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See detailThe mod 2 cohomology rings of congruence subgroups in the Bianchi groups
Berkove, Ethan; Lakeland, Grant; Rahm, Alexander UL

E-print/Working paper (in press)

We provide new tools for the calculation of the torsion in the cohomology of congruence subgroups in the Bianchi groups : An algorithm for finding particularly useful fundamental domains, and an analysis ... [more ▼]

We provide new tools for the calculation of the torsion in the cohomology of congruence subgroups in the Bianchi groups : An algorithm for finding particularly useful fundamental domains, and an analysis of the equivariant spectral sequence combined with torsion subcomplex reduction. [less ▲]

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See detailYolanda von Vianden und das Yolanda-Epos
Sieburg, Heinz UL

E-print/Working paper (in press)

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See detailThe edge-based strain smoothing method for compressible and nearly incompressible non-linear elasticity for solid mechanics
Lee, Chang-Kye; Mihai, L. Angela; Kerfriden, Pierre et al

E-print/Working paper (in press)

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See detailAnalysis and Probing of Parallel Channels in the Lightning Network
Biryukov, Alexei UL; Naumenko, Gleb; Tikhomirov, Sergei UL

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Bitcoin can process only a few transactions per second, which is insufficient for a global payment network. The Lightning Network (LN) aims to address this challenge. The LN allows for low-latency bitcoin ... [more ▼]

Bitcoin can process only a few transactions per second, which is insufficient for a global payment network. The Lightning Network (LN) aims to address this challenge. The LN allows for low-latency bitcoin transfers through a network of payment channels. In contrast to regular Bitcoin transactions, payments in the LN are not globally broadcast. Thus it may improve not only Bitcoin's scalability but also privacy. However, the probing attack allows an adversary to discover channel balances, threatening users' privacy. Prior work on probing did not account for the possibility of multiple (parallel) channels between two nodes. Naive probing algorithms yield false results for parallel channels. In this work, we develop a new probing model that accurately accounts for parallel channels. We describe jamming-enhanced probing that allows for full balance information extraction in multi-channel hops, which was impossible with earlier probing methods. We quantify the attacker's information gain and propose an optimized algorithm for choosing probe amounts for N-channel hops. We demonstrate its efficiency based on real-world data using our own probing-focused LN simulator. Finally, we discuss countermeasures such as new forwarding strategies, intra-hop payment split, rebalancing, and unannounced channels. [less ▲]

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See detailQKD parameter estimation by two-universal hashing leads to faster convergence to the asymptotic rate
Ostrev, Dimiter UL

E-print/Working paper (2021)

This paper proposes and proves security of a QKD protocol which uses two-universal hashing instead of random sampling to estimate the number of bit flip and phase flip errors. For this protocol, the ... [more ▼]

This paper proposes and proves security of a QKD protocol which uses two-universal hashing instead of random sampling to estimate the number of bit flip and phase flip errors. For this protocol, the difference between asymptotic and finite key rate decreases with the number $n$ of qubits as $cn^{-1}$, where $c$ depends on the security parameter. For comparison, the same difference decreases no faster than $c'n^{-1/3}$ for an optimized protocol that uses random sampling and has the same asymptotic rate, where $c'$ depends on the security parameter and the error rate. [less ▲]

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See detailEconomic development, weather shocks and child marriage in South Asia: A machine learning approach
Dietrich, Stephan; Meysonnat, Aline; Rosales, Francisco et al

E-print/Working paper (2021)

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See detailHessian heat kernel estimates and Calderón-Zygmund inequalities on complete Riemannian manifolds
Cao, Jun; Cheng, Li-Juan; Thalmaier, Anton UL

E-print/Working paper (2021)

We address some fundamental questions concerning geometric analysis on Riemannian manifolds. It has been asked whether the Lp-Calderón-Zygmund inequalities extend to a reasonable class of non-compact ... [more ▼]

We address some fundamental questions concerning geometric analysis on Riemannian manifolds. It has been asked whether the Lp-Calderón-Zygmund inequalities extend to a reasonable class of non-compact Riemannian manifolds without the assumption of a positive injectivity radius. In the present paper, we give a positive answer for 1 < p < 2 under the natural assumption of a lower bound on the Ricci curvature. For p > 2, we complement the study in Güneysu-Pigola (2015) and derive sufficient geometric criteria for the validity of the Calderón-Zygmund inequality by adding Kato class bounds on the Riemann curvature tensor and the covariant derivative of Ricci curvature. Probabilistic tools, like Hessian formulas and Bismut type representations for heat semigroups, play a significant role throughout the proofs. [less ▲]

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See detailSome inequalities on Riemannian manifolds linking Entropy, Fisher information, Stein discrepancy and Wasserstein distance
Cheng, Li-Juan; Thalmaier, Anton UL; Wang, Feng-Yu

E-print/Working paper (2021)

For a complete connected Riemannian manifold M let V∊ C^2(M) be such that µ(dx)=exp(-V(x))vol(dx) is a probability measure on M. Taking µ as reference measure, we derive inequalities for probability ... [more ▼]

For a complete connected Riemannian manifold M let V∊ C^2(M) be such that µ(dx)=exp(-V(x))vol(dx) is a probability measure on M. Taking µ as reference measure, we derive inequalities for probability measures on M linking relative entropy, Fisher information, Stein discrepancy and Wasserstein distance. These inequalities strengthen in particular the famous log-Sobolev and transportation-cost inequality and extend the so-called Entropy/Stein-discrepancy/Information (HSI) inequality established by Ledoux, Nourdin and Peccati (2015) for the standard Gaussian measure on Euclidean space to the setting of Riemannian manifolds. [less ▲]

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See detailFrom robust tests to Bayes-like posterior distributions
Baraud, Yannick UL

E-print/Working paper (2021)

In the Bayes paradigm and for a given loss function, we propose the construction of a new type of posterior distributions for estimating the law of an n-sample. The loss functions we have in mind are ... [more ▼]

In the Bayes paradigm and for a given loss function, we propose the construction of a new type of posterior distributions for estimating the law of an n-sample. The loss functions we have in mind are based on the total variation distance, the Hellinger distance as well as some 𝕃j-distances. We prove that, with a probability close to one, this new posterior distribution concentrates its mass in a neighbourhood of the law of the data, for the chosen loss function, provided that this law belongs to the support of the prior or, at least, lies close enough to it. We therefore establish that the new posterior distribution enjoys some robustness properties with respect to a possible misspecification of the prior, or more precisely, its support. For the total variation and squared Hellinger losses, we also show that the posterior distribution keeps its concentration properties when the data are only independent, hence not necessarily i.i.d., provided that most of their marginals are close enough to some probability distribution around which the prior puts enough mass. The posterior distribution is therefore also stable with respect to the equidistribution assumption. We illustrate these results by several applications. We consider the problems of estimating a location parameter or both the location and the scale of a density in a nonparametric framework. Finally, we also tackle the problem of estimating a density, with the squared Hellinger loss, in a high-dimensional parametric model under some sparcity conditions. The results established in this paper are non-asymptotic and provide, as much as possible, explicit constants. [less ▲]

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See detailNo more Piecemeal Tactics
Kafteranis, Dimitrios UL; Robert, Brochhaus

E-print/Working paper (2021)

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See detailAssessing the role of polygenic background on the penetrance of monogenic forms in Parkinson\textquoterights disease. 2021.06.06.21253270
Hassanin, Emadeldin; May, Patrick UL; Aldisi, Rana et al

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Background: Several rare and common variants are associated with Parkinson's disease. However, there is still an incomplete penetrance in the carriers of rare variants associated with Parkinson's disease ... [more ▼]

Background: Several rare and common variants are associated with Parkinson's disease. However, there is still an incomplete penetrance in the carriers of rare variants associated with Parkinson's disease. To address this issue, we investigated whether a PRS calculated from significant GWAS SNPs affects the penetrance of Parkinson's disease among carriers of rare monogenic variants in known Parkinson's disease genes and those with a family history. Methods: We calculated the PRS based on common variants and selected the carriers of rare monogenic variants by using the exome data from UK Biobank. Individuals were divided into three risk categories based on PRS: low (<10%), intermediate (10%-90%), and high (>90%) risk groups. We then compared how PRS affects Parkinson\textquoterights disease risk among carriers of rare monogenic variants and those with family-history. Results: We observed a two-fold higher odds ratio for a carrier of a monogenic variant that had a high PRS (OR 4.07,95\% CI, 1.72-8.08) compared to carriers with a low PRS (OR 1.91, 95\% CI, 0.31-6.05). In the same line, carriers with a first-degree family history and with \>90\% PRS have even a higher risk of developing PD (OR 23.53, 95\%CI 5.39-71.54) compared to those with \<90\% PRS (OR 9.54, 95\% CI 3.32-21.65). Conclusions: Our results show that PRS, carrier status, and family history contribute independently and additively to the Parkinson's disease risk. [less ▲]

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See detailBreast and prostate cancer risk: the interplay of polygenic risk, high-impact monogenic variants, and family history 2021.06.04.21258277
Hassanin, Emadeldin; May, Patrick UL; Aldisi, Rana et al

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Purpose: Investigate to which extent polygenic risk scores (PRS), high-impact monogenic variants, and family history affect breast and prostate cancer risk by assessing cancer prevalence and cancer ... [more ▼]

Purpose: Investigate to which extent polygenic risk scores (PRS), high-impact monogenic variants, and family history affect breast and prostate cancer risk by assessing cancer prevalence and cancer cumulative lifetime incidence. Methods 200,643 individuals from the UK Biobank were stratified as follows: 1. carriers or non-carriers of high impact constitutive, monogenic variants in cancer susceptibility genes, 2. high or non-high PRS (90th percentile threshold), 3. with or without a family history of cancer. Multivariable logistic regression was used to compare the odds ratio (OR) across the different groups while Cox proportional hazards models were used to compute the cumulative incidence through life. Results Breast and prostate cancer cumulative incidence by age 70 is 7 and 5 for non-carriers with non-high PRS and reaches 37 and 32 among carriers of high-impact variants in cancer susceptibility genes with high PRS. The additional presence of family history is associated with a further increase of the risk of developing cancer reaching an OR of 14 and 21 for breast and prostate cancer, respectively. Conclusion: High PRS confers a cancer risk comparable to high-impact monogenic variants. Family history, monogenic variants, and PRS contribute additively to breast and prostate cancer risk. [less ▲]

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See detailThe formal moment map geometry of the space of symplectic connections
La Fuente-Gravy, Laurent UL

E-print/Working paper (2021)

We deform the moment map picture on the space of symplectic connections on a symplectic manifold. To do that, we study a vector bundle of Fedosov star product algebras on the space of symplectic ... [more ▼]

We deform the moment map picture on the space of symplectic connections on a symplectic manifold. To do that, we study a vector bundle of Fedosov star product algebras on the space of symplectic connections. We describe a natural formal connection on this bundle adapted to the star product algebras on the fibers. We study its curvature and show the star product trace of the curvature is a formal symplectic form on the space of symplectic connections. The action of Hamiltonian diffeomorphisms on symplectic connections preserves the formal symplectic structure and we show the star product trace can be interpreted as a formal moment map for this action. Finally, we apply this picture to study automorphisms of star products and Hamiltonian diffeomorphisms. [less ▲]

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See detailInsider’s problem in the trinomial model: a discrete jump process point of view
Halconruy, Hélène UL

E-print/Working paper (2021)

In an incomplete market underpinned by the trinomial model, we consider two investors: an ordinary agent whose decisions are driven by public information and an insider who possesses from the beginning a ... [more ▼]

In an incomplete market underpinned by the trinomial model, we consider two investors: an ordinary agent whose decisions are driven by public information and an insider who possesses from the beginning a surplus of information encoded through a random variable for which he or she knows the outcome. Through the definition of an auxiliary model based on a marked binomial process, we handle the trinomial model as a volatility one, and use the stochastic analysis and Malliavin calculus toolboxes available in that context. In particular, we connect the information drift, i.e. the drift to eliminate in order to preserve the martingale property within an initial enlargement of filtration in terms of Malliavin’s derivative. We solve explicitly the agent and the insider expected logarithmic utility maximization problems and provide a Ocone-Karatzas type formula for replicable claims. We identify insider’s expected additional utility with the Shannon entropy of the extra information, and examine then the existence of arbitrage opportunities for the insider. [less ▲]

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See detailThe good, the bad, and the asymmetric: Evidence from a new conditional density model
Kostyrka, Andreï UL; Malakhov, Dmitry

E-print/Working paper (2021)

We propose a novel univariate conditional density model and decompose asset returns into a sum of copula-connected unobserved ‘good’ and ‘bad’ shocks. The novelty of this approach comes from two factors ... [more ▼]

We propose a novel univariate conditional density model and decompose asset returns into a sum of copula-connected unobserved ‘good’ and ‘bad’ shocks. The novelty of this approach comes from two factors: we explicitly model correlation between unobserved shocks and allow for the presence of copula-connected discrete jumps. The proposed framework is very flexible and subsumes other models, such as ‘bad environments, good environments’. Our model shows certain hidden characteristics of returns, explains investors’ behaviour in greater detail, and yields better forecasts of risk measures. The in-sample and out-of-sample performance of our model is better than that of 40 popular GARCH variants. A Monte-Carlo simulation shows that the proposed model recovers the structural parameters of the unobserved dynamics. We estimate the model on S&P 500 data and find that time-dependent non-negative covariance between ‘good’ and ‘bad’ shocks with a leverage-like effect is an important component of total variance. Asymmetric reaction to shocks is present almost in all characteristics of returns. Conditional distribution of seems to be very time-dependent with skewness both in the centre and tails. We conclude that continuous shocks are more important than discrete jumps at least at daily frequency. [less ▲]

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See detailHeterozygous variants in KCNC2 cause a broad spectrum of epilepsy phenotypes associated with characteristic functional alterations 2021.05.21.21257099
Schwarz, Niklas; Seiffert, Simone; Pendziwiat, Manuela et al

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Background KCNC2 encodes a member of the shaw-related voltage-gated potassium channel family (KV3.2), which are important for sustained high-frequency firing and optimized energy efficiency of action ... [more ▼]

Background KCNC2 encodes a member of the shaw-related voltage-gated potassium channel family (KV3.2), which are important for sustained high-frequency firing and optimized energy efficiency of action potentials in the brain.Methods Individuals with KCNC2 variants detected by exome sequencing were selected for clinical, further genetic and functional analysis. The cases were referred through clinical and research collaborations in our study. Four de novo variants were examined electrophysiologically in Xenopus laevis oocytes.Results We identified novel KCNC2 variants in 27 patients with various forms of epilepsy. Functional analysis demonstrated gain-of-function in severe and loss-of-function in milder phenotypes as the underlying pathomechanisms with specific response to valproic acid.Conclusion These findings implicate KCNC2 as a novel causative gene for epilepsy emphasizing the critical role of KV3.2 in the regulation of brain excitability with an interesting genotype-phenotype correlation and a potential concept for precision medicine. [less ▲]

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See detailAggregated hold-out for sparse linear regression with a robust loss function
Maillard, Guillaume UL

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Sparse linear regression methods generally have a free hyperparameter which controls the amount of sparsity, and is subject to a bias-variance tradeoff. This article considers the use of Aggregated hold ... [more ▼]

Sparse linear regression methods generally have a free hyperparameter which controls the amount of sparsity, and is subject to a bias-variance tradeoff. This article considers the use of Aggregated hold-out to aggregate over values of this hyperparameter, in the context of linear regression with the Huber loss function. Aggregated hold-out (Agghoo) is a procedure which averages estimators selected by hold-out (cross-validation with a single split). In the theoretical part of the article, it is proved that Agghoo satisfies a non-asymptotic oracle inequality when it is applied to sparse estimators which are parametrized by their zero-norm. In particular, this includes a variant of the Lasso introduced by Zou, Hastié and Tibshirani \cite{Zou_Has_Tib:2007}. Simulations are used to compare Agghoo with cross-validation. They show that Agghoo performs better than CV when the intrinsic dimension is high and when there are confounders correlated with the predictive covariates. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of TPMS Signal Propagation in a Heavy Commercial Vehicle Environement
Rida, Ahmad UL; Ridha, Soua; Engel, Thomas UL

E-print/Working paper (2021)

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See detailLoss of function variants in the KCNQ5 gene are associated with genetic generalized epilepsies
Krueger, Johanna; Schubert, Julian; Kegele, Josua et al

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Objective: De novo missense variants in KCNQ5, encoding the voltage gated K+ channel KV7.5, have been described as a cause of developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE) or intellectual disability ... [more ▼]

Objective: De novo missense variants in KCNQ5, encoding the voltage gated K+ channel KV7.5, have been described as a cause of developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE) or intellectual disability (ID). We set out to identify disease-related KCNQ5 variants in genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE) and their underlying mechanisms. Methods: 1292 families with GGE were studied by next-generation sequencing. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings, biotinylation and phospholipid overlay assays were performed in mammalian cells combined with docking and homology modeling. Results: We identified three deleterious heterozygous missense variants, one truncation and one splice site alteration in five independent families with GGE with predominant absence seizures, two variants were also associated with mild to moderate ID. All three missense variants displayed a strongly decreased current density indicating a loss-of-function (LOF). When mutant channels were co-expressed with wild-type (WT) KV7.5 or KV7.5 and KV7.3 channels, three variants also revealed a significant dominant-negative effect on WT channels. Other gating parameters were unchanged. Biotinylation assays indicated a normal surface expression of the variants. The p.Arg359Cys variant altered PI(4,5)P2-interaction, presumably in the non-conducting preopen-closed state. Interpretation: Our study indicates that specific deleterious KCNQ5 variants are associated with GGE, partially combined with mild to moderate ID. The disease mechanism is a LOF partially with dominant-negative effects through functional, rather than trafficking deficits. LOF of KV7.5 channels will reduce the M-current, likely resulting in increased excitability of KV7.5-expressing neurons. Further studies on a network level are necessary to understand which circuits are affected and how the variants induce generalized seizures. [less ▲]

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See detailUltra-rare constrained missense variants in the epilepsies: Shared and specific enrichment patterns in neuronal gene-sets 2021.04.18.440264
Koko, Mahmoud; Krause, Roland UL; Sander, Thomas et al

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Background: Burden analysis in epilepsy has shown an excess of deleterious ultra-rare variants (URVs) in few gene-sets, such as known epilepsy genes, constrained genes, ion channel or GABAA receptor genes ... [more ▼]

Background: Burden analysis in epilepsy has shown an excess of deleterious ultra-rare variants (URVs) in few gene-sets, such as known epilepsy genes, constrained genes, ion channel or GABAA receptor genes. We set out to investigate the burden of URVs in a comprehensive range of gene-sets presumed to be implicated in epileptogenesis. Methods: We investigated several constraint and conservation-based strategies to study whole exome sequencing data from European individuals with developmental and epileptic encephalopathies (DEE, n = 1,003), genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE, n = 3,064), and non-acquired focal epilepsy (NAFE, n = 3,522), collected by the Epi25 Collaborative, compared to 3,962 ancestry-matched controls. The burden of 12 URVs types in 92 gene-sets was compared between epilepsy cases (DDE, GGE, NAFE) and controls using logistic regression analysis. Results: Burden analysis of brain-expressed genes revealed an excess of different URVs types in all three epilepsy categories which was largest for constrained missense variants. The URVs burden was prominent in neuron-specific, synaptic and developmental genes as well as genes encoding ion channels and receptors, and it was generally higher for DEE and GGE compared to NAFE. The patterns of URVs burden in gene-sets expressed in inhibitory vs. excitatory neurons or receptors suggested a high burden in both in DEE but a differential involvement of inhibitory genes in GGE, while excitatory genes were predominantly affected in NAFE. Top ranking susceptibility genes from a recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) of generalized and focal epilepsies displayed a higher URVs burden in constrained coding regions in GGE and NAFE, respectively. Conclusions: Using exome-based gene-set burden analysis, we demonstrate that missense URVs affecting mainly constrained sites are enriched in neuronal genes in both common and rare severe epilepsy syndromes. Our results indicate a differential impact of these URVs in genes expressed in inhibitory vs. excitatory neurons and receptors in generalized vs. focal epilepsies. The excess of URVs in top-ranking GWAS risk-genes suggests a convergence of rare deleterious and common risk-variants in the pathogenesis of generalized and focal epilepsies. [less ▲]

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See detailLes langues dans les offres d'emploi au Luxembourg (1984-2019)
Pigeron-Piroth, Isabelle UL; Fehlen, Fernand UL

E-print/Working paper (2021)

À partir d’un échantillon d’offres d’emploi publiées dans le Luxemburger Wort, portant sur la période 1984-2019, cette étude décrit l’évolution des compétences linguistiques exigées ou souhaitées sur le ... [more ▼]

À partir d’un échantillon d’offres d’emploi publiées dans le Luxemburger Wort, portant sur la période 1984-2019, cette étude décrit l’évolution des compétences linguistiques exigées ou souhaitées sur le marché du travail du Luxembourg. Après une présentation contextuelle de la situation linguistique et de l’emploi au Luxembourg, l’analyse empirique des quelques 8 340 offres d’emploi de notre échantillon constitue le cœur de cette publication. Aux divers tableaux et graphiques illustrant notre propos s’ajoutent des décryptages de la sémantique utilisée dans les offres d’emploi publiées, utiles à la compréhension des besoins linguistiques dans un marché du travail plurilingue et international. [less ▲]

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See detailMalliavin calculus for marked binomial processes: portfolio optimisation in the trinomial model and compound Poisson approximation
Halconruy, Hélène UL

E-print/Working paper (2021)

In this paper we develop a stochastic analysis for marked binomial processes, that can be viewed as the discrete analogues of marked Poisson processes. The starting point is the statement of a chaotic ... [more ▼]

In this paper we develop a stochastic analysis for marked binomial processes, that can be viewed as the discrete analogues of marked Poisson processes. The starting point is the statement of a chaotic expansion for square-integrable (marked binomial) functionals, prior to the elaboration of a Markov-Malliavin structure within this framework. We take advantage of the new formalism to deal with two main applications. First, we revisit the Chen-Stein method for the (compound) Poisson approximation which we perform in the paradigm of the built Markov-Malliavin structure, before studying in the second one the problem of portfolio optimisation in the trinomial model. [less ▲]

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See detailGenotype-phenotype correlations in SCN8A-related disorders reveal prognostic and therapeutic implications
Johannesen, Katrine M.; Liu, Yuanyuan; Gjerulfsen, Cathrine E. et al

E-print/Working paper (2021)

We report detailed functional analyses and genotype-phenotype correlations in 433 individuals carrying disease-causing variants in SCN8A, encoding the voltage-gated Na+ channel NaV1.6. Five different ... [more ▼]

We report detailed functional analyses and genotype-phenotype correlations in 433 individuals carrying disease-causing variants in SCN8A, encoding the voltage-gated Na+ channel NaV1.6. Five different clinical subgroups could be identified: 1) Benign familial infantile epilepsy (BFIE) (n=17, normal cognition, treatable seizures), 2) intermediate epilepsy (n=36, mild ID, partially pharmacoresponsive), 3) developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE, n=191, severe ID, majority pharmacoresistant), 4) generalized epilepsy (n=21, mild to moderate ID, frequently with absence seizures), and 5) affected individuals without epilepsy (n=25, mild to moderate ID). Groups 1-3 presented with early-onset (median: four months) focal or multifocal seizures and epileptic discharges, whereas the onset of seizures in group 4 was later (median: 39 months) with generalized epileptic discharges. The epilepsy was not classifiable in 143 individuals. We performed functional studies expressing missense variants in ND7/23 neuroblastoma cells and primary neuronal cultures using recombinant tetrodotoxin insensitive human NaV1.6 channels and whole-cell patch clamping. Two variants causing DEE showed a strong gain-of-function (GOF, hyperpolarising shift of steady-state activation, strongly increased neuronal firing rate), and one variant causing BFIE or intermediate epilepsy showed a mild GOF (defective fast inactivation, less increased firing). In contrast, all three variants causing generalized epilepsy induced a loss-of-function (LOF, reduced current amplitudes, depolarising shift of steady-state activation, reduced neuronal firing). Including previous studies, functional effects were known for 165 individuals. All 133 individuals carrying GOF variants had either focal (76, groups 1-3), or unclassifiable epilepsy (37), whereas 32 with LOF variants had either generalized (14), no (11) or unclassifiable (5) epilepsy; only two had DEE. Computational modeling in the GOF group revealed a significant correlation between the severity of the electrophysiological and clinical phenotypes. GOF variant carriers responded significantly better to sodium channel blockers (SCBs) than to other anti-seizure medications, and the same applied for all individuals of groups 1-3.In conclusion, our data reveal clear genotype-phenotype correlations between age at seizure onset, type of epilepsy and gain- or loss-of-function effects of SCN8A variants. Generalized epilepsy with absence seizures is the main epilepsy phenotype of LOF variant carriers and the extent of the electrophysiological dysfunction of the GOF variants is a main determinant of the severity of the clinical phenotype in focal epilepsies. Our pharmacological data indicate that SCBs present a therapeutic treatment option in early onset SCN8A-related focal epilepsy. [less ▲]

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See detailSustainable Finance Law: The EU Paradigm and the Way Forward
Alexandraki, Chrysa UL

E-print/Working paper (2021)

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See detailAdaptively Secure Laconic Function Evaluation for NC1
Agrawal, Shweta; Rosie, Razvan UL

E-print/Working paper (2021)

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See detailDigitalisierung von Schule und Digitalisierung im Unterricht
Harion, Dominic UL; Pause, Johannes UL

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Detailed reference viewed: 75 (7 UL)
See detailDemocratic Legitimacy of the Single Resolution Board: Is Legality the Right Question?
Mendes, Joana UL

E-print/Working paper (2021)

The choice to entrust EU banking resolution to an independent body opened the familiar democratic legitimacy conundrum that besets independent institutions in national and in EU law. This paper examines ... [more ▼]

The choice to entrust EU banking resolution to an independent body opened the familiar democratic legitimacy conundrum that besets independent institutions in national and in EU law. This paper examines both the conventional view on the relationship between legality control and democratic legitimacy, that the German Federal Constitutional Court endorsed in its SSM/SRM judgment, and the limits of such conception. Conceived as a “compensatory measure”, legal protection through judicial review and internal administrative review enables the Court to bring independent institutions within the (national) constitutional framework that they strain. Law’s binding character becomes a matter of ensuring not only the rule of law but also democracy. Yet, even detailed legal mandates cannot preclude administrative bodies to define the way law is completed and concretised. While the Court does not adhere to a ‘transmission-belt model’ of administrations, not surprisingly – as a court deciding on democratic legitimacy – it falls short of recognising that legality can do very little to ground the democratic legitimacy of fundamental political choices, such as those entrusted to the Single Resolution Board. [less ▲]

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See detailPublic Covid-19 X-ray datasets and their impact on model bias - a systematic review of a significant problem
Garcia Santa Cruz, Beatriz UL; Bossa, Matias Nicolas UL; Sölter, Jan UL et al

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Computer-aided-diagnosis for COVID-19 based on chest X-ray suffers from weak bias assessment and limited quality-control. Undetected bias induced by inappropriate use of datasets, and improper ... [more ▼]

Computer-aided-diagnosis for COVID-19 based on chest X-ray suffers from weak bias assessment and limited quality-control. Undetected bias induced by inappropriate use of datasets, and improper consideration of confounders prevents the translation of prediction models into clinical practice. This study provides a systematic evaluation of publicly available COVID-19 chest X-ray datasets, determining their potential use and evaluating potential sources of bias. Only 5 out of 256 identified datasets met at least the criteria for proper assessment of risk of bias and could be analysed in detail. Remarkably almost all of the datasets utilised in 78 papers published in peer-reviewed journals, are not among these 5 datasets, thus leading to models with high risk of bias. This raises concerns about the suitability of such models for clinical use. This systematic review highlights the limited description of datasets employed for modelling and aids researchers to select the most suitable datasets for their task. [less ▲]

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See detailAssange’s Extradition: Status Pending
Kafteranis, Dimitrios UL; Andreadakis, Stelios

E-print/Working paper (2021)

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See detailIntroducing the COVID-19 crisis Special Education Needs Coping Survey
Dukes, Daniel; Van Herwegen, Jo; Alessandri, Michael et al

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Individuals with special education needs have been particularly affected by the COVID-19 pandemic as they have been shown to be at high risk of losing medical and institutional support at a time when ... [more ▼]

Individuals with special education needs have been particularly affected by the COVID-19 pandemic as they have been shown to be at high risk of losing medical and institutional support at a time when people are being asked to stay isolated, suffering increased anxiety and depression as a consequence. Their families have often found themselves under tremendous pressure to provide support, engendering financial hardship, and physical and emotional strains. In such times, it is vital that international collaborations assess the impact on the individuals and their families, affording the opportunity to make national and international comparisons of how people have coped and what needs to be done to optimize the measures taken by families, associations and governments. This paper introduces one such collaboration. [less ▲]

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See detailCloturing Deliberation
Anesi, Vincent UL; Safronov, Mikhail

E-print/Working paper (2021)

We study how the institutional arrangements for ending deliberation --- the "cloture rules" --- interact with collective learning to affect the outcomes of decision making in committees. In contrast to ... [more ▼]

We study how the institutional arrangements for ending deliberation --- the "cloture rules" --- interact with collective learning to affect the outcomes of decision making in committees. In contrast to much of the previous literature on deliberative commit tees, this paper makes a distinction between the final votes over policy proposals and the cloture votes that bring them about. Using this approach, we explore how cloture rules influence the course of deliberation, the likelihood of inefficient deliberative outcomes, the circumstances surrounding failures to bring proposals to a final vote, and the distribution of power among committee members in the deliberative process. We also use our simple model to examine the issue of the stability of cloture rules, characterizing the rules that no coalition of committee members is able or willing to overturn. We show in particular that all cloture rules are dynamically stable. [less ▲]

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See detailLooking for the `Best and Brightest': Hiring difficulties and high-skilled foreign workers
Raux, Morgan UL

E-print/Working paper (2021)

This paper studies the complementarity between domestic and foreign skilled workers. It develops a simple model where employers seek to recruit a foreign worker when finding domestic workers takes more ... [more ▼]

This paper studies the complementarity between domestic and foreign skilled workers. It develops a simple model where employers seek to recruit a foreign worker when finding domestic workers takes more time. This paper confirms the predictions of the model. I rely on a within-firm within-occupation identification strategy to compare recruitment decisions made by a given employer for similar positions that differ in job posting duration. To identify this relationship, I have collected and assembled a new and original dataset at the job level. I match online job postings to administrative data on labor condition applications (LCAs) submitted as the first step in applying for H-1B temporary skilled worker visas. I find that employers are 28 percent more likely to submit an LCA when the job posting duration is one standard deviation longer. I provide evidence suggesting that this phenomenon is due to insufficient domestic labor supply in these occupations. [less ▲]

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See detailHierarchical a posteriori error estimation of Bank-Weiser type in the FEniCS Project
Bulle, Raphaël UL; Hale, Jack UL; Lozinski, Alexei et al

E-print/Working paper (2021)

In the seminal paper of Bank and Weiser [Math. Comp., 44 (1985), pp.283-301] a new a posteriori estimator was introduced. This estimator requires the solution of a local Neumann problem on every cell of ... [more ▼]

In the seminal paper of Bank and Weiser [Math. Comp., 44 (1985), pp.283-301] a new a posteriori estimator was introduced. This estimator requires the solution of a local Neumann problem on every cell of the finite element mesh. Despite the promise of Bank-Weiser type estimators, namely locality, computational efficiency, and asymptotic sharpness, they have seen little use in practical computational problems. The focus of this contribution is to describe a novel implementation of hierarchical estimators of the Bank-Weiser type in a modern high-level finite element software with automatic code generation capabilities. We show how to use the estimator to drive (goal-oriented) adaptive mesh refinement and to mixed approximations of the nearly-incompressible elasticity problems. We provide comparisons with various other used estimators. An open-source implementation based on the FEniCS Project finite element software is provided as supplementary material. [less ▲]

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See detailWhich Factors Play a Role in Coco Issuance? Evidence from European Banks.
Wolff, Christian UL

E-print/Working paper (2021)

This paper explores empirically the reasons why some banks issue Contingent Convertible Bonds while others do not. For this purpose we use a binary logistic model and control for the determinants ... [more ▼]

This paper explores empirically the reasons why some banks issue Contingent Convertible Bonds while others do not. For this purpose we use a binary logistic model and control for the determinants suggested by the literature on optimal capital structure which considers four drivers of capital structure: corporate taxes, costs of financial distress, agency costs and asymmetric information.. Our findings suggest that the banks with bigger size and those with higher Tier 1 capital, higher net loans, higher wholesale funding, lower level of leverage and lower risk weighted assets have a higher tendency to issue CoCos. Our results also suggest that banks in countries with higher annual growth rate of GDP per capita and those listed as G-SIBs are more likely to issue CoCos. [less ▲]

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See detailAddressing Hate Speech with Data Science: An Overview from Computer Science Perspective
Lenzini, Gabriele UL; Srba; Pikuliak, Matus et al

E-print/Working paper (2021)

From a computer science perspective, addressing on-line hate speech is a challenging task that is attracting the attention of both industry (mainly social media platform owners) and academia. In this ... [more ▼]

From a computer science perspective, addressing on-line hate speech is a challenging task that is attracting the attention of both industry (mainly social media platform owners) and academia. In this chapter, we provide an overview of state-of-the-art data-science approaches - how they define hate speech, which tasks they solve to mitigate the phenomenon, and how they address these tasks. We limit our investigation mostly to (semi-)automatic detection of hate speech, which is the task that the majority of existing computer science works focus on. Finally, we summarize the challenges and the open problems in the current data-science research and the future directions in this field. Our aim is to prepare an easily understandable report, capable to promote the multidisciplinary character of hate speech research. Researchers from other domains (e.g., psychology and sociology) can thus take advantage of the knowledge achieved in the computer science domain but also contribute back and help improve how computer science is addressing that urgent an d socially relevant issue which is the prevalence of hate speech in social media. [less ▲]

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See detailPanic? Probing Angst over Immigration and Crime
Mahe, Clotilde UL; Parra-Cely, Sergio

E-print/Working paper (2021)

We examine empirically whether immigration affects crime in an emerging country, Ecuador. We exploit the fact that immigration flows of Venezuelans suddenly evolved from voluntary to forced, and occurred ... [more ▼]

We examine empirically whether immigration affects crime in an emerging country, Ecuador. We exploit the fact that immigration flows of Venezuelans suddenly evolved from voluntary to forced, and occurred disproportionately along land borders. We use nationally representative administrative and survey data to precisely estimate an economically null effect of Venezuelan immigration on property and violent crime. We also show that natives are more likely to believe that immigration worsens the economy, despite clear evidence of negative labour market impact due to recent Venezuelan inflows. Results confirm that fears over immigration and crime are not necessarily supported by facts. [less ▲]

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See detailCultural differences and immigrants' wages
Raux, Morgan UL

E-print/Working paper (2021)

In this paper, I investigate how cultural differences affect the labor-market performance of immigrant workers in Germany. I document a negative relationship between hourly wages and the cultural distance ... [more ▼]

In this paper, I investigate how cultural differences affect the labor-market performance of immigrant workers in Germany. I document a negative relationship between hourly wages and the cultural distance between immigrants' countries of origin and Germany. This result is robust across the three main indicators used in the gravity literature: linguistic, religious, and genetic distances. This cultural wage penalty disappears after five to ten years spent in Germany. Controlling for language proficiency as well as for selective in- and out-migration, these results highlight the cultural integration of immigrant workers. I finally provide evidence suggesting that lower wage progression may be explained by fewer job-to-job transitions. [less ▲]

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Peer Reviewed
See detailA Robustness Check to Multiple Overlapping Deprivation Analysis (MODA) Methodology: The Case of Nigeria
Fagbeja, Teju; Cebotari, Victor UL

E-print/Working paper (2021)

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See detailSchool-Related Violence in Latin America and the Caribbean: Building an Evidence Base for Stronger Schools
Chávez, Cirenia; Cebotari, Victor UL; José Benítez, Maria et al

E-print/Working paper (2021)

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See detailhttps://arxiv.org/abs/2101.07083
El Emam, Christian UL; Seppi, Andrea

E-print/Working paper (2021)

We prove that any minimal Lagrangian diffeomorphism between two closed spherical surfaces with cone singularities is an isometry, without any assumption on the multiangles of the two surfaces. As an ... [more ▼]

We prove that any minimal Lagrangian diffeomorphism between two closed spherical surfaces with cone singularities is an isometry, without any assumption on the multiangles of the two surfaces. As an application, we show that every branched immersion of a closed surface of constant positive Gaussian curvature in Euclidean three-space is a branched covering onto a round sphere, thus generalizing the classical rigidity theorem of Liebmann to branched immersions. [less ▲]

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See detailPestepidemien in Luxemburg
Pauly, Michel UL

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Detailed reference viewed: 75 (0 UL)
See detailThe Value of Coordination in Multimarket Bidding of Grid Energy Storage
Löhndorf, Nils UL

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Detailed reference viewed: 80 (18 UL)
See detailOn the Weyl problem for complete surfaces in the hyperbolic and anti-de Sitter spaces
Schlenker, Jean-Marc UL

E-print/Working paper (2021)

The classical Weyl problem (solved by Lewy, Alexandrov, Pogorelov, and others) asks whether any metric of curvature K≥0 on the sphere is induced on the boundary of a unique convex body in $\R^3$. The ... [more ▼]

The classical Weyl problem (solved by Lewy, Alexandrov, Pogorelov, and others) asks whether any metric of curvature K≥0 on the sphere is induced on the boundary of a unique convex body in $\R^3$. The answer was extended to surfaces in hyperbolic space by Alexandrov in the 1950s, and a ``dual'' statement, describing convex bodies in terms of the third fundamental form of their boundary (e.g. their dihedral angles, for an ideal polyhedron) was later proved. We describe three conjectural generalizations of the Weyl problem in $\HH^3$ and its dual to unbounded convex subsets and convex surfaces, in ways that are relevant to contemporary geometry since a number of recent results and well-known open problems can be considered as special cases. One focus is on convex domain having a ``thin'' asymptotic boundary, for instance a quasicircle -- this part of the problem is strongly related to the theory of Kleinian groups. A second direction is towards convex subsets with a ``thick'' ideal boundary, for instance a disjoint union of disks -- here one find connections to problems in complex analysis, such as the Koebe circle domain conjecture. A third direction is towards complete, convex disks of infinite area in $\HH^3$ and surfaces in hyperbolic ends -- with connections to questions on circle packings or grafting on the hyperbolic disk. Similar statements are proposed in anti-de Sitter geometry, a Lorentzian cousin of hyperbolic geometry where interesting new phenomena can occur, and in Minkowski and Half-pipe geometry. We also collect some partial new results mostly based on recent works. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimal convergence rates for the invariant density estimation of jump-diffusion processes
Amorino, Chiara UL; Nualart, Eulalia

E-print/Working paper (2021)

We aim at estimating the invariant density associated to a stochastic differential equation with jumps in low dimension, which is for d = 1 and d = 2. We consider a class of jump diffusion processes whose ... [more ▼]

We aim at estimating the invariant density associated to a stochastic differential equation with jumps in low dimension, which is for d = 1 and d = 2. We consider a class of jump diffusion processes whose invariant density belongs to some Hölder space. Firstly, in dimension one, we show that the kernel density estimator achieves the convergence rate 1/T, which is the optimal rate in the absence of jumps. This improves the convergence rate obtained in [Amorino, Gloter (2021)], which depends on the Blumenthal-Getoor index for d = 1 and is equal to log T/T for d = 2. Secondly, we show that is not possible to find an estimator with faster rates of estimation. Indeed, we get some lower bounds with the same rates { 1/T , log T/T } in the mono and bi-dimensional cases, respectively. Finally, we obtain the asymptotic normality of the estimator in the one-dimensional case. [less ▲]

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See detailNonparametric needlet estimation for partial derivatives of a probability density function on the d-torus
Durastanti, Claudio; Turchi, Nicola UL

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Detailed reference viewed: 39 (0 UL)
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See detailIndeterminacies and models of homotopy limits
Govzmann, Alisa UL; Pistalo, Damjan UL; Poncin, Norbert UL

E-print/Working paper (2021)

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See detailThe role of score and information bias in panel data likelihoods
Schumann, Martin; Severini, Thomas A.; Tripathi, Gautam UL

E-print/Working paper (2021)

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See detailA new approach to model categorical homotopy fiber sequences
Govzmann, Alisa UL; Pistalo, Damjan UL; Poncin, Norbert UL

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Detailed reference viewed: 61 (0 UL)
See detailOptical properties of topological flat and dispersive bands
Habibi, Alireza UL; Musthofa, Ahmad Z.; Adibi, Elaheh et al

E-print/Working paper (2021)

We study the optical properties of topological flat and dispersive bands. Due to their topological nature, there exists an anomalous Hall response which gives rise to a transverse current without applied ... [more ▼]

We study the optical properties of topological flat and dispersive bands. Due to their topological nature, there exists an anomalous Hall response which gives rise to a transverse current without applied magnetic field. The dynamical Hall conductivity of systems with flat bands exhibits a sign change when the excitation energy is on resonance with the band gap, similar to the magnetotransport Hall conductivity profile. The sign change of the Hall conductivity is located at the frequency corresponding to the singularity of the joint density of states, i.e., the van Hove singularity (VHS). For perfectly flat bands, this VHS energy matches the band gap. On the other hand, in the case of dispersive bands, the VHS energy is located above the band gap. As a result, the two features of the Hall conductivity, i.e., the resonant feature at the band gap and the sign change at the VHS energy, become separated. This anomalous Hall response rotates the polarization of an electric field and can be detected in the reflected and transmitted waves, as Kerr and Faraday rotations, respectively, thus allowing a simple optical characterization of topological flat bands. [less ▲]

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See detailInnovation in Malmö after the Öresund Bridge
Ejermo, Olof; Hussinger, Katrin UL; Kalash, Basheer et al

E-print/Working paper (2021)

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See detailInternationalisation (at Home) of the Non-Mobile Youth in Europe outside formal Education
Nienaber, Birte UL; Díaz-Catalán, Celia; Kmiotek, Emilia Alicja UL et al

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Mobility is often mentioned as one main aspect of “internationalisation”. However, little is known about the internationalisation at home of non-mobile young people outside formal higher education. In the ... [more ▼]

Mobility is often mentioned as one main aspect of “internationalisation”. However, little is known about the internationalisation at home of non-mobile young people outside formal higher education. In the post- COVID19- era, mobility might remain limited and immobility becomes the rule. Therefore, internationalisation at home plays an important role in times of restricted mobility. To what extent are non-mobile people internationalised? Which factors favour this internationalisation amongst the non-mobiles? We develop a comprehensive index which empirically tests whether and to what extent non-mobiles, become internationalised at home. The answers of 3431 non-mobiles respondents be-tween 18 and 29 years old from six EU countries are analysed. First, we review the concept “internationalisation at home”. We present an empirical measure of internationalisation at home consisting of three dimensions 1) foreign language skills i.e. Eng-lish; 2) multicultural way of living; 3) information about foreign countries. Linear regression models are used to empirically explain which factors influence the internationalisation at home of the non-mobiles on the individual level, using their socio-demographic and social embed-dedness, as well as controlling for the country level. [less ▲]

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See detailGaussian fluctuation for Gaussian Wishart matrices of overall correlation
Nourdin, Ivan UL; Pu, Fei

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Detailed reference viewed: 35 (1 UL)
See detailPhase transitions and noise sensitivity on the Poisson space via stopping sets and decision trees
Last, Guenter; Peccati, Giovanni UL; Yogeshwaran, Dhandapani

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Detailed reference viewed: 34 (5 UL)
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See detailRedefining resilience: Integrative review and development of an assessment tool
Mantin, Binyamin UL

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Detailed reference viewed: 76 (12 UL)
See detailGaussian approximation for sums of region-stabilizing scores
Bhattacharjee, Chinmoy UL; Molchanov, Ilya

E-print/Working paper (2021)

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See detailAll in one stroke? Intervention Spaces for Dark Patterns
Rossi, Arianna UL; Bongard, Kerstin UL

E-print/Working paper (2021)

This position paper draws from the complexity of dark patterns to develop arguments for differentiated interventions. We propose a matrix of interventions with a \textit{measure axis} (from user-directed ... [more ▼]

This position paper draws from the complexity of dark patterns to develop arguments for differentiated interventions. We propose a matrix of interventions with a \textit{measure axis} (from user-directed to environment-directed) and a \textit{scope axis} (from general to specific). We furthermore discuss a set of interventions situated in different fields of the intervention spaces. The discussions at the 2021 CHI workshop "What can CHI do about dark patterns?" should help hone the matrix structure and fill its fields with specific intervention proposals. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 84 (6 UL)
See detailObserving Many Researchers Using the Same Data and Hypothesis Reveals a Hidden Universe of Uncertainty
Breznau, Nate; Rinke, Eike Mark; Wuttke, Alexander et al

E-print/Working paper (2021)

How does noise generated by researcher decisions undermine the credibility of science? We test this by observing all decisions made among 73 research teams as they independently conduct studies on the ... [more ▼]

How does noise generated by researcher decisions undermine the credibility of science? We test this by observing all decisions made among 73 research teams as they independently conduct studies on the same hypothesis with identical starting data. We find excessive variation of outcomes. When combined, the 107 observed research decisions taken across teams explained at most 2.6 of the total variance in effect sizes and 10 of the deviance in subjective conclusions. Expertise, prior beliefs and attitudes of the researchers explain even less. Each model deployed to test the hypothesis was unique, which highlights a vast universe of research design variability that is normally hidden from view and suggests humility when presenting and interpreting scientific findings. [less ▲]

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See detailUncertainty-driven symmetry-breaking and stochastic stability in a generic differential game of lobbying
Boucekkine, Raouf; Prieur, Fabien; Ruan, Weihua et al

E-print/Working paper (2021)

We study a 2-players stochastic differential game of lobbying. Players have opposite interests; at any date, each player invests in lobbying activities to alter the legislation, the continuous state ... [more ▼]

We study a 2-players stochastic differential game of lobbying. Players have opposite interests; at any date, each player invests in lobbying activities to alter the legislation, the continuous state variable of the game, in her own benefit. The payoffs are quadratic and uncertainty is driven by a Wiener process. We prove that while a symmetric Markov Perfect Equilibrium (MPE) always exists, (two) asymmetric MPE only emerge when uncertainty is large enough. In the latter case, the legislative state converges to a stationary invariant distribution. We fully characterize existence and stochastic stability of the legislative state for both types of MPE. We finally study the implications for rent dissipation asymptotically. We show in particular that while the average rent dissipation is lower with asymmetric equilibria relative to the symmetric, the former yield larger losses at the most likely asymptotic states for large enough but moderate uncertainty. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 68 (7 UL)
See detailThe Weyl problem for unbounded convex domains in $\HH^3$
Schlenker, Jean-Marc UL

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Let $K\subset \HH^3$ be a convex subset in $\HH^3$ with smooth, strictly convex boundary. The induced metric on $\partial K$ then has curvature $K>-1$. It was proved by Alexandrov that if $K$ is bounded ... [more ▼]

Let $K\subset \HH^3$ be a convex subset in $\HH^3$ with smooth, strictly convex boundary. The induced metric on $\partial K$ then has curvature $K>-1$. It was proved by Alexandrov that if $K$ is bounded, then it is uniquely determined by the induced metric on the boundary, and any smooth metric with curvature $K>-1$ can be obtained. We propose here an extension of the existence part of this result to unbounded convex domains in $\HH^3$. The induced metric on $\partial K$ is then clearly not sufficient to determine $K$. However one can consider a richer data on the boundary including the ideal boundary of $K$. Specifically, we consider the data composed of the conformal structure on the boundary of $K$ in the Poincar\'e model of $\HH^3$, together with the induced metric on $\partial K$. We show that a wide range of "reasonable" data of this type, satisfying mild curvature conditions, can be realized on the boundary of a convex subset in $\HH^3$. We do not consider here the uniqueness of a convex subset with given boundary data. [less ▲]

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See detailA Survey of Requirements for COVID-19 Mitigation Strategies. Part II: Elicitation of Requirements
Jamroga, Wojciech UL

E-print/Working paper (2021)

The COVID-19 pandemic has influenced virtually all aspects of our lives. Across the world, countries have applied various mitigation strategies, based on social, political, and technological instruments ... [more ▼]

The COVID-19 pandemic has influenced virtually all aspects of our lives. Across the world, countries have applied various mitigation strategies, based on social, political, and technological instruments. We postulate that multi-agent systems can provide a common platform to study (and balance) their essential properties. We also show how to obtain a comprehensive list of the properties by ``distilling'' them from media snippets. Finally, we present a preliminary take on their formal specification, using ideas from multi-agent logics. [less ▲]

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Peer Reviewed
See detailBorder or bordering practice? Changing perspectives on borders and challenges of praxeological approaches
Connor, Ulla UL

E-print/Working paper (2021)

In Border Studies, the ongoing discussions on methodological and theoretical questions have led to the development of transformed approaches and vocabulary for border research. This contribution ... [more ▼]

In Border Studies, the ongoing discussions on methodological and theoretical questions have led to the development of transformed approaches and vocabulary for border research. This contribution highlights the shift from ‘border’ to ‘bordering practice’ and questions its sources in the scientific context, such as the cultural turn and the related practice turn. Despite the popular use of the term ‘practice’ in Border Studies, sociological practice theories are not at the center of the development of dynamic concepts for studying borders. The article emphasizes the compatibility of sociological practice theories with the practice and process orientation in Border Studies. It gives a short overview of praxeological thinking in sociology and identifies methodological challenges for Border Studies targeting the development of praxeological re-search perspectives for borders. [less ▲]

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See detailOn generalized Iwasawa main conjectures and p-adic Stark conjectures for Artin motives
Maksoud, Alexandre UL

E-print/Working paper (2021)

We continue the study of Selmer groups associated with an Artin representation endowed with a p-stabilization which was initiated in arXiv:1811.05368. We formulate a main conjecture and an extra zeros ... [more ▼]

We continue the study of Selmer groups associated with an Artin representation endowed with a p-stabilization which was initiated in arXiv:1811.05368. We formulate a main conjecture and an extra zeros conjecture at all unramified odd primes p, which are shown to imply the p-part of the Tamagawa number conjecture for Artin motives at s=0. We also relate our new conjectures with various cyclotomic Iwasawa main conjectures and p-adic Stark conjectures that appear in the literature. In particular, they provide a natural interpretation for recent conjectures on p-adic L-functions attached to (the adjoint of) a weight one modular form. In the case of monomial representations, we prove that our conjectures are essentially equivalent to some newly introduced Iwasawa-theoretic conjectures for Rubin-Stark elements. [less ▲]

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See detailExplaining Defect Detection with Saliency Maps
Lorentz, Joe UL; Hartmann, Thomas; Moawad, Assaad et al

E-print/Working paper (2021)

The rising quality and throughput demands of the manufacturing domain require flexible, accurate and explainable computer-vision solutions for defect detection. Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) reach state-of ... [more ▼]

The rising quality and throughput demands of the manufacturing domain require flexible, accurate and explainable computer-vision solutions for defect detection. Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) reach state-of-the-art performance on various computer-vision tasks but wide-spread application in the industrial domain is blocked by the lacking explainability of DNN decisions. A promising, human-readable solution is given by saliency maps, heatmaps highlighting the image areas that influence the classifier’s decision. This work evaluates a selection of saliency methods in the area of industrial quality assurance. To this end we propose the distance pointing game, a new metric to quantify the meaningfulness of saliency maps for defect detection. We provide steps to prepare a publicly available dataset on defective steel plates for the proposed metric. Additionally, the computational complexity is investigated to determine which methods could be integrated on industrial edge devices. Our results show that DeepLift, GradCAM and GradCAM++ outperform the alternatives while the computational cost is feasible for real time applications even on edge devices. This indicates that the respective methods could be used as an additional, autonomous post-classification step to explain decisions taken by intelligent quality assurance systems. [less ▲]

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See detailDiversity, National Identity, and Political Participation among Young People in Luxembourg
Procopio, Alessandro UL; Schomaker, Léa UL; Samuel, Robin UL

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Luxembourg is known for its cultural and national diversity. Approximately 48 of the population is foreigners live in Luxembourg. For 15-29-year-olds, this share was approximately 42 in 2019 and 2020 ... [more ▼]

Luxembourg is known for its cultural and national diversity. Approximately 48 of the population is foreigners live in Luxembourg. For 15-29-year-olds, this share was approximately 42 in 2019 and 2020. Furthermore, approximately 185,000 foreign workers commute to Luxembourg daily. Considering this, Luxembourg is an interesting case for investigating national identity and political participation of a diverse society (STATEC 2020a, STATEC 2020b, STATEC 2021). Especially, as the biographies of young people in Luxembourg are becoming increasingly complex (e.g., mixed national parents; highly skilled expatriates), it is worth looking into different aspects and valuations of national identity and political participation of youth in Luxembourg (Amtépé and Hartmann-Hirsch, 2011). In this policy report, we look into the aspects of national identity and how young people living in Luxembourg define a ‘real Luxembourger’ using the Youth Survey Luxembourg (2019) data (Sozio et al., 2020). This will give us the opportunity to investigate what aspects of identity (e.g. Luxembourgish ancestry; the time spent living in Luxembourg) matter for young people to feel part of Luxembourgish society and how these change across different social backgrounds and demographics. The discourse about the interrelations of political participation and youth brings forward the dominant narrative of a disengaging and passive youth. Here, we also investigate these statements in the Luxembourgish context. We analyse the level of interest in politics across young people in Luxembourg and their means of political participation. Finally, we especially investigated the relationship between aspects of national identity, and political interest and engagement of young people in Luxembourg. [less ▲]

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See detailProvably Solving the Hidden Subset Sum Problem via Statistical Learning
Coron, Jean-Sébastien UL; Gini, Agnese UL

E-print/Working paper (2021)

At Crypto ’99, Nguyen and Stern described a lattice based algorithm for solving the hidden subset sum problem, a variant of the classical subset sum problem where the n weights are also hidden. As an ... [more ▼]

At Crypto ’99, Nguyen and Stern described a lattice based algorithm for solving the hidden subset sum problem, a variant of the classical subset sum problem where the n weights are also hidden. As an application, they showed how to break the Boyko et al. fast generator of random pairs (x, g x(mod p)). The Nguyen-Stern algorithm works quite well in practice for moderate values of n, but its complexity is exponential in n. A polynomial-time variant was recently described at Crypto 2020, based on a multivariate technique, but the approach is heuristic only. In this paper, we describe a proven polynomial-time algorithm for solving the hidden subset-sum problem, based on statistical learning. In addition, we show that the statistical approach is also quite efficient in practice: using the FastICA algorithm, we can reach n = 250 in reasonable time. [less ▲]

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See detailRobust Estimation in Finite Mixture Models
Lecestre, Alexandre UL

E-print/Working paper (2021)

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See detailRapid Artificial Intelligence Solutions in a Pandemic - The COVID-19-20 Lung CT Lesion Segmentation Challenge.
Roth, Holger; Xu, Ziyue; Diez, Carlos Tor et al

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Artificial intelligence (AI) methods for the automatic detection and quantification of COVID-19 lesions in chest computed tomography (CT) might play an important role in the monitoring and management of ... [more ▼]

Artificial intelligence (AI) methods for the automatic detection and quantification of COVID-19 lesions in chest computed tomography (CT) might play an important role in the monitoring and management of the disease. We organized an international challenge and competition for the development and comparison of AI algorithms for this task, which we supported with public data and state-of-the-art benchmark methods. Board Certified Radiologists annotated 295 public images from two sources (A and B) for algorithms training (n=199, source A), validation (n=50, source A) and testing (n=23, source A; n=23, source B). There were 1,096 registered teams of which 225 and 98 completed the validation and testing phases, respectively. The challenge showed that AI models could be rapidly designed by diverse teams with the potential to measure disease or facilitate timely and patient-specific interventions. This paper provides an overview and the major outcomes of the COVID-19 Lung CT Lesion Segmentation Challenge - 2020. [less ▲]

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See detailEnvironmental Culture and Economic Complexity
Zanaj, Skerdilajda UL

E-print/Working paper (2021)

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See detailEuropean Border Region Studies in Times of Borderization
Wille, Christian UL

E-print/Working paper (2021)

The text originates from a time of borderization, at global level and at the EU’s internal borders. At the latest since covidfencing began in the spring of 2020, many Europeans have become familiar with ... [more ▼]

The text originates from a time of borderization, at global level and at the EU’s internal borders. At the latest since covidfencing began in the spring of 2020, many Europeans have become familiar with border experiences and the practices of civic contestation of borders. With that in mind, the text argues that it is necessary to open European border region studies to the contestation of borders, for which it should enter into dialogue with international (and critical) border studies. [less ▲]

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See detailPost-Quantum Secure LFE for L/poly with Smaller Parameters
Naccache, David; Rosie, Razvan UL; Spignoli, Lorenzo UL

E-print/Working paper (2021)

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See detailKerr effect in tilted nodal loop semimetals
Ekström, Carl Johan Ingvar UL; Hasdeo, Eddwi Hesky UL; Farias, Maria Belen UL et al

E-print/Working paper (2021)

We investigate the optical activity of tilted nodal loop semimetals. We calculate the full conductivity matrix for a band structure containing a nodal loop with possible tilt in the x−y plane, which ... [more ▼]

We investigate the optical activity of tilted nodal loop semimetals. We calculate the full conductivity matrix for a band structure containing a nodal loop with possible tilt in the x−y plane, which allows us to study the Kerr rotation and ellipticity both for a thin film and a bulk material. We find signatures in the Kerr signal that give direct information about the tilt velocity and direction, the radius of the nodal loop and the internal chemical potential of the system. These findings should serve as guide to understanding optical measurements of nodal loop semimetals and as an additional tool to characterize them. [less ▲]

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See detailStages of COVID-19 pandemic and paths to herd immunity by vaccination: dynamical model comparing Austria, Luxembourg and Sweden
Kemp, Francoise UL; Proverbio, Daniele UL; Aalto, Atte UL et al

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Background. Worldwide more than 72 million people have been infected and 1.6 million died with SARS-CoV-2 by 15th December 2020. Non-pharmaceutical interventions which decrease social interaction have ... [more ▼]

Background. Worldwide more than 72 million people have been infected and 1.6 million died with SARS-CoV-2 by 15th December 2020. Non-pharmaceutical interventions which decrease social interaction have been implemented to reduce the spread of SARS-CoV-2 and to mitigate stress on healthcare systems and prevent deaths. The pandemic has been tackled with disparate strategies by distinct countries resulting in different epidemic dynamics. However, with vaccines now becoming available, the current urgent open question is how the interplay between vaccination strategies and social interaction will shape the pandemic in the next months. Methods. To address this question, we developed an extended Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Removed (SEIR) model including social interaction, undetected cases and the progression of patients trough hospitals, intensive care units (ICUs) and death. We calibrated our model to data of Luxembourg, Austria and Sweden, until 15th December 2020. We incorporated the effect of vaccination to investigate under which conditions herd immunity would be achievable in 2021. Results. The model reveals that Sweden has the highest fraction of undetected cases, Luxembourg displays the highest fraction of infected population, and all three countries are far from herd immunity as of December 2020. The model quantifies the level of social interactions, and allows to assess the level which would keep Reff(t) below 1. In December 2020, this level is around 1/3 of what it was before the pandemic for all the three countries. The model allows to estimate the vaccination rate needed for herd immunity and shows that 2700 vaccinations/day are needed in Luxembourg to reach it by mid of April and 45,000 for Austria and Sweden. The model estimates that vaccinating the whole country’s population within 1 year could lead to herd immunity by July in Luxembourg and by August in Austria and Sweden. Conclusion. The model allows to shed light on the dynamics of the epidemics in different waves and countries. Our results emphasize that vaccination will help considerably but not immediately and therefore social measures will remain important for several months before they can be fully alleviated. [less ▲]

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See detailParental Assortative Mating and the Intergenerational Transmission of Human Capital
Bingley, Paul; Cappellari, Lorenzo; Tatsiramos, Konstantinos UL

E-print/Working paper (2021)

We study the contribution of parental similarity in schooling levels to the intergenerational transmission of educational attainment. We develop an empirical model for educational correlations within the ... [more ▼]

We study the contribution of parental similarity in schooling levels to the intergenerational transmission of educational attainment. We develop an empirical model for educational correlations within the family in which parental sorting can translate into intergenerational transmission, or transmission can originate from each parent independently. Estimating the model using educational attainment from Danish population-based administrative data for over 400,000 families, we find that about 75 percent of the intergenerational correlation in education is driven by the joint contribution of the parents. We also document a sizeable secular decline of parental assortative mating in education, with a corresponding fall in joint intergenerational transmission from both parents; a fall compensated by an increase in parent-specific intergenerational transmission, leaving total intergenerational persistence unchanged. The mechanisms of intergenerational transmission have changed, with an increased importance of one-to-one parent-child relationships. [less ▲]

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See detailPROJECT WARLUX Ambiguities in biographies of Luxembourgish conscripts during and after WWII
Janz, Nina UL

E-print/Working paper (2021)

More than 10,000 Luxembourgish soldiers and recruits and an unknown number of Luxembourgish men and women wore German uniforms during WWII in armed forces and civil organisations, such as the Wehrmacht ... [more ▼]

More than 10,000 Luxembourgish soldiers and recruits and an unknown number of Luxembourgish men and women wore German uniforms during WWII in armed forces and civil organisations, such as the Wehrmacht, Waffen-SS, armed police forces and the Reichsarbeitsdienst (RAD). The "WARLUX" project, based at the University of Luxembourg in the Luxembourg Centre for Contemporary and Digital History (C2DH), intends to collect the biographical data of Luxembourgers who were drafted into the German Army and the Labour Service. Around 3,000 young men and women are used in a case study to research their biographies and individual stories during the war, highlight different approaches to researching World War II, and show different résumés and personal experiences during this period. WARLUX aims to review the categories that have tended to be used in the national history discourse. For these women and men were called different like "forced recruit", "volunteer", "réfractaire" and "déserteur" were used, next to mentions of "Mort la patrie" for whom who died in German uniform. Are these terms appropriate to describe the experiences of these individuals, or do they need to be elucidated and challenged? Who were the people behind these abstract terms? What were their individual experiences, stories, reactions, choices, contradictions and survival strategies during and after World War II (Tames 2016)? The term "forced recruit" has come to suggest the general victim status of all conscripted Luxembourgish soldiers. In this content between the dualism of the official narrative and the historiography of the last decades, the project WARLUX wants to apply another concept: "situative opportunism", to question the cumulative heroism and the power of collective forms of decision-making in "forced environments", like the enrolment of young women and men (Fickers/Brüll, 2019). Following the biographical approach by analysing documents and personal views (letters, diaries), Andreas Fickers and Christoph Brüll (2019) use the term "situative opportunism" to emphasise the link between biographical research and sociological decision theory. Based on Schimank (2005), the authors state that every historical actor has multiple options in a complex decision-making process; these decisions are not necessarily egoist, neither the result of external constraints, but grounded in a situational logic of doing what seems most suitable in this very moment. The project is still in the initial phase but will soon deepen the analysis of the biographies of the individuals using the term "situational opportunism". With the application for the conference, the project team would like to discuss other approaches and start an exchange about other/opposite concepts. [less ▲]

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Peer Reviewed
See detailTax competition and phantom FDI
Zanaj, Skerdilajda UL

E-print/Working paper (2021)

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See detailInverse deformation analysis: an experimental and numerical assessment using the FEniCS Project
Mazier, Arnaud UL; Bilger, Alexandre; Forte, Antonio E. et al

E-print/Working paper (2021)

In this paper, we develop a framework for solving inverse deformation problems using the FEniCS Project finite element software. We validate our approach with experimental imaging data acquired from a ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we develop a framework for solving inverse deformation problems using the FEniCS Project finite element software. We validate our approach with experimental imaging data acquired from a soft silicone beam under gravity. In contrast with inverse iterative algorithms that require multiple solutions of a standard elasticity problem, the proposed method can compute the undeformed configuration by solving only one modified elasticity problem. This modified problem has a complexity comparable to the standard one. The framework is implemented within an open-source pipeline enabling the direct and inverse deformation simulation directly from imaging data. We use the high-level Unified Form Language (UFL) of the FEniCS Project to express the finite element model in variational form and to automatically derive the consistent Jacobian. Consequently, the design of the pipeline is flexible: for example, it allows the modification of the constitutive models by changing a single line of code. We include a complete working example showing the inverse deformation of a beam deformed by gravity as supplementary material. [less ▲]

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See detailA powerful global test for spliceQTL effects
de Menezes, Renee X.; Rauschenberger, Armin UL; ’t Hoen, Peter A. C. et al

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Statistical methods to test for effects of SNPs on exon inclusion exist, but often rely on testing of associations between multiple exon-SNP pairs, with sometimes subsequent summarization of results at ... [more ▼]

Statistical methods to test for effects of SNPs on exon inclusion exist, but often rely on testing of associations between multiple exon-SNP pairs, with sometimes subsequent summarization of results at the gene level. Such approaches require heavy multiple testing correction, and detect mostly events with large effect sizes. We propose here a test to find spliceQTL effects which takes all exons and all SNPs into account simultaneously. For any chosen gene, this score-based test looks for association between the set of exon expressions and the set of SNPs, via a random-effects model framework. It is efficient to compute, and can be used if the number of SNPs is larger than the number of samples. In addition, the test is powerful to detect effects that are relatively small for individual exon-SNP pairs, but are observed for many pairs. Furthermore, test results are more often replicated across datasets than pairwise testing results. This partly our test is more robust to exon-SNP pair-specific effects, but do not extend to multiple pairs within the same gene. We conclude that the test we propose here offers more power and better replicability in the search for spliceQTL effects. [less ▲]

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See detailTraces and memories of an ongoing pandemic – Yes We Care
Majerus, Benoît UL

in HumaMed@Larca (2021)

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See detailMachine learning in the social and health sciences
Leist, Anja UL; Klee, Matthias UL; Kim, Jung Hyun UL et al

E-print/Working paper (2021)

The uptake of machine learning (ML) approaches in the social and health sciences has been rather slow, and research using ML for social and health research questions remains fragmented. This may be due to ... [more ▼]

The uptake of machine learning (ML) approaches in the social and health sciences has been rather slow, and research using ML for social and health research questions remains fragmented. This may be due to the separate development of research in the computational/data versus social and health sciences as well as a lack of accessible overviews and adequate training in ML techniques for non data science researchers. This paper provides a meta-mapping of research questions in the social and health sciences to appropriate ML approaches, by incorporating the necessary requirements to statistical analysis in these disciplines. We map the established classification into description, prediction, and causal inference to common research goals, such as estimating prevalence of adverse health or social outcomes, predicting the risk of an event, and identifying risk factors or causes of adverse outcomes. This meta-mapping aims at overcoming disciplinary barriers and starting a fluid dialogue between researchers from the social and health sciences and methodologically trained researchers. Such mapping may also help to fully exploit the benefits of ML while considering domain-specific aspects relevant to the social and health sciences, and hopefully contribute to the acceleration of the uptake of ML applications to advance both basic and applied social and health sciences research. [less ▲]

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See detailGaussian approximation in random minimal directed spanning trees
Bhattacharjee, Chinmoy UL

E-print/Working paper (2021)

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See detailA rigged model of the breast for preoperative surgical planning
Mazier, Arnaud UL; Ribes, Sophie; Testylier, Romain et al

E-print/Working paper (2021)

In breast surgical practice, various scans and medical examinations are performed before surgery. This includes identifying landmarks defining the operating procedure. In most cases, the position of the ... [more ▼]

In breast surgical practice, various scans and medical examinations are performed before surgery. This includes identifying landmarks defining the operating procedure. In most cases, the position of the patient during the scan is vastly different from the one encountered during the operation. We address the challenge of mapping preoperative information to the operating field, with the following constraints: registration has to be done in less than 10 seconds to be compatible with a clinical workflow; the cost of the device must be small and we assume data scarcity, i.e. that our database has twenty scans of patients at most. We build anatomical complexity through a skinning model comprised of scalable bones (to account for pose and morphological variations) and deformable organs (blendshapes, to account for anatomical variations). Similar to animation rigs used in computer graphics, and in contrast to statistical approaches, we manually design a model with some desirable properties, using a reduced number of well-chosen degrees of freedom. Meaningful constraints can be applied to the registration depending on the context, and the trade-off between precision and complexity can be optimized. The result is a surface mesh of the patient obtained in less than 1 minute (scan and reconstruction included) and a registration method that converges within a few seconds (3 maximum), reaching a mean absolute squared error of 2.3 mm for mesh registration and 8.0 mm for anatomical landmarks. The registered model is used to transfer surgical reference patterns on any patient in any position. [less ▲]

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See detailHow Many Replicators Does It Take to Achieve Reliability? Investigating Researcher Variability in a Crowdsourced Replication
Breznau, Nate; Rinke, Eike Mark; Wuttke, Alexander et al

E-print/Working paper (2021)

The paper reports findings from a crowdsourced replication. Eighty-four replicator teams attempted to verify results reported in an original study by running the same models with the same data. The ... [more ▼]

The paper reports findings from a crowdsourced replication. Eighty-four replicator teams attempted to verify results reported in an original study by running the same models with the same data. The replication involved an experimental condition. A “transparent” group received the original study and code, and an “opaque” group received the same underlying study but with only a methods section and description of the regression coefficients without size or significance, and no code. The transparent group mostly verified the original study (95.5%), while the opaque group had less success (89.4%). Qualitative investigation of the replicators’ workflows reveals many causes of non-verification. Two categories of these causes are hypothesized, routine and non-routine. After correcting non-routine errors in the research process to ensure that the results reflect a level of quality that should be present in ‘real-world’ research, the rate of verification was 96.1 in the transparent group and 92.4 in the opaque group. Two conclusions follow: (1) Although high, the verification rate suggests that it would take a minimum of three replicators per study to achieve replication reliability of at least 95 confidence assuming ecological validity in this controlled setting, and (2) like any type of scientific research, replication is prone to errors that derive from routine and undeliberate actions in the research process. The latter suggests that idiosyncratic researcher variability might provide a key to understanding part of the “reliability crisis” in social and behavioral science and is a reminder of the importance of transparent and well documented workflows. [less ▲]

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See detailA Mixture of Generative Models Strategy Helps Humans Generalize across Tasks
Herce Castañón, Santiago; Cardoso-Leite, Pedro UL; Altarelli, Irene et al

E-print/Working paper (2021)

What role do generative models play in generalization of learning in humans? Our novel multi-task prediction paradigm—where participants complete four sequence learning tasks, each being a different ... [more ▼]

What role do generative models play in generalization of learning in humans? Our novel multi-task prediction paradigm—where participants complete four sequence learning tasks, each being a different instance of a common generative family—allows the separate study of within-task learning (i.e., finding the solution to each of the tasks), and across-task learning (i.e., learning a task differently because of past experiences). The very first responses participants make in each task are not yet affected by within-task learning and thus reflect their priors. Our results show that these priors change across successive tasks, increasingly resembling the underlying generative family. We conceptualize multi-task learning as arising from a mixture-of-generative-models learning strategy, whereby participants simultaneously entertain multiple candidate models which compete against each other to explain the experienced sequences. This framework predicts specific error patterns, as well as a gating mechanism for learning, both of which are observed in the data. [less ▲]

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See detailTropical Fock-Goncharov coordinates for SL3-webs on surfaces II: naturality
Sun, Zhe UL; Douglas, Daniel C.

E-print/Working paper (2020)

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See detailExploring Governance Issues between the SRB and the ESM in the Use of the Common Backstop
Lupinu, Pier Mario UL

E-print/Working paper (2020)

To date, the resolution of the Banco Popular Español, being the first and only resolution case in the euro area, has had the “benefit” of bringing to light several shortfalls of this crisis management ... [more ▼]

To date, the resolution of the Banco Popular Español, being the first and only resolution case in the euro area, has had the “benefit” of bringing to light several shortfalls of this crisis management system. Back then, thanks to the sale of business, the need of the use of the Single Resolution Fund (SRF) has been avoided, prompting criticism on whether the fund had sufficient means to overcome a major widespread crisis. During the period elapsed from the last financial crisis, the euro area banking sector has built capital and liquidity buffers, which were aimed at protecting them for future shocks. Although it is now widely accepted that crises are of a cyclical nature, new risks and the high interconnectivity of today’s economic activities brought an unexpected crisis due to the current pandemic. The consequences of this unprecedented event in modern history had severe effects to the worldwide economy, mostly for the boundless block of labour activities, which caused severe losses for households, enterprises and governments that consequently affected the financial intermediation function of the banks. Concerning the European Stability Mechanism (ESM), the current pandemic has had the effect to put temporary on hold the discussion on the revision of the ESM Treaty, including its role as a Backstop to the SRF, so that the Mechanism could experience a new role through the ESM Pandemic Crisis Support. In such a framework, this paper aims to bring back the attention to the unfinished path in the establishment of the Common Backstop by addressing an important element of risk, namely its decision-making process. The main aim is to explore possible governance issues, which could hamper a timely and effective use of the Common Backstop, in the case that the SRF would be depleted and no alternative funding sources would be available. [less ▲]

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See detailA NEW CORRESPONDENCE BETWEEN TASEPAND BURGERS’ EQUATION
Flandoli, Franco; Gess, Benjamin; Grotto, Francesco UL

E-print/Working paper (2020)

We introduce a new particle model, which we dub Active Bi-Directional Flow, conjugated to the Totally Asymmetric Exclusion Processin discrete time. We then associate to our model intrinsically stochastic ... [more ▼]

We introduce a new particle model, which we dub Active Bi-Directional Flow, conjugated to the Totally Asymmetric Exclusion Processin discrete time. We then associate to our model intrinsically stochastic, non-entropic weak solutions of Burgers’ equation onR, thus linking the latter tothe KPZ universality class. [less ▲]

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