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See detailThe mod 2 cohomology rings of congruence subgroups in the Bianchi groups
Berkove, Ethan; Lakeland, Grant; Rahm, Alexander UL

E-print/Working paper (in press)

We provide new tools for the calculation of the torsion in the cohomology of congruence subgroups in the Bianchi groups : An algorithm for finding particularly useful fundamental domains, and an analysis ... [more ▼]

We provide new tools for the calculation of the torsion in the cohomology of congruence subgroups in the Bianchi groups : An algorithm for finding particularly useful fundamental domains, and an analysis of the equivariant spectral sequence combined with torsion subcomplex reduction. [less ▲]

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See detailForensic DNA Phenotyping: a review on SNP panels, genotyping techniques, and prediction models
Terrado Ortuno, Nuria UL; May, Patrick UL

E-print/Working paper (2023)

In the past few years, forensic DNA phenotyping (FDP) has attracted a strong interest in the forensic research. Among the increasing publications, many have focused on testing the available panels to ... [more ▼]

In the past few years, forensic DNA phenotyping (FDP) has attracted a strong interest in the forensic research. Among the increasing publications, many have focused on testing the available panels to infer biogeographical ancestry (BGA) on less represented populations and understanding the genetic mechanisms underlying externally visible characteristics (EVC). However, there are currently no publications that gather all the existing panels limited to FDP and discuss the main technical limitations of the technique. In this review, we performed a bibliographic search in Scopus database of FDP-related literature, which resulted in a total of 48, 43 and 15 panels for BGA, EVC and both BGA and EVC inference, respectively. Here we provide a list of commercial and non-commercial FDP panels and the FDP limitations regarding the lack of harmonization in terms of terminology (i.e., categorization and measurement of traits) and reporting, the lack of genetic knowledge and environment influence to select markers and develop panels, and the debate surrounding the selection of genotyping technologies and prediction models and algorithms. In conclusion, this review aims to be an updated guide and to present an overview of the current FDP-related literature. [less ▲]

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See detailThe State of AI-Empowered Backscatter Communications: A Comprehensive Survey
Ahmed, Manzoor; Hussain, Touseef; Ali, Khurshed et al

E-print/Working paper (2023)

The Internet of Things (IoT) is undergoing significant advancements, driven by the emergence of Backscatter Communication (BC) and Artificial Intelligence (AI). BC is an energy-saving and cost-effective ... [more ▼]

The Internet of Things (IoT) is undergoing significant advancements, driven by the emergence of Backscatter Communication (BC) and Artificial Intelligence (AI). BC is an energy-saving and cost-effective communication method where passive backscatter devices communicate by modulating ambient Radio-Frequency (RF) carriers. AI has the potential to transform our way of communicating and interacting and represents a powerful tool for enabling the next generation of IoT devices and networks. By integrating AI with BC, we can create new opportunities for energy-efficient and low-cost communication and open the door to a range of innovative applications that were previously not possible. This paper brings these two technologies together to investigate the current state of AI-powered BC. We begin with an introduction to BC and an overview of the AI algorithms employed in BC. Then, we delve into the recent advances in AI-based BC, covering key areas such as backscatter signal detection, channel estimation, and jammer control to ensure security, mitigate interference, and improve throughput and latency. We also explore the exciting frontiers of AI in BC using B5G/6G technologies, including backscatter-assisted relay and cognitive communication networks, backscatter-assisted MEC networks, and BC with RIS, UAV, and vehicular networks. Finally, we highlight the challenges and present new research opportunities in AI-powered BC. This survey provides a comprehensive overview of the potential of AI-powered BC and its insightful impact on the future of IoT. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Next Generation EU (NGEU) as a catalyst for the promotion of the international role of the euro
Lupinu, Pier Mario UL; Machura, Anna UL

E-print/Working paper (2023)

Recent developments in the global arena such as the COVID-19 pandemic and stresses in energy markets, made it clear that it is critical for the EU to ensure its strategic autonomy in the macroeconomic ... [more ▼]

Recent developments in the global arena such as the COVID-19 pandemic and stresses in energy markets, made it clear that it is critical for the EU to ensure its strategic autonomy in the macroeconomic field. Strengthening the international role of the euro is one of the key elements in this regard. Through timely analysis of the changes stemming from the establishment of the Next Generation EU (NGEU), we seek to understand to what extent the NGEU can serve as a catalyst for the promotion of the international role of the euro. While it is implausible that the euro will overcome the primacy of the US dollar, we center our analysis around the transformation of the EU’s presence in capital markets. Following massive issuances of green bonds under the NGEU, the EU became the largest issuer of green bonds and has the potential to progress from a small supranational issuer to a sovereign size issuer. This means that the pool of highly rated euro-denominated safe assets will expand significantly. That is where we focus our analysis and where we see the opportunity of the NGEU for unleashing the potential of the euro and boosting its international role. [less ▲]

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See detailEnergy-Efficient RIS-Enabled NOMA Communication for 6G LEO Satellite Networks
Khan, Wali Ullah UL; Lagunas, Eva UL; Mahmood, Asad UL et al

E-print/Working paper (2023)

Reconfigurable Intelligent surfaces (RIS) have the potential to significantly improve the performance of future 6G LEO satellite networks. In particular, RIS can improve the signal quality of ground ... [more ▼]

Reconfigurable Intelligent surfaces (RIS) have the potential to significantly improve the performance of future 6G LEO satellite networks. In particular, RIS can improve the signal quality of ground terminal, reduce power consumption of satellite and increase spectral efficiency of overall network. This paper proposes an energy-efficient RIS-enabled NOMA communication for LEO satellite networks. The proposed framework simultaneously optimizes the transmit power of ground terminals at LEO satellite and passive beamforming at RIS while ensuring the quality of services. Due to the nature of the considered system and optimization variables, the problem of energy efficiency maximization is formulated as non-convex. In practice, it is very challenging to obtain the optimal solution for such problems. Therefore, we adopt alternating optimization methods to handle the joint optimization in two steps. In step 1, for any given phase shift vector, we calculate efficient power for ground terminals at satellite using Lagrangian dual method. Then, in step 2, given the transmit power, we design passive beamforming for RIS by solving the semi-definite programming. To validate the proposed solution, numerical results are also provided to demonstrate the benefits of the proposed optimization framework. [less ▲]

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See detailMultiple Access in Constellation Domain by Non-Coherent Massive MIMO
Monzon Baeza, Victor UL

E-print/Working paper (2023)

Multiple access is the base for increasing the capacity in multi-user communication networks. However, the growing demand for higher data rates and the number of users who requires communication services ... [more ▼]

Multiple access is the base for increasing the capacity in multi-user communication networks. However, the growing demand for higher data rates and the number of users who requires communication services has led to the scarcity of orthogonal resources in current wireless communications. On the other hand, integrating the satellite within terrestrial networks as an initiative of 3GPP since its Release 15 entails the need for new forms of multiple access between terrestrial and non-terrestrial users. This paper studies constellation schemes as a new domain to enhance the state-of-the-art multiple-access techniques for future communication technologies employing non-coherent communications with massive MIMO. In addition, we propose a hybrid model between the classic access methods such as Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) or Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA), the emerging models of non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) and the proposed domain of the constellation based on non-coherent massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) schemes. This model is discussed for different scenarios in satellite communications that help increase the system's capacity and avoid interference between terrestrial and non-terrestrial users. [less ▲]

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See detailVehicular Communication Network Enabled CAVData Offloading: A Review
Ahmed, Manzoor; Mirza, M. Ayzed; Raza, Salman et al

E-print/Working paper (2023)

The connected and autonomous vehicles (CAV) applications and services-based traffic make an extra burden on the already congested cellular networks. Offloading is envisioned as a promising solution to ... [more ▼]

The connected and autonomous vehicles (CAV) applications and services-based traffic make an extra burden on the already congested cellular networks. Offloading is envisioned as a promising solution to tackle cellular networks' traffic explosion problem. Notably, vehicular traffic offloading leveraging different vehicular communication network (VCN) modes is one of the potential techniques to address the data traffic problem in cellular networks. This paper surveys the state-of-the-art literature for vehicular data offloading under a communication perspective, i.e., vehicle to vehicle (V2V), vehicle to roadside infrastructure (V2I), and vehicle to everything (V2X). First, we pinpoint the significant classification of vehicular data/traffic offloading techniques, considering whether data is to download or upload. Next, for better intuition of each data offloading's category, we sub-classify the existing schemes based on their objectives. Then, the existing literature on vehicular data/traffic is elaborated, compared, and analyzed based on approaches, objectives, merits, demerits, etc. Finally, we highlight the open research challenges in this field and predict future research trends. [less ▲]

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Peer Reviewed
See detailThe Fundamental Value of Art NFTs
Fridgen, Gilbert UL; Kräussl, Roman UL; Papageorgiou, Orestis UL et al

E-print/Working paper (2023)

Art-related non-fungible tokens (NFTs) took the digital art space by storm in 2021, generating massive amounts of volume and attracting a large number of users to a previously obscure part of blockchain ... [more ▼]

Art-related non-fungible tokens (NFTs) took the digital art space by storm in 2021, generating massive amounts of volume and attracting a large number of users to a previously obscure part of blockchain technology. Still, very little is known about the attributes that influence the price of these digital assets. This paper attempts to evaluate the level of speculation associated with art NFTs, comprehend the characteristics that confer value on them and design a profitable trading strategy based on our findings. We analyze 860,067 art NFTs that have been deployed on the Ethereum blockchain and have been involved in 317,950 sales using machine learning methods to forecast the probability of sale, the trade frequency and the average price. We find that NFTs are highly speculative assets and that their price and recurrence of sale are heavily determined by the floor and the last sale prices, independent of any fundamental value. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 21 (3 UL)
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See detailDenseQMC: an efficient bit-slice implementation of the Quine-McCluskey algorithm
Udovenko, Aleksei UL

E-print/Working paper (2023)

This note describes a new efficient bit-slice implementation DenseQMC of the Quine-McCluskey algorithm for finding all prime implicants of a Boolean function in the dense case. It is practically feasible ... [more ▼]

This note describes a new efficient bit-slice implementation DenseQMC of the Quine-McCluskey algorithm for finding all prime implicants of a Boolean function in the dense case. It is practically feasible for n <= 23 when run on a common laptop or for n <= 27 when run on a server with 1 TiB RAM. This note also outlines a very common mistake in the implementations of the Quine-McCluskey algorithm, leading to a quadratic slowdown. An optimized corrected implementation of the classic approach is also given (called SparseQMC). The implementation is freely available at https://github.com/hellman/Quine-McCluskey . [less ▲]

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See detailPlanktonic Active Matter
Sengupta, Anupam UL

E-print/Working paper (2023)

Planktonic active matter represents an emergent system spanning different scales: individual, population and community; and complexity arising from sub-cellular and cellular to collective and ecosystem ... [more ▼]

Planktonic active matter represents an emergent system spanning different scales: individual, population and community; and complexity arising from sub-cellular and cellular to collective and ecosystem scale dynamics. This cross-scale active matter system responds to a range of abiotic (temperature, fluid flow and light conditions) and biotic factors (nutrients, pH, secondary metabolites) characteristic to the relevant ecosystems they are part of. Active modulation of cell phenotypes, including morphology, motility, and intracellular organization enable planktonic microbes to dynamically interact with other individuals and species; and adapt - often rapidly - to the changes in their environment. In this chapter, I discuss both traditional and contemporary approaches to study the dynamics of this multi-scale active matter system from a mechanistic standpoint, with specific references to their local settings and their ability to actively tune the behaviour and physiology, and the emergent structures and functions they elicit under natural ecological constraints as well as due to the shifting climatic trends. [less ▲]

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See detailPrenatal and childhood exposure to per-/polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and its associations with childhood overweight and/or obesity: a systematic review with meta- analyses
Frigerio, Gianfranco UL; Ferrari, Chiara Matilde; Fustinoni, Silvia

E-print/Working paper (2023)

Background. Per-/polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are persistent organic pollutants and suspected endocrine disrupters. Objective. The aim of this work was to conduct a systematic review with meta ... [more ▼]

Background. Per-/polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are persistent organic pollutants and suspected endocrine disrupters. Objective. The aim of this work was to conduct a systematic review with meta-analysis to summarise the associations between prenatal or childhood exposure to PFASs and childhood overweight/obesity. Methods. The search was performed on the bibliographic databases PubMed and Embase with text strings containing terms related to prenatal, childhood, overweight, obesity, and PFASs. Only papers describing a biomonitoring study in pregnant women or in children up to 18 years that assessed body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), or fat mass in children were included. When the estimates of the association between a PFAS and an outcome were reported from at least 3 studies, a meta-analysis was conducted; moreover, to correctly compare the studies, we developed a method to convert the different effect estimates and made them comparable each other. Results. In total, 354 and 565 articles were retrieved from PubMed and Embase, respectively, resulting in a total of 613 articles after merging duplicates. The papers included in this systematic review were 31: 18 evaluating prenatal exposure to PFASs, 11 childhood exposure, and 2 both. Overall, results were conflicting, with positive, negative, and null associations. 17 papers were included in meta-analyses (12 prenatal, 3 children, and 2 both). The method implemented for data conversion allowed a suitable comparison of different effect estimates. Meta-analyses evaluating the associations between prenatal exposure to PFOA, PFOS, PFNA, PFHxS, and the outcomes BMI, WC, and Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) showed no significant results. Meta-analyses for the associations between childhood exposure to PFASs and the outcomes BMI showed no significant results except for a negative association between PFNA and BMI (pooled estimate from a random effect model: -0.045; 95%CI: -0.087, -0.002), however, more studies are required to confirm the strength of this association. Conclusion. To increase the reliability of meta-analyses in environmental epidemiology we suggest the conversion of effect estimates to compare different studies. The pooled evidence of the meta-analyses of the present study suggests that there is no overall association between exposure to PFASs and childhood overweight/obesity. [less ▲]

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See detailBringing data minimization to digital wallets at scale with general-purpose zero-knowledge proofs
Babel, Matthias; Sedlmeir, Johannes UL

E-print/Working paper (2023)

Today, digital identity management for individuals is either inconvenient and error-prone or creates undesirable lock-in effects and violates privacy and security expectations. These shortcomings inhibit ... [more ▼]

Today, digital identity management for individuals is either inconvenient and error-prone or creates undesirable lock-in effects and violates privacy and security expectations. These shortcomings inhibit the digital transformation in general and seem particularly concerning in the context of novel applications such as access control for decentralized autonomous organizations and identification in the Metaverse. Decentralized or self-sovereign identity (SSI) aims to offer a solution to this dilemma by empowering individuals to manage their digital identity through machine-verifiable attestations stored in a "digital wallet" application on their edge devices. However, when presented to a relying party, these attestations typically reveal more attributes than required and allow tracking end users' activities. Several academic works and practical solutions exist to reduce or avoid such excessive information disclosure, from simple selective disclosure to data-minimizing anonymous credentials based on zero-knowledge proofs (ZKPs). We first demonstrate that the SSI solutions that are currently built with anonymous credentials still lack essential features such as scalable revocation, certificate chaining, and integration with secure elements. We then argue that general-purpose ZKPs in the form of zk-SNARKs can appropriately address these pressing challenges. We describe our implementation and conduct performance tests on different edge devices to illustrate that the performance of zk-SNARK-based anonymous credentials is already practical. We also discuss further advantages that general-purpose ZKPs can easily provide for digital wallets, for instance, to create "designated verifier presentations" that facilitate new design options for digital identity infrastructures that previously were not accessible because of the threat of man-in-the-middle attacks. [less ▲]

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See detailA Survey on STAR-RIS: Use Cases, Recent Advances, and Future Research Challenges
Abdul, Wahid; Ahmed, Manzoor; Laique, Sayed Shariq et al

E-print/Working paper (2023)

The recent development of metasurfaces, which may enable several use cases by modifying the propagation environment, is anticipated to have a substantial effect on the performance of 6G wireless ... [more ▼]

The recent development of metasurfaces, which may enable several use cases by modifying the propagation environment, is anticipated to have a substantial effect on the performance of 6G wireless communications. Metasurface elements can produce essentially passive sub-wavelength scattering to enable a smart radio environment. STAR-RIS, which refers to reconfigurable intelligent surfaces (RIS) that can transmit and reflect concurrently (STAR), is gaining popularity. In contrast to the widely studied RIS, which can only reflect the wireless signal and serve users on the same side as the transmitter, the STAR-RIS can both reflect and refract (transmit), enabling 360-degree wireless coverage, thus serving users on both sides of the transmitter. This paper presents a comprehensive review of the STAR-RIS, with a focus on the most recent schemes for diverse use cases in 6G networks, resource allocation, and performance evaluation. We begin by laying the foundation for RIS (passive, active, STARRIS), and then discuss the STAR-RIS protocols, advantages, and applications. In addition, we categorize the approaches within the domain of use scenarios, which includes increasing coverage, enhancing physical layer security (PLS), maximizing sum rate, improving energy efficiency (EE), and reducing interference. Next, we will discuss the various strategies for resource allocation and measures for performance evaluation. We aimed to elaborate, compare, and evaluate the literature in terms of setup, channel characteristics, methodology, and objectives. In conclusion, we examine the open research problems and potential future prospects in this field. [less ▲]

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See detailIntegration of NOMA with Reflecting Intelligent Surfaces: A Multi-cell Optimization with SIC Decoding Errors
Khan, Wali Ullah UL; Lagunas, Eva UL; Mahmood, Asad UL et al

E-print/Working paper (2023)

Reflecting intelligent surfaces (RIS) has gained significant attention due to its high energy and spectral efficiency in next-generation wireless networks. By using low-cost passive reflecting elements ... [more ▼]

Reflecting intelligent surfaces (RIS) has gained significant attention due to its high energy and spectral efficiency in next-generation wireless networks. By using low-cost passive reflecting elements, RIS can smartly reconfigure the signal propagation to extend the wireless communication coverage. On the other hand, non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) has been proven as a key air interface technique for supporting massive connections over limited resources. Utilizing the superposition coding and successive interference cancellation (SIC) techniques, NOMA can multiplex multiple users over the same spectrum and time resources by allocating different power levels. This paper proposes a new optimization scheme in a multi-cell RIS-NOMA network to enhance the spectral efficiency under SIC decoding errors. In particular, the power budget of the base station and the transmit power of NOMA users while the passive beamforming of RIS is simultaneously optimized in each cell. Due to objective function and quality of service constraints, the joint problem is formulated as non-convex, which is very complex and challenging to obtain the optimal global solution. To reduce the complexity and make the problem tractable, we first decouple the original problem into two sub-problems for power allocation and passive beamforming. Then, the efficient solution of each sub-problem is obtained in two-steps. In the first-step of For power allocation sub-problem, we transform it to a convex problem by inner approximation method and then solve it through a standard convex optimization solver in the second-step. Accordingly, in the first-step of passive beamforming, it is transformed to a standard semidefinite programming problem by successive convex approximation and different of convex programming methods. Then, penalty based method is used to achieve a Rank-1 solution for passive beamforming in second-step. Numerical results demonstrate the benefits of the proposed optimization scheme in the multi-cell RIS-NOMA network. [less ▲]

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See detailCovariant Riesz transform on differential forms for 1<p\leq2
Cheng, Li-Juan; Thalmaier, Anton UL; Wang, Feng-Yu

E-print/Working paper (2022)

Detailed reference viewed: 62 (5 UL)
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See detailMechano-self-regulation of bacterial size in growing colonies
Wittmann, René; Nguyen, G. H. Philipp; Löwen, Hartmut et al

E-print/Working paper (2022)

We demonstrate that biomechanical forcing plays an important role as the driving force behind the dynamical self-regulation of cell size (or length) in growing bacterial colonies. In our experiments, the ... [more ▼]

We demonstrate that biomechanical forcing plays an important role as the driving force behind the dynamical self-regulation of cell size (or length) in growing bacterial colonies. In our experiments, the measured elongation rate decreases over time and depends on the areal packing density around each cell. To describe this phenomenon theoretically, we devise a cell-resolved model which includes as its key ingredient a force opposed to the growth process, accounting for mechano-self-regulation. Our model is analyzed analytically by a coarse-grained dynamical density functional theory and solved by cell-based computer simulations to predict how the strength of mechano-self-regulation depends on the bacterial size, the location in the colony and the local environment. The microscopic nature of this approach allows to quantify the effect of biomechanical interactions on the structure, composition and dynamical features of growing bacterial colonies. [less ▲]

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See detailDistributionally robust optimal allocation with costly verification
Bayrak, Halil Ibrahim; Kocyigit, Cagil UL; Kuhn, Daniel et al

E-print/Working paper (2022)

Detailed reference viewed: 14 (0 UL)
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See detailVariations of the sub-Riemannian distance on Sasakian manifolds with applications to coupling
Baudoin, Fabrice; Grong, Erlend; Neel, Robert et al

E-print/Working paper (2022)

On Sasakian manifolds with their naturally occurring sub-Riemannian structure, we consider parallel and mirror maps along geodesics of a taming Riemannian metric. We show that these transport maps have ... [more ▼]

On Sasakian manifolds with their naturally occurring sub-Riemannian structure, we consider parallel and mirror maps along geodesics of a taming Riemannian metric. We show that these transport maps have well-defined limits outside the sub-Riemannian cut-locus. Such maps are not related to parallel transport with respect to any connection. We use this map to obtain bounds on the second derivative of the sub-Riemannian distance. As an application, we get some preliminary result on couplings of sub-Riemannian Brownian motions. [less ▲]

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See detailS-Graphs+: Real-time Localization and Mapping leveraging Hierarchical Representations
Bavle, Hriday UL; Sanchez Lopez, Jose Luis UL; Shaheer, Muhammad UL et al

E-print/Working paper (2022)

In this paper, we present an evolved version of the Situational Graphs, which jointly models in a single optimizable factor graph, a SLAM graph, as a set of robot keyframes, containing its associated ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we present an evolved version of the Situational Graphs, which jointly models in a single optimizable factor graph, a SLAM graph, as a set of robot keyframes, containing its associated measurements and robot poses, and a 3D scene graph, as a high-level representation of the environment that encodes its different geometric elements with semantic attributes and the relational information between those elements. Our proposed S-Graphs+ is a novel four-layered factor graph that includes: (1) a keyframes layer with robot pose estimates, (2) a walls layer representing wall surfaces, (3) a rooms layer encompassing sets of wall planes, and (4) a floors layer gathering the rooms within a given floor level. The above graph is optimized in real-time to obtain a robust and accurate estimate of the robot's pose and its map, simultaneously constructing and leveraging the high-level information of the environment. To extract such high-level information, we present novel room and floor segmentation algorithms utilizing the mapped wall planes and free-space clusters. We tested S-Graphs+ on multiple datasets including, simulations of distinct indoor environments, on real datasets captured over several construction sites and office environments, and on a real public dataset of indoor office environments. S-Graphs+ outperforms relevant baselines in the majority of the datasets while extending the robot situational awareness by a four-layered scene model. Moreover, we make the algorithm available as a docker file. [less ▲]

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See detailFastCycle: A Message Sharing Framework for Modular Automated Driving Systems
Testouri, Mehdi UL; Elghazaly, Gamal; Frank, Raphaël UL

E-print/Working paper (2022)

Automated Driving Systems (ADS) have rapidly evolved in recent years and their architecture becomes sophisticated. Ensuring robustness, reliability and safety of performance is particularly important. The ... [more ▼]

Automated Driving Systems (ADS) have rapidly evolved in recent years and their architecture becomes sophisticated. Ensuring robustness, reliability and safety of performance is particularly important. The main challenge in building an ADS is the ability to meet certain stringent performance requirements in terms of both making safe operational decisions and finishing processing in real-time. Middlewares play a crucial role to handle these requirements in ADS. The way middlewares share data between the different system components has a direct impact on the overall performance, particularly the latency overhead. To this end, this paper presents FastCycle as a lightweight multi-threaded zero-copy messaging broker to meet the requirements of a high fidelity ADS in terms of modularity, real-time performance and security. We discuss the architecture and the main features of the proposed framework. Evaluation of the proposed framework based on standard metrics in comparison with popular middlewares used in robotics and automated driving shows the improved performance of our framework. The implementation of FastCycle and the associated comparisons with other frameworks are open sourced. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 49 (14 UL)
Peer Reviewed
See detail#Involution - Didaktischer Kommentar
Harion, Dominic UL; Kiefer, Ann UL

E-print/Working paper (2022)

Detailed reference viewed: 22 (2 UL)
Peer Reviewed
See detail#Climate Killer Internet - Didaktischer Kommentar
Baumann, Isabell Eva UL; Harion, Dominic UL

E-print/Working paper (2022)

Detailed reference viewed: 28 (1 UL)
Peer Reviewed
See detail#Discover Life on Mars with a Rover - Didaktischer Kommentar
Baumann, Sandra UL; Harion, Dominic UL; Kiefer, Ann UL

E-print/Working paper (2022)

Detailed reference viewed: 33 (2 UL)
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See detailForecasting of a complex microbial community using meta-omics
Delogu, Francesco UL; Kunath, Benoît UL; Queirós, P. M. et al

E-print/Working paper (2022)

Microbial communities are complex assemblages whose dynamics are shaped by abiotic and biotic factors. A major challenge concerns correctly forecasting the community behaviour in the future. In this ... [more ▼]

Microbial communities are complex assemblages whose dynamics are shaped by abiotic and biotic factors. A major challenge concerns correctly forecasting the community behaviour in the future. In this context, communities in biological wastewater treatment plants (BWWTPs) represent excellent model systems, because forecasting them is required to ultimately control and operate the plants in a sustainable manner. Here, we forecast the microbial community from the water-air interface of the anaerobic tank of a BWWTP via longitudinal meta-omics (metagenomics, metatranscriptomics and metaproteomics) data covering 14 months at weekly intervals. We extracted all the available time-dependent information, summarised it in 17 temporal signals (explaining 91.1 of the temporal variance) and linked them over time to rebuild the sequence of ecological phenomena behind the community dynamics. We forecasted the signals over the following five years and tested the predictions with 21 extra samples. We were able to correctly forecast five signals accounting for 22.5 of the time-dependent information in the system and generate mechanistic predictions on the ecological events in the community (e.g. a predation cycle involving bacteria, viruses and amoebas). Through the forecasting of the 17 signals and the environmental variables readings we reconstructed the gene abundance and expression for the following 5 years, showing a nearly perfect trend prediction (coefficient of determination >= 0.97) for the first 2 years. The study demonstrates the maturity of microbial ecology to forecast composition and gene expression of open microbial ecosystems using year-spanning interactions between community cycles and environmental parameters. [less ▲]

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See detailSecond Order Bismut formulae and applications to Neumann semigroups on manifolds
Cheng, Li-Juan; Thalmaier, Anton UL; Wang, Feng-Yu

E-print/Working paper (2022)

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See detailHessian estimates for Dirichlet and Neumann eigenfunctions of Laplacian
Cheng, Li-Juan; Thalmaier, Anton UL

E-print/Working paper (2022)

Detailed reference viewed: 55 (5 UL)
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See detailA Lightweight Universal Gripper with Low Activation Force for Aerial Grasping
Kremer, Paul UL; Rahimi Nohooji, Hamed UL; Sanchez Lopez, Jose Luis UL et al

E-print/Working paper (2022)

Soft robotic grippers have numerous advantages that address challenges in dynamic aerial grasping. Typical multi-fingered soft grippers recently showcased for aerial grasping are highly dependent on the ... [more ▼]

Soft robotic grippers have numerous advantages that address challenges in dynamic aerial grasping. Typical multi-fingered soft grippers recently showcased for aerial grasping are highly dependent on the direction of the target object for successful grasping. This study pushes the boundaries of dynamic aerial grasping by developing an omnidirectional system for autonomous aerial manipulation. In particular, the paper investigates the design, fabrication, and experimental verification of a novel, highly integrated, modular, sensor-rich, universal jamming gripper specifically designed for aerial applications. Leveraging recent developments in particle jamming and soft granular materials, the presented gripper produces a substantial holding force while being very lightweight, energy-efficient and only requiring a low activation force. We show that the holding force can be improved by up to 50% by adding an additive to the membrane’s silicone mixture. The experiments show that our lightweight gripper can develop up to 15N of holding force with an activation force as low as 2.5N, even without geometric interlocking. Finally, a pick and release task is performed under real-world conditions by mounting the gripper onto a multi-copter. The developed aerial grasping system features many useful properties, such as resilience and robustness to collisions and the inherent passive compliance which decouples the UAV from the environment. [less ▲]

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See detailThe geometric data on the boundary of convex subsets of hyperbolic manifolds
chen, qiyu; Schlenker, Jean-Marc UL

E-print/Working paper (2022)

Let $N$ be a geodesically convex subset in a convex co-compact hyperbolic manifold $M$ with incompressible boundary. We assume that each boundary component of $N$ is either a boundary component of ... [more ▼]

Let $N$ be a geodesically convex subset in a convex co-compact hyperbolic manifold $M$ with incompressible boundary. We assume that each boundary component of $N$ is either a boundary component of $\partial_\infty M$, or a smooth, locally convex surface in $M$. We show that $N$ is uniquely determined by the boundary data defined by the conformal structure on the boundary components at infinity, and by either the induced metric or the third fundamental form on the boundary components which are locally convex surfaces. We also describe the possible boundary data. This provides an extension of both the hyperbolic Weyl problem and the Ahlfors-Bers Theorem. Using this statement for quasifuchsian manifolds, we obtain existence results for similar questions for convex domains $\Omega\subset \HH^3$ which meets the boundary at infinity $\partial_{\infty}\HH^3$ either along a quasicircle or along a quasidisk. The boundary data then includes either the induced metric or the third fundamental form in $\HH^3$, but also an additional ``gluing'' data between different components of the boundary, either in $\HH^3$ or in $\partial_\infty\HH^3$. [less ▲]

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See detailEquivariant elliptic cohomology, toric varieties, and derived equivalences
Scherotzke, Sarah UL; Sibilla, Nicolo

E-print/Working paper (2022)

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See detailSpatio-temporal programming of lyotropic phase transition in nanoporous microfluidic confinements
Ulaganathan, Vamseekrishna UL; Sengupta, Anupam UL

E-print/Working paper (2022)

Self-assembly of simple molecules into complex phases can be driven by physical constraints, for instance, due to selective molecular uptake by nanoporous surfaces. Despite the significance of surface ... [more ▼]

Self-assembly of simple molecules into complex phases can be driven by physical constraints, for instance, due to selective molecular uptake by nanoporous surfaces. Despite the significance of surface-mediated assembly in evolution of life, physical routes to molecular enrichment and assembly have remained overlooked. Here, using a lyotropic chromonic liquid crystal as model biological material, confined within nanoporous microfluidic environments, we study molecular assembly driven by nanoporous substrates. We demonstrate that nanoporous polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surfaces, due to selective permeation of water molecules, drive transition of disordered isotropic phase to ordered nematic, and higher order columnar phases under isothermal conditions. Synergistically, by tailoring the wettability, the surface-to-volume ratio, and surface topography of the confinements, we program the lyotropic phase transitions with a high degree of spatial and temporal control. Using a combination of timelapse polarized imaging, quantitative image processing, and a simple mathematical model, we analyze the phase transitions, and construct a master diagram capturing the role of surface wettability and channel geometry on programmable lyotropic phase transitions. Intrinsic PDMS nanoporosity and confinement cross-section, together with the imposed wettability regulate the rate of the N-M phase transition; whereas the microfluidic geometry and embedded topography enable phase transition at targeted locations. We harness the emergent long-range order during N-M transition to actuate elasto-advective transport of embedded micro-cargo, demonstrating particle manipulation concepts governed by tunable phase transitions. Our results present a programmable physical route to material assembly, and offer a new paradigm for assembling genetic components, biological cargo, and minimal synthetic cells. [less ▲]

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See detailEU acts without binding legal force producing binding legal effects at the national level: Enforcement of ESA soft law in the Czech Republic
Hubkova, Pavlina UL

E-print/Working paper (2022)

The European Supervisory Authorities (ESAs) are empowered, by their founding regulations, to adopt guidelines and recommendations “with a view to establishing consistent, efficient and effective ... [more ▼]

The European Supervisory Authorities (ESAs) are empowered, by their founding regulations, to adopt guidelines and recommendations “with a view to establishing consistent, efficient and effective supervisory practices within the ESFS, and to ensuring the common, uniform and consistent application of Union law”. These acts can be considered genuine EU soft law since they lack the binding legal force. However, they remain perfectly non-binding only at the EU level and in the relation between the ESAs and the national competent authorities (NCAs). Although the NCAs have a duty “to make every effort to comply” with such soft law, they keep a certain leeway to decide whether they eventually comply or not. Nonetheless, the situation is different in case of financial institutions under their supervision. Formally, the EU regulations attribute to them also only a duty “to make every effort to comply”. However, once the NCA decides to comply and effectively enforces the compliance from financial institutions, the latter have a very limited, or even no leeway to decide about the compliance. Within the complex regulatory system, the NCA metamorphosis from a normtaker into an effective norm-enforcer who is capable to determine what effects the ESA soft law have at the national level. This paper focuses on the life of ESA soft law in the Czech Republic. It examines the role and power of the Czech NCA (the Czech National Bank, CNB) in the light of the legislative framework and other domestic binding legal rules. It takes into consideration the real enforcement strategy and practices of the CNB to show that, in the hands of the CNB, ESA guidelines and recommendations become acts, which produce binding legal effects upon financial institutions. Based on this observation, the paper raises questions about the proper control of ESA soft law and potential remedies. [less ▲]

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See detailData Viz Superpowers - Didaktischer Kommentar
Kiefer, Ann UL; Lenz, Thomas UL

E-print/Working paper (2022)

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Peer Reviewed
See detailAdvanced Situational Graphs for Robot Navigation in Structured Indoor Environments
Bavle, Hriday UL; Sanchez Lopez, Jose Luis UL; Shaheer, Muhammad UL et al

E-print/Working paper (2022)

Mobile robots extract information from its environment to understand their current situation to enable intelligent decision making and autonomous task execution. In our previous work, we introduced the ... [more ▼]

Mobile robots extract information from its environment to understand their current situation to enable intelligent decision making and autonomous task execution. In our previous work, we introduced the concept of Situation Graphs (S-Graphs) which combines in a single optimizable graph, the robot keyframes and the representation of the environment with geometric, semantic and topological abstractions. Although S-Graphs were built and optimized in real-time and demonstrated state-of-the-art results, they are limited to specific structured environments with specific hand-tuned dimensions of rooms and corridors. In this work, we present an advanced version of the Situational Graphs (S-Graphs+), consisting of the five layered optimizable graph that includes (1) metric layer along with the graph of free-space clusters (2) keyframe layer where the robot poses are registered (3) metric-semantic layer consisting of the extracted planar walls (4) novel rooms layer constraining the extracted planar walls (5) novel floors layer encompassing the rooms within a given floor level. S-Graphs+ demonstrates improved performance over S-Graphs efficiently extracting the room information while simultaneously improving the pose estimate of the robot, thus extending the robots situational awareness in the form of a five layered environmental model. [less ▲]

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See detailIntegration of external biomass reactions into existing metabolic models
Moscardo Garcia, Maria UL; Pires Pacheco, Maria Irene UL; Sauter, Thomas UL

E-print/Working paper (2022)

Currently, seven biomass objective functions have been defined in human metabolic reconstructions. The integration of published biomass reactions into alternative models can contribute to the prediction ... [more ▼]

Currently, seven biomass objective functions have been defined in human metabolic reconstructions. The integration of published biomass reactions into alternative models can contribute to the prediction power of the model. Thus, in this work, we present a workflow to integrate reactions and biomass functions originating from several genome-scale reconstructions into models other than their home models. Additionally, a benchmark to identify the biomass that confers the highest prediction accuracy in terms of gene essentiality and growth predictions is provided. [less ▲]

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See detailLocal Verlet buffer approach for broad-phase interaction detection in Discrete Element Method
Mainassara Chekaraou, Abdoul Wahid UL; Besseron, Xavier UL; Rousset, Alban UL et al

E-print/Working paper (2022)

The Extended Discrete Element Method (XDEM) is an innovative numerical simulation technique that extends the dynamics of granular materials known as Discrete Element Method (DEM) by additional properties ... [more ▼]

The Extended Discrete Element Method (XDEM) is an innovative numerical simulation technique that extends the dynamics of granular materials known as Discrete Element Method (DEM) by additional properties such as the thermodynamic state, stress/strain for each particle. Such DEM simulations used by industries to set up their experimental processes are complexes and heavy in computation time. At each time step, those simulations generate a list of interacting particles and this phase is one of the most computationally expensive parts of a DEM simulation. The Verlet buffer method, initially introduced in Molecular Dynamic (MD) (and also used in DEM), allows keeping the interaction list for many time steps by extending each particle neighbourhood by a certain extension range, and thus broadening the interaction list. The method relies on the temporal coherency of DEM, which guarantees that no particles move erratically from one time step to the next. In the classical approach, all the particles have their neighbourhood extended by the same value which leads to suboptimal performances in simulations where different flow regimes coexist. Additionally, and unlike in MD, there is no comprehensive study analysing the different parameters that affect the performance of the Verlet buffer method in DEM. In this work, we propose a new method for the dynamic update of the neighbour list that depends on the particles individual displacement and define a particle-specific extension range based on the local flow regime. The interaction list is analysed throughout the simulation based on the particle's displacement allowing a flexible update according to the flow regime conditions. We evaluate the influence of the Verlet extension range on the execution time through different test cases and analyse empirically the extension range value giving the best performance. [less ▲]

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See detailAgent-based Model of Initial Token Allocations: Evaluating Wealth Concentration in Fair Launches
Delgado Fernandez, Joaquin UL; Barbereau, Tom Josua UL; Papageorgiou, Orestis UL

E-print/Working paper (2022)

With advancements in distributed ledger technologies and smart contracts, tokenized voting rights gained prominence within Decentralized Finance (DeFi). Voting rights tokens (aka. governance tokens) are ... [more ▼]

With advancements in distributed ledger technologies and smart contracts, tokenized voting rights gained prominence within Decentralized Finance (DeFi). Voting rights tokens (aka. governance tokens) are fungible tokens that grant individual holders the right to vote upon the fate of a project. The motivation behind these tokens is to achieve decentral control. Because the initial allocations of these tokens is often un-democratic, the DeFi project Yearn Finance experimented with a fair launch allocation where no tokens are pre-mined and all participants have an equal opportunity to receive them. Regardless, research on voting rights tokens highlights the formation of oligarchies over time. The hypothesis is that the tokens' tradability is the cause of concentration. To examine this proposition, this paper uses an Agent-based Model to simulate and analyze the concentration of voting rights tokens post fair launch under different trading modalities. It serves to examine three distinct token allocation scenarios considered as fair. The results show that regardless of the allocation, concentration persistently occurs. It confirms the hypothesis that the disease is endogenous: the cause of concentration is the tokens tradablility. The findings inform theoretical understandings and practical implications for on-chain governance mediated by tokens. [less ▲]

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See detailHow to make users adopt more sustainable cryptocurrencies: Evidence from Nigeria
Platt, Moritz; Ojeka, Stephen; Dragnoiu, Andreea-Elena et al

E-print/Working paper (2022)

Some of the most popular decentralised cryptocurrency networks have drawn widespread criticism for consuming vast amounts of electricity and have thus become targets of regulatory interest. Attempts to ... [more ▼]

Some of the most popular decentralised cryptocurrency networks have drawn widespread criticism for consuming vast amounts of electricity and have thus become targets of regulatory interest. Attempts to influence cryptocurrency network operations via policy in the pursuit of sustainability in the past, however, have been widely unsuccessful. Some were abandoned out of fear of jeopardising innovation while others failed due to the highly globalised nature of decentralised systems. Considering Bitcoin as an archetype for cryptocurrencies with high energy demand, this study takes a bottom-up approach by analysing statements made by Nigerian cryptocurrency users (N = 158) concerning their perception of sustainability issues. Three main findings emerged: 1) Despite self-reporting as highly knowledgeable, most participants significantly underestimate the energy demand of Bitcoin. 2) Those who accurately assess the energy demand of Bitcoin are more likely to support measures targeting its energy demand than those who misestimate it. 3) Those who support measures predominantly hold private actors responsible. In light of these findings, it is concluded that the primary task of policy makers in the context of cryptocurrency sustainability is to enforce consumer education. [less ▲]

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See detailA generalization of Bohr-Mollerup's theorem for higher order convex functions: A tutorial
Marichal, Jean-Luc UL; Zenaïdi, Naïm

E-print/Working paper (2022)

In its additive version, Bohr-Mollerup's remarkable theorem states that the unique (up to an additive constant) convex solution $f(x)$ to the equation $\Delta f(x)=\ln x$ on the open half-line $(0,\infty ... [more ▼]

In its additive version, Bohr-Mollerup's remarkable theorem states that the unique (up to an additive constant) convex solution $f(x)$ to the equation $\Delta f(x)=\ln x$ on the open half-line $(0,\infty)$ is the log-gamma function $f(x)=\ln\Gamma(x)$, where $\Delta$ denotes the classical difference operator and $\Gamma(x)$ denotes the Euler gamma function. In a recently published open access book, the authors provided and illustrated a far-reaching generalization of Bohr-Mollerup's theorem by considering the functional equation $\Delta f(x)=g(x)$, where $g$ can be chosen in a wide and rich class of functions that have convexity or concavity properties of any order. They also showed that the solutions $f(x)$ arising from this generalization satisfy counterparts of many properties of the log-gamma function (or equivalently, the gamma function), including analogues of Bohr-Mollerup's theorem itself, Burnside's formula, Euler's infinite product, Euler's reflection formula, Gauss' limit, Gauss' multiplication formula, Gautschi's inequality, Legendre's duplication formula, Raabe's formula, Stirling's formula, Wallis's product formula, Weierstrass' infinite product, and Wendel's inequality for the gamma function. In this paper, we review the main results of this new and intriguing theory and provide an illustrative application. [less ▲]

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See detailEarly-to-mid idiopathic Parkinson’s disease shows a more cytotoxic but declined CD8-regulatory peripheral immune profile
Capelle, Christophe; Cire, Séverine; Hansen, Maxime UL et al

E-print/Working paper (2022)

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease. Brain neuroinflammation plays a role in PD pathogenesis. However, the involvement of the peripheral immune system has not been ... [more ▼]

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease. Brain neuroinflammation plays a role in PD pathogenesis. However, the involvement of the peripheral immune system has not been systematically investigated. Here we analyzed >700 combinatorial immunological features in fresh blood of 28 early-to-mid-stage PD patients and 24 matched controls. We found an enhanced cytotoxic immune profile in idiopathic PD patients (iPD), with a higher frequency of terminally-differentiated effector CD8 T (TEMRA), late-differentiated CD8+ natural killer T cells and neutrophils. This immune profile was intensified by elevated serum granzyme A, reduced percentages of CD8+FOXP3+ regulatory T cells and group 2 innate lymphoid cells with immunosuppressive or tolerance-inducing functions. The frequency of CD8 TEMRA was negatively correlated with disease duration, suggesting a contribution to PD pathogenesis. Our work provides a comprehensive map on disturbed peripheral adaptive and innate immune cells in early-to-mid iPD, proposing easily-accessible candidates for early diagnosis and treatments. [less ▲]

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See detailArbeitnehmer in Luxemburg wünschen sich verstärkt eine Reduktion ihrer vertraglichen Arbeitszeit
Sischka, Philipp UL; Steffgen, Georges UL

E-print/Working paper (2022)

Im Rahmen dieser Newsletter wird aufgezeigt, wie sich die gewünschte Wochenarbeitszeit von Arbeitnehmern sowie die Differenz zwischen gewünschter Wochenarbeitszeit und vertraglicher Wochenarbeitszeit in ... [more ▼]

Im Rahmen dieser Newsletter wird aufgezeigt, wie sich die gewünschte Wochenarbeitszeit von Arbeitnehmern sowie die Differenz zwischen gewünschter Wochenarbeitszeit und vertraglicher Wochenarbeitszeit in den vergangenen Jahren in Luxemburg entwickelt haben. Dabei zeigt sich, dass der Anteil an Arbeitnehmern, die gerne weniger arbeiten würden, zwischen 2018 und 2021 deutlich gestiegen ist (von 32,8% auf 43,9%). Die Arbeitnehmer, die gerne weniger pro Woche arbeiten würden, möchten im Durchschnitt etwa 8 Stunden weniger arbeiten. Diese Entwicklungen fallen jedoch differenziert nach verschiedenen Arbeitnehmer-Gruppen unterschiedlich aus. So wünschen sich Arbeitnehmer im Vergleich zu Arbeitnehmerinnen konstant eine längere Arbeitszeit. Differenziert nach Alter, sind es vor allem die ältesten Arbeitnehmer, die sich im Durchschnitt die kürzeste Wochenarbeitszeit wünschen. Arbeitnehmer, die gerne weniger arbeiten würden, berichten tendenziell auch über schlechtere Arbeitsbedingungen im Vergleich zu Arbeitnehmern, deren gewünschte Arbeitszeit mit ihrer vertraglichen Arbeitszeit übereinstimmt. Auch berichten Arbeitnehmer, die gerne weniger pro Woche arbeiten würden, über ein geringeres Wohlbefinden. [less ▲]

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See detailGenome-wide meta-analysis of over 29,000 people with epilepsy reveals 26 loci and subtype-specific genetic architecture
International League Against Epilepsy Consortium on Complex Epilepsies Krause, Roland; Landoulsi, Zied UL; May, Patrick UL et al

E-print/Working paper (2022)

Epilepsy is a highly heritable disorder affecting over 50 million people worldwide, of which about one-third are resistant to current treatments. Here, we report a trans-ethnic GWAS including 29,944 cases ... [more ▼]

Epilepsy is a highly heritable disorder affecting over 50 million people worldwide, of which about one-third are resistant to current treatments. Here, we report a trans-ethnic GWAS including 29,944 cases, stratified into three broad- and seven sub-types of epilepsy, and 52,538 controls. We identify 26 genome-wide significant loci, 19 of which are specific to genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE). We implicate 29 likely causal genes underlying these 26 loci. SNP-based heritability analyses show that common variants substantially close the missing heritability gap for GGE. Subtype analysis revealed markedly different genetic architectures between focal and generalized epilepsies. Gene-set analysis of GGE signals implicate synaptic processes in both excitatory and inhibitory neurons in the brain. Prioritized candidate genes overlap with monogenic epilepsy genes and with targets of current anti-seizure medications. Finally, we leverage our results to identify alternate drugs with predicted efficacy if repurposed for epilepsy treatment. [less ▲]

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See detailA model-based approach to density estimation in sup-norm
Maillard, Guillaume UL

E-print/Working paper (2022)

Building on the l−estimators of Baraud, we define a general method for finding a quasi-best approximant in sup-norm to a target density p⋆ belonging to a given model m, based on independent samples drawn ... [more ▼]

Building on the l−estimators of Baraud, we define a general method for finding a quasi-best approximant in sup-norm to a target density p⋆ belonging to a given model m, based on independent samples drawn from distributions p⋆i which average to p⋆ (which does not necessarily belong to m). We also provide a general method for selecting among a countable family of such models. Both of these esti- mators satisfy oracle inequalities in the general setting. The quality of the bounds depends on the volume of sets C on which |f| is close to its maximum, where f = p − q for some p, q ∈ m (or p ∈ m and q ∈ m′, in the case of model selection). In particular, using piecewise polynomials on dyadic partitions of Rd, we recover optimal rates of convergence for classes of functions with anisotropic smoothness, with optimal depen- dence on semi-norms measuring the smoothness of p⋆ in the coordinate directions. Moreover, our method adapts to the anisotropic smoothness, as long as it is smaller than 1 plus the degree of the polynomials. [less ▲]

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See detailJob Location Decisions and the Effect of Children on the Employment Gender Gap
Albanese, Andrea; Nieto, Adrián; Tatsiramos, Konstantinos UL

E-print/Working paper (2022)

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See detailMitochondrial DNA heteroplasmy distinguishes disease manifestation in PINK1- and PRKN-linked Parkinson's disease 2022.05.17.22275087
Trinh, Joanne; Hicks, Andrew A.; Koenig, Inke R. et al

E-print/Working paper (2022)

Biallelic mutations in PINK1 and PRKN cause recessively inherited Parkinson's disease (PD). Though some studies suggest that PINK1/PRKN monoallelic mutations may not contribute to risk, deep phenotyping ... [more ▼]

Biallelic mutations in PINK1 and PRKN cause recessively inherited Parkinson's disease (PD). Though some studies suggest that PINK1/PRKN monoallelic mutations may not contribute to risk, deep phenotyping assessment showed that PINK1 or PRKN monoallelic pathogenic variants were at a significantly higher rate in PD compared to controls. Given the established role of PINK1 and Parkin in regulating mitochondrial dynamics, we explored mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) integrity and inflammation as potential disease modifiers in carriers of mutations in these genes. MtDNA integrity, global gene expression and serum cytokine levels were investigated in a large collection of biallelic (n=84) and monoallelic (n=170) carriers of PINK1/PRKN mutations, iPD patients (n=67) and controls (n=90). Affected and unaffected PINK1/PRKN monoallelic mutation carriers can be distinguished by heteroplasmic mtDNA variant load (AUC=0.83, CI:0.74-0.93). Biallelic PINK1/PRKN mutation carriers harbor more heteroplasmic mtDNA variants in blood (p=0.0006, Z=3.63) compared to monoallelic mutation carriers. This enrichment was confirmed in iPSC-derived and postmortem midbrain neurons from biallelic PRKN-PD patients. Lastly, the heteroplasmic mtDNA variant load was found to correlate with IL6 levels in PINK1/PRKN mutation carriers (r=0.57, p=0.0074). PINK1/PRKN mutations predispose individuals to mtDNA variant accumulation in a dose- and disease-dependent manner. MtDNA variant load over time is a potential marker of disease manifestation in PINK1/PRKN mutation carriers.Competing Interest StatementThe authors have declared no competing interest.Funding StatementThe authors wish to thank the many patients and their families who volunteered, and the efforts of the many clinical teams involved. Funding has been obtained from the German Research Foundation (ProtectMove; FOR 2488, GR 3731/5-1; SE 2608/2-1; KO 2250/7-1), the Luxembourg National Research Fund in the ATTRACT (Model-IPD, FNR9631103), NCER-PD (FNR11264123) and INTER programmes (ProtectMove, FNR11250962; MiRisk-PD, C17/BM/11676395, NB 4328/2-1), the BMBF (MitoPD), the Hermann and Lilly Schilling Foundation, the European Community (SysMedPD), the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR), Peter and Traudl Engelhorn Foundation. Initial studies in Tunisia on familial parkinsonism were in collaboration with Lefkos Middleton, Rachel Gibson, and the GlaxoSmithKline PD Programme Team (2002-2005). We would like to thank Dr Helen Tuppen from the Welcome Trust Centre for Mitochondrial Research, Newcastle University, UK for providing us with the plasmid p7D1. Moreover, this project was supported by the high throughput/high content screening platform and HPC facility at the Luxembourg Centre for Systems Biomedicine, and the University of Luxembourg.Author DeclarationsI confirm all relevant ethical guidelines have been followed, and any necessary IRB and/or ethics committee approvals have been obtained.YesThe details of the IRB/oversight body that provided approval or exemption for the research described are given below:University of Lubeck Ethics CommitteeI confirm that all necessary patient/participant consent has been obtained and the appropriate institutional forms have been archived, and that any patient/participant/sample identifiers included were not known to anyone (e.g., hospital staff, patients or participants themselves) outside the research group so cannot be used to identify individuals.YesI understand that all clinical trials and any other prospective interventional studies must be registered with an ICMJE-approved registry, such as ClinicalTrials.gov. I confirm that any such study reported in the manuscript has been registered and the trial registration ID is provided (note: if posting a prospective study registered retrospectively, please provide a statement in the trial ID field explaining why the study was not registered in advance).Yes I have followed all appropriate research reporting guidelines and uploaded the relevant EQUATOR Network research reporting checklist(s) and other pertinent material as supplementary files, if applicable.YesAll data produced in the present study are available upon reasonable request to the authors [less ▲]

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See detailNon-Fungible Tokens (NFTs): A Review of Pricing Determinants, Applications and Opportunities
Kräussl, Roman UL; Tugnetti, Alessandro UL

E-print/Working paper (2022)

This paper provides a review of the development of the non-fungible tokens (NFTs) market, with a particular focus on its pricing determinants, its current applications and future opportunities. We ... [more ▼]

This paper provides a review of the development of the non-fungible tokens (NFTs) market, with a particular focus on its pricing determinants, its current applications and future opportunities. We investigate the current state of the NFT markets and highlight the perception and expectations of investors towards these products. We summarize and compare the financial and econometric models that have been used in the literature for the pricing of non-fungible tokens with a special focus on their predictive performance. Our intention is to design a framework that can help understanding the price formation of NFTs. We further aim to shed light on the value creating determinants of NFTs in order to better understand the investors’ behavior on the blockchain. [less ▲]

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See detailErinnerungspolitik und –praxis in Luxemburg am Beispiel einer gegenwärtigen Kontroverse
Kmec, Sonja UL

E-print/Working paper (2022)

In September 2021, so-called stumbling blocks were set by a Luxembourg school class: four for Jewish people who were murdered in concentration camps and eleven for young men who were forcibly drafted into ... [more ▼]

In September 2021, so-called stumbling blocks were set by a Luxembourg school class: four for Jewish people who were murdered in concentration camps and eleven for young men who were forcibly drafted into the Wehrmacht and died in the war. The commemoration triggered a broadly received controversy, which this article aims to explain and contextualize. [less ▲]

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See detailInternship and Public History Training
Cauvin, Thomas UL

E-print/Working paper (2022)

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See detailCreating Public History Master Programs: International Guidelines
Cauvin, Thomas UL; Montt, Maria; Will, Stoutamire et al

E-print/Working paper (2022)

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See detailFederated Geometric Monte Carlo Clustering to Counter Non-IID Datasets
Lucchetti, Federico UL; Maria, Fernandes; Lydia, Chen et al

E-print/Working paper (2022)

Federated learning allows clients to collaboratively train models on datasets that are acquired in different locations and that cannot be exchanged because of their size or regulations. Such collected ... [more ▼]

Federated learning allows clients to collaboratively train models on datasets that are acquired in different locations and that cannot be exchanged because of their size or regulations. Such collected data is increasingly non-independent and non- identically distributed (non-IID), negatively affecting training accuracy. Previous works tried to mitigate the effects of non- IID datasets on training accuracy, focusing mainly on non-IID labels, however practical datasets often also contain non-IID features. To address both non-IID labels and features, we propose FedGMCC1, a novel framework where a central server aggregates client models that it can cluster together. FedGMCC clustering relies on a Monte Carlo procedure that samples the output space of client models, infers their position in the weight space on a loss manifold and computes their geometric connection via an affine curve parametrization. FedGMCC aggregates connected models along their path connectivity to produce a richer global model, incorporating knowledge of all connected client models. FedGMCC outperforms FedAvg and FedProx in terms of convergence rates on the EMNIST62 and a genomic sequence classification datasets (by up to +63%). FedGMCC yields an improved accuracy (+4%) on the genomic dataset with respect to CFL, in high non-IID feature space settings and label incongruency. [less ▲]

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See detailDoes (Re-)Entering the Labor Market at Advanced Ages Protect Against Cognitive Decline? A Panel-Matching Difference-in-differences Approach
Kim, Jung Hyun UL; Muniz-Terrera, Graciela; Leist, Anja UL

E-print/Working paper (2022)

While prolonged labor market participation becomes increasingly important in ageing societies, evidence of the impacts of entering or exiting work beyond age 65 on cognitive functioning is scarce. We ... [more ▼]

While prolonged labor market participation becomes increasingly important in ageing societies, evidence of the impacts of entering or exiting work beyond age 65 on cognitive functioning is scarce. We estimate these effects using panel-matching difference-in-differences with populationrepresentative panel datasets from South Korea and the United States. We compare countries and across socioeconomic characteristics. We find general positive effects of entering the labor market in South Korea, while only individuals with high assets in the US benefit from entering the labor market. Exiting the labor market does not result in changes in cognitive functioning in Korea but is followed by a cognitive decline in individuals with low assets in the US. Findings suggest that the benefits and disincentives from late-life labor status transitions on cognitive functioning vary between South Korea and the US and across socioeconomic groups. [less ▲]

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See detailAn overview of the Eight International Olympiad in Cryptography "Non-Stop University CRYPTO"
Gorodilova, Anastasiya; Tokareva, Natalia; Agievich, Sergey et al

E-print/Working paper (2022)

Non-Stop University CRYPTO is the International Olympiad in Cryptography that was held for the eight time in 2021. Hundreds of university and school students, professionals from 33 countries worked on ... [more ▼]

Non-Stop University CRYPTO is the International Olympiad in Cryptography that was held for the eight time in 2021. Hundreds of university and school students, professionals from 33 countries worked on mathematical problems in cryptography during a week. The aim of the Olympiad is to attract attention to curious and even open scientific problems of modern cryptography. In this paper, problems and their solutions of the Olympiad’2021 are presented. We consider 19 problems of varying difficulty and topics: ciphers, online machines, passwords, binary strings, permutations, quantum circuits, historical ciphers, elliptic curves, masking, implementation on a chip, etc. We discuss several open problems on quantum error correction, finding special permutations and s-Boolean sharing of a function, obtaining new bounds on the distance to affine vectorial functions. [less ▲]

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See detailConserved patterns across ion channels correlate with variant pathogenicity and clinical phenotypes 2022.03.23.485339
Brünger, Tobias; Perez-Palma, Eduardo; Montanucci, Ludovica et al

E-print/Working paper (2022)

Clinically identified genetic variants in ion channels can be benign or cause disease by increasing or decreasing the protein function. Consequently, therapeutic decision-making is challenging without ... [more ▼]

Clinically identified genetic variants in ion channels can be benign or cause disease by increasing or decreasing the protein function. Consequently, therapeutic decision-making is challenging without molecular testing of each variant. Our biophysical knowledge of ion channel structures and function is just emerging, and it is currently not well understood which amino acid residues cause disease when mutated.We sought to systematically identify biological properties associated with variant pathogenicity across all major voltage and ligand-gated ion channel families. We collected and curated 3,049 pathogenic variants from hundreds of neurodevelopmental and other disorders and 12,546 population variants for 30 ion channel or channel subunits for which a high-quality protein structure was available. Using a wide range of bioinformatics approaches, we computed 163 structural features and tested them for pathogenic variant enrichment. We developed a novel 3D spatial distance scoring approach that enables comparisons of pathogenic and population variant distribution across protein structures.We discovered and independently replicated that several pore residue properties and proximity to the pore axis were most significantly enriched for pathogenic variants compared to population variants. Using our novel 3D scoring approach, we showed that the strongest pathogenic variant enrichment was observed for pore-lining residues and alpha-helix residues within 5 A distance from the pore axis center and not involved in gating. Within the subset of residues located at the pore, the hydrophobicity of the pore was the feature most strongly associated with variant pathogenicity. We also found an association between the identified properties and both clinical phenotypes and fucntional in vitro assays for voltage-gated sodium channels (SCN1A, SCN2A, SCN8A) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor (GRIN1, GRIN2A, GRIN2B) encoding genes. In an independent expert-curated dataset of 1,422 neurodevelopmental disorder pathogenic patient variants, and 679 electrophysiological experiments that pore axis distance is associated with seizure age of onset and cognitive performance as well as differential gain vs. loss-of-channel function.In summary, we identified biological properties associated with ion-channel malfunction and show that these are correlated with in vitro functional read-outs and clinical phenotypes in patients with neurodevelopmental disorders. Our results suggest that clinical decision support algorithms that predict variant pathogenicity and function are feasible in the future.Competing Interest StatementThe authors have declared no competing interest.DSSPDictionary of Protein Secondary StructuregnomADGenome aggregation DatabaseGoFGain of functionGRIN genesGRIN1, GRIN2A. GRIN2BHGMDHuman Gene Mutation DatabaseNMDA receptorN-methyl-D-aspartate receptorGABA receptorGamma-aminobutyric acid receptorLoFLoss of functionSCN genesSCN1A, SCN2A, SCN8AVCFVariant Call Format [less ▲]

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See detailCNV-ClinViewer: Enhancing the clinical interpretation of large copy-number variants online
Macnee, Marie; Perez-Palma, Eduardo; Brünger, Tobias et al

E-print/Working paper (2022)

Purpose Large copy number variants (CNVs) can cause a heterogeneous spectrum of rare and severe disorders. However, most CNVs are benign and are part of natural variation in human genomes. CNV ... [more ▼]

Purpose Large copy number variants (CNVs) can cause a heterogeneous spectrum of rare and severe disorders. However, most CNVs are benign and are part of natural variation in human genomes. CNV pathogenicity classification, genotype-phenotype analyses, and therapeutic target identification are challenging and time-consuming tasks that require the integration and analysis of information from multiple scattered sources by experts. Methods We developed a web-application combining >250,000 patient and population CNVs together with a large set of biomedical annotations and provide tools for CNV classification based on ACMG/ClinGen guidelines and gene-set enrichment analyses. Results Here, we introduce the CNV-ClinViewer (https://cnv-ClinViewer.broadinstitute.org), an open-source web-application for clinical evaluation and visual exploration of CNVs. The application enables real-time interactive exploration of large CNV datasets in a user-friendly designed interface. Conclusion Overall, this resource facilitates semi-automated clinical CNV interpretation and genomic loci exploration and, in combination with clinical judgment, enables clinicians and researchers to formulate novel hypotheses and guide their decision-making process. Subsequently, the CNV-ClinViewer enhances for clinical investigators patient care and for basic scientists translational genomic research. [less ▲]

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See detailPOTENTIAL METHOD AND PROJECTION THEOREMS FOR MACROSCOPIC HAUSDORFF DIMENSION
Daw, Lara UL; Seuret, Stephane

E-print/Working paper (2022)

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Peer Reviewed
See detailSupercurrent-enabled Andreev reflection in a chiral quantum Hall edge state
Michelsen, Andreas; Recher, Patrik; Braunecker, Bernd et al

E-print/Working paper (2022)

Detailed reference viewed: 19 (3 UL)
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See detailCalabi-Yau structures on (quasi)-bisymplectic algebras
Bozec, Tristan; Calaque, Damien; Scherotzke, Sarah UL

E-print/Working paper (2022)

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See detailtrajeR, an R package for cluster analysis of time series
Noel, Cédric UL; Schiltz, Jang UL

E-print/Working paper (2022)

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See detailRetransmission of broadcast signals by cable in hotels - An analysis of the EU CabSat-Directive in light of a pending CJEU case
Cole, Mark David UL

E-print/Working paper (2022)

It is well-known that the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) has played a key role in giving the EU acquis in the area of intellectual property law the relevance it has today. Especially the ... [more ▼]

It is well-known that the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) has played a key role in giving the EU acquis in the area of intellectual property law the relevance it has today. Especially the series of judgments clarifying the broad notion of “communication to the public” as laid down in form of an exclusive right in the so-called InfoSoc Directive 2001/29/EC with which the position of authors was significantly reinforced is an extensively debated and commented outcome. Until the recent addition of the DSM Copyright-Directive (EU) 2019/790 to the EU acquis with its inclusion of a press publisher’s right and increased obligations of platforms when they allow users to upload potentially copyrighted material, the InfoSoc Directive of 2001 has always been in the centre of attention. In the shadow of that Directive stands the so-called CabSat Directive 93/83/EEC , originally created in 1993 as supplementary action in order to ensure the realization of an EU-wide single market for television broadcasting which was initiated by the Television without Frontiers-Directive (TwFD) 89/552/EEC . The aim of the CabSat Directive was and remains the goal of ensuring that in the use of satellite distribution of broadcast programmes as well as retransmission by cable, rightholders’ positions are safeguarded and procedures respected that allow for a smooth realization of such use of broadcast signals. This Directive has only rarely been subject of preliminary reference requests by national courts. This makes a currently pending case highly relevant and gives the Court a unique opportunity to complement its case law on communication to the public for the specific aspect of retransmission of broadcasting signals: It has already in the ground-breaking decision of SGAE in 2006 clarified very firmly that the forwarding of broadcast signals – television programmes, notabene – by hotel operators to the individual rooms of a hotel and thereby offering the guests the possibility of individual access to the broadcast programmes constitutes a communication to the public. For such communication an authorization by the author(s) is needed and without such authorization it violates the exclusive right as laid down in Art. 3(1) InfoSoc Directive. While this has been settled concerning authors, the pending case of C-716/20 concerns exactly the same setup – a hotel operator picking up a satellite signal and disseminating it via cable to the hotel rooms – except that this time the questions to the court are asked through the lens of the CabSat Directive and the legal position of broadcasters vis-à-vis the hotel operators as provided for by the specific national law which transposed EU law. This contribution will therefore first explain the notion of ‘cable retransmission’ and in which parts of EU law it is laid down or referred to (II.). It will then give a more detailed look at the relevant provisions of the CabSat Directive and other related secondary law which establishes the framework for questions of cable retransmission and communication to the public (III.). Further, the case law of the CJEU will be analysed in order to identify those judgments that contribute to the clarification of the open question whether a retransmission by cable of a broadcast programme by hotel operators falls under the notion of cable retransmission as presented (IV.). As the actual question has not been answered by the Court in its jurisprudence so far, the main aspects of the pending preliminary proceedings will be explained without going into the details of the national proceedings of the previous instances, before the Portuguese Supremo Tribunal de Justiça (Supreme Court) decided to stay the proceedings and request from the CJEU a clarification of the EU law-related aspects. The criteria as developed will show – when applied to the case at hand – that the hotel operator needs to be qualified as an operator of a cable network conducting a cable retransmission (V.). Finally, in a concluding section the relevance of the outcome of this case will be discussed (VI.). [less ▲]

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See detailAddressing the sustainability of distributed ledger technology
Gola, Carlo; Sedlmeir, Johannes UL

E-print/Working paper (2022)

The work proposes policies to improve the environmental sustainability of distributed ledger technology (DLT). While the proof-of-work (PoW) consensus protocol requires large amounts of electricity ... [more ▼]

The work proposes policies to improve the environmental sustainability of distributed ledger technology (DLT). While the proof-of-work (PoW) consensus protocol requires large amounts of electricity, several DLT protocols consume much less, while still being sufficiently reliable and decentralized. To move from a PoW protocol to a greener system, such as proof-of-stake (PoS) or proof-of-authority (PoA), the consensus of the majority of miners (measured by their computing power) is required during the transition period to preserve the security requirements. Given that miners have an incentive to maintain the status quo, this paper illustrates various policies designed to bring about the transition. We aim to show that the current policy approach adopted by banking and financial regulators, based on the principle of technological neutrality, may need a reappraisal in order to consider the ‘sustainability’ criterion. Policymakers should not stifle financial innovation; nevertheless they should intervene if technology is a source of negative externalities. [less ▲]

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See detailThe European Guarantee Fund and COVID-19: Agile But in Need of Greater Accountability
Howarth, David UL; Hodson, Dermot

E-print/Working paper (2022)

The European Guarantee Fund formed an important part of the EU’s first response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Despite delays from some member states and the European Commission over the creation of this ... [more ▼]

The European Guarantee Fund formed an important part of the EU’s first response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Despite delays from some member states and the European Commission over the creation of this instrument, the European Investment Bank (EIB) moved at high speed to support SMEs and mid-caps. The European Guarantee Fund was vertically accountable to national governments, but it needed stronger horizontal accountability to the European Parliament and diagonal accountability to NGOs. The EIB should commit to an independent ex-post evaluation of the European Guarantee Fund’s design, operation and impact. [less ▲]

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See detailDecentralised Finance's Unregulated Governance: Minority Rule in the Digital Wild West
Barbereau, Tom Josua UL; Smethurst, Reilly UL; Papageorgiou, Orestis UL et al

E-print/Working paper (2022)

Decentralised finance (DeFi) is a category of unlicensed, unregulated, and non-custodial financial services that utilise public, distributed ledgers like Ethereum. The Bloomberg Galaxy DeFi Index ... [more ▼]

Decentralised finance (DeFi) is a category of unlicensed, unregulated, and non-custodial financial services that utilise public, distributed ledgers like Ethereum. The Bloomberg Galaxy DeFi Index, launched in August 2021, includes nine Ethereum-based projects – non-custodial exchanges as well as lending and derivatives platforms. Each project is governed, at least in part, by a community of unregistered individuals that hold tradable voting rights tokens (also known as governance tokens). Voting rights tokens allow holders to vote on proposed changes to a DeFi project’s features, parameters, or rules. DeFi’s governance power is thus linked to the distribution and exercise of tokenised voting rights. Since DeFi projects are typically not managed by companies or public institutions, not much is known about DeFi’s governance. Regulators and law-makers from the United States recently asked if DeFi’s governance entails a new class of “shadowy” elites. In response, we conducted an exploratory, multiple-case study that focuses on the voting rights tokens issued by the nine projects from Bloomberg’s Galaxy DeFi index. Our mixed methods approach draws on Ethereum-based data about the distribution, trading, and staking of voting rights tokens, as well as project documentation and archival records. Our findings contribute knowledge about the entitlements of DeFi’s voting rights tokens, the initial distribution strategies, and the actual voting and delegation activity. Our principal finding is that DeFi’s voting rights are highly concentrated, and the exercise of these rights is very low. Our theoretical contribution is descriptive: minority rule is the probable consequence of tradable voting rights plus the lack of applicable anti-concentration or anti-monopoly laws. We interpret DeFi’s minority rule as timocratic and acknowledge its possible transition to oligarchy. [less ▲]

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See detailNimmt die Beschäftigungsqualität in Luxemburg ab?
Sischka, Philipp UL; Steffgen, Georges UL

E-print/Working paper (2022)

Im Rahmen dieser Newsletter wird aufgezeigt wie sich die verschiedenen Dimensionen der Beschäftigungsqualität in den vergangenen 6 Jahren in Luxemburg entwickelt haben. Dabei zeigt sich, dass die ... [more ▼]

Im Rahmen dieser Newsletter wird aufgezeigt wie sich die verschiedenen Dimensionen der Beschäftigungsqualität in den vergangenen 6 Jahren in Luxemburg entwickelt haben. Dabei zeigt sich, dass die Einkommenszufriedenheit und die wahrgenommenen Ausbildungsmöglichkeiten über die Zeit insgesamt eher abgenommen, und die Work-Life-Konflikte zugenommen haben. Diese Entwicklungen fallen differenziert nach verschiedenen Arbeitnehmer-Gruppen unterschiedlich aus. Beispielsweise haben Work-Life-Konflikte bei Arbeitnehmerinnen stärker zugenommen als bei Arbeitnehmern. Arbeitnehmer mit Kindern wiederum berichten im Vergleich zu Arbeitnehmer ohne Kinder über einen Rückgang der Beförderungsmöglichkeiten. Arbeitnehmer in staatlichen Organisationen weisen über die Zeit konstant höhere Werte bei Einkommenszufriedenheit, Ausbildungsmöglichkeiten und Arbeitsplatzsicherheit auf, im Vergleich zu Arbeitnehmern in privaten Unternehmen oder sonstigen Organisationen. Ergänzend zeigt sich, dass die Dimensionen der Beschäftigungsqualität mit verschiedenen Wohlbefindens-Dimensionen assoziiert sind. Insbesondere weisen höhere Work-Life-Konflikte Zusammenhänge mit geringerer Arbeitsmotivation, geringerer Arbeitszufriedenheit und geringerem generellem Well-Being, sowie erhöhtem Burnoutniveau und verstärkten Gesundheitsproblemen auf. [less ▲]

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See detailClinically relevant combined effect of polygenic background, rare pathogenic germline variants, and family history on colorectal cancer incidence 2022.01.20.22269585
Hassanin, Emadeldin; Spier, Isabel; Bobbili, Dheeraj Reddy UL et al

E-print/Working paper (2022)

Background and aims: Summarised in polygenic risk scores (PRS), the effect of common, low penetrant genetic variants associated with colorectal cancer (CRC), can be used for risk stratification.Methods To ... [more ▼]

Background and aims: Summarised in polygenic risk scores (PRS), the effect of common, low penetrant genetic variants associated with colorectal cancer (CRC), can be used for risk stratification.Methods To assess the combined impact of the PRS and other main factors on CRC risk, 163,516 individuals from the UK Biobank were stratified as follows: 1. carriers status for germline pathogenic variants (PV) in CRC susceptibility genes (APC, MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, PMS2), 2. low (<20%), intermediate (20-80%), or high PRS (>80\%), and 3. family history (FH) of CRC. Multivariable logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards models were applied to compare odds ratios (OR) and to compute the lifetime incidence, respectively. Results: Depending on the PRS, the CRC lifetime incidence for non-carriers ranges between 6 and 22\%, compared to 40 and 74 for carriers. A suspicious FH is associated with a further increase of the cumulative incidence reaching 26 for non-carriers and 98 for carriers. In non-carriers without FH, but high PRS, the CRC risk is doubled, whereas a low PRS even in the context of a FH results in a decreased risk. The full model including PRS, carrier status, and FH improved the area under the curve (AUC) in risk prediction (0.704). Conclusion: The findings demonstrate that CRC risks are strongly influenced by the PRS for both a sporadic and monogenic background. FH, PV, and common variants complementary contribute to CRC risk. The implementation of PRS in routine care will likely improve personalized risk stratification, which will in turn guide tailored preventive surveillance strategies in high, intermediate, and low risk groups. [less ▲]

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See detailSMART: a Technology Readiness Methodology in the Frame of the NIS Directive
Kumari, Archana; Schiffner, Stefan; Schmitz, Sandra UL

E-print/Working paper (2022)

Detailed reference viewed: 12 (0 UL)
See detailBuilding Blocks of a Green Fintech System – Towards an Regulatory Antidote to Greenwashing
Zetzsche, Dirk Andreas UL; Anker-Sorensen, Linn

E-print/Working paper (2022)

Detailed reference viewed: 14 (0 UL)
See detailBTPK-based learning: An Interpretable Method for Named Entity Recognition
Chen, Yulin; Yao, Zelai; Chi, Haixiao et al

E-print/Working paper (2022)

Named entity recognition (NER) is an essential task in natural language processing, but the internal mechanism of most NER models is a black box for users. In some high-stake decision-making areas ... [more ▼]

Named entity recognition (NER) is an essential task in natural language processing, but the internal mechanism of most NER models is a black box for users. In some high-stake decision-making areas, improving the interpretability of an NER method is crucial but challenging. In this paper, based on the existing Deterministic Talmudic Public announcement logic (TPK) model, we propose a novel binary tree model (called BTPK) and apply it to two widely used Bi-RNNs to obtain BTPK-based interpretable ones. Then, we design a counterfactual verification module to verify the BTPK-based learning method. Experimental results on three public datasets show that the BTPK-based learning outperform two classical Bi-RNNs with self-attention, especially on small, simple data and relatively large, complex data. Moreover, the counterfactual verification demonstrates that the explanations provided by the BTPK-based learning method are reasonable and accurate in NER tasks. Besides, the logical reasoning based on BTPK shows how Bi-RNNs handle NER tasks, with different distance of public announcements on long and complex sequences. [less ▲]

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See detailEnergy-Efficient Beamforming and Resource Optimization for AmBSC-Assisted Cooperative NOMA IoT Networks
Asif, Muhammad; Ihsan, Asim; Khan, Wali Ullah UL et al

E-print/Working paper (2022)

In this manuscript, we present an energy-efficient alternating optimization framework based on the multi-antenna ambient backscatter communication (AmBSC) assisted cooperative non-orthogonal multiple ... [more ▼]

In this manuscript, we present an energy-efficient alternating optimization framework based on the multi-antenna ambient backscatter communication (AmBSC) assisted cooperative non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) for next-generation (NG) internet-of-things (IoT) enabled communication networks. Specifically, the energy-efficiency maximization is achieved for the considered AmBSC-enabled multi-cluster cooperative IoT NOMA system by optimizing the active-beamforming vector and power-allocation coefficients (PAC) of IoT NOMA users at the transmitter, as well as passive-beamforming vector at the multiantenna assisted backscatter node. Usually, increasing the number of IoT NOMA users in each cluster results in inter-cluster interference (ICI) (among different clusters) and intra-cluster interference (among IoT NOMA users). To combat the impact of ICI, we exploit a zero-forcing (ZF) based active-beamforming, as well as an efficient clustering technique at the source node. Further, the effect of intra-cluster interference is mitigated by exploiting an efficient power-allocation policy that determines the PAC of IoT NOMA users under the quality-of-service (QoS), cooperation, SIC decoding, and power-budget constraints. Moreover, the considered non-convex passive-beamforming problem is transformed into a standard semi-definite programming (SDP) problem by exploiting the successive-convex approximation (SCA) approximation, as well as the difference of convex (DC) programming, where Rank-1 solution of passive-beamforming is obtained based on the penalty-based method. Furthermore, the numerical analysis of simulation results demonstrates that the proposed energy-efficiency maximization algorithm exhibits an efficient performance by achieving convergence within only a few iterations. [less ▲]

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See detailPenalised regression with multiple sources of prior effects
Rauschenberger, Armin UL; Landoulsi, Zied UL; van de Wiel, Mark A. et al

E-print/Working paper (2022)

In many high-dimensional prediction or classification tasks, complementary data on the features are available, e.g. prior biological knowledge on (epi)genetic markers. Here we consider tasks with ... [more ▼]

In many high-dimensional prediction or classification tasks, complementary data on the features are available, e.g. prior biological knowledge on (epi)genetic markers. Here we consider tasks with numerical prior information that provide an insight into the importance (weight) and the direction (sign) of the feature effects, e.g. regression coefficients from previous studies. We propose an approach for integrating multiple sources of such prior information into penalised regression. If suitable co-data are available, this improves the predictive performance, as shown by simulation and application. The proposed method is implemented in the R package `transreg' (https://github.com/lcsb-bds/transreg). [less ▲]

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See detailGraph potentials and symplectic geometry of moduli spaces of vector bundles
Belmans, Pieter UL; Galkin, Sergey; Mukhopadhyay, Swarnava

E-print/Working paper (2022)

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Peer Reviewed
See detailCoulomb drag of viscous electron fluids: drag viscosity and negative drag conductivity
Hasdeo, Eddwi Hesky UL; Idrisov, Edvin; Schmidt, Thomas UL

E-print/Working paper (2022)

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See detailFrom gravity to string topology
Merkoulov (merkulov), Serguei UL

E-print/Working paper (2022)

The chain gravity properad introduced earlier by the author acts on the cyclic Hochschild of any cyclic A∞ algebra equipped with a scalar product of degree −d. In particular, it acts on the cyclic ... [more ▼]

The chain gravity properad introduced earlier by the author acts on the cyclic Hochschild of any cyclic A∞ algebra equipped with a scalar product of degree −d. In particular, it acts on the cyclic Hochschild complex of any Poincare duality algebra of degree d, and that action factors through a quotient dg properad ST3−d of ribbon graphs which is in focus of this paper. We show that its cohomology properad H∙(ST3−d) is highly non-trivial and that it acts canonically on the reduced equivariant homology H¯S1∙(LM) of the loop space LM of any simply connected d-dimensional closed manifold M. By its very construction, the string topology properad H∙(ST3−d) comes equipped with a morphism from the gravity properad which is fully determined by the compactly supported cohomology of the moduli spaces Mg,n of stable algebraic curves of genus g with marked points. This result gives rise to new universal operations in string topology as well as reproduces in a unified way several known constructions: we show that (i) H∙(ST3−d) is also a properad under the properad of involutive Lie bialgebras in degree 3−d whose induced action on H¯S1∙(LM) agrees precisely with the famous purely geometric construction of M. Chas and D. Sullivan, (ii) H∙(ST3−d) is a properad under the properad of homotopy involutive Lie bialgebras in degree 2−d; (iii) E. Getzler's gravity operad injects into H∙(ST3−d) implying a purely algebraic counterpart of the geometric construction of C. Westerland establishing an action of the gravity operad on H¯S1∙(LM). [less ▲]

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See detailHomological projective duality for the Segre cubic
Beckmann, Thorsten; Belmans, Pieter UL

E-print/Working paper (2022)

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See detailOn Leopoldt's and Gross's defects for Artin representations
Maksoud, Alexandre UL

E-print/Working paper (2022)

We generalize Waldschmidt's bound for Leopoldt's defect and prove a similar bound for Gross's defect for an arbitrary extension of number fields. As an application, we prove new cases of the generalized ... [more ▼]

We generalize Waldschmidt's bound for Leopoldt's defect and prove a similar bound for Gross's defect for an arbitrary extension of number fields. As an application, we prove new cases of the generalized Gross conjecture (also known as the Gross-Kuz'min conjecture) beyond the classical abelian case, and we show that Gross's p-adic regulator has at least half of the conjectured rank. We also describe and compute non-cyclotomic analogues of Gross's defect. [less ▲]

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See detailHow good is your Gaussian approximation of the posterior? Finite-sample computable error bounds for a variety of useful divergences
Kasprzak, Mikolaj UL; Giordano, Ryan; Broderick, Tamara

E-print/Working paper (2022)

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See detailA Conjecture of Coleman on the Eisenstein Family
Advocaat, Bryan UL; Kiming, Ian; Wiese, Gabor UL

E-print/Working paper (2022)

We prove for primes $p\ge 5$ a conjecture of Coleman on the analytic continuation of the family of modular functions $\frac{\Es_\k}{V(\Es_\k)}$ derived from the family of Eisenstein series $\Es_\k$. The ... [more ▼]

We prove for primes $p\ge 5$ a conjecture of Coleman on the analytic continuation of the family of modular functions $\frac{\Es_\k}{V(\Es_\k)}$ derived from the family of Eisenstein series $\Es_\k$. The precise, quantitative formulation of the conjecture involved a certain on $p$ depending constant. We show by an example that the conjecture with the constant that Coleman conjectured cannot hold in general for all primes. On the other hand, the constant that we give is also shown not to be optimal in all cases. The conjecture is motivated by its connection to certain central statements in works by Buzzard and Kilford, and by Roe, concerning the ``halo'' conjecture for the primes $2$ and $3$, respectively. We show how our results generalize those statements and comment on possible future developments. [less ▲]

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See detailWeightwise perfectly balanced functions and nonlinearity
Gini, Agnese UL; Meaux, Pierrick UL

E-print/Working paper (2022)

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See detailDickman Approximation of weighted random sums in the Kolmogorov distance
Bhattacharjee, Chinmoy UL; Schulte, Matthias

E-print/Working paper (2022)

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See detailGraph potentials and topological quantum field theories
Belmans, Pieter UL; Galkin, Sergey; Mukhopadhyay, Swarnava

E-print/Working paper (2022)

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See detailAn a posteriori error estimator for the spectral fractional power of the Laplacian
Bulle, Raphaël UL; Barrera, Olga; Bordas, Stéphane UL et al

E-print/Working paper (2022)

We develop a novel a posteriori error estimator for the L2 error committed by the finite ele- ment discretization of the solution of the fractional Laplacian. Our a posteriori error estimator takes ... [more ▼]

We develop a novel a posteriori error estimator for the L2 error committed by the finite ele- ment discretization of the solution of the fractional Laplacian. Our a posteriori error estimator takes advantage of the semi–discretization scheme using a rational approximation which allows to reformulate the fractional problem into a family of non–fractional parametric problems. The estimator involves applying the implicit Bank–Weiser error estimation strategy to each parametric non–fractional problem and reconstructing the fractional error through the same rational approximation used to compute the solution to the original fractional problem. We provide several numerical examples in both two and three-dimensions demonstrating the effectivity of our estimator for varying fractional powers and its ability to drive an adaptive mesh refinement strategy. [less ▲]

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See detailAn archaeal compound as a driver of Parkinson’s disease pathogenesis
Trezzi, Jean-Pierre; Aho, Velma UL; Jäger, Christian UL et al

E-print/Working paper (2022)

Patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) exhibit differences in their gut microbiomes compared to healthy individuals. Although differences have most commonly been described in the abundances of bacterial ... [more ▼]

Patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) exhibit differences in their gut microbiomes compared to healthy individuals. Although differences have most commonly been described in the abundances of bacterial taxa, changes to viral and archaeal populations have also been observed. Mechanistic links between gut microbes and PD pathogenesis remain elusive but could involve molecules that promote α-synuclein aggregation. Here, we show that 2-hydroxypyridine (2-HP) represents a key molecule for the pathogenesis of PD. We observe significantly elevated 2-HP levels in faecal samples from patients with PD or its prodrome, idiopathic REM sleep behaviour disorder (iRBD), compared to healthy controls. 2-HP is correlated with the archaeal species Methanobrevibacter smithii and with genes involved in methane metabolism, and it is detectable in isolate cultures of M. smithii. We demonstrate that 2-HP is selectively toxic to transgenic α-synuclein overexpressing yeast and increases α-synuclein aggregation in a yeast model as well as in human induced pluripotent stem cell derived enteric neurons. It also exacerbates PD-related motor symptoms, α-synuclein aggregation, and striatal degeneration when injected intrastriatally in transgenic mice overexpressing human α-synuclein. Our results highlight the effect of an archaeal molecule in relation to the gut-brain axis, which is critical for the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of PD. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 109 (6 UL)
See detailProjectivity and effective global generation of determinantal line bundles on quiver moduli
Belmans, Pieter UL; Damiolini, Chiara; Franzen, Hans et al

E-print/Working paper (2022)

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See detailDecompositions of moduli spaces of vector bundles and graph potentials
Belmans, Pieter UL; Galkin, Sergey; Mukhopadhyay, Swarnava

E-print/Working paper (2022)

Detailed reference viewed: 20 (0 UL)
See detailTowards a European Social Taxonomy: A Scorecard Approach
Zetzsche, Dirk Andreas UL; Bodellini, Marco UL; Consiglio, Roberta

E-print/Working paper (2022)

Detailed reference viewed: 9 (0 UL)
See detailMeet-in-the-Filter and Dynamic Counting with Applications to Speck
Biryukov, Alexei UL; Cardoso Dos Santos, Luan UL; Teh, Je Sen UL et al

E-print/Working paper (2022)

We propose a new cryptanalytic tool for differential cryptanalysis, called meet-in-the-filter (MiF). It is suitable for ciphers with a slow or incomplete diffusion layer such as the ones based on Addition ... [more ▼]

We propose a new cryptanalytic tool for differential cryptanalysis, called meet-in-the-filter (MiF). It is suitable for ciphers with a slow or incomplete diffusion layer such as the ones based on Addition-Rotation-XOR (ARX). The main idea of the MiF technique is to stop the difference propagation earlier in the cipher, allowing to use differentials with higher probability. This comes at the expense of a deeper analysis phase in the bottom rounds possible due to the slow diffusion of the target cipher. The MiF technique uses a meet-in-the-middle matching to construct differential trails connecting the differential’s output and the ciphertext difference. The proposed trails are used in the key recovery procedure, reducing time complexity and allowing flexible time-data trade-offs. In addition, we show how to combine MiF with a dynamic counting technique for key recovery. We illustrate MiF in practice by reporting improved attacks on the ARXbased family of block ciphers Speck. We improve the time complexities of the best known attacks up to 15 rounds of Speck32 and 20 rounds of Speck64/128. Notably, our new attack on 11 rounds of Speck32 has practical analysis and data complexities of 224.66 and 226.70 respectively, and was experimentally verified, recovering the master key in a matter of seconds. It significantly improves the previous deep learning-based attack by Gohr from CRYPTO 2019, which has time complexity 238. As an important milestone, our conventional cryptanalysis method sets a new high benchmark to beat for cryptanalysis relying on machine learning. [less ▲]

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