat responses, messageboards, and online communication channels during a 3-week period. Here, we observed new roles in the parent–child relationship while learning STEAM in remote teaching with technology, and new opportunities in using educational technology overall in early childhood education. In this article, we have described findings that are likely to influence students’ learning and parent-assisted teaching, in particular parents and students’ perceptions and motivations, together with the way in which parents provide technical knowledge and support in remote early childhood STEAM education. [less ▲]

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See detailAnmerkung zur EuGH-Entscheidung in C-44/21 (Phoenix Contact v Harting)
Stierle, Martin UL

in Mitteilungen der deutschen Patentanwälte (2022), 2022(6), 277-279

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See detailNeurotoxic amyloidogenic peptides in the proteome of SARS-COV2: potential implications for neurological symptoms in COVID-19
Charnley, Mirren; Islam, Saba; Bindra, Guneet et al

in Nature Communications (2022), 13

COVID-19 is primarily known as a respiratory disease caused by SARS-CoV-2. However, neurological symptoms such as memory loss, sensory confusion, severe headaches, and even stroke are reported in up to 30 ... [more ▼]

COVID-19 is primarily known as a respiratory disease caused by SARS-CoV-2. However, neurological symptoms such as memory loss, sensory confusion, severe headaches, and even stroke are reported in up to 30% of cases and can persist even after the infection is over (long COVID). These neurological symptoms are thought to be produced by the virus infecting the central nervous system, however we don’t understand the molecular mechanisms triggering them. The neurological effects of COVID-19 share similarities to neurodegenerative diseases in which the presence of cytotoxic aggregated amyloid protein or peptides is a common feature. Following the hypothesis that some neurological symptoms of COVID-19 may also follow an amyloid etiology we identified two peptides from the SARS-CoV-2 proteome that self-assemble into amyloid assemblies. Furthermore, these amyloids were shown to be highly toxic to neuronal cells. We suggest that cytotoxic aggregates of SARS-CoV-2 proteins may trigger neurological symptoms in COVID-19. [less ▲]

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See detailContext Stability in Habit Building Increases Automaticity and Goal Attainment
Stojanovic, Marco; Grund, Axel UL; Fries, Stefan

in Frontiers in Psychology (2022)

In this paper, we investigate the effects of context stability on automaticity and goal attainment in intentional habit building. We used hierarchical growth curve modeling and multilevel mediation to ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we investigate the effects of context stability on automaticity and goal attainment in intentional habit building. We used hierarchical growth curve modeling and multilevel mediation to test our hypotheses on two datasets. In Study 1, N = 95 university students (N = 2,482 habit repetitions) built new study habits over a period of 6 weeks with manipulated context stability. One group was instructed to constantly vary the context of their habit repetitions by changing rooms and times and the other group was instructed to keep the context of habit performance stable. In Study 2, N = 308 habits (N = 2,368 habit repetitions) from N = 218 users of a published habit building app were analyzed without manipulating but measuring context stability. We found the same pattern in both datasets: Context stability predicted more automaticity and higher habit repetition goal attainment. We also found that the effect of context stability on habit repetition goal attainment was partially mediated by automaticity in both datasets. These results show that context does not only act as a trigger for habit instigation but also has an ongoing effect on habit execution. [less ▲]

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See detailLanguage beyond flags: Teachers misunderstanding of translanguaging in preschools
Aleksic, Gabrijela UL; Garcia, Ofelia

in International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism (2022)

Based on an analysis of the video recording and transcript of one lesson chosen by preschool teachers in Luxembourg as an example of translanguaging pedagogy, this article shows the teachers’ limited ... [more ▼]

Based on an analysis of the video recording and transcript of one lesson chosen by preschool teachers in Luxembourg as an example of translanguaging pedagogy, this article shows the teachers’ limited understandings of translanguaging. As a result of a new 2017 multilingual education policy for early childhood, the first author designed a professional development project in which the teachers in this preschool participated. During a lesson, the teachers insisted that these young children had a home language associated with a national affiliation depicted by a flag, despite the children themselves telling them repeatedly that their home language practices were complex and included Luxembourgish, which was part of their identity. The teachers’ actions and discourse reveal raciolinguistic ideologies and misappropriation of the term translanguaging to simply implement what could be better described as a multilingual awareness activity. On the surface, the teachers have shifted from monolingual instruction to one that recognizes the children’s multilingualism. Yet, teachers continue to associate the notion of language with flags and political states, instead of taking up an inside-view of the bilingual speaker, the kernel of translanguaging theory. [less ▲]

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See detailLight Control over Chirality Selective Functionalization of Substrate Supported Carbon Nanotubes
Gordeev, Georgy UL; Rosenkranz, Thomas; Hennrich, Frank et al

in The journal of physical chemistry C (2022), 126(23), 9803-9812

Diazonium reactions with carbon nanotubes form optical sp3 defects that can be used in optical and electrical circuits. We investigate a direct on-device reaction supported by confined laser irradiation ... [more ▼]

Diazonium reactions with carbon nanotubes form optical sp3 defects that can be used in optical and electrical circuits. We investigate a direct on-device reaction supported by confined laser irradiation and present a technique where an arbitrary carbon nanotube can be preferentially functionalized within a device by matching the light frequency with its transition energy. An exemplary reaction was carried out between (9,7) nanotube and 4-bromobenzenediazonium tetrafluoroborate. The substrate supported nanotubes of multiple semiconducting chiralities were locally exposed to laser light while monitoring the reaction kinetics in situ via Raman spectroscopy. The chiral selectivity of the reaction was confirmed by resonant Raman spectroscopy, reporting a 10 meV E22 transition energy red-shift only of the targeted species. We further demonstrated this method on a single tube (9,7) electroluminescent device and show a 25 meV red-shifted emission of the ground state E11 compared to the emission from the pristine tubes. [less ▲]

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See detailUniaxial polarization analysis of bulk ferromagnets: theory and first experimental results
Malyeyev, Artem UL; Titov, Ivan UL; Dewhurst, Charles et al

in Journal of Applied Crystallography (2022), 55

Based on Brown’s static equations of micromagnetics, the uniaxial polarization of the scattered neutron beam of a bulk magnetic material is computed. The approach considers a Hamiltonian that takes into ... [more ▼]

Based on Brown’s static equations of micromagnetics, the uniaxial polarization of the scattered neutron beam of a bulk magnetic material is computed. The approach considers a Hamiltonian that takes into account the isotropic exchange interaction, the antisymmetric Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction, magnetic anisotropy, the dipole–dipole interaction, as well as the effect of an applied magnetic field. In the high-field limit, the solutions for the magnetization Fourier components are used to obtain closed-form results for the spinpolarized SANS (small-angle neutron scattering) cross sections and the ensuing polarization. The theoretical expressions are compared with experimental data on a soft magnetic nanocrystalline alloy. The micromagnetic SANS theory provides a general framework for polarized real-space neutron methods, and it may open up a new avenue for magnetic neutron data analysis on magnetic microstructures. [less ▲]

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See detailIntroduction
Steveker, Lena UL; Frenk, Joachim

in Critical Survey (2022), 34(2), 1-9

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See detailTracing the Expansive Effect of the GDPR in the Third Countries. The Cases of Russia, Ukraine and China
Gubenko, Stanislav UL

in Peace Human Rights Governance (2022), 6(1), 79-96

This research aims at analyzing the “expansive effect” of the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) in three non-EU case countries, i.e. Russia, Ukraine and China, to understand how the GDPR ... [more ▼]

This research aims at analyzing the “expansive effect” of the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) in three non-EU case countries, i.e. Russia, Ukraine and China, to understand how the GDPR provisions affect, or are affected by, the interaction with three non-EU legal systems. The recently adopted GDPR, being a set of comprehensive data processing rules and penalties for violating data protection regulations, has set a very high standard for the other states in developing their own data protection regulations, but at the same time, the GDPR has brought about a wide range of compliance challenges. Due to the extraterritorial character of the General Data Protection Regulation, these challenges regard not only the EU member states but also any organisations around the world engaged in professional or commercial relations with the European Union. Therefore, there is a gap in understanding the interplay between the newly-built European data protection system and the legal systems outside the EU, which this research seeks to cover. [less ▲]

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See detailAn uncertain future for EU-Level Collective Bargaining: the new rules of the game after EPSU
Garcia Munoz Alhambra, Manuel Antonio UL

in Industrial Law Journal (2022), 51(2), 318-345

The General Court of the European Union (GCEU) in EPSU and Goudriaan vs. Commission and the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) in the subsequent appeal judgment reached an identical conclusion ... [more ▼]

The General Court of the European Union (GCEU) in EPSU and Goudriaan vs. Commission and the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) in the subsequent appeal judgment reached an identical conclusion on a key aspect of the system of EU level collective bargaining. The Courts held that Article 155(2) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) does not impose any obligation on the European Commission to send a social partner agreement to the Council. This is in line with the Commission’s recent interpretation of Article 155(2) TFEU that subordinates the implementation of the European agreements to a positive assessment of their appropriateness. This article critically assesses the GCEU and CJEU rulings in EPSU and argues that they confirm a major break with the praxis of European collective bargaining that will have negative consequences for the social partners’ autonomy and role in the EU. In order to better understand this break, the article examines how and when the Commission changed its approach to European social dialogue, resulting in the new interpretation of Article 155(2) TFEU, and proposes a hypothesis to understand why. The article concludes by describing the consequences of the new reading of Article 155(2) TFEU for the idea of collective autonomy in EU law as well as for the practice of EU level social dialogue and collective bargaining. [less ▲]

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