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See detailEnergy performance comparison of ventilation-based heating versus water-based heating systems in an efficient residential building
Shirani, Arsalan UL; Merzkirch, Alexander; Leyer, Stephan UL et al

in Fluid Dynamics & Material Processing (in press)

The application of air-based heating systems as a possible approach to reduce the construction costs in highly efficient residential buildings is becoming popular. Air-based heating systems have been well ... [more ▼]

The application of air-based heating systems as a possible approach to reduce the construction costs in highly efficient residential buildings is becoming popular. Air-based heating systems have been well-known for their usage in passive houses during the past three decades. Available studies on such systems tend mostly to focus only on comparing exhaust air heat pump technology with conventional systems in efficient buildings. Moreover, most of the existing studies ignore the usual presence of the electrical heaters as backup. Besides, a comprehensive study and comparison between different air-based heating system concepts is still missing. In this study, four different air-based heating system concepts separated by the type of heat source of heat pump for heating and domestic hot water are defined. These systems are compared to four conventional heating system, including floor heating and direct electrical system employing dynamic annual simulations. According to simulation results, the systems with floor heating have shown the best system efficiencies and the lowest energy demand in comparison to the other systems. The main reason for this was the lower supply temperatures of the floor heating systems. Between the air heating systems, the system equipped with an outdoor air heat pump showed a better energy performance than an exhaust air system. The main reason for this could be attributed to the power limitation of exhaust air heat pump systems. [less ▲]

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See detailWortverbindungen in Paraphrase und Argumentation: Eine Untersuchung an Lernendentexten von Studierenden mit L2 Deutsch
Huemer, Birgit UL

in Akten des XIV. Internationalen Germanistenkongresses. Palermo 2021. Wege der Germanistik in transkulturellen Perspektiven (in press)

In diesem Beitrag wird der Umgang mit wissenschaftssprachlichen Wortverbindungen in den beiden Textmustern Paraphrase und Argumentation von Texten luxemburgischer Studienanfänger der Germanistik mit L2 ... [more ▼]

In diesem Beitrag wird der Umgang mit wissenschaftssprachlichen Wortverbindungen in den beiden Textmustern Paraphrase und Argumentation von Texten luxemburgischer Studienanfänger der Germanistik mit L2 Deutsch genau unter die Lupe genommen. Dafür wird ein Korpus von 37 Lernendentexten nach korpuslinguistischen Kriterien aufbereitet und qualitativ analysiert. Es wird untersucht, welche Wortverbindungen für die beiden Textmuster typisch sind, welche Wortverbindungen bereits beherrscht werden und wo Schwierigkeiten auftreten. Die Untersuchung ergibt, dass die Verwendung von Wortverbindungen textmusterspezifisch ist. Die Fehleranalyse zeigt außerdem, dass von 195 verwendeten Wortverbindungen fast ein Drittel fehlerhaft sind. Dabei treten die größten Schwierigkeiten bei der Trennung zwischen Alltagssprache/Umgangssprache und Wissenschaftssprache auf. Als Maßnahmen für den Unterricht wird das Arbeiten mit Wortverbindungslisten, das selbstständige Ergänzen solcher Listen durch Analysen wissenschaftlicher Mustertexte, die Selbstkontrolle am Eigentext und das Arbeiten mit Korpora empfohlen. [less ▲]

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See detailData Protection and Consenting Communication Mechanisms: Current Proposals and Challenges
Human, Soheil; Degeling, Martin; Santos, Christiana et al

in IEEE eXplore (2022, June 06)

Data Protection and Consenting Communication Mechanisms (DPCCMs) have the potential of becoming one of the most fundamental means of protecting humans’ privacy and agency. However, they are yet to be ... [more ▼]

Data Protection and Consenting Communication Mechanisms (DPCCMs) have the potential of becoming one of the most fundamental means of protecting humans’ privacy and agency. However, they are yet to be improved, adopted and enforced. In this paper, based on the results of a technical document analysis and an expert study, we we identify some of the main technical factors that can be comparison factors between some of the main interdisciplinary challenges of a Human-centric, Accountable, Lawful, and Ethical practice of personal data processing on the Internet and discuss whether the current DPCCMs proposal can contribute towards their resolution. In particular, we discuss the two current open specifications, i.e. the Advanced Data Protection Control (ADPC) and the Global Privacy Control (GPC) based on the identified challenges. [less ▲]

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See detailMEC-assisted Dynamic Geofencing for 5G-enabled UAV
Bera, Abhishek UL; Sanchez-Cuevas, Pedro J.; Olivares-Mendez, Miguel Angel

in IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (2022, May 16)

5G-enabled UAV-based services have become popular for civilian applications. At the same time, certain no-fly zones will be highly dynamic, e.g. accident areas, large outdoor public events, VIP convoys ... [more ▼]

5G-enabled UAV-based services have become popular for civilian applications. At the same time, certain no-fly zones will be highly dynamic, e.g. accident areas, large outdoor public events, VIP convoys etc. An appropriate geofencing algorithm is required to avoid the no-fly zone in such scenarios. However, it is challenging to execute a high computing process such as a geofencing algorithm for a resource constraint UAV. This paper proposes an architecture and a geofencing algorithm for 5G-enabled UAV using Mobile Edge Computing (MEC). Also, the 5G-enabled UAV must fly within the coverage area during a mission. Hence, there must be an optimal trade-off between 5G coverage and distance to travel to design a new trajectory for a 5G-enabled UAV. To this end, we propose a cost minimization problem to generate a new trajectory while a no-fly zone exists. Specifically, we design a cost function considering 5G coverage and the velocity of the UAV. Then, we propose a geofencing algorithm running at the MEC by adopting the fast marching method (FMM) to generate a new trajectory for the UAV. Finally, a numerical example shows how the proposed geofencing algorithm generates an optimal trajectory for a UAV to avoid a dynamically created no-fly zone while on the mission. [less ▲]

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See detailConciseness, interest, and unexpectedness: User attitudes towards infographic and comic consent mediums
Doan, Xengie Cheng UL; Selzer, Annika; Rossi, Arianna UL et al

in Web Conference Companion Volume (ACM) (2022, April 26)

Being asked to consent to data sharing is a ubiquitous experience in digital services - yet it is very rare to encounter a well designed consent experience. Considering the momentum and importance of a ... [more ▼]

Being asked to consent to data sharing is a ubiquitous experience in digital services - yet it is very rare to encounter a well designed consent experience. Considering the momentum and importance of a European data space where personal information freely and easily flows across organizations, sectors and Member States, solving the long-discussed thorny issue of "how to get consent right" cannot be postponed any further. In this paper, we describe the first findings from a study based on 24 semi-structured interviews investigating participants’ expectations and opinions toward consent in a data sharing scenario with a data trustee. We analyzed various dimensions of a consent form redesigned as a comic and an infographic, including language, information design, content and the writer-reader relationship. The results provide insights into the complexity of elements that should be considered when asking individuals to freely and mindfully disclose their data, especially sensitive information. [less ▲]

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See detailSustainability and Circular Economy in Learning Factories – Case Studies
Weyand, Astrid; Thiede, Sebastian; Mangers, Jeff UL et al

in SSRN (2022, April 11)

Since the mitigation of climate change is one of the biggest challenges to face on a global scale, the topic has become more relevant also in industrial context. Learning factories have proven to be ... [more ▼]

Since the mitigation of climate change is one of the biggest challenges to face on a global scale, the topic has become more relevant also in industrial context. Learning factories have proven to be suitable environments to address and convey competencies to tackle industrial challenges in an interactive way. Hence, several learning factories are already dealing with sustainability topics in various use cases. This paper strives to present a state of the art of sustainability and circular economy in learning factories. Therefore, a classification framework is developed based on the state of the art of several learning factories and existing literature regarding the topic. This framework is then used to systematically describe the different activities regarding sustainability and circular economy that are currently ongoing in learning factories worldwide. This can be used to get an idea about the different aspects of the topic and how to address them, but furthermore also offers assistance to identify “blind spots” which could and should be addressed in learning factories in the future. [less ▲]

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See detailSanierung erhaltenswürdiger Gebäude in der Südeifel mit regionaltypischen Bruch-steinmauerwerk im Kontext der Innendämmung
Müller, Lukas; Latz, Sebastian UL; Thewes, Andreas UL

in Bauphysiktage Kaiserslautern (2022, March 29), 5

Um eine Innendämmung, welche an Bestandsgebäuden oftmals aufgrund baurechtlicher Einschränkungen die einzige Möglichkeit zur thermischen Ertüchtigung der Fassade darstellt, entsprechend planen und ... [more ▼]

Um eine Innendämmung, welche an Bestandsgebäuden oftmals aufgrund baurechtlicher Einschränkungen die einzige Möglichkeit zur thermischen Ertüchtigung der Fassade darstellt, entsprechend planen und nachweisen zu können, sollten die bauphysikalischen Randbedingungen der Außenfassade sowie des darunterliegenden Bruchsteinmauerwerks messtechnisch erfasst und entsprechend gedeutet werden. Mit Hilfe korrekt abgeschätzter Ein-gangsparameter für notwendige, hygrothermische Berechnungen lassen sich spätere Bauschäden, welche die Folge eines fehlerhaften Sanierungskonzepts wären, weitestgehend ausschließen. Diese Studie befasst sich mit typischen Baustoffen für die „Südeifel“ (Sandstein, Schiefer und Kalkstein). An drei realen Wohngebäuden wurden entsprechende Messungen durchgeführt und deren Einfluss auf die Planung einer Innendämmmaßnahme untersucht. Die Ergebnisse wurden zusammengeführt und dienen als Grundlage für möglichst realitätsnahe, dynamische Simulationen. [less ▲]

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See detailProvably Solving the Hidden Subset Sum Problem via Statistical Learning
Coron, Jean-Sébastien UL; Gini, Agnese UL

in Mathematical Cryptology (2022, March), 1

At Crypto ’99, Nguyen and Stern described a lattice based algorithm for solving the hidden subset sum problem, a variant of the classical subset sum problem where the n weights are also hidden. As an ... [more ▼]

At Crypto ’99, Nguyen and Stern described a lattice based algorithm for solving the hidden subset sum problem, a variant of the classical subset sum problem where the n weights are also hidden. As an application, they showed how to break the Boyko et al. fast generator of random pairs (x, g x(mod p)). The Nguyen-Stern algorithm works quite well in practice for moderate values of n, but its complexity is exponential in n. A polynomial-time variant was recently described at Crypto 2020, based on a multivariate technique, but the approach is heuristic only. In this paper, we describe a proven polynomial-time algorithm for solving the hidden subset-sum problem, based on statistical learning. In addition, we show that the statistical approach is also quite efficient in practice: using the FastICA algorithm, we can reach n = 250 in reasonable time. [less ▲]

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See detailRetrofitting of legacy machines in the context of Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT)
Kolla, Sri Sudha Vijay Keshav UL; Machado Lourenço, Diogo UL; Plapper, Peter UL

in Procedia Computer Science (2022, February 08), 200

In the context of Industry 4.0 (I 4.0), one of the most important aspects is data, followed by the capital required to deploy advanced technologies. However, most Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) are ... [more ▼]

In the context of Industry 4.0 (I 4.0), one of the most important aspects is data, followed by the capital required to deploy advanced technologies. However, most Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) are neither data ready nor have the capital to upgrade their existing machinery. In SMEs, most of the legacy machines do not have data gathering capabilities. In this scenario, the concept of retrofitting the existing machinery with sensors and building an Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) is more beneficial than upgrading the equipment to newer machinery. The current research paper proposes a simple architecture on retrofitting a legacy machine with external sensors for data collection and feeding the cloud-based databases for analysis/monitoring purposes. The design and functional aspects of the architecture are then tested in a laboratory environment on a drilling machine with no embedded sensors. Data related to the speed of the drill head and the bore depth are collected using newly retrofitted sensors to validate the proposed architecture. [less ▲]

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See detailIML-GCN: Improved Multi-Label Graph Convolutional Network for Efficient yet Precise Image Classification
Singh, Inder Pal UL; Oyedotun, Oyebade UL; Ghorbel, Enjie UL et al

in AAAI-22 Workshop Program-Deep Learning on Graphs: Methods and Applications (2022, February)

In this paper, we propose the Improved Multi-Label Graph Convolutional Network (IML-GCN) as a precise and efficient framework for multi-label image classification. Although previous approaches have shown ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we propose the Improved Multi-Label Graph Convolutional Network (IML-GCN) as a precise and efficient framework for multi-label image classification. Although previous approaches have shown great performance, they usually make use of very large architectures. To handle this, we propose to combine the small version of a newly introduced network called TResNet with an extended version of Multi-label Graph Convolution Networks (ML-GCN); therefore ensuring the learning of label correlation while reducing the size of the overall network. The proposed approach considers a novel image feature embedding instead of using word embeddings. In fact, the latter are learned from words and not images making them inadequate for the task of multi-label image classification. Experimental results show that our framework competes with the state-of-the-art on two multi-label image benchmarks in terms of both precision and memory requirements. [less ▲]

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See detailChallenges of protecting confidentiality in social media data and their ethical import
Rossi, Arianna; Arenas Correa, Monica Patricia UL; Kocyigit, Emre UL et al

in 2022 IEEE European Symposium on Security and Privacy Workshops (EuroS&PW) (2022)

This article discussed the challenges of pseudonymizing unstructured, noisy social media data for cybersecurity research purposes and presents an open- source package developed to pseudonymize personal ... [more ▼]

This article discussed the challenges of pseudonymizing unstructured, noisy social media data for cybersecurity research purposes and presents an open- source package developed to pseudonymize personal and confidential information (i.e., personal names, companies, and locations) contained in such data. Its goal is to facilitate compliance with EU data protection obligations and the upholding of research ethics principles like the respect for the autonomy, privacy and dignity of research participants, the social responsibility of researchers, and scientific integrity. We discuss the limitations of the pseudonymizer package, their ethical import, and the additional security measures that should be adopted to protect the confidentiality of the data. [less ▲]

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See detailMULTI LABEL IMAGE CLASSIFICATION USING ADAPTIVE GRAPH CONVOLUTIONAL NETWORKS (ML-AGCN)
Singh, Inder Pal UL; Ghorbel, Enjie UL; Oyedotun, Oyebade UL et al

in IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (2022)

In this paper, a novel graph-based approach for multi-label image classification called Multi-Label Adaptive Graph Convolutional Network (ML-AGCN) is introduced. Graph-based methods have shown great ... [more ▼]

In this paper, a novel graph-based approach for multi-label image classification called Multi-Label Adaptive Graph Convolutional Network (ML-AGCN) is introduced. Graph-based methods have shown great potential in the field of multi-label classification. However, these approaches heuristically fix the graph topology for modeling label dependencies, which might be not optimal. To handle that, we propose to learn the topology in an end-to-end manner. Specifically, we incorporate an attention-based mechanism for estimating the pairwise importance between graph nodes and a similarity-based mechanism for conserving the feature similarity between different nodes. This offers a more flexible way for adaptively modeling the graph. Experimental results are reported on two well-known datasets, namely, MS-COCO and VG-500. Results show that ML-AGCN outperforms state-of-the-art methods while reducing the number of model parameters. [less ▲]

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See detailEr ist Prinz. – Mehr noch: Er ist Mensch! Er ist Stimmbürger. Stimmrecht des Monarchen als Dispersionsprisma einer rechtswissenschaftlichen Monarchieanalyse
Heuschling, Luc UL

in Zeitschrift für Offentliches Recht (2021, December), 76(4), 1241-1289

In the literature on comparative constitutional law and constitutional theory, monarchies are, if they attract any attention at all, most frequently analyzed from the perspective of the monarch’s ... [more ▼]

In the literature on comparative constitutional law and constitutional theory, monarchies are, if they attract any attention at all, most frequently analyzed from the perspective of the monarch’s political power, after its more or less extensive “neutralization” in the name of the constitutional ideals of Enlightenment. Yet this classic approach, whose focus lies on the State organ’s competencies and the discretion of its royal incumbent, is incomplete as it ignores a second, increasingly important facet of the modernization process of monarchies: To what extent do Royals, including the monarch, have fundamental rights as individuals, as “human beings”? This paper considers in particular the even-more-overlooked issue of their political rights (right to vote, right to stand for election, and the right to use the instruments of direct democracy). The issue, which is a very old one, having being addressed first by Sieyès in his famous 1789 speech on royal veto and by the French Constitution of 1791, is far from being odd or futile. In some jurisdictions, like in Japan (1945), Luxembourg (2004-5), Liechtenstein (2002-3) or in Thailand (2019), it was at the core of quite controversial public debates which, eventually, lead to totally divergent outcomes. Beyond its (relative) importance in practice, it is a key parameter for theoretical purposes: combined with the criteria of the dualistic state organization, it provides a deeper insight into the complex structure of those regimes mixing, in various ways, both monarchical and democratic elements. This article sheds light on this new research field, starting with a broad historical and comparative survey, before presenting a typology in order to tackle the startling diversity of legal solutions. [less ▲]

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See detailProceedings of the 12th European CubeSatSymposium
Thoemel, Jan UL; Querol, Jorge UL; Bokal, Zhanna UL et al

in Proceedings of the 12th European CubeSatSymposium (2021, November 15)

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See detailCookie Banners, What’s the Purpose? Analyzing Cookie Banner Text Through a Legal Lens
Santos, Cristiana; Rossi, Arianna UL; Sanchez Chamorro, Lorena UL et al

in Proceedings of the 2021 ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security (CCS '21) (2021, November 15)

A cookie banner pops up when a user visits a website for the first time, requesting consent to the use of cookies and other trackers for a variety of purposes. Unlike prior work that has focused on ... [more ▼]

A cookie banner pops up when a user visits a website for the first time, requesting consent to the use of cookies and other trackers for a variety of purposes. Unlike prior work that has focused on evaluating the user interface (UI) design of cookie banners, this paper presents an in-depth analysis of what cookie banners say to users to get their consent. We took an interdisciplinary approach to determining what cookie banners should say. Following the legal requirements of the ePrivacy Directive (ePD) and the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), we manually annotated around 400 cookie banners presented on the most popular English-speaking websites visited by users residing in the EU. We focused on analyzing the purposes of cookie banners and how these purposes were expressed (e.g., any misleading or vague language, any use of jargon). We found that 89% of cookie banners violated applicable laws. In particular, 61% of banners violated the purpose specificity requirement by mentioning vague purposes, including “user experience enhancement”. Further, 30% of banners used positive framing, breaching the freely given and informed consent requirements. Based on these findings, we provide recommendations that regulators can find useful. We also describe future research directions. [less ▲]

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See detailGlobal land dampness characterization using reflectometry by students (GOLDCREST): mission and CubeSat design
Asadi, Niloofar; Gholami-Boroujeni, Farzaneh; Gogoi, Bishwajit et al

in Proceedings of the 12th European CubeSat symposium (2021, November 15)

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See detailComparing software frameworks of Augmented Reality solutions for manufacturing
Kolla, Sri Sudha Vijay Keshav UL; Sanchez, Andre UL; Plapper, Peter UL

in Procedia Manufacturing (2021, November 03), 55

Augmented reality (AR) is a technology that allows overlaying of virtual elements on top of the physical environment. This enhances the perception and conveys additional information to the user. With the ... [more ▼]

Augmented reality (AR) is a technology that allows overlaying of virtual elements on top of the physical environment. This enhances the perception and conveys additional information to the user. With the emergence of industry 4.0 concepts in manufacturing landscape, AR found its way to improve existing Human-Machine Interfaces (HMI) on the shop-floor. The industrial setting has a wide variety of application opportunities from AR, ranging from training and digital work instructions to quality inspection and remote maintenance. Even though its implementation in the industry is rising in popularity, it is still mainly restricted to large companies due the limited availability of resources in Small and Medium Size Enterprises (SME). However, SMEs can benefit from AR solutions in its production processes. Therefore, this research aims to develop and present the results of comparison of two simple and cost-effective AR software frameworks for Hand Held Device (HHD) and a Head Mounted Device (HMD), which can be applied for developing AR applications for manufacturing. Two AR applications are developed using these software frameworks which are presented in the case study section. Android device is chosen as a HHD and HoloLens is the HMD used in the case study. The development structure can be reproduced by a wider range of enterprises with diverse needs and resource availability. [less ▲]

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See detailLongitudinal Relations Between Views on Aging and Perceived Stress: Evidence for Mutual Associations
Wahl, Hans-Werner; Kornadt, Anna Elena UL; Wettstein, Markus

in Innovation in Aging (2021, November), 5(Supplement_1), 287-287

We investigated the reciprocal longitudinal relation between perceived stress and three established domains of views on aging (VoA): (1) subjective age; (2) attitude toward own aging [ATOA]; and (3) aging ... [more ▼]

We investigated the reciprocal longitudinal relation between perceived stress and three established domains of views on aging (VoA): (1) subjective age; (2) attitude toward own aging [ATOA]; and (3) aging-related cognitions including social loss, physical decline, and continuous growth. We also examined the potentially moderating role of chronological age. Data of the German Ageing Survey, comprising two measurement occasions (2014 and 2017) and a sample of 4,588 individuals aged between 40 and 95 years, were analyzed. Controlling for socio-demographic and health-related indicators, cross-lagged models indicated mutual longitudinal relations between VoA and stress. Whether the pathway from stress to VoA or the opposite pathway was stronger varied depending on the VoA considered. With increasing age, most VoA domains were less strongly associated with subsequent perceived stress. Our findings suggest that less favorable VoA predict higher perceived subsequent stress, but they are also preceded and predicted by higher levels of perceived stress. [less ▲]

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See detailCorrelates of resilience of older people in times of crisis
Albert, Isabelle UL; Hoffmann, Martine; Murdock, Elke UL et al

in Innovation in Aging (2021, November), 5(S 1), 723

Since the beginning of the Covid-19 pandemic, efforts have been made to shield older adults from exposure to the virus due to an age-related higher risk for severe health outcomes. While a reduction of in ... [more ▼]

Since the beginning of the Covid-19 pandemic, efforts have been made to shield older adults from exposure to the virus due to an age-related higher risk for severe health outcomes. While a reduction of in-person contacts was necessary in particular during the first months of the pandemic, concerns about the immediate and longer-term secondary effects of these measures on subjective well-being were raised. In the present study, we focused on self-reported resilience of older people in a longitudinal design to examine risk and protective factors in dealing with the restrictions. Data from independently living people aged 60+ in Luxembourg were collected via a telephone/online survey after the first lockdown in June (N = 611) and September/October 2020 (N = 523), just before the second pandemic wave made restrictions necessary again. Overall, results showed an increase in life-satisfaction from T1 to T2, although life-satisfaction was still rated slightly lower than before the crisis. Also, about a fifth of participants indicated at T2 difficulties to recover from the crisis. Participants who reported higher resilience to deal with the Covid-19 crisis at T2 showed higher self-efficacy, agreed more strongly with measures taken by the country and felt better informed about the virus. In contrast, participants who reported more difficulties in dealing with the pandemic, indicated reduced social contacts to family and friends at T2, and also felt lonelier. Results will be discussed applying a life-span developmental and systemic perspective on risk and protective factors in dealing with the secondary impacts of the pandemic. [less ▲]

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See detailExploring the Relationship Between Subjective Age and Worry for Older Adults in Times of a Pandemic
Tingvold, Maiken UL; Albert, Isabelle UL; Murdock, Elke UL et al

in Innovation in Aging (2021, November), 5(Supplement_1), 593-593

Given the role of age as a risk factor in the covid pandemic, we examined the longitudinal cross-lagged relationship between subjective age and Covid-related worry, and possible moderators of this ... [more ▼]

Given the role of age as a risk factor in the covid pandemic, we examined the longitudinal cross-lagged relationship between subjective age and Covid-related worry, and possible moderators of this relationship. Data were obtained at two-time points (June and October 2020) by a phone/online survey, from N = 611 older participants (Mage = 69.92 years). Participants felt on average 10 and 8.5 years younger than their chronological ages at the two-time points, respectively. Younger subjective age at T1 increased the level of worry at T2 irrespective of age, perceived control and subjective health. Higher worry increased subjective age at T2, but only for those with worse subjective health. Our results show that subjective age and Covid-related worry interact over time. This relation needs to be explored further in order to understand the relationship between subjective age and well-being especially, but not only in the pandemic context. [less ▲]

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See detailLeveraging Temporal Information for 3D Trajectory Estimation of Space Objects
Mohamed Ali, Mohamed Adel UL; Ortiz Del Castillo, Miguel UL; Al Ismaeil, Kassem UL et al

in Proceedings of the IEEE/CVF International Conference on Computer Vision (ICCV) Workshops (2021, October)

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See detailEvaluation of TPMS Signal Propagation in a Heavy Commercial Vehicle Environement
Rida, Ahmad UL; Soua, Ridha UL; Engel, Thomas UL

in 2021 IEEE 94th Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC2021-Fall) proceedings (2021, September 27)

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See detailA Near-Field-based TPMS Solution for Heavy Commercial Vehicle Environement
Rida, Ahmad UL; Soua, Ridha UL; Engel, Thomas UL

in 2021 IEEE 94th Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC2021-Fall) proceedings (2021, September 27)

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See detailDetection of fluid level in bores for batch size one assembly automation using convolutional neural network
Simeth, Alexej UL; Plaßmann, Jessica; Plapper, Peter UL

in Advances in Production Management Systems. Artificial Intelligence for Sustainable and Resilient Production Systems. (2021, August 31), 632

Increased customization and shortening product life cycles pose a challenge for automation, especially in assembly. In combination with the nature of assembly tasks, which may require high level of ... [more ▼]

Increased customization and shortening product life cycles pose a challenge for automation, especially in assembly. In combination with the nature of assembly tasks, which may require high level of perception, skill, and logical thinking, these tasks are often conducted manually, especially in certain industries (e.g. furniture, power tools) or small and medium-sized enterprises. One of such tasks is the liquid level monitoring in gluing processes. Existing non-manual solutions are based on conventional and less flexible algorithms to detect the current liquid level. In production environments with highly individualized products, a need for more performant models arises. With artificial intelligence (AI) it is possible to deduct decisions from unknown multidimensional correlations in sensor data, which is a key enabler for assembly automation for products with high degree of customization. In this paper, an AI-based model is proposed to automate a gluing process in a final assembly. Images of a gluing process are taken with a camera and a convolutional neural network is used to extract images features. The features are applied to train a support vector machine classifier to identify the liquid level. The developed model is tested and validated with a Monte-Carlo-simulation and used on a demonstrator to automate a gluing process. The developed model classifies images of liquid levels with over 98% accuracy. Similar results are achieved on the demonstrator. [less ▲]

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See detailValue Stream Mapping (VSM) to Evaluate and Visualize Interrelated Process-Chains Regarding Circular Economy
Mangers, Jeff UL; Minoufekr, Meysam UL; Plapper, Peter UL

in Advances in Production Management Systems. Artificial Intelligence for Sustainable and Resilient Production Systems (2021, August 31), 633

The concept of circular economy (CE) aims to close and slow resource loops without neglecting the goals of sustainable development. Recently, the concept received encouraging attention among researchers ... [more ▼]

The concept of circular economy (CE) aims to close and slow resource loops without neglecting the goals of sustainable development. Recently, the concept received encouraging attention among researchers and business experts to be a convenient solution to move away from the finite linear economy concept to a more sustainable solution. However, this change of paradigm is only possible if we consider systems in a holistic manner and can localize the preventing hurdles. Value stream mapping (VSM) is a commonly known lean method, used to develop current state visualization of product and information flows within organization, helping to seek weaknesses and improve process flows. The motivation of this paper is a new C-VSM model, which enables its users to evaluate and visualize connected process-chains regarding CE on different levels in a holistic manner. For this purpose, the traditional VSM model was adapted towards the needs and requirements of CE through the application of a new representation method, additional indicators, and an appropriated evaluation system. C-VSM is in line with the current political and industrial objectives to apply CE principles by enabling a holistic reflection and consideration of supply-chains (SCs) on different levels. The model itself is validated through an extensive cross-company case study. [less ▲]

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See detailCholesteric Spherical Reflectors as Physical Unclonable Identifiers in Anti-counterfeiting
Arenas Correa, Monica Patricia UL; Demirci, Huseyin UL; Lenzini, Gabriele UL

in Journal of the Association for Computing Machinery (2021, August 17), 16

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See detailThe Quest and Hope of Majorana Zero Modes in Topological Superconductor for Fault Tolerant Quantum Computing: An Introductory Overview
Ayukaryana, Nur R.; Fauzi, Mohammad H; Hasdeo, Eddwi Hesky UL

in AIP Conference Proceedings (2021, August 10), 2382(1), 020007

Ettore Majorana, in his short life, unintendedly has uncovered the most profound problem in quantum computation by his discovery of Majorana fermion, a particle which is its own anti-particle. Owing to ... [more ▼]

Ettore Majorana, in his short life, unintendedly has uncovered the most profound problem in quantum computation by his discovery of Majorana fermion, a particle which is its own anti-particle. Owing to its non-Abelian exchange statistics, Majorana fermions may act as a qubit for a universal quantum computer which is fault-tolerant. The existence of such particle is predicted in mid-gap states (zero modes) of a topological superconductor as bound states that have a highly entangled degenerate ground state. This introductory overview will focus on the simplest theoretical proposals of Majorana fermions for topological quantum computing in superconducting systems, emphasizing the quest from the scalability problem of quantum computer to its possible solution with topological quantum computer employing non-Abelian anyons on various platforms of certain Majorana fermion signature encountered. [less ▲]

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See detailBatching CSIDH Group Actions using AVX-512
Cheng, Hao UL; Fotiadis, Georgios UL; Groszschädl, Johann UL et al

in IACR Transactions on Cryptographic Hardware and Embedded Systems (TCHES) (2021, August), 2021(4), 618-649

Commutative Supersingular Isogeny Diffie-Hellman (or CSIDH for short) is a recently-proposed post-quantum key establishment scheme that belongs to the family of isogeny-based cryptosystems. The CSIDH ... [more ▼]

Commutative Supersingular Isogeny Diffie-Hellman (or CSIDH for short) is a recently-proposed post-quantum key establishment scheme that belongs to the family of isogeny-based cryptosystems. The CSIDH protocol is based on the action of an ideal class group on a set of supersingular elliptic curves and comes with some very attractive features, e.g. the ability to serve as a “drop-in” replacement for the standard elliptic curve Diffie-Hellman protocol. Unfortunately, the execution time of CSIDH is prohibitively high for many real-world applications, mainly due to the enormous computational cost of the underlying group action. Consequently, there is a strong demand for optimizations that increase the efficiency of the class group action evaluation, which is not only important for CSIDH, but also for related cryptosystems like the signature schemes CSI-FiSh and SeaSign. In this paper, we explore how the AVX-512 vector extensions (incl. AVX-512F and AVX-512IFMA) can be utilized to optimize constant-time evaluation of the CSIDH-512 class group action with the goal of, respectively, maximizing throughput and minimizing latency. We introduce different approaches for batching group actions and computing them in SIMD fashion on modern Intel processors. In particular, we present a hybrid batching technique that, when combined with optimized (8 × 1)-way prime-field arithmetic, increases the throughput by a factor of 3.64 compared to a state-of-the-art (non-vectorized) x64 implementation. On the other hand, vectorization in a 2-way fashion aimed to reduce latency makes our AVX-512 implementation of the group action evaluation about 1.54 times faster than the state-of-the-art. To the best of our knowledge, this paper is the first to demonstrate the high potential of using vector instructions to increase the throughput (resp. decrease the latency) of constant-time CSIDH. [less ▲]

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See detailGPU-Accelerated Mahalanobis-Average Hierarchical Clustering Analysis
Šmelko, Adam; Kratochvil, Miroslav UL; Kruliš, Martin et al

in Lecture Notes in Computer Science (2021, August), 12820

Hierarchical clustering is a common tool for simplification, exploration, and analysis of datasets in many areas of research. For data originating in flow cytometry, a specific variant of agglomerative ... [more ▼]

Hierarchical clustering is a common tool for simplification, exploration, and analysis of datasets in many areas of research. For data originating in flow cytometry, a specific variant of agglomerative clustering based Mahalanobis-average linkage has been shown to produce results better than the common linkages. However, the high complexity of computing the distance limits the applicability of the algorithm to datasets obtained from current equipment. We propose an optimized, GPU-accelerated open-source implementation of the Mahalanobis-average hierarchical clustering that improves the algorithm performance by over two orders of magnitude, thus allowing it to scale to the large datasets. We provide a detailed analysis of the optimizations and collected experimental results that are also portable to other hierarchical clustering algorithms; and demonstrate the use on realistic high-dimensional datasets. [less ▲]

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See detailUnlinkable Updatable Hiding Databases and Privacy-Preserving Loyalty Programs
Damodaran, Aditya Shyam Shankar UL; Rial, Alfredo UL

in Proceedings on Privacy Enhancing Technologies (2021, July), 2021(3), 95-121

Loyalty programs allow vendors to profile buyers based on their purchase histories, which can reveal privacy sensitive information. Existing privacy friendly loyalty programs force buyers to choose ... [more ▼]

Loyalty programs allow vendors to profile buyers based on their purchase histories, which can reveal privacy sensitive information. Existing privacy friendly loyalty programs force buyers to choose whether their purchases are linkable. Moreover, vendors receive more purchase data than required for the sake of profiling. We propose a privacy-preserving loyalty program where purchases are always unlinkable, yet a vendor can profile a buyer based on her purchase history, which remains hidden from the vendor. Our protocol is based on a new building block, an unlinkable updatable hiding database (HD), which we define and construct. HD allows the vendor to initialize and update databases stored by buyers that contain their purchase histories and their accumulated loyalty points. Updates are unlinkable and, at each update, the database is hidden from the vendor. Buyers can neither modify the database nor use old versions of it. Our construction for HD is practical for large databases. [less ▲]

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See detailComparing effectiveness of paper based and Augmented Reality instructions for manual assembly and training tasks
Kolla, Sri Sudha Vijay Keshav UL; Sanchez, Andre UL; Plapper, Peter UL

in Proceedings of the 11th Conference on Learning Factories (2021, June 24)

Augmented Reality (AR) systems have seen a rapid adaptation in both training and in virtual assembly instructions. AR systems assist the operator by enhancing user perception of reality, reducing the ... [more ▼]

Augmented Reality (AR) systems have seen a rapid adaptation in both training and in virtual assembly instructions. AR systems assist the operator by enhancing user perception of reality, reducing the defects, and lead-time. However, there is a significant lack in the existing literature to compare AR systems and conventional work instructions. The aim of this research is to provide an empirical evidence of comparing task completion time, number of errors, workload index and system usability of AR and conventional paper-based work instructions. For this purpose, we designed an experiment where participants use paper based instructions and AR instructions to assemble a planetary gearbox. The task was assessed using NASA-TLX and System Usability Scale (SUS) tests, which allowed further analysis using descriptive statistics. Moreover, the qualitative interview at the end of the experiment gave more insights about participant’s overall experience. [less ▲]

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See detailAtmospheric Re-entry Energy Storage (ARES)- A Novel concept for utilizing atmospheric re-entry energy
Pandi Perumal, Raja UL; Abbud-Madrid, Angel; Voos, Holger UL

in Proceedings of the Conference GLEX 2021 (2021, June 18)

As the aspirational goal of Mars settlement starts to slowly materialize, it is apparent that its viability hinges on the utilization of its energy and material resources. Although Mars has a thinner ... [more ▼]

As the aspirational goal of Mars settlement starts to slowly materialize, it is apparent that its viability hinges on the utilization of its energy and material resources. Although Mars has a thinner atmosphere than Earth, it still exerts large amounts of heat on entry vehicles, generating temperatures around ~1500 deg C. Therefore, the entry vehicle is covered with a thick layer of ablative heat shield to protect the inside from reaching undesired temperatures. However, the temperature on the Martian surface is significantly cold. It varies between -140 deg C and 30 deg C. One of the critical challenges in developing a settlement and operating equipment on Mars is to find adequate heat sources on its surface. The envisioned heat sources are solar energy, geothermal energy, greenhouse gases and Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG). Although solar and possibly geothermal energy are the preferred sources for their unlimited supply, they are localized and require an elaborate infrastructure. Trapping greenhouse gases also requires extensive infrastructure. RTGs require a large amount of radioactive fuel and both the equipment and fuel have to be transported from Earth. Due to its hazardous nature, disposal/reprocessing of the fuel will be challenging. Interestingly, little to no effort has been spent to study the possibility of utilizing the large heat generated during vehicle entry. This paper proposes a novel concept to collect, store and utilize the atmospheric entry heat energy using Phase Change Materials (PCMs) obtained from the Martian moons. Mars settlement architectures suggest that Phobos and Deimos can be used to set up preliminary base camps. These moons are potentially trapped C-type asteroids and have the possibility to contain rich Lithium reserves. Lithium and its alloys have a relatively high latent heat of fusion and low density, making them an ideal PCM for this application. This concept takes advantage of the undesired heat generated during atmospheric entry to melt the PCMs. A storage system would store and insulate the melted PCM as it solidifies and heat energy is released. The utilized PCM could then be reused and consumed for a variety of purposes. With current technology limitations, the heat storage system could only store the heat energy obtained using PCMs for a few hours. While the results from ongoing research could considerably increase its efficiency, PCMs could be used as a temporary energy source in landing sites where no other energy generation infrastructure is available. Alternatively, the heat generated from PCMs could be converted to electricity using thermoelectric generators. [less ▲]

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See detailEffective resistance of demountable shear connectors
Kozma, Andras UL; Yang, Jie UL; Odenbreit, Christoph UL

in Proceedings of ICMS (2021, June 16)

Steel-concrete composite construction is structurally efficient but is impossible to dismount where the floor slab is permanently connected to the steel beams through traditional welded studs. This ... [more ▼]

Steel-concrete composite construction is structurally efficient but is impossible to dismount where the floor slab is permanently connected to the steel beams through traditional welded studs. This contradicts the reuse and reduce aspects of the circular economy concept which has recently been introduced to the construction industry. Within the RFCS REDUCE project, several solutions have been proposed. Demountability of the composite beams using the proposed new shear connectors has been successfully demonstrated by push-out tests and full-scale beam tests. Both experiments and numerical simulations showed that the composite beams can develop plasticity even the demountable shear connectors in solid concrete slabs failed in a brittle way. To extend the scope of Eurocode 4 and avoid uneconomic elastic design, effective shear resistance of the demountable shear connectors was defined by using a newly developed algorithm, for the calculation of the plastic moment capacity of composite sections with partial shear connection. [less ▲]

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See detailNumerical study on the revised rules for minimum degree of shear connection in propped and unpropped steel-concrete composite beams
Odenbreit, Christoph UL; Vigneri, Valentino UL

in Proceedings of ICMS (2021, June 16)

The work presents a numerical study that focuses on steel-concrete composite beams using ductile headed stud shear connectors. The objective is to check the suitability of the proposed revised EN 1994-1-1 ... [more ▼]

The work presents a numerical study that focuses on steel-concrete composite beams using ductile headed stud shear connectors. The objective is to check the suitability of the proposed revised EN 1994-1-1 rules for the minimum degree of shear connection. Therefore, a non-linear 3D finite element model of simply supported composite beams was developed and validated against the analytical values of the plastic bending design resistance. The parametric study consists of 10 configurations where the relative slip at slab-beam interface was carefully investigated at different degrees of shear connection and propping conditions. Specifically, the slip at the minimum degree of shear connection shall not exceed the limit of 6 mm defined as the characteristic slip of ductile connector according to EN 1994-1-1. The results showed that the revised rules for unpropped beams delivers conservative results whereas one case with propped conditions exhibit a maximum slip significantly higher than 6 mm. [less ▲]

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See detailResistance of a new type of flat shear connectors dedicated to composite columns
Chrzanowski, Maciej Piotr UL; Odenbreit, Christoph UL; Obiala, Renata UL et al

in Proceedings of ICMS (2021, June 16)

The current practice to assure composite action foresees the usage of headed studs. This type of mechanical shear connectors was developed for composite beams and only adopted for the column’s usage ... [more ▼]

The current practice to assure composite action foresees the usage of headed studs. This type of mechanical shear connectors was developed for composite beams and only adopted for the column’s usage. Application in composite columns could lead to a reduced economy, especially for heavy composite columns used in high-rise buildings. A new type of flat shear connectors was developed and characterized that allows for fully automatic application process. This secures an increased safety of the whole structure, improved performance, optimized cross-section, reduced manufacturing time and costs. The presented paper gives a short description about the development process and focuses on the proposed analytical model describing the resistance of flat shear connectors. The developed analytical model comprises the complex stress state, which is present in the highly confined concrete directly under the connectors. The assumptions and theoretical models were confirmed in complex non-linear FE simulations performed in the Abaqus software. [less ▲]

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See detailObservability based data-fusion cascading filtering for urban network flow estimation
Rinaldi, Marco; Viti, Francesco UL

in IEEE Xplore (2021, June)

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See detailLSPnet: A 2D Localization-oriented Spacecraft Pose Estimation Neural Network
Garcia Sanchez, Albert UL; Mohamed Ali, Mohamed Adel UL; Gaudilliere, Vincent UL et al

in Proceedings of Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition Workshops (2021, June)

Being capable of estimating the pose of uncooperative objects in space has been proposed as a key asset for enabling safe close-proximity operations such as space rendezvous, in-orbit servicing and active ... [more ▼]

Being capable of estimating the pose of uncooperative objects in space has been proposed as a key asset for enabling safe close-proximity operations such as space rendezvous, in-orbit servicing and active debris removal. Usual approaches for pose estimation involve classical computer vision-based solutions or the application of Deep Learning (DL) techniques. This work explores a novel DL-based methodology, using Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs), for estimating the pose of uncooperative spacecrafts. Contrary to other approaches, the proposed CNN directly regresses poses without needing any prior 3D information. Moreover, bounding boxes of the spacecraft in the image are predicted in a simple, yet efficient manner. The performed experiments show how this work competes with the state-of-the-art in uncooperative spacecraft pose estimation, including works which require 3D information as well as works which predict bounding boxes through sophisticated CNNs. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of the Molecular Pathogenesis of Adrenocortical Tumors by Whole-Genome Sequencing
Neininger, Kerstin UL; May, Patrick UL; Altieri, Barbara et al

in Journal of the Endocrine Society (2021, May 03), 5(Issue Supplement_1), 68

Pathogenesis of autonomous steroid secretion and adrenocortical tumorigenesis remains partially obscure. Our aim was to identify novel genetic alterations in adrenocortical adenomas (ACA) without somatic ... [more ▼]

Pathogenesis of autonomous steroid secretion and adrenocortical tumorigenesis remains partially obscure. Our aim was to identify novel genetic alterations in adrenocortical adenomas (ACA) without somatic mutations in known driver genes. Whole-genome sequencing was performed on 26 ACA/blood-derived DNA pairs without driver mutations in PRKACA, GNAS and CTNNB1 genes at previous WES (ENSAT study JCEM 2016). These included 12 cortisol-producing adenomas with Cushing syndrome (CS-CPAs), 7 with mild autonomous cortisol secretion (MACS-CPAs), and 7 endocrine-inactive ACAs (EIAs). Seven adrenocortical carcinomas (ACC) were added to the cohort. We developed a bioinformatics pipeline for a comprehensive genome analysis and to reveal differences in variant distribution. Strelka, VarScan2 and ANNOVAR software and an in-house confidence score were used for variant calling and functional annotation. Combined Annotation-Dependent-Depletion (CADD) values were used to prioritize pathogenic variants. Additional focus relied on variants in pathogenically known pathways (Wnt/β-catenin, cAMP/PKA pathway). NovoBreak algorithm was applied to discover structural variations. Two hypermutated CS-CPA samples were excluded from further analysis. Using different filters, we detected variants in driver genes not observed at WES (one p.S45P in CTNNB1 and one p.R206L in PRKACA in two different CS-CPAs). In total, we report 179,830 variations (179,598 SNVs; 232 indels) throughout all samples, being more abundant in ACC (88,954) compared to ACA (CS-CPAs: 31,821; MACS-CPAs: 35,008; EIAs: 29,963). Most alterations were in intergenic (>50%), followed by intronic and ncRNA intronic regions. A total of 32 predicted pathogenic variants were found in both coding (CADD values ≥ 15) and non-coding (CADD values ≥ 5) regions. We found 3,301 possibly damaging and recurrent variants (intergenic mutations removed) (CS-CPAs: 1,463; MACS-CPAs: 1,549; EIAs: 1,268; ACC: 1,660), mostly accumulated in intronic regions. Some of these were detected in members of the Wnt/β-catenin (CS-CPAs: 6; MACS-CPAs: 2; EIA: 1) and cAMP/PKA (CS-CPAs: 6; MACS-CPAs: 7; EIA: 4) pathways (e.g. ADCY1, ADCY2, GNA13, PDE11A). We also found a slightly higher number of structural variations in EIA (3,620) and ACC (3,486) compared to CS-CPAs (977) and MACS-CPAs (2,119). In conclusion, still unrevealed genetic alterations, especially in intronic regions, may accompany early adrenal tumorigenesis and/or autonomous cortisol secretion. [less ▲]

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See detailSensation: Sonifying the Urban Running Experience
Van Renswouw, L.; Neerhof, J.; Vos, S. et al

in Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems - Proceedings (2021, May)

Following the need to promote physical activity as a part of a healthy lifestyle, in this study we focus on encouraging more physical activity by improving the experience, with running as an example of a ... [more ▼]

Following the need to promote physical activity as a part of a healthy lifestyle, in this study we focus on encouraging more physical activity by improving the experience, with running as an example of a popular outdoor activity. Running in nature is often described as more pleasant and relaxing than running in the city, yet in urban environments it is difficult to integrate true nature in one's running route. To bridge this gap we designed Sensation, a sonified running track that provides sensations of nature using audio feedback. Sensation senses the footsteps of runners and produces synced sounds of footsteps in several nature environments to augment the urban landscape. This way, Sensation aims to enhance the environmental factors that contribute to the positive feelings people experience during a run. We report on insights gathered during our Research-through-Design process, as well as a preliminary user test of this sonified running track. © 2021 Owner/Author. [less ▲]

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See detailCrafting On-Skin Interfaces: An Embodied Prototyping Journey
Restrepo-Villamizar, J.; Vos, S.; Verhagen, E. et al

in DIS 2021 - Proceedings of the 2021 ACM Designing Interactive Systems Conference: Nowhere and Everywhere (2021, May)

This pictorial presents a design exploration of On-Skin Interfaces for recreational running. By integrating principles of interaction design, art and psychology, we explore the design of unconventional ... [more ▼]

This pictorial presents a design exploration of On-Skin Interfaces for recreational running. By integrating principles of interaction design, art and psychology, we explore the design of unconventional interfaces that facilitate the intuitive understanding of biofeedback and physiological-related information. We explored how principles from agency and bodily ownership can be applied in the design of sport- related wearables. Through our embodied prototyping journey, we gained insights on the implications of using the skin as an interactive design material. We focused on diverse materiality explorations to uncover and highlight the possibilities and challenges of materializing both functional and appealing On-Skin Interfaces. We synthesize and refl on our theoretical and practical explorations and deliver actionable insights for this growing fi of bodily and unconventional interfaces. © 2021 Owner/Author. [less ▲]

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See detailSynchronized Preprocessing of Sensor Data
Tawakuli, Amal UL; Kaiser, Daniel UL; Engel, Thomas UL

in 2020 IEEE International Conference on Big Data (2021, March 19)

Sensor data whether collected for machine learning, deep learning or other applications must be preprocessed to fit input requirements or improve performance and accuracy. Data preparation is an expensive ... [more ▼]

Sensor data whether collected for machine learning, deep learning or other applications must be preprocessed to fit input requirements or improve performance and accuracy. Data preparation is an expensive, resource consuming and complex phase often performed centrally on raw data for a specific application. The dataflow between the edge and the cloud can be enhanced in terms of efficiency, reliability and lineage by preprocessing the datasets closer to their data sources. We propose a dedicated data preprocessing framework that distributes preprocessing tasks between a cloud stage and two edge stages to create a dataflow with progressively improving quality. The framework handles heterogenous data and dynamic preprocessing plans simultaneously targeting diverse applications and use cases from different domains. Each stage autonomously executes sensor specific preprocessing plans in parallel while synchronizing the progressive execution and dynamic updates of the preprocessing plans with the other stages. Our approach minimizes the workload on central infrastructures and reduces the resources used for transferring raw data from the edge. We also demonstrate that preprocessing data can be sensor specific rather than application specific and thus can be performed prior to knowing a specific application. [less ▲]

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See detailA Private Language Argument to elucidate the relation between mind and language
Fraissler, Hannes UL

in Unisinos Journal of Philosophy (2021, March 15), 22(1), 48-58

I will defend the claim that we need to differentiate between thinking and reasoning in order to make progress in understanding the intricate relation between language and mind. The distinction between ... [more ▼]

I will defend the claim that we need to differentiate between thinking and reasoning in order to make progress in understanding the intricate relation between language and mind. The distinction between thinking and reasoning will allow us to apply a structural equivalent of Ludwig Wittgenstein’s Private Language Argument to the domain of mind and language. This argumentative strategy enables us to show that and how a certain subcategory of cognitive processes, namely reasoning, is constitutively dependent on language. The final outcome and claim of this paper can be summarized as follows: We can think without language, but we cannot reason without language. While this still leaves several questions about the relation between mind and language unanswered, I hold that the insights defended in this paper provide the basis and proper framework for further investigation about the relationship between language and the mind. [less ▲]

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See detailComparing elementary cellular automata classifications with a convolutional neural network
Comelli, Thibaud; Pinel, Frederic UL; Bouvry, Pascal UL

in Proceedings of International Conference on Agents and Artificial Intelligence (ICAART) (2021, February 05)

Elementary cellular automata (ECA) are simple dynamic systems which display complex behaviour from simple local interactions. The complex behaviour is apparent in the two-dimensional temporal evolution of ... [more ▼]

Elementary cellular automata (ECA) are simple dynamic systems which display complex behaviour from simple local interactions. The complex behaviour is apparent in the two-dimensional temporal evolution of a cellular automata, which can be viewed as an image composed of black and white pixels. The visual patterns within these images inspired several ECA classifications, aimed at matching the automatas’ properties to observed patterns, visual or statistical. In this paper, we quantitatively compare 11 ECA classifications. In contrast to the a priori logic behind a classification, we propose an a posteriori evaluation of a classification. The evaluation employs a convolutional neural network, trained to classify each ECA to its assigned class in a classification. The prediction accuracy indicates how well the convolutional neural network is able to learn the underlying classification logic, and reflects how well this classification logic clusters patterns in the temporal evolution. Results show different prediction accuracy (yet all above 85%), three classifications are very well captured by our simple convolutional neural network (accuracy above 99%), although trained on a small extract from the temporal evolution, and with little observations (100 per ECA, evolving 513 cells). In addition, we explain an unreported ”pathological” behaviour in two ECAs. [less ▲]

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See detailCorrelation of Optical Signal During Laser Fusion Welding of Copper to Aluminum
Mathivanan, Karthik UL; Plapper, Peter UL

in Journal of Laser Applications (2021, January 05), 33(1),

Laser joining of dissimilar metals, copper and aluminum, allows for the precise delivery of laser energy and high process speed. The keyhole-based process is very efficient for welding Al–Cu, considering ... [more ▼]

Laser joining of dissimilar metals, copper and aluminum, allows for the precise delivery of laser energy and high process speed. The keyhole-based process is very efficient for welding Al–Cu, considering the high reflectivity and thermal conductivity of the materials joined. For the Al–Cu system, the formation of detrimental intermetallic compounds is the main issue. Fusion welding with laser as a heat source involves the melting of metals. However, the high speed of the laser welding process is advantageous for terminating the excessive melting of Al and Cu and eventually controlling the detrimental intermetallic phases. Therefore, information pertaining to melted material is an important criterion for achieving joint strength. In this paper, the photodiode signal measured during the laser welding of Cu to Al is investigated as a process monitoring technique. In welding from Cu to Al, the melting of Al (bottom sheet) is very critical for joint strength. The amount of Al material that can be intermixed in Cu depends on the solubility limit of the Al–Cu system. The plasma plume emission during laser welding is used to extract the rapid melting of Al. This study shows the correlation of the Al characteristic peak at a wavelength of 396 nm with the shear strength of the joint. [less ▲]

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See detailShort-Term Fluctuation of Subjective Age and its Correlates: An Ecological Momentary Assessment of Older Adults
Kornadt, Anna Elena UL; Pauly, Theresa; Gerstorf, Denis et al

in Innovation in Aging (2021), 5(Supplement_1), 287-287

We examined short-term fluctuations of subjective age with data obtained from 123 young-old (Mage = 67.19 years) and 47 old-old adults (Mage = 86.59 years) who reported their momentary subjective age six ... [more ▼]

We examined short-term fluctuations of subjective age with data obtained from 123 young-old (Mage = 67.19 years) and 47 old-old adults (Mage = 86.59 years) who reported their momentary subjective age six times a day over seven consecutive days as they were going about their everyday lives. Participants felt younger on a large majority of occasions, and 25% of the total variability in subjective age could be attributed to within-person variation. Those with younger trait subjective ages exhibited larger moment-to-moment variation, while chronological age did not impact variability. Furthermore, we investigated relationships between within-day fluctuations of subjective age and daily cortisol fluctuations. Our findings extend the literature on subjective age by showing that how old people feel can vary on a momentary basis, that state and trait components of subjective age are related, and that fluctuations in subjective age are related to biomarkers of stress. [less ▲]

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See detailUltrafast opto-acoustic modulation of light reflectance in metal-insulator-metal epsilon-near-zero nanocavities
Kuttruff, Joel; Krahne, Roman; De Luca, Antonio et al

in Proceedings of SPIE: The International Society for Optical Engineering (2021), 11769

We report on ultrafast opto-acoustic modulation of light reflectance in artificial epsilon-near-zero metamaterials made of two layers of Ag separated by an Al2O3 layer. By means of non-degenerate two ... [more ▼]

We report on ultrafast opto-acoustic modulation of light reflectance in artificial epsilon-near-zero metamaterials made of two layers of Ag separated by an Al2O3 layer. By means of non-degenerate two color pump-probe experiments we demonstrate an optically induced acoustic modulation of the reflectance up to 20% via generation of acoustic waves inside the cavity upon mechanical expansion of the metal due to hot electron-phonon coupling nonlinearity in the Ag layers. The presented architecture opens the pathway towards novel routes to exploit light-matter interactions for opto-acoustic modulation at GHz frequencies. Moreover, our system can be designed to work in transmission geometry and is very versatile in terms of shifting the presented properties along a broad range of wavelengths, from UV to mid-IR. Our approach, beyond light-driven information processing, might impact also opto-mechanics, light-driven phonon induced up conversion mechanisms, non-linear optical and acoustic properties of materials, energy harvesting, and heat-assisted ultrafast magneto-optical recording. [less ▲]

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See detailSPACECRAFT RECOGNITION LEVERAGING KNOWLEDGE OF SPACE ENVIRONMENT: SIMULATOR, DATASET, COMPETITION DESIGN, AND ANALYSIS
Mohamed Ali, Mohamed Adel UL; Gaudilliere, Vincent UL; Ghorbel, Enjie UL et al

in 2021 IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP) (2021)

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See detailDe la naissance de l’État luxembourgeois. Analyse et historique de la problématique
Heuschling, Luc UL

in Actes de la section des sciences morales et politiques de l'Institut grand-ducal (2021), Vol XXIV

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See detailThe Office Jungle: Exploring Unusual Ways of Working through Bodily Experimentations
Damen, I.; Nieuweboer, I.; Brombacher, H. et al

in DIS 2021 - Proceedings of the 2021 ACM Designing Interactive Systems Conference: Nowhere and Everywhere (2021)

Modern office environments foster sitting, a major public health risk, with physical inactivity being the fourth cause of death worldwide. This provocative pictorial presents the design explorations and ... [more ▼]

Modern office environments foster sitting, a major public health risk, with physical inactivity being the fourth cause of death worldwide. This provocative pictorial presents the design explorations and bodily experimentations culminating in The Office Jungle, a critical and speculative redesign of the office environment that encourages physical activity by embracing wildness. The Office Jungle is a design exemplar of a "wild"office space presented as a suspended geodesic structure. It is built to experienc e how our office environment and our behaviour at work affect each other. We advocate that bringing wildness into office spaces will create more durable office environments that foster movement. With this pictorial, we aim to spark discussion amongst designers to think in new ways and to consider new opportunities to design for workplaces that integrate physical activity with work. © 2021 Owner/Author. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Hubs: Design Insights for Walking Meeting Technology
Damen, Ida; Vos, Steven; Lallemand, Carine UL

in Lecture Notes in Computer Science (2021), 12935 LNCS

As an active form of meeting, walking meetings can be beneficial for office workers who often have a sedentary work routine. Despite their substantial benefits in terms of health, social interactions, and ... [more ▼]

As an active form of meeting, walking meetings can be beneficial for office workers who often have a sedentary work routine. Despite their substantial benefits in terms of health, social interactions, and creativity, walking meetings are not yet widely adopted. Some key barriers limiting their social acceptance and wider adoption, for instance, the difficulty to present files or take notes, might be addressed by technology. Using the Hubs - a network of stand-up meeting stations - as a design exemplar, we conducted a scenario-based survey (N = 186) to provide insights into how technological solutions can support the practice of walking meetings. Focusing on the size of the group and type of meetings, we identify scenarios of use and discuss design implications for the development of future technologies and service design components to support walking meetings. © 2021, IFIP International Federation for Information Processing. [less ▲]

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See detailArtificial neural network to predict the weld status in laser welding of copper to aluminum
Mathivanan, Karthik UL; Plapper, Peter UL

in Procedia CIRP (2021)

Laser welding of copper to aluminum is challenging due to the formation of complex intermetallic phases. More Al (~18.5 at. %) can be dissolved in Cu, in contrast to Cu (~2.5 at. %) in Al. Therefore ... [more ▼]

Laser welding of copper to aluminum is challenging due to the formation of complex intermetallic phases. More Al (~18.5 at. %) can be dissolved in Cu, in contrast to Cu (~2.5 at. %) in Al. Therefore, welding from copper side, large melting of Al can be achieved. However optimum Cu and Al must be melted for a strong joint. Finding the right amount is difficult and time consuming by tradition analysis technique like inspection by weld cross-sections. Considering the speed of the welding process and complexity of analysis involving with metallography cross-sections, alternative rapid method to qualify the welds are necessary. The acoustic emission during laser welding can give proportional information of the Al, Cu melted. With such an approach the weld status can be obtained in real time. In this paper the acoustic welding signal using an airborne sensor in the audible range of 20 Hz to 20 kHz, is correlated to the weld strength and material mixing (Al, Cu melt). Finally, the weld status is predicted by an artificial neural network based on the acquired signal. [less ▲]

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See detailAesthetic of Friction for Exercising Motivation: A Prototyping Journey
De Haan, A.; Menheere, D.; Vos, S. et al

in DIS 2021 - Proceedings of the 2021 ACM Designing Interactive Systems Conference: Nowhere and Everywhere (2021)

Despite an intention to exercise, it remains a challenge for many people to establish a workout routine over a period of time. Amongst identified barriers and enablers to exercise, getting dressed for a ... [more ▼]

Despite an intention to exercise, it remains a challenge for many people to establish a workout routine over a period of time. Amongst identified barriers and enablers to exercise, getting dressed for a workout is considered as one of the tipping points of actually going. Implementing the Aesthetic of Friction in this specific context, could imply the right course of action for the user, while it also allows freedom and encourages meaning-making. In this Research-through-Design project, we designed an interactive shrinking hanger, that implements these key principles, to encourage exercise motivation. We followed an iterative process focusing on the aesthetics of the interaction to find out how a careful consideration of the look and feel of an interactive artefact influences the acceptance of the implemented friction. We document the design process of this aesthetics of friction exemplar, and reflect on how to implement friction in design. © 2021 Owner/Author. [less ▲]

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See detailTransfer learning for credit card fraud detection : A journey from research to production.
Siblini, Wissam; Coter, Guillaume; Fabry, Remy et al

in The Proceedings of the Data Science and Advanced Analytics (DSAA 2021) IEEE conference (2021)

The dark face of digital commerce generalization is the increase of fraud attempts. To prevent any type of attacks, state-of-the-art fraud detection systems are now embedding Machine Learning (ML) modules ... [more ▼]

The dark face of digital commerce generalization is the increase of fraud attempts. To prevent any type of attacks, state-of-the-art fraud detection systems are now embedding Machine Learning (ML) modules. The conception of such modules is only communicated at the level of research and papers mostly focus on results for isolated benchmark datasets and metrics. But research is only a part of the journey, preceded by the right formulation of the business problem and collection of data, and followed by a practical integration. In this paper, we give a wider vision of the process, on a case study of transfer learning for fraud detection, from business to research, and back to business. [less ▲]

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See detailLe droit international relatif à l’esclavage : de la réglementation du commerce international des captifs au droit universel de ne pas être traité en esclave
Erpelding, Michel UL

in Histoire de la Justice (2021), 31(1), 203-213

This article summarizes the evolution of international legal norms regarding slavery between the 17th and 20th centuries.

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See detailImpact of model-agnostic nonconformity functions on efficiency of conformal classifiers: an extensive study
Aleksandrova, Marharyta UL; Chertov, Oleg

in Proceedings of Machine Learning Research (2021), 152

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See detailEvaluation of basic motor competencies in primary school in Luxembourg
Scheuer, Claude UL; Bund, Andreas UL; Heck, Sandra UL et al

in Popups Université de Liège (2021)

An objective of physical education (PE) is supporting students’ positive motor development. Therefore, it is indispensable for them to be in command of the necessary basic motor competencies (in German ... [more ▼]

An objective of physical education (PE) is supporting students’ positive motor development. Therefore, it is indispensable for them to be in command of the necessary basic motor competencies (in German: Motorische Basiskompetenzen; MOBAK) as the prerequisites to be able to participate in the culture of human movement. For the implementation of the MOBAK approach in Luxembourg (MOBAK-LUX), we developed the test instruments MOBAK-LUX-PS for preschoolers, MOBAK-LUX-1 for first graders, MOBAK-LUX-3 for third graders and MOBAK-LUX-5 for fifth graders. These motor tests are conducted on a voluntary basis by interested schools and teachers at the beginning of each school year. In general, about one third of students in the different class levels have support needs in at least one area of basic motor competence. The support needs are prevalent mostly in the area object control and girls generally have lower results than boys, especially in object control. [less ▲]

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See detailExploring the Design Space of InterActive Urban Environments: Triggering physical activity through embedded technology
Van Renswouw, L.; Vos, S.; Van Wesemael, P. et al

in DIS 2021 - Proceedings of the 2021 ACM Designing Interactive Systems Conference: Nowhere and Everywhere (2021)

Promoting healthy lifestyles is an essential endeavor for public health. The design of active urban environments can be an effective medium to nudge people into moving. With technology increasingly ... [more ▼]

Promoting healthy lifestyles is an essential endeavor for public health. The design of active urban environments can be an effective medium to nudge people into moving. With technology increasingly integrated into our daily lives, designers have access to more data than ever. In this pictorial, we explore the design space of interActive environments (contraction of ginteractive' and gactive'); places designed to increase the physical activity of users or passers-by through the use of interactive technology. Through sketches, a benchmark of existing concepts and an analysis of designed artefacts, we map the different intervention levels, interaction modalities, behavior change strategies and technological opportunities to design such interActive environments. With this work, we invite the community to consider how digital technology can help understand and shape human behavior in urban environments, and provide inspiration to designers and practitioners. © 2021 Owner/Author. [less ▲]

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See detailLe Congrès de Vienne et le statut international du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg : théories et réalités du droit des gens de l’Europe
Erpelding, Michel UL

in Actes de la section des sciences morales et politiques de l'Institut grand-ducal (2021), 24

This articles examines the international status of Luxembourg between 1815 and 1867 from the perspective of the international law applicable at that time and based on the relevant state practice. It ... [more ▼]

This articles examines the international status of Luxembourg between 1815 and 1867 from the perspective of the international law applicable at that time and based on the relevant state practice. It contends that - from the perspective of international law - Luxembourg emerged as a state after the evacuation of Belgian troops from its territory in 1839. [less ▲]

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See detailModeling Object’s Affordances via Reward Functions
Lima Baima, Renan UL; Luna Colombini, Esther

in IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics (2021)

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See detailExperiments in Causality and STIT
Streit, David D UL

in Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Logics for the New Generation Artificial Intelligence (2021)

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See detailEnhanced second-harmonic generation by single metal–insulator multilayered nanocavities with axial symmetry resonating in the near-infrared
Zilli, Attilio; Isoniemi, Tommi; Iarossi, Marzia et al

in Proceedings of SPIE: The International Society for Optical Engineering (2021), 11770

We report efficient second-harmonic emission by single multilayer metal–dielectric nanocavities. Engineering the intrinsic interface-induced symmetry breaking by resonant optical absorption design, allows ... [more ▼]

We report efficient second-harmonic emission by single multilayer metal–dielectric nanocavities. Engineering the intrinsic interface-induced symmetry breaking by resonant optical absorption design, allows to achieve almost two orders of magnitude higher second-harmonic generation efficiency compared to gold nanostructures with the same geometry. We estimate a second-order nonlinear susceptibility of the order of 1 pm/V, which is comparable to widely used nonlinear crystals. We envision that our system, which combines the advantages of both plasmonic and dielectric materials, might enable the realization of composite nano-systems for an efficient multi-purpose manipulation of nonlinear optical processes at the nanoscale. [less ▲]

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See detailWhat is problematic about binary questions on gender in health surveys – a missing answer analysis
Heinz, Andreas UL; Költő, András; Godeau, Emmanuelle et al

in Cogent Medicine (2020, December 04)

Background: In many studies, participants who do not state their gender are excluded from the analysis. This may be appropriate if they do not answer the questionnaire seriously. However, some ... [more ▼]

Background: In many studies, participants who do not state their gender are excluded from the analysis. This may be appropriate if they do not answer the questionnaire seriously. However, some participants may have understandable reasons for not reporting their gender, e.g. questioning their gender identity. Research question: How many students and which students do not answer the question on gender? Methods: We analyzed data of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study from Ireland, France, Hungary, Scotland, Belgium (Flemish) and Luxembourg (n = 40,053). To explore the reasons for non-response, we divided the participants into 3 groups: 1. Responders answered both socio- demographic questions (age and gender) 2. age non-responders did not answer the question on age. 3. Gender non-responders answered the question on age, but not the one on gender. Results: 311 out of 40,053 (0.8%) pupils aged 11–18 did not report their gender. About 40% of them did not answer the age question either. However, the other 60% belong to the group of gender non-responders and this group is disadvantaged compared to responders: they report lower self-rated health, more health complaints, less family support and more substance use (alcohol, tobacco, cannabis). 1.9% of pupils did not answer the question about age. These age non-responders answered the questionnaire more selectively overall and skipped more questions. Conclusion: The data suggest that the reasons for age non-response and gender non-response are different. For age non-responders, the fear of de-anonymization seems to be the reason for not indicating their age. Not answering the question on gender is rare. If the participants answered the question on age, but not the question on gender, then the variable gender is missing not at random. The health problems of gender non-responders correspond to the health problems of gender non-conforming adolescents. Thus, the question arises if the group of gender non-responders should be included in the analysis and if the question on gender should be asked differently in the future [less ▲]

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See detailMeasuring sex and gender identity in a cross-national adolescent population survey: Perspectives of adolescent health experts from 44 countries
Költő, András; Heinz, Andreas UL; Moreno-Maldonado, Concepcion et al

in Cogent Medicine (2020, December 04)

Introduction: The Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) is a World Health Organization collaborative cross-cultural study of adolescents aged 11–15 years, from 50 countries and regions in Europe ... [more ▼]

Introduction: The Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) is a World Health Organization collaborative cross-cultural study of adolescents aged 11–15 years, from 50 countries and regions in Europe, North America and the former Soviet republics. Since 1983 (the first survey round), the sex/gender of the respondents have been categorised with the question “Are you a boy or a girl?”, the response options being “a boy” and “a girl”. In the light of lived experiences of young people and contemporary theoretical and empirical approaches to the measurement of sex assigned birth and gender identity, this item is contested.Research Questions: What are HBSC National Research Teams’ experiences with using this item? What is their position on any potential change or amendment of the item? Have they already made any changes? Do they see potential drawbacks and benefits in changing the item? Method: In Summer 2019, an online survey was conducted with HBSC National Teams, to under-stand member countries’ position on the measurement of sex and gender in the HBSC survey. Results: Of the 50 research teams, 44 responded to the online questionnaire. Opinions on potential changes or amendments of the item were polarised, with 19 teams (43%) not supporting any changes, 15 teams (34%) agreeing with a change, and 10 teams (23%) indicating they don’t know or not sure if changes are necessary. Various arguments were raised for and against any changes or amendments. Six national teams already implemented a change, by adding a third response option, replacing the item, or using additional items. Conclusions: The results demonstrate that the issue of sex and gender in HBSC needs to be addressed, but methodological, political and cultural implications need to be considered. The complexity of this problem makes it impossible to suggest a “one-size-fits-all” solution. [less ▲]

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See detailSensitivity Analysis on Regularity Based Driver Advisory Systems
Laskaris, Georgios; Seredynski, Marcin; Viti, Francesco UL

in 2020 IEEE 23rd International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSC) (2020, December)

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See detailAutonomous Vehicles: Data Protection and Ethical Considerations
Terzidou, Kalliopi UL; Krontiris, Ioannis; Grammenou, Kalliroi et al

in Journal of the Association for Computing Machinery (2020, December)

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See detailA cascading Kalman filtering framework for real-time urban network flow estimation
Rinaldi, Marco UL; Viti, Francesco UL

in 2020 IEEE 23rd International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSC) (2020, December)

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See detailPractical Implementation of Functionally Graded Lattice Structures in a Bicycle Crank Arm
Decker, Thierry UL; Kedziora, Slawomir UL; Wolf, Claude UL

in 850th International Conference on Science, Technology, Engineering and Management (2020, November 25)

Functionally graded lattice structures (FGLS) were studied thoroughly for the past years, mostly focusing on specific synthetic tests in the context of additive manufacturing while rarely being actually ... [more ▼]

Functionally graded lattice structures (FGLS) were studied thoroughly for the past years, mostly focusing on specific synthetic tests in the context of additive manufacturing while rarely being actually applied outside of this specific domain. This paper examines a way to practically implement them in a commonly used appliance and study their potential for its improvement. A bicycle crank arm was chosen for this purpose, and a solid aluminium reference model (Shimano FC-R450-453) is used as a performance baseline. The novel design is composed of a hollow body containing a beam-based, non-stochastic, functionally graded lattice structure and is planned to be manufactured on a Markforged Metal X system using 17-4 PH stainless steel. It aims to increase the total stiffness under EN ISO 4210-8 norm loading conditions compared to the reference model while limiting mass and stress values to acceptable degrees. Two crank arm variants, containing a face-centred cubic (FCC) and re-entrant auxetic lattice respectively, are optimised by locally altering their beam radii in eight separate regions. The displacement at the load application point is minimised using Altair OptiStruct and HyperStudy. The reference crank, weighing 213g, exhibits a deflection magnitude of 7.1mm in the most demanding load case while the newly designed and optimised versions only showed displacements of 2.52mm (FCC lattice, 340g) and 2.58mm (re-entrant lattice, 339g) respectively. In addition, the stress distribution was significantly enhanced compared to the reference model, as the latter would not pass the fatigue tests required by the norm. This demonstrates that FGLS, in combination with high-strength materials and additive manufacturing, can increase the performance of many parts, although in this case, with a trade-off in terms of its mass. In future projects, it might be considerably reduced by utilising alternative lattice types lattices or other materials while preserving the benefits of FGLS. [less ▲]

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See detailReduction of temperature effects for bridge health monitoring
Nguyen, Viet Hà; Kebig, Tanja UL; Golinval, Jean-Claude et al

in Eccomas Proceedia (2020, November 23)

Structural health monitoring of concrete bridges can be achieved by tracking static load-testing results or dynamic properties as for example eigenfrequencies. Deviations from a healthy reference state ... [more ▼]

Structural health monitoring of concrete bridges can be achieved by tracking static load-testing results or dynamic properties as for example eigenfrequencies. Deviations from a healthy reference state can be used as damage indicators and even more, help to localize zones of stiffness reduction, i.e. cracking. However, outdoor temperature effects also lead to changes of monitored physical characteristics in the same order of magnitude as damage. Hence, temperature effects need to be removed prior to any condition analysis. The present paper presents a new two-step approach by applying physical compensation first, before using a statistical method based of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) or more exactly on principal vectors and singular values. This technique is here applied to eigenfrequencies, first of a new bridge without damage, but with extreme temperature variation due to thick asphalt layer and special bearing constraints, thus showing strong sensitivity along seasonal temperatures in the intact state. The second object is the Z24 Bridge in Switzerland, which is well documented in literature and where artificial damage was applied prior to demolition. The proposed techniques allow removing noise and temperature effects in a coherent and efficient way. The corrected measurement data can then be used in subsequent steps for its definite purpose, i.e. detection and localization of damage for instance by updating a numerical finite element model which allows assessing a stiffness loss. [less ▲]

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See detailDesigning of the module envelope of a hybrid modular building to meet the passive house standards in Luxembourg
Rakotonjanahary, Tahiana Roland Michaël UL; Scholzen, Frank UL; Ferreira Silva, Marielle UL et al

in IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science (2020, November 20), 588(5), 052026

To face the challenges of climate change, new buildings need to be further greener while being able to ensure a minimum comfort to the tenants. Nonetheless, extensibility and flexibility could be added to ... [more ▼]

To face the challenges of climate change, new buildings need to be further greener while being able to ensure a minimum comfort to the tenants. Nonetheless, extensibility and flexibility could be added to buildings. In this context, the architect jointly with the team of this research project have designed a hybrid modular construction called “slab building” which is composed of a permanent concrete structure and several removable wooden modules. A module offers 27m² of living space but larger housings can be realized by combining two up to four modules. The aim of this paper is to design the walls of the modules to meet the criteria of nZEB. The thicknesses of the studied thermal insulations, namely rock wool, wood wool, polyurethane and aerogel, have been determined in accordance with the passive house requirements in Luxembourg. The embodied energy of the building materials has also been considered in the designing of the modules. Steady state calculations revealed that a wall thickness of 40 cm, comprising 31cm of insulation is sufficient but according to the LCA outcomes, there is no environmental benefit in having the modules comply with the AAA energy class requirements at reasonable wall thicknesses. [less ▲]

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See detailCreate Digital Games for Education: Game Design as a Teaching Methodology
Wernbacher, Thomas; Reuter, Robert UL; Denk, Natalie et al

in Proceedings of ICERI 2020 (2020, November 09)

Besides the pure application of serious games as tools for knowledge transfer, a further trend has been observed in the last few years: The creation of games as an opportunity to gain practical experience ... [more ▼]

Besides the pure application of serious games as tools for knowledge transfer, a further trend has been observed in the last few years: The creation of games as an opportunity to gain practical experience and thereby also build up valuable knowledge. In this context several approaches are possible, such as using paper prototyping, applying Game-Maker tools like Scratch, RPG-Maker, Construct 3 or Game Maker Studio 2, next to the option to use actual game engines like Unity. This contribution aims to discuss the possibility of creating games in a very specific, predefined genre using Game Maker tools that have been especially developed for use in an educational context and therefore offer didactic guidance. The Game Creator tool which was developed as part of the Erasmus+ project Create Digital Games for Education (CDG4E) is presented in more depth. With this tool you can create decision card games inspired by the mobile game bestseller "Reigns". Within the project, the consortium created educational games in different areas such as fake news prevention and STEM education. In addition to these ready-made games, another focus was placed on using the tool itself as a teaching technique, for example to create games on a specific topic with school classes or within youth work, but also as an instrument for setting up dedicated "game jams". This contribution reports on the advantages and drawbacks of creating the tool itself by analyzing qualitative and quantitative data gathered during the iterative design process of the Game Creator. [less ▲]

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See detailLocust: Highly Concurrent DHT Experimentation Framework for Security Evaluations
Adamsky, Florian; Kaiser, Daniel UL; Steglich, Michael et al

in Proceedings of ICPS ICCNS 2020 (2020, November)

Distributed Hash Table (DHT) protocols, such as Kademlia, provide a decentralized key-value lookup which is nowadays integrated into a wide variety of applications, such as Ethereum, InterPlanetary File ... [more ▼]

Distributed Hash Table (DHT) protocols, such as Kademlia, provide a decentralized key-value lookup which is nowadays integrated into a wide variety of applications, such as Ethereum, InterPlanetary File System (IPFS), and BitTorrent. However, many security issues in DHT protocols have not been solved yet. DHT networks are typically evaluated using mathematical models or simulations, often abstracting away from artefacts that can be relevant for security and/or performance. Experiments capturing these artefacts are typically run with too few nodes. In this paper, we provide Locust, a novel highly concurrent DHT experimentation framework written in Elixir, which is designed for security evaluations. This framework allows running experiments with a full DHT implementation and around 4,000 nodes on a single machine including an adjustable churn rate; thus yielding a favourable trade-off between the number of analysed nodes and being realistic. We evaluate our framework in terms of memory consumption, processing power, and network traffic. [less ▲]

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See detailBorrowing your enemy's arrows: the case of code reuse in android via direct inter-app code invocation
Gao, Jun UL; li, li; Kong, Pingfan UL et al

in ESEC/FSE 2020: Proceedings of the 28th ACM Joint Meeting on European Software Engineering Conference and Symposium on the Foundations of Software Engineering (2020, November)

{The Android ecosystem offers different facilities to enable communication among app components and across apps to ensure that rich services can be composed through functionality reuse. At the heart of ... [more ▼]

{The Android ecosystem offers different facilities to enable communication among app components and across apps to ensure that rich services can be composed through functionality reuse. At the heart of this system is the Inter-component communication (ICC) scheme, which has been largely studied in the literature. Less known in the community is another powerful mechanism that allows for direct inter-app code invocation which opens up for different reuse scenarios, both legitimate or malicious. This paper exposes the general workflow for this mechanism, which beyond ICCs, enables app developers to access and invoke functionalities (either entire Java classes, methods or object fields) implemented in other apps using official Android APIs. We experimentally showcase how this reuse mechanism can be leveraged to â plagiarize" supposedly-protected functionalities. Typically, we were able to leverage this mechanism to bypass security guards that a popular video broadcaster has placed for preventing access to its video database from outside its provided app. We further contribute with a static analysis toolkit, named DICIDer, for detecting direct inter-app code invocations in apps. An empirical analysis of the usage prevalence of this reuse mechanism is then conducted. Finally, we discuss the usage contexts as well as the implications of this studied reuse mechanism [less ▲]

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See detailThe Framework of Security-Enhancing Friction: How UX Can Help Users Behave More Securely
Distler, Verena UL; Lenzini, Gabriele UL; Lallemand, Carine UL et al

in New Security Paradigms Workshop (2020, October 26)

A growing body of research in the usable privacy and security community addresses the question of how to best influence user behavior to reduce risk-taking.We propose to address this challenge by ... [more ▼]

A growing body of research in the usable privacy and security community addresses the question of how to best influence user behavior to reduce risk-taking.We propose to address this challenge by integrating the concept of user experience (UX) into empirical usable privacy and security studies that attempt to change risktaking behavior. UX enables us to study the complex interplay between user-related, system-related and contextual factors and provides insights into the experiential aspects underlying behavior change, including negative experiences. We first compare and contrast existing security-enhancing interventions (e.g., nudges, warnings, fear appeals) through the lens of friction. We then build on these insights to argue that it can be desirable to design for moments of negative UX in security-critical situations. For this purpose, we introduce the novel concept of security-enhancing friction, friction that effectively reduces the occurrence of risk-taking behavior and ensures that the overall UX (after use) is not compromised. We illustrate how security-enhancing friction provides an actionable way to systematically integrate the concept of UX into empirical usable privacy and security studies for meeting both the objectives of secure behavior and of overall acceptable experience. [less ▲]

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See detailInternational Law and the European Court of Justice: The Politics of Avoiding History
Erpelding, Michel UL

in Journal of the History of International Law (2020, October 21), 22(2-3), 446-472

Using the example of the European Court of Justice (ECJ), this article addresses the lack of historical contextualization which is prevalent in most general accounts of EU law and EU institutions. It ... [more ▼]

Using the example of the European Court of Justice (ECJ), this article addresses the lack of historical contextualization which is prevalent in most general accounts of EU law and EU institutions. It argues that this narrative is the result of a tradition established by the founders of the discipline. For these early ‘Euro-lawyers’, distinguishing the practice of European institutions from earlier international institutions had important political implications. This was especially true with regard to the ECJ. By providing a selective and partly decontextualized narrative of this court and describing it as largely unprecedented in international law, early Euro-lawyers were not only able to bolster the ‘supranational’ and ‘sui generis’ character of their nascent discipline. They were also able to avoid comparisons between the ECJ and prior international courts and tribunals whose similarly wide-ranging powers and integrated nature had been considered as politically problematic. [less ▲]

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See detailMeasuring the Contextual Dimension of User Experience: Development of the User Experience Context Scale (UXCS)
Lallemand, Carine UL; Koenig, Vincent UL

in Proceedings of the 11th Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction: Shaping Experiences, Shaping Society (2020, October)

The context of use has been highlighted for a long time as being a key factor impacting User Experience (UX). Yet current UX evaluation tools, especially questionnaires, rarely encompass an explicit ... [more ▼]

The context of use has been highlighted for a long time as being a key factor impacting User Experience (UX). Yet current UX evaluation tools, especially questionnaires, rarely encompass an explicit investigation of the context. With the ever-growing trend for mobile products and ubiquitous computing, the absence of a dedicated measurement tool becomes critical. Based on a review of relevant literature and a fine-grained categorization of contextual factors, we developed the UX Context Scale (UXCS), a 30-items instrument allowing for a measure of context properties, as perceived by the user. We report on the development of the scale and present a first validation study (N = 137). A principal component analysis on the subjective items reveals a 6-components structure: Physical Context, Social Context, Internal Context, Perceived Resources, Task Context, and Temporal Context. Reliability of each subscale is high and further analyses confirm the relevance of this tool for UX evaluation. [less ▲]

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See detailA Security and Privacy Focused KYC Data Sharing Platform
Norvill, Robert UL; Cyril, Cassagnes; Wazen, Shbair et al

in Proceedings of the 2nd ACM International Symposium on Blockchain and Secure Critical Infrastructure (2020, October)

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See detailDissociated face- and word-selective intracerebral responses in the human ventral occipito-temporal cortex
Hagen, Simen; Lochy, Aliette UL; Jacques, Corentin et al

in Journal of Vision (2020, October), 20(11),

The extent to which faces and written words share neural circuitry in the human brain is actively debated. We provide an original contribution to this debate by comparing face-selective and word-selective ... [more ▼]

The extent to which faces and written words share neural circuitry in the human brain is actively debated. We provide an original contribution to this debate by comparing face-selective and word-selective responses in a large group of patients (N=37) implanted with intracerebral electrodes in the ventral occipito-temporal cortex (VOTC). Both face-selective (i.e., significantly different responses to faces vs. nonface objects) and word-selective (i.e., significantly different responses to words vs. pseudofonts) neural activity is isolated through frequency-tagging (Jonas et al., 2016; Lochy et al., 2018, respectively). Critically, this approach allows disentangling category-selective neural responses from general visual responses. Overall, we find that 69.26% of significant contacts show either face- or word-selectivity, with the expected right and left hemispheric dominance, respectively (Fig.1A,B). Moreover, the center of mass for word-contacts is more lateral than for face-contacts, with no differences in postero-anterior axis (Fig.2A). Spatial dissociations are also found within core regions of face and word processing, with a medio-lateral dissociation in the fusiform gyrus (FG) and surrounding sulci (FG+sulci;Fig.2B), while a postero-anterior dissociation is found in the inferior occipital gyrus (IOG;Fig.2C). Despite their spatial dissociations in the FG+sulci and IOG, most overlap in category-selective responses is found in these regions (Fig.1C). Critically, in the overlap-contacts, across the whole brain or specifically in the FG+sulci, between-category (word-face) selective-amplitudes showed no-to-weak correlations, despite strong correlations for within-category (face-face, word-word) selective-amplitudes (Fig.3A), and a strong correlation in non-selective general-amplitudes to words-faces. Moreover, substantial overlap and no-to-weak correlations were observed between faces and a control category (houses) known to be functionally dissociated from faces. Overall, we conclude that category-selectivity for faces and words is largely dissociated in the human VOTC, with a limited spatial overlap likely due to the distant recording of dissociated populations of neurons rather than to shared category-selective representations. [less ▲]

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See detailSDR IMPLEMENTATION OF A TESTBED FOR SYNCHRONIZATION OF COHERENT DISTRIBUTED REMOTE SENSING SYSTEMS
Merlano Duncan, Juan Carlos UL; Querol, Jorge UL; Martinez Marrero, Liz UL et al

in Proceedings of IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium 2020 (2020, September 26)

Remote Sensing from distributed platforms has become attractive for the community in the last years. Phase, frequency, and time synchronization are a crucial requirement for many such applications as ... [more ▼]

Remote Sensing from distributed platforms has become attractive for the community in the last years. Phase, frequency, and time synchronization are a crucial requirement for many such applications as multi-static remote sensing and also for distributed beamforming for communications. The literature on the field is extensive, and in some cases, the requirements an complexity of the proposed synchronization solution may surpass the ones set by the application itself. Moreover, the synchronization solution becomes even more challenging when the nodes are flying or hovering on aerial or space platforms. In this work, we discuss the synchronization considerations for the implementation of distributed remote sensing applications. The general framework considered is based on a distributed collection of autonomous nodes that synchronize their clocks with a common reference using inter-satellite links. For this purpose, we implement a synchronization link between two nodes operating in a full-duplex fashion. The experimental testbed uses commercially available SDR platforms to emulate two satellites, two targets, and the communication channel. The proposal is evaluated considering phase and frequency errors for different system parameters. [less ▲]

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See detailActor-Critic Deep Reinforcement Learning for Energy Minimization in UAV-Aided Networks
Yuan, Yaxiong UL; Lei, Lei UL; Vu, Thang Xuan UL et al

in 2020 European Conference on Networks and Communications (EuCNC) (2020, September 21)

In this paper, we investigate a user-timeslot scheduling problem for downlink unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)-aided networks, where the UAV serves as an aerial base station. We formulate an optimization ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we investigate a user-timeslot scheduling problem for downlink unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)-aided networks, where the UAV serves as an aerial base station. We formulate an optimization problem by jointly determining user scheduling and hovering time to minimize UAV’s transmission and hovering energy. An offline algorithm is proposed to solve the problem based on the branch and bound method and the golden section search. However, executing the offline algorithm suffers from the exponential growth of computational time. Therefore, we apply a deep reinforcement learning (DRL) method to design an online algorithm with less computational time. To this end, we first reformulate the original user scheduling problem to a Markov decision process (MDP). Then, an actor-critic-based RL algorithm is developed to determine the scheduling policy under the guidance of two deep neural networks. Numerical results show the proposed online algorithm obtains a good tradeoff between performance gain and computational time. [less ▲]

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See detailAutomatic Detection of Nigrosome Degeneration in Susceptibility-Weighted MRI for Computer-Aided Diagnosis of Parkinson’s Disease Using Machine Learning
Garcia Santa Cruz, Beatriz UL; Husch, Andreas UL; Hertel, Frank UL

in Movement Disorders (2020, September 12)

Objective: Automatize the detection of ‘swallow-tail’ appearance in substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons using MRI for more robust tests on Parkinson’s disease (PD) diagnosis. Background: Differential ... [more ▼]

Objective: Automatize the detection of ‘swallow-tail’ appearance in substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons using MRI for more robust tests on Parkinson’s disease (PD) diagnosis. Background: Differential diagnosis of PD is challenging even in specialized centers. The use of imaging techniques can be bene cial for the diagnosis. Although DaTSCAN has been proven to be clinically useful, it is not widely available and has radiation risk and high-cost associated. Therefore, MRI scans for PD diagnosis offer several advantages over DaTSCAN [1]. Recent literature shows strong evidence of high diagnostic accuracy using the ‘swallow-tail’ shape of the dorsolateral substantia nigra in 3T – SWI [2]. Nevertheless, the majority of such studies rely on the subjective opinion of experts and manual methods for the analysis to assess the accuracy of these features. Alternatively, we propose a fully automated solution to evaluate the absence or presence of this feature for computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) of PD. Method: Restrospective study of 27 PD and 18 non-PD was conducted, including standard high-resolution 3D MRI – T1 & SWI sequences (additionally, T2 scans were used to increase the registration references). Firstly, spatial registration and normalization of the images were performed. Then, the ROI was extracted using atlas references. Finally, a supervised machine learning model was built using 5-fold-within-5-fold nested cross-validation. Results: Preliminary results show signi cant sensitivity (0.92) and ROC AUC (0.82), allowing for automated classi cation of patients based on swallow-tail biomarker from MRI. Conclusion: Detection of nigrosome degeneration (swallow-tail biomarker) in accessible brain imaging techniques can be automatized with signi cant accuracy, allowing for computer-aided PD diagnosis. References: [1] Schwarz, S. T., Xing, Y., Naidu, S., Birchall, J., Skelly, R., Perkins, A., ... & Gowland, P. (2017). Protocol of a single group prospective observational study on the diagnostic value of 3T susceptibility weighted MRI of nigrosome-1 in patients with parkinsonian symptoms: the N3iPD study (nigrosomal iron imaging in Parkinson’s disease). BMJ open, 7(12), e016904. [2] – Schwarz, S. T., Afzal, M., Morgan, P. S., Bajaj, N., Gowland, P. A., & Auer, D. P. (2014). The ‘swallow tail’ appearance of the healthy nigrosome –a new accurate test of Parkinson’s disease: a case-control and retrospective cross-sectional MRI study at 3T. PloS one, 9(4). [less ▲]

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See detailA Quantitative Analysis of Security, Anonymity and Scalability for the Lightning Network
Tikhomirov, Sergei UL; Moreno-Sanchez, Pedro; Maffei, Matteo

in Proceedings of 2020 IEEE European Symposium on Security and Privacy (EuroS&P) (2020, September)

Payment channel networks have been introduced to mitigate the scalability issues inherent to permissionless decentralized cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin. Launched in 2018, the Lightning Network (LN) has ... [more ▼]

Payment channel networks have been introduced to mitigate the scalability issues inherent to permissionless decentralized cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin. Launched in 2018, the Lightning Network (LN) has been gaining popularity and consists today of more than 5000 nodes and 30000 payment channels that jointly hold 895 bitcoins (7.6M USD as of February 2020). This adoption has motivated research from both academia and industry. Payment channels suffer from security vulnerabilities, such as the wormhole attack, anonymity issues, and scalability limitations related to the upper bound on the number of concurrent payments per channel, which have been pointed out by the scientific community but never quantitatively analyzed. In this work, we first analyze the proneness of the LN to the wormhole attack and attacks against anonymity. We observe that an adversary needs to control only 2% of LN nodes to learn sensitive payment information (e.g., sender, receiver and payment amount) or to carry out the wormhole attack. Second, we study the management of concurrent payments in the LN and quantify its negative effect on scalability. We observe that for micropayments, the forwarding capability of up to 50% of channels is restricted to a value smaller than the overall channel capacity. This phenomenon not only hinders scalability but also opens the door for DoS attacks: We estimate that a network-wide DoS attack costs within 1.5M USD, while isolating the biggest community from the rest of the network costs only 225k USD. Our findings should prompt the LN community to consider the security, privacy and scalability issues of the network studied in this work when educating users about path selection algorithms, as well as to adopt multi-hop payment protocols that provide stronger security, privacy and scalability guarantees. [less ▲]

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See detailKnowledgezooclient: Constructing knowledge graph for android
Li, Li; Gao, Jun UL; Kong, Pingfan UL et al

in The 3rd International Workshop on Advances in Mobile App Analysis (2020, September)

In this work, we describe the design and implementation of a reusable tool named KnowledgeZooClient targeting the construction, as a crowd-sourced effort, of a knowledge graph for Android apps ... [more ▼]

In this work, we describe the design and implementation of a reusable tool named KnowledgeZooClient targeting the construction, as a crowd-sourced effort, of a knowledge graph for Android apps. KnowledgeZooClient is made up of two modules: (1) the Metadata Extraction Module (MEM), which aims at extracting metadata from Android apps and (2) the Metadata Integration Module (MIM) for importing and integrating extracted metadata into a graph database. The usefulness of KnowledgeZooClient is demonstrated via an exclusive knowledge graph called KnowledgeZoo, which contains information on over 500,000 apps already and still keeps growing. Interested users can already benefit from KnowledgeZoo by writing advanced search queries so as to collect targeted app samples. [less ▲]

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See detailAnaerobe Vergärung von (synthetischem) Küchenabfall in zweistufigem Semi-Konti-Betrieb
Sobon, Elena UL; Schlienz, Markus UL; Greger, Manfred UL

in Chemie Ingenieur Technik (2020, August 28), 92(9), 1267-1268

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See detailRIVER MORPHOLOGY MONITORING OF A SMALL-SCALE ALPINE RIVERBED USING DRONE PHOTOGRAMMETRY AND LIDAR
Backes, Dietmar UL; Smigaj, Magdalena; Schimka, Marian et al

in The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences (2020, August 12), XLIII-B2-2020 Article Metrics Related articles(1017), 1024

An efficient alternative to labour-intensive terrestrial and costly airborne surveys is the use of small, inexpensive Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) or Remotely Piloted Aerial Systems (RPAS). These low ... [more ▼]

An efficient alternative to labour-intensive terrestrial and costly airborne surveys is the use of small, inexpensive Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) or Remotely Piloted Aerial Systems (RPAS). These low-altitude remote sensing platforms, commonly known as drones, can carry lightweight optical and LiDAR sensors. Even though UAV systems still have limited endurance, they can provide a flexible and relatively inexpensive monitoring solution for a limited area of interest. This study investigated the applicability of monitoring the morphology of a frequently changing glacial stream using high-resolution topographic surface models derived from low-altitude UAV-based photogrammetry and LiDAR. An understanding of river-channel morphology and its response to anthropogenic and natural disturbances is imperative for effective watershed management and conservation. We focus on the data acquisition, processing workflow and highlight identified challenges and shortcomings. Additionally, we demonstrate how LiDAR data acquisition simulations can help decide which laser scanning approach to use and help optimise data collection to ensure full coverage with desired level of detail. Lastly, we showcase a case study of 3D surface change analysis in an alpine stream environment with UAV-based photogrammetry. The datasets used in this study were collected as part of the ISPRS Summer School of Alpine Research, which will continue to add new data layers on a biyearly basis. This growing data repository is freely available for research. [less ▲]

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See detailLeveraging eBPF to preserve user privacy for DNS, DoT, and DoH queries
Rivera, Sean UL; Gurbani, Vijay; Lagraa, Sofiane UL et al

in Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security (2020, August)

The Domain Name System (DNS), a fundamental protocol that controls how users interact with the Internet, inadequately provides protection for user privacy. Recently, there have been advancements in the ... [more ▼]

The Domain Name System (DNS), a fundamental protocol that controls how users interact with the Internet, inadequately provides protection for user privacy. Recently, there have been advancements in the field of DNS privacy and security in the form of the DNS over TLS (DoT) and DNS over HTTPS (DoH) protocols. The advent of these protocols and recent advancements in large-scale data processing have drastically altered the threat model for DNS privacy. Users can no longer rely on traditional methods, and must instead take active steps to ensure their privacy. In this paper, we demonstrate how the extended Berkeley Packet Filter (eBPF) can assist users in maintaining their privacy by leveraging eBPF to provide privacy across standard DNS, DoH, and DoT communications. Further, we develop a method that allows users to enforce application-specific DNS servers. Our method provides users with control over their DNS network traffic and privacy without requiring changes to their applications while adding low overhead. [less ▲]

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See detailReservoir Computing with Random Chemical Systems
Nguyen, Hoang; Banda, Peter UL; Stefanovic, Darko et al

in ALIFE 2020: The 2020 Conference on Artificial Life (2020, July 14)

Top-down engineering of biomolecular circuits to perform specific computational tasks is notoriously hard and time-consuming. Current circuits have limited complexity and are brittle and application ... [more ▼]

Top-down engineering of biomolecular circuits to perform specific computational tasks is notoriously hard and time-consuming. Current circuits have limited complexity and are brittle and application-specific. Here we propose an alternative: we design and test a bottom-up constructed Reservoir Computer (RC) that uses random chemical circuits inspired by DNA strand displacement reactions. This RC has the potential to be implemented easily and trained for various tasks. We describe and simulate it by means of a Chemical Reaction Network (CRN) and evaluate its performance on three computational tasks: the Hamming distance and a short- as well as a long-term memory. Compared with the deoxyribozyme oscillator RC model simulated by Yahiro et al., our random chemical RC performs 75.5% better for the short-term and 67.2% better for the long-term memory task. Our model requires an 88.5% larger variety of chemical species, but it relies on random chemical circuits, which can be more easily realized and scaled up. Thus, our novel random chemical RC has the potential to simplify the way we build adaptive biomolecular circuits. [less ▲]

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See detailConnecting the real world to mathematical models in elementary schools in Luxemburg
Haas, Ben; Kreis, Yves UL; Lavicza, Zsolt

in Proceedings of the British Society for Research into Learning Mathematics (2020, July), 40(2), 1-6

In the Luxemburgish national curriculum for elementary schools (MENFP, 2011) experimentations and discoveries of mathematics concepts in courses are strongly recommended. Elementary school teachers should ... [more ▼]

In the Luxemburgish national curriculum for elementary schools (MENFP, 2011) experimentations and discoveries of mathematics concepts in courses are strongly recommended. Elementary school teachers should engage students in active mathematical modelling approaches, where they can develop processes and content skills through discoveries. Moreover, learned skills should be connected to real-world problems and situations to foster a better understanding of students’ living environments. Nevertheless, this teaching culture in mathematics is unusual in elementary schools and teachers tend to teach based on textbooks. Students mostly learn mathematics by imitation and repetition rather than through modelling mathematics with real-world problems and situations. Thus, to develop new methodologies in teaching mathematics and to meet the requirements of the national curriculum, we designed different technology-enhanced teaching and learning methods to engage students in experimental approaches within and outside classrooms. Moreover, we conducted three studies with digital and physical modelling, augmented reality, and a tutoring system in elementary school mathematics courses. Based on our collected data, we identified settings and tasks likely to support active mathematical modelling approaches. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Unsecure Side of (Meta)Data in IoT Systems
Chiara, Pier Giorgio UL

in Ambient Intelligence and Smart Environments (2020, July), 28

The exponential spreading and deployment of emerging digital technologies such as the Internet of Things (IoT) has been remarkable: the IoT market is expected to triple, at least, from USD 170.57 billion ... [more ▼]

The exponential spreading and deployment of emerging digital technologies such as the Internet of Things (IoT) has been remarkable: the IoT market is expected to triple, at least, from USD 170.57 billion in 2017 to USD 561.04 billion by 2022. IoT technologies collect, generate and communicate a huge amount of different data and metadata, through an increasing number of interconnected devices and sensors. Current EU legislation on data protection classifies data into personal and non-personal. The paper aims at charting the resulting entanglements from an interdisciplinary perspective. The legal analysis, integrated with a technical perspective, will address firstly the content of IoT communications, i.e. “data”, and the underlying distinction between personal and non-personal. Secondly, the focus will shift on the metadata related to communications. Through a technical analysis of the highly sensitive nature of metadata, even when the content is encrypted, I will argue that metadata are likely to undermine even more the ontological and sharp division between personal and non-personal data upon which the European legal frameworks for privacy and data protection have been built. The incoming ePrivacy Regulation shall provide metadata, which should be considered always personal data, the same level of protection of “content” data. This interpretation might broaden the scope of application of GDPR and the connected obligations and responsibilities of data controllers and data processors too much. [less ▲]

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See detail'Being a space mining crew': How participants jointly discover their complementary resources while engaging into a serious game at an interactive tabletop
Arend, Béatrice UL; Sunnen, Patrick UL; Heuser, Svenja UL et al

in L.Gomez Chova, A. Lopez Martinez, I. Candel Torres: Proceedings, International Conference on Education and New Learning Technologies 2020 (2020, July)

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See detailTracking neighboring quasi-satellite orbits around Phobos
Muralidharan, Vivek UL; Weiss, Avishai; Kalabic, Uros

in IFAC-PapersOnLine (2020, July)

We consider the orbital maintenance problem on a quasi-satellite orbit about the Martian moon, Phobos. The orbit is computed using a high-fidelity ephemeris model so that the major sources of disturbances ... [more ▼]

We consider the orbital maintenance problem on a quasi-satellite orbit about the Martian moon, Phobos. The orbit is computed using a high-fidelity ephemeris model so that the major sources of disturbances are due to measurement error. Two types of orbit maintenance schemes are considered. The first is based on asymptotically tracking the desired trajectory and the second is based on stabilizing to the manifold of trajectories that share the same Jacobi constant as the reference trajectory. The latter can be done because trajectories with the same Jacobi constant are in the neighborhood of one another. The results show that the trajectory-tracking scheme has lower fuel consumption when tracking must be precise and that the approach of stabilizing to a manifold has better fuel consumption at the expense of tracking. [less ▲]

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See detailPIAF: Developing Computational and Algorithmic Thinking in Fundamental Education
Parmentier, Yannick; Reuter, Robert UL; Higuet, Sarah et al

in Proceedings of EdMedia + Innovate Learning (2020, June 23), 2020(1), 315-322

In this article, we present the objectives and first achievements of the PIAF project supported by the European Union and aiming at developing computational and algorithmic thinking in basic education ... [more ▼]

In this article, we present the objectives and first achievements of the PIAF project supported by the European Union and aiming at developing computational and algorithmic thinking in basic education. This project brings together researchers in educational sciences and computer science from four countries (Belgium, France, Germany and Luxembourg) around the theme of teacher training. More concretely, the aim is to define a framework (competency framework, pedagogical scenarios) enabling teachers to (i) appropriate the concept of computational and algorithmic thinking and (ii) implement learning activities that promote the development of this kind of thinking in children. [less ▲]

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See detailDecision Triggered Data Transmission and Collection in Industrial Internet of Things
He, Jiguang; Kong, Long UL; Frondelius, Tero et al

in 2020 IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC) (2020, June 19)

We propose a decision triggered data transmission and collection (DTDTC) protocol for condition monitoring and anomaly detection in the industrial Internet of things (IIoT). In the IIoT, the collection ... [more ▼]

We propose a decision triggered data transmission and collection (DTDTC) protocol for condition monitoring and anomaly detection in the industrial Internet of things (IIoT). In the IIoT, the collection, processing, encoding, and transmission of the sensor readings are usually not for the reconstruction of the original data but for decision making at the fusion center. By moving the decision making process to the local end devices, the amount of data transmission can be significantly reduced, especially when normal signals with positive decisions dominate in the whole life cycle and the fusion center is only interested in collecting the abnormal data. The proposed concept combines compressive sensing, machine learning, data transmission, and joint decision making. The sensor readings are encoded and transmitted to the fusion center only when abnormal signals with negative decisions are detected. All the abnormal signals from the end devices are gathered at the fusion center for a joint decision with feedback messages forwarded to the local actuators. The advantage of such an approach lies in that it can significantly reduce the volume of data to be transmitted through wireless links. Moreover, the introduction of compressive sensing can further reduce the dimension of data tremendously. An exemplary case, i.e., diesel engine condition monitoring, is provided to validate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed scheme compared to the conventional ones. [less ▲]

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See detailThe rise of eBPF for non-intrusive performance monitoring
Cassagnes, Cyril UL; Trestioreanu, Lucian Andrei UL; Joly, Clement UL et al

in IEEE Xplore (2020, June 08)

In this paper, we explain that container engines are strengthening their isolation mechanisms. Therefore, nonintrusive monitoring becomes a must-have for the performance analysis of containerized user ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we explain that container engines are strengthening their isolation mechanisms. Therefore, nonintrusive monitoring becomes a must-have for the performance analysis of containerized user-space application in production environments. After a literature review and background of Linux subsystems and container isolation concepts, we present our lessons learned of using the extended Berkeley packet filter to monitor and profile performance. We carry out the profiling and tracing of several Interledger connectors using two full-fledged implementations of the Interledger protocol specifications. [less ▲]

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See detailValidated Variational Inference via Practical Posterior Error Bounds
Huggins, Jonathan; Kasprzak, Mikolaj UL; Campbell, Trevor et al

in Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Statistics (AISTATS) (2020, June)

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See detailEffects of Annealing and Light on Co-evaporated Methylammonium Lead Iodide Perovskites using Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy in Ultra-High Vacuum
Gallet, Thibaut UL; Martin Lanzoni, Evandro UL; Redinger, Alex UL

in 2019 IEEE 46th Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC) (2020, February 06)

Careful surface analysis is essential to understand the electronic and ionic behaviors in perovskite absorbers. In this contribution we discuss Kelvin probe force microscopy performed in ultra-high vacuum ... [more ▼]

Careful surface analysis is essential to understand the electronic and ionic behaviors in perovskite absorbers. In this contribution we discuss Kelvin probe force microscopy performed in ultra-high vacuum on as-grown and annealed co-evaporated methylammonium lead iodide perovskite thin films. By comparing the contact potential difference upon annealing and illumination, we find that annealing increases the average workfunction, indicating a change either in doping or in surface composition. Illumination also increases the average workfunction, indicating a p-type absorber, by reducing band bending as the photo-generated carriers screen the surface states. The effect of light shows a two-step process, with a first fast trend, linked to the surface photovoltage and a second slower trend indicating a possible redistribution of mobile charges. [less ▲]

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See detailEvolving a Deep Neural Network Training Time Estimator
Pinel, Frédéric UL; Yin, Jian-xiong; Hundt, Christian UL et al

in Communications in Computer and Information Science (2020, February)

We present a procedure for the design of a Deep Neural Net- work (DNN) that estimates the execution time for training a deep neural network per batch on GPU accelerators. The estimator is destined to be ... [more ▼]

We present a procedure for the design of a Deep Neural Net- work (DNN) that estimates the execution time for training a deep neural network per batch on GPU accelerators. The estimator is destined to be embedded in the scheduler of a shared GPU infrastructure, capable of providing estimated training times for a wide range of network architectures, when the user submits a training job. To this end, a very short and simple representation for a given DNN is chosen. In order to compensate for the limited degree of description of the basic network representation, a novel co-evolutionary approach is taken to fit the estimator. The training set for the estimator, i.e. DNNs, is evolved by an evolutionary algorithm that optimizes the accuracy of the estimator. In the process, the genetic algorithm evolves DNNs, generates Python-Keras programs and projects them onto the simple representation. The genetic operators are dynamic, they change with the estimator’s accuracy in order to balance accuracy with generalization. Results show that despite the low degree of information in the representation and the simple initial design for the predictor, co-evolving the training set performs better than near random generated population of DNNs. [less ▲]

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See detailInferring Urban Mobility and Habits from User Location History
Cantelmo, Guido; Vitello, Piergiorgio UL; Toader, Bogdan et al

in Transportation Research Procedia (2020, January), 47

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See detailInferring Urban Mobility and Habits from User Location History
Cantelmo, Guido; Vitello, Piergiorgio UL; Toader, Bogdan et al

in Transportation Research Procedia (2020, January), 47

Detailed reference viewed: 82 (8 UL)