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See detailGuidelines for Assessing the Accuracy of Log Message Template Identification Techniques
Khan, Zanis Ali UL; Shin, Donghwan UL; Bianculli, Domenico UL et al

in Proceedings of the 44th International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE ’22) (in press)

Log message template identification aims to convert raw logs containing free-formed log messages into structured logs to be processed by automated log-based analysis, such as anomaly detection and model ... [more ▼]

Log message template identification aims to convert raw logs containing free-formed log messages into structured logs to be processed by automated log-based analysis, such as anomaly detection and model inference. While many techniques have been proposed in the literature, only two recent studies provide a comprehensive evaluation and comparison of the techniques using an established benchmark composed of real-world logs. Nevertheless, we argue that both studies have the following issues: (1) they used different accuracy metrics without comparison between them, (2) some ground-truth (oracle) templates are incorrect, and (3) the accuracy evaluation results do not provide any information regarding incorrectly identified templates. In this paper, we address the above issues by providing three guidelines for assessing the accuracy of log template identification techniques: (1) use appropriate accuracy metrics, (2) perform oracle template correction, and (3) perform analysis of incorrect templates. We then assess the application of such guidelines through a comprehensive evaluation of 14 existing template identification techniques on the established benchmark logs. Results show very different insights than existing studies and in particular a much less optimistic outlook on existing techniques. [less ▲]

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See detailConservazione e ricezione dei documenti pontifici in Italia settentrionale: il caso del monastero cistercense di Chiaravalle Milanese (secoli XII-XVI)
Salemme, Timothy UL

in Salemme, Timothy; Renault, Jean-Baptiste (Eds.) Conservation et réception des documents pontificaux par les Ordres religieux (XIe-XVe siècles). Actes du colloque international. Nancy, 12-13 décembre 2013 (in press)

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See detailUX Needs Cards – A Pragmatic Tool to Support Experience Design Through Psychological Needs
Lallemand, Carine UL

in IASDR 2021: 9th Congress of the International Association of Societies of Design Research (in press)

The psychological needs-driven UX approach is a well-explored area in UX research and a powerful framework for the design of optimal experiences with systems and products. However, the transfer from ... [more ▼]

The psychological needs-driven UX approach is a well-explored area in UX research and a powerful framework for the design of optimal experiences with systems and products. However, the transfer from research to practice is slow and this approach is not yet widely used by practitioners. As card- based methods have been shown to support designers in both the generation of ideas and the evaluation of their designs, we created the UX needs cards as a pragmatic tool able to support a needs-driven UX process. We present the iterative development of the card-set and its associated techniques and report on three use cases, demonstrating the effectiveness of this tool for user research, idea generation and UX evaluation. Our empirical findings suggest that the UX needs cards are a valuable tool able to support design practice, being easily understood by lay users and a source of inspiration for designers. Acting as a tangible translation of a research framework, the UX needs cards promote theory-driven design strategies and provide researchers, designers, and educators with a tool to clearly communicate the framework of psychological needs. [less ▲]

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See detail« … Eripuit servus mihi vitam » - Représentations médiatiques de la violence et de la criminalité dans les provinces occidentales de l'Empire romain
Binsfeld, Andrea UL

in Amodio, Mara (Ed.) The imagery of violence in Roman society (I-VI cent.). Persistence, innovations and interrelations from the Roman to the Christian Empire (in press)

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See detailUpdate Internationales und Europäisches Steuerrecht
Sinnig, Julia UL

in Taeger, Jürgen (Ed.) Tagungsband DSRI-Herbstakademie 2020 (in press)

Im Berichtszeitraum dieses Updates rief die OECD zu einem zweiten Öffentlichkeitsbetei-ligungsverfahren auf und erarbeitete einen präziseren Lösungsansatz zur Besteuerung digitalisierter Geschäftsmodelle ... [more ▼]

Im Berichtszeitraum dieses Updates rief die OECD zu einem zweiten Öffentlichkeitsbetei-ligungsverfahren auf und erarbeitete einen präziseren Lösungsansatz zur Besteuerung digitalisierter Geschäftsmodelle, der in einer Veröffentlichung im Januar 2020 vorgestellt wurde. Auf Ebene der Europäischen Union gab es im Berichtszeitraum keine Weiterent-wicklung der Richtlinienvorschläge zu einer Digitalsteuer und dem Konzept der „signifi-kanten digitalen Präsenz“. Der EuGH urteilte am 3. März 2020 in Hinblick auf die unions-rechtliche Vereinbarkeit zweier ungarischer Umsatzsteuern. Dieses Urteil erlaubt erste Rückschlüsse bezüglich der Europarechtskonformität umsatzbasierter Steuern, wie bspw. auch im Berichtszeitraum eingeführte Digitalsteuern einzelner Mitgliedstaaten. Dieser Beitrag knüpft an die Vorträge von Prof. Dr. Jens M. Schmittmann und der Verfasserin anlässlich der Herbstakademien 2018 in Bochum und 2019 in Oldenburg, sowie dem Vortrag der Verfasserin anlässlich der Herbstakademie 2017 in Heidelberg an. [less ▲]

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See detailLe quotidien d’un poilu de la première guerre mondiale sur Facebook : nouvelle forme de médiation, nouvelle expérience ?
Schall, Céline UL; Vilatte, Jean-Christophe

in Les mondes de la médiation culturelle (in press)

« En 2013, le Musée de la Grande Guerre du Pays de Meaux et l’agence de communication DDB ont élaboré une page Facebook d’un genre nouveau. Facebook 1914, le quotidien de la première guerre offre une ... [more ▼]

« En 2013, le Musée de la Grande Guerre du Pays de Meaux et l’agence de communication DDB ont élaboré une page Facebook d’un genre nouveau. Facebook 1914, le quotidien de la première guerre offre une forme de médiation a priori inédite pour un musée français. Elle présente l’histoire d’un personnage de fiction, Léon Vivien, qui raconte son quotidien lors de la première guerre mondiale, sur Facebook, comme si ce réseau social avait existé à cette époque. Cette contribution met en évidence certains des effets de sens de la page par une analyse sémiotique du dispositif et une analyse thématique de ses contenus. Nous questionnons ensuite cette « nouvelle » forme de médiation qui se dit « participante » et qui, en réalité, reste assez classique dans son contenu et sous-exploite le potentiel de Facebook. » [less ▲]

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See detailVon Objekt- und Meta-Ebenen: Analyse der Softwareanforderungen computergestützter juristischer Entscheidungen
Adrian, Axel; Rapp, Max; Steen, Alexander UL

in Recht DIGITAL – 25 Jahre IRIS, Proceedings of the International Legal Informatics Symposium (IRIS 2022) (in press)

Die Interpretation und Anwendung von Gesetzestexten auf einem konkreten Lebenssachverhalt erfordert von menschlichen Experten ein hohes Maß an Wissen, Erfahrung und die Fähigkeit zahlreiche kontextuelle ... [more ▼]

Die Interpretation und Anwendung von Gesetzestexten auf einem konkreten Lebenssachverhalt erfordert von menschlichen Experten ein hohes Maß an Wissen, Erfahrung und die Fähigkeit zahlreiche kontextuelle Überlegungen anzustellen. Die Formalisierung und Automatisierung solch eines Prozesses in einem computergestützten Verfahren muss dies entsprechend reflektieren. Ausgehend von einer Fallstudie werden in dieser Arbeit erforderliche juridische Schritte der Rechtsanwendung identifiziert und verschiedenen Objekt- und Meta-Ebenen zugeordnet. Diese Zuordnung erlaubt eine abstrakte Analyse von Softwareanforderungen, die juristische Assistenzsysteme erfüllen müssen, um bei juristischen Fallentscheidungen unterstützen zu können. [less ▲]

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See detailL’exposition d’objets ou de collections de « marque » : cobranding, réécriture, réénonciation
Schall, Céline UL

in Laval, Sylvie (Ed.) Marques muséales : un espace public revisité ? (in press)

Le cobranding est une pratique habituelle du secteur marchand. Mais lorsque deux musées réalisent ensemble une exposition, peut-on parler de cobranding muséal ? Quelles en seraient les spécificités  ... [more ▼]

Le cobranding est une pratique habituelle du secteur marchand. Mais lorsque deux musées réalisent ensemble une exposition, peut-on parler de cobranding muséal ? Quelles en seraient les spécificités ? Quels effets peut avoir cette démarche sur la communication ou sur l’exposition ? Notamment, le musée d’accueil s’approprie-t-il simplement l’imaginaire et les valeurs de la marque invitée par un phénomène de « transfert » ? Pour répondre à ces questions, nous étudions trois expositions qui reprennent des objets ou collections de musées dont la marque est internationalement reconnue. L’analyse sémiotique des images de marque du musée d’accueil et du musée invité ainsi que l’analyse sémiopragmatique des expositions montrent l’impact de la présence d’une grande marque internationale sur l’exposition et réciproquement, l’impact de l’exposition sur l’image de marque du musée d’accueil. Plus qu’un simple cobranding, c’est une réécriture impliquant une réénonciation du discours et des valeurs portés par les marques qui est proposée à travers ces expositions. Le processus aboutit à la création de nouveaux espaces symboliques et d’expositions réflexives, avec plusieurs niveaux de lecture. [less ▲]

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See detailDiscrete-Phase Sequence Design with Stopband and PSL Constraints for Cognitive Radar
Alaeekerahroodi, Mohammad UL; Kumar, Sumit UL; Mysore Rama Rao, Bhavani Shankar UL et al

in Proceedings of EuRAD 2020 (in press)

We present the design of discrete-phase sequences considering simultaneously the peak sidelobe level (PSL) and avoiding reserved frequency bands which are occupied by narrowband interferers or ... [more ▼]

We present the design of discrete-phase sequences considering simultaneously the peak sidelobe level (PSL) and avoiding reserved frequency bands which are occupied by narrowband interferers or communications. We use the coordinate descent framework and propose an algorithm to design discrete-phase sequences with spectral power suppressed in arbitrary bands and with low auto-correlation sidelobes in terms of PSL. Our proposed algorithm exploits fast Fourier transform and is, therefore, computationally efficient. The over-the-air experiments using implementation on software-defined radio show reasonable agreement with numerical simulations and feasibility for field-deployment [less ▲]

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See detailDISCOV: Stimulating Physical Activity through an Explorative Interactive Walking Experience
van Renswouw, Loes; Verhoef, Jasmijn; Vos, Steven et al

in IASDR 2021: 9th Congress of the International Association of Societies of Design Research (in press)

Aware of the consequences of their inactive lifestyles, many people still struggle to integrate enough physical activity into their busy lives. Interventions that nudge to reinforce existing active ... [more ▼]

Aware of the consequences of their inactive lifestyles, many people still struggle to integrate enough physical activity into their busy lives. Interventions that nudge to reinforce existing active behavior seem therefore more likely to be effective than those adding an activity to daily routines. To encourage people to increase their physical activity level, we designed Discov, a network of physical waypoints triggering people to lengthen their walks. Placed in a public park, Discov encourages people to explore their surroundings in a fun and challenging way by creating an interactive walking experience. Adopting a Research-through-Design approach, we explore the potential of the design of accessible infrastructures and human-environment interactions to impact public health by nudging citizens into being more physically active. We discuss insights gathered through this process and report on first user tests of this interactive walking experience. [less ▲]

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See detailA Methodology for Handling Data Movements by Anticipation: Position Paper
Bleuse, Raphaël UL; Lucarelli, Giorgio; Trystram, Denis

in Euro-Par 2018 Workshops (in press)

The enhanced capabilities of large scale parallel and distributed platforms produce a continuously increasing amount of data which have to be stored, exchanged and used by various tasks allocated on ... [more ▼]

The enhanced capabilities of large scale parallel and distributed platforms produce a continuously increasing amount of data which have to be stored, exchanged and used by various tasks allocated on different nodes of the system. The management of such a huge communication demand is crucial for reaching the best possible performance of the system. Meanwhile, we have to deal with more interferences as the trend is to use a single all-purpose interconnection network whatever the interconnect (tree-based hierarchies or topology-based heterarchies). There are two different types of communications, namely, the flows induced by data exchanges during the computations, and the flows related to Input/Output operations. We propose in this paper a general model for interference-aware scheduling, where explicit communications are replaced by external topological constraints. Specifically, the interferences of both communication types are reduced by adding geometric constraints on the allocation of tasks into machines. The proposed constraints reduce implicitly the data movements by restricting the set of possible allocations for each task. This methodology has been proved to be efficient in a recent study for a restricted interconnection network (a line/ring of processors which is an intermediate between a tree and higher dimensions grids/torus). The obtained results illustrated well the difficulty of the problem even on simple topologies, but also provided a pragmatic greedy solution, which was assessed to be efficient by simulations. We are currently extending this solution for more complex topologies. This work is a position paper which describes the methodology, it does not focus on the solving part. [less ▲]

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See detailA New Perspective on the Luxembourgish Genitive
Döhmer, Caroline UL

in Germanic Genitives (in press)

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See detailEmpathy in Design Scale: Development and Initial Insights
Drouet, Luce UL; Bongard, Kerstin UL; Koenig, Vincent UL et al

in Proceedings of the Extended Abstracts of the 2022 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (in press)

Empathy towards users is crucial to the design of user-centered technologies and services. Previous research focused on defining empathy and its role in the design process for triggering empathy for end ... [more ▼]

Empathy towards users is crucial to the design of user-centered technologies and services. Previous research focused on defining empathy and its role in the design process for triggering empathy for end-users. However, there is a lack of empathy measurement instruments in design. Most previous work focused on designers, overlooking the need for other stakeholders to develop empathy towards the users to break organizational silos and deliver high-quality user-centered services and products. In this contribution, we share the preliminary stages of the development of an empathy scale for service design. We build on empathy literature from psychology and design to define 18 items representing four empathy dimensions. We report on the definition of these dimensions and their underlying items, and present preliminary studies in which we reviewed the first version of the scale with experts and stakeholders. [less ▲]

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See detailLessons from Investment Treaty Arbitration
Garcia Olmedo, Javier UL

in Haslehner, Werner; Rust, Alexander; Kofler (Eds.) Alternative Dispute Resolution in Taxation (in press)

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See detailLe dialogue entre les juges en matière de protection des droits de l'homme
Pelin Raducu, Ioana UL

in Menetrey, Séverine; Hess, Burkhard (Eds.) Les dialogues des juges en Europe (in press)

Dans cet article, nous allons mettre en exergue quelques aspects des arrêts récents provenant de la Cour de justice de l’UE (Akerberg Frasson, Melloni, Kamberaj)qui démontrent l’émergence d’un standard ... [more ▼]

Dans cet article, nous allons mettre en exergue quelques aspects des arrêts récents provenant de la Cour de justice de l’UE (Akerberg Frasson, Melloni, Kamberaj)qui démontrent l’émergence d’un standard propre de l’UE en matière des droits de l’homme. Cette tendance de la C.J.U.E. contredira le prescrit normatif découlant du « dialogue des juges » d’interprétation conforme à la jurisprudence de la C.E.D.H. avant que l’adhésion de l’UE à la Convention E.D.H. ne soit formellement acquise. [less ▲]

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See detailAsynja: Sensorial Design for Running Motivation
Menheere, Daphne; Hilderink, Myrthe; Vos, Steven et al

in IASDR 2021: 9th Congress of the International Association of Societies of Design Research (in press)

If starting to run is an easy decision, committing to a long-term running routine proves to be a more challenging endeavor for many people. In this pictorial, we unravel the design process of Asynja, an ... [more ▼]

If starting to run is an easy decision, committing to a long-term running routine proves to be a more challenging endeavor for many people. In this pictorial, we unravel the design process of Asynja, an artefact that triggers exercise imagery by using natural scents related to running. Relying on peripheral interaction, this research probe subtly nudges users to go running, thereby supporting them to transform their positive intentions into actions. Exploring sensoriality as a design opportunity for behavior change interventions, we invite the community to expand the design space of exercise-related motivational products and systems. [less ▲]

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See detailAutomated Question Answering for Improved Understanding of Compliance Requirements: A Multi-Document Study
Abualhaija, Sallam UL; Arora, Chetan; Sleimi, Amin et al

in In Proceedings of the 30th IEEE International Requirements Engineering Conference (RE'22), Melbourne, Australia 15-19 August 2022 (in press)

Software systems are increasingly subject to regulatory compliance. Extracting compliance requirements from regulations is challenging. Ideally, locating compliance-related information in a regulation ... [more ▼]

Software systems are increasingly subject to regulatory compliance. Extracting compliance requirements from regulations is challenging. Ideally, locating compliance-related information in a regulation requires a joint effort from requirements engineers and legal experts, whose availability is limited. However, regulations are typically long documents spanning hundreds of pages, containing legal jargon, applying complicated natural language structures, and including cross-references, thus making their analysis effort-intensive. In this paper, we propose an automated question-answering (QA) approach that assists requirements engineers in finding the legal text passages relevant to compliance requirements. Our approach utilizes large-scale language models fine-tuned for QA, including BERT and three variants. We evaluate our approach on 107 question-answer pairs, manually curated by subject-matter experts, for four different European regulatory documents. Among these documents is the general data protection regulation (GDPR) – a major source for privacy-related requirements. Our empirical results show that, in ~94% of the cases, our approach finds the text passage containing the answer to a given question among the top five passages that our approach marks as most relevant. Further, our approach successfully demarcates, in the selected passage, the right answer with an average accuracy of ~ 91%. [less ▲]

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See detailBlockchain Governance: An Overview and Prediction of Optimal Strategies Using Nash Equilibrium
Khan, Nida UL; Ahmad, Tabrez; Patel, Anass et al

in 3rd AUE International Research Conference (in press)

Blockchain governance is a subject of ongoing research and an interdisciplinary view of blockchain governance is vital to aid in further research for establishing a formal governance framework for this ... [more ▼]

Blockchain governance is a subject of ongoing research and an interdisciplinary view of blockchain governance is vital to aid in further research for establishing a formal governance framework for this nascent technology. In this paper, the position of blockchain governance within the hierarchy of Institutional governance is discussed. Blockchain governance is analyzed from the perspective of IT governance using Nash equilibrium to predict the outcome of different governance decisions. A payoff matrix for blockchain governance is created and simulation of different strategy profiles is accomplished for computation of all Nash equilibria. We also create payoff matrices for different kinds of blockchain governance, which were used to propose novel mathematical formulae usable to predict the best governance strategy that minimizes the occurrence of a hard fork as well as predicts the behavior of the majority during protocol updates. [less ▲]

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See detailPhysical Journey Maps: Staging Users’ Experiences to Increase Stakeholders’ Empathy towards Users
Lallemand, Carine UL; Lauret, Jessie; Drouet, Luce UL

in Proceedings of the Extended Abstracts of the 2022 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (in press)

Customer Journey Mapping is a widespread service design tool that synthesizes and communicates user research insights to stakeholders. In its common form, a journey map is a synthetic (typically non ... [more ▼]

Customer Journey Mapping is a widespread service design tool that synthesizes and communicates user research insights to stakeholders. In its common form, a journey map is a synthetic (typically non-interactive) visualization of the key steps of the users’ experience with a service or product. By decomposing the elements of a journey map and staging them under the form of a physical and interactive installation, we intend to leverage the power of journey mapping to break silos and prompt employees within an organization to discover end-users journeys in a compelling and empathic way. This aims to support the user-centered maturity of the organization by developing employees’ curiosity and empathy towards users. We illustrate this approach through a case study on railway passengers’ experiences. We explore the value of richer transfers of user research insights through physical journey maps and discuss design processes and mediums enabling journey maps to come to life. [less ▲]

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See detailAutomated Handling of Anaphoric Ambiguity in Requirements: A Multi-solution Study
Ezzini, Saad UL; Abualhaija, Sallam UL; Arora, Chetan et al

in In Proceedings of the 44th International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE'22), Pittsburgh, PA, USA 22-27 May 2022 (in press)

Ambiguity is a pervasive issue in natural-language requirements. A common source of ambiguity in requirements is when a pronoun is anaphoric. In requirements engineering, anaphoric ambiguity occurs when a ... [more ▼]

Ambiguity is a pervasive issue in natural-language requirements. A common source of ambiguity in requirements is when a pronoun is anaphoric. In requirements engineering, anaphoric ambiguity occurs when a pronoun can plausibly refer to different entities and thus be interpreted differently by different readers. In this paper, we develop an accurate and practical automated approach for handling anaphoric ambiguity in requirements, addressing both ambiguity detection and anaphora interpretation. In view of the multiple competing natural language processing (NLP) and machine learning (ML) technologies that one can utilize, we simultaneously pursue six alternative solutions, empirically assessing each using a collection of ~1,350 industrial requirements. The alternative solution strategies that we consider are natural choices induced by the existing technologies; these choices frequently arise in other automation tasks involving natural-language requirements. A side-by-side empirical examination of these choices helps develop insights about the usefulness of different state-of-the-art NLP and ML technologies for addressing requirements engineering problems. For the ambiguity detection task, we observe that supervised ML outperforms both a large-scale language model, SpanBERT (a variant of BERT), as well as a solution assembled from off-the-shelf NLP coreference resolvers. In contrast, for anaphora interpretation, SpanBERT yields the most accurate solution. In our evaluation, (1) the best solution for anaphoric ambiguity detection has an average precision of ~60% and a recall of 100%, and (2) the best solution for anaphora interpretation (resolution) has an average success rate of ~98%. [less ▲]

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See detailLes archevêques de Milan face aux premières expériences seigneuriales: stratégies et positionnements (milieu XIIIe-début XIVe s.)
Salemme, Timothy UL

in Barralis, Christine (Ed.) L’évêque face à son métier. Actes du colloque international, Metz. 15-17 novembre 2017 (in press)

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See detailAn (Un)Necessary Evil - Users’ (Un)Certainty about Smartphone App Permissions and Implications for Privacy Engineering
Bongard, Kerstin UL; Sterckx, Jean-Louis; Rossi, Arianna UL et al

in 2022 7th IEEE European Symposium on Security and Privacy Workshops (EuroSPW) (in press)

App permission requests are a control mechanism meant to help users oversee and safeguard access to data and resources on their smartphones. To decide whether to accept or deny such requests and make this ... [more ▼]

App permission requests are a control mechanism meant to help users oversee and safeguard access to data and resources on their smartphones. To decide whether to accept or deny such requests and make this consent valid, users need to understand the underlying reasons and judge the relevance of disclosing data in line with their own use of an app. This study investigates people’s certainty about app permission requests via an online survey with 400 representative participants of the UK population. The results demonstrate that users are uncertain about the necessity of granting app permissions for about half of the tested permission requests. This implies substantial privacy risks, which are discussed in the paper, resulting in a call for user-protecting interventions by privacy engineers. [less ▲]

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See detailRegional heterogeneity and individual characteristics in the development of a European tax policy: historical insights from Luxembourg
Danescu, Elena UL

in Danescu, Elena; Dima, Alina Mihaela (Eds.) Fostering recovery through metaverse business modelling - An interdisciplinary analysis of the new paradigm shift (2023, March)

Luxembourg is currently one of the most politically stable, consensus-oriented, and prosperous countries in the world, characterised by am advanced social market economy, and a level of material wellbeing ... [more ▼]

Luxembourg is currently one of the most politically stable, consensus-oriented, and prosperous countries in the world, characterised by am advanced social market economy, and a level of material wellbeing above the EU average. Its strong fiscal position is well illustrated by a longstanding AAA credit rating, a significant accumulation of government financial assets, and a distinct fiscal approach. In this light, this paper aims to investigate the specific features of the tax system in Luxembourg from a multidisciplinary perspective by analysing historical sources and exploring the development of these particularities over time, their impact on the socioeconomic context and their repercussions for the European integration process, especially in the design and completion of Economic and Monetary Union (EMU). [less ▲]

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See detailSoK: Secure E-Voting with Everlasting Privacy
Haines, Thomas; Mueller, Johannes UL; Mosaheb, Rafieh UL et al

in Proceedings on Privacy Enhancing Technologies (PoPETs) (2023)

Vote privacy is a fundamental right, which needs to be protected not only during an election, or for a limited time afterwards, but for the foreseeable future. Numerous electronic voting (e-voting ... [more ▼]

Vote privacy is a fundamental right, which needs to be protected not only during an election, or for a limited time afterwards, but for the foreseeable future. Numerous electronic voting (e-voting) protocols have been proposed to address this challenge, striving for everlasting privacy. This property guarantees that even computationally unbounded adversaries cannot break privacy of past elections. The broad interest in secure e-voting with everlasting privacy has spawned a large variety of protocols over the last three decades. These protocols differ in many aspects, in particular the precise security properties they aim for, the threat scenarios they consider, and the privacy-preserving techniques they employ. Unfortunately, these differences are often opaque, making analysis and comparison cumbersome. In order to overcome this non-transparent state of affairs, we systematically analyze all e-voting protocols designed to provide everlasting privacy. First, we illustrate the relations and dependencies between all these different protocols. Next, we analyze in depth which protocols do provide secure and efficient approaches to e-voting with everlasting privacy under realistic assumptions, and which ones do not. Eventually, based on our extensive and detailed treatment, we identify which research problems in this field have already been solved, and which ones are still open. Altogether, our work offers a well-founded reference point for conducting research on secure e-voting with everlasting privacy as well as for future-proofing privacy in real-world electronic elections. [less ▲]

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See detailCoexistence of eMBB and URLLC in Open Radio Access Networks: A Distributed Learning Framework
Al-Senwi, Madyan Abdullah Othman UL; Lagunas, Eva UL; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL

in IEEE Global Communications Conference (IEEE Globecom), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Dec. 2022 (2022, December)

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See detailPower Allocation for Space-Terrestrial Cooperation Systems with Statistical CSI
Chien, Trinh-Van; Lagunas, Eva UL; Hoang, Tiep M. et al

in IEEE Global Communications Conference (IEEE Globecom), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Dec. 2022 (2022, December)

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See detailSpecifying Source Code and Signal-based Behaviour of CPS Components
Dawes, Joshua UL; Bianculli, Domenico UL

in Dawes, Joshua; Bianculli, Domenico (Eds.) Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Formal Aspects of Component Software (2022, November)

Specifying properties over the behaviour of components of Cyber-Physical Systems usually focuses on the behaviour of signals, i.e., the behaviour of the physical part of the system, leaving the behaviour ... [more ▼]

Specifying properties over the behaviour of components of Cyber-Physical Systems usually focuses on the behaviour of signals, i.e., the behaviour of the physical part of the system, leaving the behaviour of the cyber components implicit. There have been some attempts to provide specification languages that enable more explicit reference to the behaviour of cyber components, but it remains awkward to directly express the behaviour of both cyber and physical components in the same specification, using one formalism. In this paper, we introduce a new specification language, Source Code and Signal Logic (SCSL), that 1) provides syntax specific to both signals and events originating in source code; and 2) does not require source code events to be abstracted into signals. We introduce SCSL by giving its syntax and semantics, along with examples. We then provide a comparison between SCSL and existing specification languages, using an example property, to show the benefit of using SCSL to capture certain types of properties. [less ▲]

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See detailTowards the Application of Neuromorphic Computing to Satellite Communications
Ortiz Gomez, Flor de Guadalupe UL; Lagunas, Eva UL; Alves Martins, Wallace UL et al

in Towards the Application of Neuromorphic Computing to Satellite Communications (2022, October)

Artificial intelligence (AI) has recently received significant attention as a key enabler for future 5G-and-beyond terrestrial wireless networks. The applications of AI to satellite communications is also ... [more ▼]

Artificial intelligence (AI) has recently received significant attention as a key enabler for future 5G-and-beyond terrestrial wireless networks. The applications of AI to satellite communications is also gaining momentum to realize a more autonomous operation with reduced requirements in terms of human intervention. The adoption of AI for satellite communications will set new requirements on computing processors, which will need to support large workloads as efficiently as possible under harsh environmental conditions. In this context, neuromorphic processing (NP) is emerging as a bio-inspired solution to address pattern recognition tasks involving multiple, possibly unstructured, temporal signals and/or requiring continual learning. The key merits of the technology are energy efficiency and capacity for on-device adaptation. In this paper, we highlight potential use cases and applications of NP to satellite communications. We also explore major technical challenges for the implementation of space-based NP focusing on the available NP chipsets. [less ▲]

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See detailPEELER: Learning to Effectively Predict Flakiness without Running Tests
Qin, Yihao; Wang, Shangwen; Liu, Kui et al

in Proceedings of the 38th IEEE International Conference on Software Maintenance and Evolution (2022, October)

—Regression testing is a widely adopted approach to expose change-induced bugs as well as to verify the correctness/robustness of code in modern software development settings. Unfortunately, the ... [more ▼]

—Regression testing is a widely adopted approach to expose change-induced bugs as well as to verify the correctness/robustness of code in modern software development settings. Unfortunately, the occurrence of flaky tests leads to a significant increase in the cost of regression testing and eventually reduces the productivity of developers (i.e., their ability to find and fix real problems). State-of-the-art approaches leverage dynamic test information obtained through expensive re-execution of test cases to effectively identify flaky tests. Towards accounting for scalability constraints, some recent approaches have built on static test case features, but fall short on effectiveness. In this paper, we introduce PEELER, a new fully static approach for predicting flaky tests through exploring a representation of test cases based on the data dependency relations. The predictor is then trained as a neural network based model, which achieves at the same time scalability (because it does not require any test execution), effectiveness (because it exploits relevant test dependency features), and practicality (because it can be applied in the wild to find new flaky tests). Experimental validation on 17,532 test cases from 21 Java projects shows that PEELER outperforms the state-of-the-art FlakeFlagger by around 20 percentage points: we catch 22% more flaky tests while yielding 51% less false positives. Finally, in a live study with projects in-the-wild, we reported to developers 21 flakiness cases, among which 12 have already been confirmed by developers as being indeed flaky. [less ▲]

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See detailMethods for increasing the dependability of High-performance, Many-core, System-on-Chips
Graczyk, Rafal UL; Memon, Md Saad UL; Volp, Marcus UL

in Graczyk, Rafal; Memon, Md Saad; Volp, Marcus (Eds.) IAC 2022 congress proceedings, 73rd International Astronautical Congress (IAC) (2022, September 21)

Future space exploration and exploitation missions will require significantly increased autonomy of operation for mission planning, decision-making, and adaptive control techniques. Spacecrafts will ... [more ▼]

Future space exploration and exploitation missions will require significantly increased autonomy of operation for mission planning, decision-making, and adaptive control techniques. Spacecrafts will integrate new processing and compression algorithms that are often augmented with machine learning and artificial intelligence capabilities. This functionality will have to be provided with high levels of robustness, reliability, and dependability for conducting missions successfully. High-reliability requirements for space-grade processors have led to trade-offs in terms of costs, energy efficiency, and performance to obtain robustness. However, while high-performance / low-robustness configurations are acceptable in the Earth's vicinity, where assets remain protected by the planet's magnetosphere, they cease to work in more demanding environments, like cis-lunar or deep space, where high-energy particles will affect modern components heavily, causing temporary or permanent damage and ultimately system failures. The above has led to a situation where state-of-the-art processing elements (processors, co-processors, memories, special purpose accelerators, and field-programmable-gate arrays (FPGAs), all possibly integrated into System-on-a-Chip (SoC) designs) are superior to their high reliability, space-qualified counterparts in terms of processing power or energy efficiency. For example, from modern, state-of-the-art (SOTA) devices, one can expect a 2-3 order-of-magnitude performance per Watts improvement over space-grade equipment. Likewise, one finds a gap of approximately nine technology nodes between devices, which translates into a factor 25 decrease in operations per Watts. In this paper, we demonstrate how to utilize part of this enormous performance advantage to increase the robustness and resilience of otherwise susceptible semiconductor devices while harnessing the remaining processing power to build affordable space systems capable of hosting the compute-intensive functionality that future space missions require. We are bridging this performance-reliability gap by researching the enabling building blocks for constructing reliable and secure, space-ready Systems-on-a-Chip from SOTA processing elements. [less ▲]

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See detailInstitutional determinants of intersectional inequalities in science
Kozlowski, Diego UL; Larivière, Vincent; Sugimoto, Cassidy R. et al

in BRIDGES BETWEEN DISCIPLINES: GENDER IN STEM AND SOCIAL SCIENCES (2022, September 12)

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See detailCurrent Status of Bottom-Up Fabrication Approaches for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Micro-Concentrator Solar Cells
Pérez-Rodríguez, Ana; Goncalinho Poeira, Ricardo Jorge UL; Alves, Marina et al

in 17TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON CONCENTRATOR PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS (CPV-17) (2022, September 02)

Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells have reached a record efficiency of 23.35% and are established as a renewable energy technology. However, future large-scale fabrication might be hindered by the availability and ... [more ▼]

Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells have reached a record efficiency of 23.35% and are established as a renewable energy technology. However, future large-scale fabrication might be hindered by the availability and high cost of raw materials. To reduce the amount of solar cell material, strong efforts have been devoted to the development of the micro-concentrator photovoltaics concept for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin film solar cells, which combines the well established concentrator photovoltaics (CPV) technology with the miniaturization of the solar cells. In this work, we review different bottom-up approaches for the fabrication of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 micro solar cells, that potentially allow the reduction of raw material, and we present the latest results on a magnetron sputtering based method for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 micro solar cells. [less ▲]

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See detailLearning to Optimize: Balancing Two Conflict Metrics in MB-HTS Networks
Bui, Van-Phuc; Chien, Trinh-Van; Lagunas, Eva UL et al

in Advanced Satellite Multimedia Conference / Signal Processing for Space Communications Workshop (ASMS), Gratz, Viena, Sept. 2022 (2022, September)

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See detailRadio Regulation Compliance of NGSO Constellations’ Interference towards GSO Ground Stations
Jalali, Mahdis UL; Ortiz Gomez, Flor de Guadalupe UL; Lagunas, Eva UL et al

in IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, 12–15 September 2022, Virtual Conference (2022, September)

The commercial low earth orbiting (LEO) satellite constellations have shown unprecedented growth. Accordingly, the risk of generating harmful interference to the geostationary orbit (GSO) satellite ... [more ▼]

The commercial low earth orbiting (LEO) satellite constellations have shown unprecedented growth. Accordingly, the risk of generating harmful interference to the geostationary orbit (GSO) satellite services increases with the number of satel- lites in such mega-constellations. As the GSO arc encompasses the primary and existing satellite assets providing essential fixed and broadcasting satellite services, the interference avoidance for this area is of the utmost importance. In particular, non- geostationary orbit (NGSO) operators should comply with the regulations set up both by their national regulators and by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) to minimize the impact of emissions on existing GSO and non-GSO systems. In this paper, we first provide an overview of the most recent radio regulations that dictate the NGSO-GSO spectral co-existence. Next, we analyze the NGSO-GSO radio frequency interference for the downlink scenario, following the so-called time-simulation methodology introduced by ITU. The probability distribution of aggregated power flux-density for NGSO co-channel interference is evaluated and assessed, adopting different degrees of exclusion angle strategy for interference avoidance. We conclude the paper by discussing the resulting implications for the continuity of operation and service provision and we provide remarks for future work [less ▲]

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See detailObfuscating LLVM Intermediate Representation Source Code with NSGA-II
de la Torre, Juan Carlos; Aragó-Jurado, José Miguel; Jareño, Javier et al

in 15th Intl. Conf. on Computational Intelligence in Security for Information Systems (CISIS'22) (2022, September)

With the generalisation of distributed computing paradigms to sustain the surging demands for massive processing and data-analytic capabilities, the protection of the intellectual property tied to the ... [more ▼]

With the generalisation of distributed computing paradigms to sustain the surging demands for massive processing and data-analytic capabilities, the protection of the intellectual property tied to the executed programs transferred onto these remote shared platforms becomes critical. A more and more popular solution to this problem consists in applying obfuscating techniques, in particular at the source code level. Informally, the goal of obfuscation is to conceal the purpose of a program or its logic without altering its functionality, thus preventing reverse-engineering on the program even with the help of computing resources. This allows to protect software against plagiarism, tampering, or finding vulnerabilities that could be used for different kinds of attacks. The many advantages of code obfuscation, together with its low cost, makes it a popular technique. This paper proposes a novel methodology for source code obfuscation relying on the reference LLVM compiler infrastructure that can be used together with other traditional obfuscation techniques, making the code more robust against reverse engineering attacks. The problem is defined as a Multi-Objective Combinatorial Optimization (MOCO) problem, where the goal is to find sequences of LLVM optimizations that lead to highly obfuscated versions of the original code. These transformations are applied to the back-end pseudo- assembly code (i.e., LLVM Intermediate Representation), thus avoiding any further optimizations by the compiler. Three different problem flavours are defined and solved with popular NSGA-II genetic algorithm. The promising results show the potential of the proposed technique. [less ▲]

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See detailJoint Beam Placement and Load Balancing Optimization for Non-Geostationary Satellite Systems
Bui, Van-Phuc; Chien, Trinh-Van; Lagunas, Eva UL et al

in IEEE International Mediterranean Conference on Communications and Networking (IEEE MediCom), Athens, Greece, Sept. 2022 (2022, September)

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See detailDeontic Sentence Classification Using Tree Kernel Classifiers
Liga, Davide UL; Palmirani, Monica

in Intelligent Systems and Applications (2022, August 31)

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See detailTowards Refined Classifications Driven by SHAP Explanations
Arslan, Yusuf UL; Lebichot, Bertrand UL; Allix, Kevin UL et al

in Holzinger, Andreas; Kieseberg, Peter; Tjoa, A. Min (Eds.) et al Machine Learning and Knowledge Extraction (2022, August 11)

Machine Learning (ML) models are inherently approximate; as a result, the predictions of an ML model can be wrong. In applications where errors can jeopardize a company's reputation, human experts often ... [more ▼]

Machine Learning (ML) models are inherently approximate; as a result, the predictions of an ML model can be wrong. In applications where errors can jeopardize a company's reputation, human experts often have to manually check the alarms raised by the ML models by hand, as wrong or delayed decisions can have a significant business impact. These experts often use interpretable ML tools for the verification of predictions. However, post-prediction verification is also costly. In this paper, we hypothesize that the outputs of interpretable ML tools, such as SHAP explanations, can be exploited by machine learning techniques to improve classifier performance. By doing so, the cost of the post-prediction analysis can be reduced. To confirm our intuition, we conduct several experiments where we use SHAP explanations directly as new features. In particular, by considering nine datasets, we first compare the performance of these "SHAP features" against traditional "base features" on binary classification tasks. Then, we add a second-step classifier relying on SHAP features, with the goal of reducing false-positive and false-negative results of typical classifiers. We show that SHAP explanations used as SHAP features can help to improve classification performance, especially for false-negative reduction. [less ▲]

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See detailTransatlantic Chattel Slavery, 1815–1888
Erpelding, Michel UL

in Lovall, Erin; Stefanelli, Justine (Eds.) Reparations Under International Law for Enslavement of African Persons in the Americas and the Caribbean: Proceedings of the Symposium, May 20–21, 2021 (2022, July 06)

This paper addresses the question of the legality and illegality of slavery-related practices during the 19th century under Western international law.

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See detailDIE GESANGSCHULE FÜR DIE "LITURGIE-SÄNGER" IM PREUßISCHEN MILITÄR VON J.D.C. EINBECK (BERLIN 1829)
Brusniak, Friedhelm; Sagrillo, Damien François UL; Heidler, Manfred

in Sagrillo, Damien François (Ed.) International Wind Music Conference, Bolzano 14-18 July 2022 (2022, July 01)

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See detailUser-centricity and Public Values in eGovernment: Friend or Foe?
Weigl, Linda UL; Amard, Alexandre UL; Marxen, Hanna UL et al

in 30th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS 2022) (2022, July)

In their delivery of services, public administrations seek to develop a ‘citizen-centric’ approach. Concomitantly, user-centricity is emerging as a widely accepted construct for Web 3.0 applications ... [more ▼]

In their delivery of services, public administrations seek to develop a ‘citizen-centric’ approach. Concomitantly, user-centricity is emerging as a widely accepted construct for Web 3.0 applications supporting the digital interaction between service providers and recipients. The digitalization of public services can positively impact important public values, such as efficiency and transparency. However, the digital divide highlights that information and communication technologies can simultaneously neglect public needs. This begs the question of whether user-centricity reflects or conflicts with public values. To answer this question, we present a systematic review of existing literature on user-centricity and public values. The contribution of this paper is an extended taxonomy of public values for user-centricity, as well as recommendations for public policy to address conflicts between public values and user-centricity. [less ▲]

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See detailATUA: an update-driven app testing tool
Ngo, Chanh Duc UL; Pastore, Fabrizio UL; Briand, Lionel UL

in The 31st ACM SIGSOFT International Symposium on Software Testing and Analysis (2022, July)

App testing tools tend to generate thousand test inputs; they help engineers identify crashing conditions but not functional failures. Indeed, detecting functional failures requires the visual inspection ... [more ▼]

App testing tools tend to generate thousand test inputs; they help engineers identify crashing conditions but not functional failures. Indeed, detecting functional failures requires the visual inspection of App outputs, which is infeasible for thousands of inputs. Existing App testing tools ignore that most of the Apps are frequently updated and engineers are mainly interested in testing the updated functionalities; indeed, automated regression test cases can be used otherwise. We present ATUA, an open source tool targeting Android Apps. It achieves high coverage of the updated App code with a small number of test inputs, thus alleviating the test oracle problem (less outputs to inspect). It implements a model-based approach that synthesizes App models with static analysis, integrates a dynamically-refined state abstraction function and combines complementary testing strategies, including (1) coverage of the model structure, (2) coverage of the App code, (3) random exploration, and (4) coverage of dependencies identified through information retrieval. Our empirical evaluation, conducted with nine popular Android Apps (72 versions), has shown that ATUA, compared to state-of-the-art approaches, achieves higher code coverage while producing fewer outputs to be manually inspected. A demo video is available at https://youtu.be/RqQ1z_Nkaqo. [less ▲]

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See detailAggregating and Consolidating two High Performant Network Topologies: The ULHPC Experience
Varrette, Sébastien UL; Cartiaux, Hyacinthe UL; Valette, Teddy UL et al

in ACM Practice and Experience in Advanced Research Computing (PEARC'22) (2022, July)

High Performance Computing (HPC) encompasses advanced computation over parallel processing. The execution time of a given simulation depends upon many factors, such as the number of CPU/GPU cores, their ... [more ▼]

High Performance Computing (HPC) encompasses advanced computation over parallel processing. The execution time of a given simulation depends upon many factors, such as the number of CPU/GPU cores, their utilisation factor and, of course, the inter- connect performance, efficiency, and scalability. In practice, this last component and the associated topology remains the most significant differentiators between HPC systems and lesser perfor- mant systems. The University of Luxembourg operates since 2007 a large academic HPC facility which remains one of the reference implementation within the country and offers a cutting-edge re- search infrastructure to Luxembourg public research. The main high-bandwidth low-latency network of the operated facility relies on the dominant interconnect technology in the HPC market i.e., Infiniband (IB) over a Fat-tree topology. It is complemented by an Ethernet-based network defined for management tasks, external access and interactions with user’s applications that do not support Infiniband natively. The recent acquisition of a new cutting-edge supercomputer Aion which was federated with the previous flag- ship cluster Iris was the occasion to aggregate and consolidate the two types of networks. This article depicts the architecture and the solutions designed to expand and consolidate the existing networks beyond their seminal capacity limits while keeping at best their Bisection bandwidth. At the IB level, and despite moving from a non-blocking configuration, the proposed approach defines a blocking topology maintaining the previous Fat-Tree height. The leaf connection capacity is more than tripled (moving from 216 to 672 end-points) while exhibiting very marginal penalties, i.e. less than 3% (resp. 0.3%) Read (resp. Write) bandwidth degradation against reference parallel I/O benchmarks, or a stable and sustain- able point-to-point bandwidth efficiency among all possible pairs of nodes (measured above 95.45% for bi-directional streams). With regards the Ethernet network, a novel 2-layer topology aiming for improving the availability, maintainability and scalability of the interconnect is described. It was deployed together with consistent network VLANs and subnets enforcing strict security policies via ACLs defined on the layer 3, offering isolated and secure net- work environments. The implemented approaches are applicable to a broad range of HPC infrastructures and thus may help other HPC centres to consolidate their own interconnect stacks when designing or expanding their network infrastructures. [less ▲]

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See detailFrom social robots to creative humans and back
Gubenko, Alla UL; Lubart, Todd; Houssemand, Claude UL

in Confalonieri, Roberto; Kutz, Oliver; Veale, Tony (Eds.) et al Proceedings of the Thirteenth International Conference on Computational Creativity (2022, July)

The research on physically and socially situated artificial agents could complement and enrich computational models of creativity. This paper discusses six perspective lines of inquiry at the intersection ... [more ▼]

The research on physically and socially situated artificial agents could complement and enrich computational models of creativity. This paper discusses six perspective lines of inquiry at the intersection of creativity and social robotics. It provides a description of ways in which the field of social robotics may influence (and be influenced by) creativity research in psychology and speculates how human-machine co-creation will affect the notions of both human and artificial creativity. By discussing potential research areas, the authors hope to outline an agenda for future collaboration between creativity scholars in psychology, social robotics, and computer science. [less ▲]

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See detailAn Innovative Partitioning Technology for Coupled Software Modules
Peters, Bernhard UL; Besseron, Xavier UL; Peyraut, Alice et al

in Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Simulation and Modeling Methodologies, Technologies and Applications - SIMULTECH (2022, July)

Multi-physics simulation approaches by coupling various software modules is paramount to unveil the underlying physics and thus leads to an improved design of equipment and a more efficient operation ... [more ▼]

Multi-physics simulation approaches by coupling various software modules is paramount to unveil the underlying physics and thus leads to an improved design of equipment and a more efficient operation. These simulations are in general to be carried out on small to massively parallelised computers for which highly efficient partitioning techniques are required. An innovative partitioning technology is presented that relies on a co-located partitioning of overlapping simulation domains meaning that the overlapping areas of each simulation domain are located at one node. Thus, communication between modules is significantly reduced as compared to an allocation of overlapping simulation domains on different nodes. A co-located partitioning reduces both memory and inter-process communication. [less ▲]

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See detailParallel Multi-Physics Simulation of Biomass Furnace and Cloud-based Workflow for SMEs
Besseron, Xavier UL; Rusche, Henrik; Peters, Bernhard UL

in Practice and Experience in Advanced Research Computing (PEARC '22) (2022, July)

Biomass combustion is a well-established process to produce energy that offers a credible alternative to reduce the consumption of fossil fuel. To optimize the process of biomass combustion, numerical ... [more ▼]

Biomass combustion is a well-established process to produce energy that offers a credible alternative to reduce the consumption of fossil fuel. To optimize the process of biomass combustion, numerical simulation is a less expensive and time-effective approach than the experimental method. However, biomass combustion involves intricate physical phenomena that must be modeled (and validated) carefully, in the fuel bed and in the surrounding gas. With this level of complexity, these simulations require the use of High-Performance Computing (HPC) platforms and expertise, which are usually not affordable for manufacturing SMEs. In this work, we developed a parallel simulation tool for the simulation of biomass furnaces that relies on a parallel coupling between Computation Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Discrete Element Method (DEM). This approach is computation-intensive but provides accurate and detailed results for biomass combustion with a moving fuel bed. Our implementation combines FOAM-extend (for the gas phase) parallelized with MPI, and XDEM (for the solid particles) parallelized with OpenMP, to take advantage of HPC hardware. We also carry out a thorough performance evaluation of our implementation using an industrial biomass furnace setup. Additionally, we present a fully automated workflow that handles all steps from the user input to the analysis of the results. Hundreds of parameters can be modified, including the furnace geometry and fuel settings. The workflow prepares the simulation input, delegates the computing-intensive simulation to an HPC platform, and collects the results. Our solution is integrated into the Digital Marketplace of the CloudiFacturing EU project and is directly available to SMEs via a Cloud portal. As a result, we provide a cutting-edge simulation of a biomass furnace running on HPC. With this tool, we demonstrate how HPC can benefit engineering and manufacturing SMEs, and empower them to compute and solve problems that cannot be tackled without. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimizing the Resource and Job Management System of an Academic HPC and Research Computing Facility
Varrette, Sébastien UL; Kieffer, Emmanuel UL; Pinel, Frederic

in 21st IEEE Intl. Symp. on Parallel and Distributed Computing (ISPDC'22) (2022, July)

High Performance Computing (HPC) is nowadays a strategic asset required to sustain the surging demands for massive processing and data-analytic capabilities. In practice, the effective management of such ... [more ▼]

High Performance Computing (HPC) is nowadays a strategic asset required to sustain the surging demands for massive processing and data-analytic capabilities. In practice, the effective management of such large scale and distributed computing infrastructures is left to a Resource and Job Management System (RJMS). This essential middleware component is responsible for managing the computing resources, handling user requests to allocate resources while providing an optimized framework for starting, executing and monitoring jobs on the allocated resources. The University of Luxembourg has been operating for 15 years a large academic HPC facility which relies since 2017 on the Slurm RJMS introduced on top of the flagship cluster Iris. The acquisition of a new liquid-cooled supercomputer named Aion which was released in 2021 was the occasion to deeply review and optimize the seminal Slurm configuration, the resource limits defined and the sustaining fairsharing algorithm. This paper presents the outcomes of this study and details the implemented RJMS policy. The impact of the decisions made over the supercomputers workloads is also described. In particular, the performance evaluation conducted highlights that when compared to the seminal configuration, the described and implemented environment brought concrete and measurable improvements with regards the platform utilization (+12.64%), the jobs efficiency (as measured by the average Wall-time Request Accuracy, improved by 110.81%) or the management and funding (increased by 10%). The systems demonstrated sustainable and scalable HPC performances, and this effort has led to a negligible penalty on the average slowdown metric (response time normalized by runtime), which was increased by 0.59% for job workloads covering a complete year of exercise. Overall, this new setup has been in production for 18 months on both supercomputers and the updated model proves to bring a fairer and more satisfying experience to the end users. The proposed configurations and policies may help other HPC centres when designing or improving the RJMS sustaining the job scheduling strategy at the advent of computing capacity expansions. [less ▲]

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See detailManagement of an Academic HPC Research Computing Facility: The ULHPC Experience 2.0
Varrette, Sébastien UL; Cartiaux, Hyacinthe UL; Peter, Sarah UL et al

in 6th High Performance Computing and Cluster Technologies Conference (HPCCT 2022) (2022, July)

With the advent of the technological revolution and the digital transformation that made all scientific disciplines becoming computational, the need for High Performance Computing (HPC) has become and a ... [more ▼]

With the advent of the technological revolution and the digital transformation that made all scientific disciplines becoming computational, the need for High Performance Computing (HPC) has become and a strategic and critical asset to leverage new research and business in all domains requiring computing and storage performance. Since 2007, the University of Luxembourg operates a large academic HPC facility which remains the reference implementation within the country. This paper provides a general description of the current platform implementation as well as its operational management choices which have been adapted to the integration of a new liquid-cooled supercomputer, named Aion, released in 2021. The administration of a HPC facility to provide state-of-art computing systems, storage and software is indeed a complex and dynamic enterprise with the soul purpose to offer an enhanced user experience for intensive research computing and large-scale analytic workflows. Most design choices and feedback described in this work have been motivated by several years of experience in addressing in a flexible and convenient way the heterogeneous needs inherent to an academic environment towards research excellence. The different layers and stacks used within the operated facilities are reviewed, in particular with regards the user software management, or the adaptation of the Slurm Resource and Job Management System (RJMS) configuration with novel incentives mechanisms. In practice, the described and implemented environment brought concrete and measurable improvements with regards the platform utilization (+12,64%), jobs efficiency (average Wall-time Request Accuracy improved by 110,81%), the management and funding (increased by 10%). Thorough performance evaluation of the facility is also presented in this paper through reference benchmarks such as HPL, HPCG, Graph500, IOR or IO500. It reveals sustainable and scalable performance comparable to the most powerful supercomputers in the world, including for energy-efficient metrics (for instance, 5,19 GFlops/W (resp. 6,14 MTEPS/W) were demonstrated for full HPL (resp. Graph500) runs across all Aion nodes). [less ▲]

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See detailFrom Graphs to the Science Computer of a Space Telescope. The power of Petri Nets in Systems Engineering
Graczyk, Rafal UL; Bujwan, Waldemar; Darmetko, Marcin et al

in Graczyk, Rafal; Bujwan, Waldemar; Darmetko, Marcin (Eds.) et al From Graphs to the Science Computer of a Space Telescope. The power of Petri Nets in Systems Engineering (2022, June 23)

Space system engineering has to follow a rigorous design process to manage performance/risk trade-offs at each development stage and possibly across several functional and organizational domains. The ... [more ▼]

Space system engineering has to follow a rigorous design process to manage performance/risk trade-offs at each development stage and possibly across several functional and organizational domains. The process is further complicated by the co-development of multiple solutions, each contributing differently to the goal and with different tradeoffs. Moreover, the design process is iterative, involving both changing requirements and specifications along the different ways that lead to the set goal of the mission. The above requires rigorous modeling that, in addition, must be easily extendible and maintainable across organizational units. On the example of the PROBA-3 science computer (instrument control unit, CCB DPU), we show how Petri Nets can serve as such a simple-to-maintain, holistic model, combining finite-state characterizations with dynamic system behavior caused by hardware-software interactions, to express the component-state dependent end-to-end performance characteristics of the system. The paper elaborates on how the proposed Petri-Net modeling scheme allows for system architecture optimization that result in safely reduced technical margins and in turn substantial savings in components costs. We show that performance metrics, obtained from simulation, correlate well with the real performance characteristics of the flight model of PROBA-3's science computer. [less ▲]

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See detail3D Digital Heritage and Historical Storytelling: Outcomes from the Interreg EMR Terra Mosana Project
van Ruymbeke, Muriel UL; Nofal, Eslam; Billen, Roland

in Rauterberg, Matthias (Ed.) Culture and Computing (2022, June 16)

The paper explains how the activities undertaken in the Terra Mosana project have combined the writing of new heritage narratives with the creation of digital 3D virtual experiences. The main objective of ... [more ▼]

The paper explains how the activities undertaken in the Terra Mosana project have combined the writing of new heritage narratives with the creation of digital 3D virtual experiences. The main objective of the project was to strengthen the sense of belonging to the same community for the citizens of the Euregio Meuse-Rhine by recreating their common history and heritage in 3D. This was achieved through virtual and augmented reality experiences based on cross-border and renewed historical storylines. [less ▲]

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See detailResampling methods for a reliable validation set in deep learning based point cloud classification
Nurunnabi, Abdul Awal Md UL; Teferle, Felix Norman UL

in Resampling methods for a reliable validation set in deep learning based point cloud classification (2022, June)

A validation data set plays a pivotal role in tweaking a machine learning model trained in a supervised manner. Many existing algorithms select a part of available data by using random sampling to produce ... [more ▼]

A validation data set plays a pivotal role in tweaking a machine learning model trained in a supervised manner. Many existing algorithms select a part of available data by using random sampling to produce a validation set. However, this approach can be prone to overfitting. One should follow careful data splitting to have reliable training and validation sets that can produce a generalized model with a good performance for the unseen (test) data. Data splitting based on resampling techniques involves repeatedly drawing samples from the available data. Hence, resampling methods can give better generalization power to a model, because they can produce and use many training and/or validation sets. These techniques are computationally expensive, but with increasingly available high-performance computing facilities, one can exploit them. Though a multitude of resampling methods exist, investigation of their influence on the generality of deep learning (DL) algorithms is limited due to its non-linear black-box nature. This paper contributes by: (1) investigating the generalization capability of the four most popular resampling methods: k-fold cross-validation (k-CV), repeated k-CV (Rk-CV), Monte Carlo CV (MC-CV) and bootstrap for creating training and validation data sets used for developing, training and validating DL based point cloud classifiers (e.g., PointNet; Qi et al., 2017a), (2) justifying Mean Square Error (MSE) as a statistically consistent estimator, and (3) exploring the use of MSE as a reliable performance metric for supervised DL. Experiments in this paper are performed on both synthetic and real-world aerial laser scanning (ALS) point clouds. [less ▲]

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See detailPrivate Authors, Hybrid Process, Public effects: The Evolutive Legal Nature of Technical Standards Referenced in EU Law
Gerardy, Marie UL

in Jokobs, Kai; Kin, Dong-hyu (Eds.) EURAS Proceedings 2022: Standardisation and Open Source (2022, June)

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See detailLuxemBERT: Simple and Practical Data Augmentation in Language Model Pre-Training for Luxembourgish
Lothritz, Cedric UL; Lebichot, Bertrand UL; Allix, Kevin UL et al

in Proceedings of the Language Resources and Evaluation Conference, 2022 (2022, June)

Pre-trained Language Models such as BERT have become ubiquitous in NLP where they have achieved state-of-the-art performance in most NLP tasks. While these models are readily available for English and ... [more ▼]

Pre-trained Language Models such as BERT have become ubiquitous in NLP where they have achieved state-of-the-art performance in most NLP tasks. While these models are readily available for English and other widely spoken languages, they remain scarce for low-resource languages such as Luxembourgish. In this paper, we present LuxemBERT, a BERT model for the Luxembourgish language that we create using the following approach: we augment the pre-training dataset by considering text data from a closely related language that we partially translate using a simple and straightforward method. We are then able to produce the LuxemBERT model, which we show to be effective for various NLP tasks: it outperforms a simple baseline built with the available Luxembourgish text data as well the multilingual mBERT model, which is currently the only option for transformer-based language models in Luxembourgish. Furthermore, we present datasets for various downstream NLP tasks that we created for this study and will make available to researchers on request. [less ▲]

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See detailApproximating WCRT through the aggregation of short simulations with different initial conditions: application to TSN
Keller, Patrick UL; Navet, Nicolas UL

in 30th International Conference on Real-Time Networks and Systems (RTNS ’22) (2022, June)

Assessing traversal times is the main concern in the verification of embedded real-time networks. Schedulability analysis, as it provides firm guarantees, is the preferred technique for the designers of ... [more ▼]

Assessing traversal times is the main concern in the verification of embedded real-time networks. Schedulability analysis, as it provides firm guarantees, is the preferred technique for the designers of critical systems. There are however contexts where it is not economically or technically feasible to develop one, typically when the software and hardware components have not been designed with predictability in mind, e.g. as soon as TCP-based traffic is involved in network communication or when the hardware platform is too complex (e.g. heterogeneous System-on-Chips). In this paper, we study if it is possible to improve the ability of simulation to observe large traversal times, by running many short simulations with appropriately chosen simulation time and varying initial offsets of the stations on the network. The de-facto standard approach to assess maximal traversal times is to run a single long simulation with synchronized node start offsets and to use randomized node clock drifts inside an acceptable range. This approach is known to yield high traversal times but is not parallelizable. We propose an alternative approach consisting in splitting the simulation time over multiple shorter simulations with, optionally, randomized node start offsets. We evaluate the optimization potential of this simple approach on several realistic network configurations by comparing long simulations to aggregated short simulations, with and without synchronized node start offsets. We observe, considering all flows, that this allows a median improvement of up to 21.3% in terms of maximum traversal time observed, for the same simulation time budget. Additional randomization of the node start offsets showed further improvements of up to 4.8% in our experiments. Results from this line of work can be used to estimate the pessimism of schedulability analyses and verify systems for which no analysis is available. [less ▲]

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See detailSemantic and Interactive Search in an Advanced Note-Taking App for Learning Material
Atashpendar, Aryobarzan UL; Grevisse, Christian UL; Botev, Jean UL et al

in Proceedings of the 24th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction (HCI International) (2022, June)

Note-taking apps on tablets are increasingly becoming the go-to space for managing learning material as a student. In particular, digital note-taking presents certain advantages over traditional pen-and ... [more ▼]

Note-taking apps on tablets are increasingly becoming the go-to space for managing learning material as a student. In particular, digital note-taking presents certain advantages over traditional pen-and-paper approaches when it comes to organizing and retrieving a library of notes thanks to various search functionalities. This paper presents improvements to the classic textual-input-based search field, by introducing a semantic search that considers the meaning of a user’s search terms and an automatic question-answering process that extracts the answer to the user’s question from their notes for more efficient information retrieval. Additionally, visual methods for finding specific notes are proposed, which do not require the input of text by the user: through the integration of a semantic similarity metric, notes similar to a selected document can be displayed based on common topics. Furthermore, a fully interactive process allows one to search for notes by selecting different types of dynamically generated filters, thus eliminating the need for textual input. Finally, a graph-based visualization is explored for the search results, which clusters semantically similar notes closer together to relay additional information to the user besides the raw search results. [less ▲]

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See detailGuiding Refugees Through European Bureaucracy: Designing a Trustworthy Mobile App for Document Management
Amard, Alexandre UL; Höß, Alexandra UL; Roth, Tamara UL et al

in The Transdisciplinary Reach of Design Science Research (2022, May 25)

After being granted asylum in European countries, refugees need to go through a multitude of administrative processes before they can participate in society. However, these processes are often challenging ... [more ▼]

After being granted asylum in European countries, refugees need to go through a multitude of administrative processes before they can participate in society. However, these processes are often challenging, as refugees struggle to understand them, lack instructions for managing paperwork, and do not possess the required language skills. Prior research emphasizes the role of information and communication technologies to simplify and enable refugee-friendly administrative processes. However, recent research and existing applications mainly focus on information retrieval and do not offer assistance for understanding official letters, completing administrative forms, and managing corresponding documents. Furthermore, refugees are often reluctant to use existing applications as they do not trust their host country’s governments and public authorities. In this research, we aim to address this functional and trust gap. We follow a design science research approach to develop a design for a refugee-centric and trustworthy mobile application that assists refugees along administrative processes. In doing so, we identify three design principles that may guide the development of such applications for refugees. [less ▲]

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See detailTriggerZoo: A Dataset of Android Applications Automatically Infected with Logic Bombs
Samhi, Jordan UL; Bissyande, Tegawendé François D Assise UL; Klein, Jacques UL

in 19th International Conference on Mining Software Repositories, Data Showcase, (MSR 2022) (2022, May 23)

Many Android apps analyzers rely, among other techniques, on dynamic analysis to monitor their runtime behavior and detect potential security threats. However, malicious developers use subtle, though ... [more ▼]

Many Android apps analyzers rely, among other techniques, on dynamic analysis to monitor their runtime behavior and detect potential security threats. However, malicious developers use subtle, though efficient, techniques to bypass dynamic analyzers. Logic bombs are examples of popular techniques where the malicious code is triggered only under specific circumstances, challenging comprehensive dynamic analyses. The research community has proposed various approaches and tools to detect logic bombs. Unfortunately, rigorous assessment and fair comparison of state-of-the-art techniques are impossible due to the lack of ground truth. In this paper, we present TriggerZoo, a new dataset of 406 Android apps containing logic bombs and benign trigger-based behavior that we release only to the research community using authenticated API. These apps are real-world apps from Google Play that have been automatically infected by our tool AndroBomb. The injected pieces of code implementing the logic bombs cover a large pallet of realistic logic bomb types that we have manually characterized from a set of real logic bombs. Researchers can exploit this dataset as ground truth to assess their approaches and provide comparisons against other tools. [less ▲]

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See detailDifuzer: Uncovering Suspicious Hidden Sensitive Operations in Android Apps
Samhi, Jordan UL; Li, Li; Bissyande, Tegawendé François D Assise UL et al

in 44th International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE 2022) (2022, May 21)

One prominent tactic used to keep malicious behavior from being detected during dynamic test campaigns is logic bombs, where malicious operations are triggered only when specific conditions are satisfied ... [more ▼]

One prominent tactic used to keep malicious behavior from being detected during dynamic test campaigns is logic bombs, where malicious operations are triggered only when specific conditions are satisfied. Defusing logic bombs remains an unsolved problem in the literature. In this work, we propose to investigate Suspicious Hidden Sensitive Operations (SHSOs) as a step towards triaging logic bombs. To that end, we develop a novel hybrid approach that combines static analysis and anomaly detection techniques to uncover SHSOs, which we predict as likely implementations of logic bombs. Concretely, Difuzer identifies SHSO entry-points using an instrumentation engine and an inter-procedural data-flow analysis. Then, it extracts trigger-specific features to characterize SHSOs and leverages One-Class SVM to implement an unsupervised learning model for detecting abnormal triggers. We evaluate our prototype and show that it yields a precision of 99.02% to detect SHSOs among which 29.7% are logic bombs. Difuzer outperforms the state-of-the-art in revealing more logic bombs while yielding less false positives in about one order of magnitude less time. All our artifacts are released to the community. [less ▲]

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See detailJuCify: A Step Towards Android Code Unification for Enhanced Static Analysis
Samhi, Jordan UL; Gao, Jun UL; Daoudi, Nadia UL et al

in 44th International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE 2022) (2022, May 21)

Native code is now commonplace within Android app packages where it co-exists and interacts with Dex bytecode through the Java Native Interface to deliver rich app functionalities. Yet, state-of-the-art ... [more ▼]

Native code is now commonplace within Android app packages where it co-exists and interacts with Dex bytecode through the Java Native Interface to deliver rich app functionalities. Yet, state-of-the-art static analysis approaches have mostly overlooked the presence of such native code, which, however, may implement some key sensitive, or even malicious, parts of the app behavior. This limitation of the state of the art is a severe threat to validity in a large range of static analyses that do not have a complete view of the executable code in apps. To address this issue, we propose a new advance in the ambitious research direction of building a unified model of all code in Android apps. The JuCify approach presented in this paper is a significant step towards such a model, where we extract and merge call graphs of native code and bytecode to make the final model readily-usable by a common Android analysis framework: in our implementation, JuCify builds on the Soot internal intermediate representation. We performed empirical investigations to highlight how, without the unified model, a significant amount of Java methods called from the native code are ``unreachable'' in apps' call-graphs, both in goodware and malware. Using JuCify, we were able to enable static analyzers to reveal cases where malware relied on native code to hide invocation of payment library code or of other sensitive code in the Android framework. Additionally, JuCify's model enables state-of-the-art tools to achieve better precision and recall in detecting data leaks through native code. Finally, we show that by using JuCify we can find sensitive data leaks that pass through native code. [less ▲]

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See detailPreventing Frame Fingerprinting in Controller Area Network Through Traffic Mutation
Buscemi, Alessio UL; Turcanu, Ion; Castignani, German UL et al

in IEEE ICC 2022 Workshop - DDINS, Seoul 16-20 May 2022 (2022, May)

The continuous increase of connectivity in commercial vehicles is leading to a higher number of remote access points to the Controller Area Network (CAN) – the most popular in-vehicle network system. This ... [more ▼]

The continuous increase of connectivity in commercial vehicles is leading to a higher number of remote access points to the Controller Area Network (CAN) – the most popular in-vehicle network system. This factor, coupled with the absence of encryption in the communication protocol, poses serious threats to the security of the CAN bus. Recently, it has been demonstrated that CAN data can be reverse engineered via frame fingerprinting, i.e., identification of frames based on statistical traffic analysis. Such a methodology allows fully remote decoding of in-vehicle data and paves the way for remote pre-compiled vehicle-agnostic attacks. In this work, we propose a first solution against CAN frame fingerprinting based on mutating the traffic without applying modifications to the CAN protocol. The results show that the proposed methodology halves the accuracy of CAN frame fingerprinting. [less ▲]

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See detailEfficient Online Testing for DNN-Enabled Systems using Surrogate-Assisted and Many-Objective Optimization
Ul Haq, Fitash UL; Shin, Donghwan UL; Briand, Lionel UL

in Proceedings of the 44th International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE ’22) (2022, May)

With the recent advances of Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) in real-world applications, such as Automated Driving Systems (ADS) for self-driving cars, ensuring the reliability and safety of such DNN- enabled ... [more ▼]

With the recent advances of Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) in real-world applications, such as Automated Driving Systems (ADS) for self-driving cars, ensuring the reliability and safety of such DNN- enabled Systems emerges as a fundamental topic in software testing. One of the essential testing phases of such DNN-enabled systems is online testing, where the system under test is embedded into a specific and often simulated application environment (e.g., a driving environment) and tested in a closed-loop mode in interaction with the environment. However, despite the importance of online testing for detecting safety violations, automatically generating new and diverse test data that lead to safety violations present the following challenges: (1) there can be many safety requirements to be considered at the same time, (2) running a high-fidelity simulator is often very computationally-intensive, and (3) the space of all possible test data that may trigger safety violations is too large to be exhaustively explored. In this paper, we address the challenges by proposing a novel approach, called SAMOTA (Surrogate-Assisted Many-Objective Testing Approach), extending existing many-objective search algorithms for test suite generation to efficiently utilize surrogate models that mimic the simulator, but are much less expensive to run. Empirical evaluation results on Pylot, an advanced ADS composed of multiple DNNs, using CARLA, a high-fidelity driving simulator, show that SAMOTA is significantly more effective and efficient at detecting unknown safety requirement violations than state-of-the-art many-objective test suite generation algorithms and random search. In other words, SAMOTA appears to be a key enabler technology for online testing in practice. [less ▲]

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See detailHUDD: A tool to debug DNNs for safety analysis
Fahmy, Hazem UL; Pastore, Fabrizio UL; Briand, Lionel UL

in 2022 IEEE/ACM 44st International Conference on Software Engineering (2022, May)

We present HUDD, a tool that supports safety analysis practices for systems enabled by Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) by automatically identifying the root causes for DNN errors and retraining the DNN. HUDD ... [more ▼]

We present HUDD, a tool that supports safety analysis practices for systems enabled by Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) by automatically identifying the root causes for DNN errors and retraining the DNN. HUDD stands for Heatmap-based Unsupervised Debugging of DNNs, it automatically clusters error-inducing images whose results are due to common subsets of DNN neurons. The intent is for the generated clusters to group error-inducing images having common characteristics, that is, having a common root cause. HUDD identifies root causes by applying a clustering algorithm to matrices (i.e., heatmaps) capturing the relevance of every DNN neuron on the DNN outcome. Also, HUDD retrains DNNs with images that are automatically selected based on their relatedness to the identified image clusters. Our empirical evaluation with DNNs from the automotive domain have shown that HUDD automatically identifies all the distinct root causes of DNN errors, thus supporting safety analysis. Also, our retraining approach has shown to be more effective at improving DNN accuracy than existing approaches. A demo video of HUDD is available at https://youtu.be/drjVakP7jdU. [less ▲]

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See detailMASS: A tool for Mutation Analysis of Space CPS
Cornejo Olivares, Oscar Eduardo UL; Pastore, Fabrizio UL; Briand, Lionel UL

in 2022 IEEE/ACM 44st International Conference on Software Engineering (2022, May)

We present MASS, a mutation analysis tool for embedded software in cyber-physical systems (CPS). We target space CPS (e.g., satellites) and other CPS with similar characteristics (e.g., UAV). Mutation ... [more ▼]

We present MASS, a mutation analysis tool for embedded software in cyber-physical systems (CPS). We target space CPS (e.g., satellites) and other CPS with similar characteristics (e.g., UAV). Mutation analysis measures the quality of test suites in terms of the percentage of detected artificial faults. There are many mutation analysis tools available, but they are inapplicable to CPS because of scalability and accuracy challenges. To overcome such limitations, MASS implements a set of optimization techniques that enable the applicability of mutation analysis and address scalability and accuracy in the CPS context. MASS has been successfully evaluated on a large study involving embedded software systems provided by industry partners; the study includes an on-board software system managing a microsatellite currently on-orbit, a set of libraries used in deployed cubesats, and a mathematical library provided by the European Space Agency. A demo video of MASS is available at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gC1x9cU0-tU. [less ▲]

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See detailInhomogeneities in lead halide perovskite absorbers revealed by quantitative Photoluminescence Imaging
Phirke, Himanshu UL; Singh, Ajay UL; Hieulle, Jeremy UL et al

in Phirke, Himanshu; Singh, Ajay; Hieulle, Jeremy (Eds.) et al Inhomogeneities in lead halide perovskite absorbers revealed by quantitative Photoluminescence Imaging (2022, April 20)

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See detailEsclavage, servitude, travail forcé : constitution et évolution d’un cadre conceptuel
Erpelding, Michel UL

in Marchadier, Fabien (Ed.) La prohibition de l'esclavage (2022, April 20)

This chapter examines the emergence, definition and evolution of the concepts of slavery, forced labour and servitude in international law.

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See detailThe effect of dataset confounding on predictions of deep neural networks for medical imaging
Garcia Santa Cruz, Beatriz UL; Husch, Andreas UL; Hertel, Frank UL

in Vol. 3 (2022): Proceedings of the Northern Lights Deep Learning Workshop 2022 (2022, April 18)

The use of Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) in medical imaging has often outperformed previous solutions and even specialists, becoming a promising technology for Computer-aided-Diagnosis (CAD) systems ... [more ▼]

The use of Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) in medical imaging has often outperformed previous solutions and even specialists, becoming a promising technology for Computer-aided-Diagnosis (CAD) systems. However, recent works suggested that CNN may have poor generalisation on new data, for instance, generated in different hospitals. Uncontrolled confounders have been proposed as a common reason. In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate the impact of confounding data in unknown scenarios. We assessed the effect of four confounding configurations: total, strong, light and balanced. We found the confounding effect is especially prominent in total confounder scenarios, while the effect on light and strong confounding scenarios may depend on the dataset robustness. Our findings indicate that the confounding effect is independent of the architecture employed. These findings might explain why models can report good metrics during the development stage but fail to translate to real-world settings. We highlight the need for thorough consideration of these commonly unattended aspects, to develop safer CNN-based CAD systems. [less ▲]

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See detailMaximizing the Number of Served Users in a Smart City using Reconfigurable Intelligent Surfaces
Zivuku, Progress UL; Kisseleff, Steven UL; Nguyen, van Dinh UL et al

in Proceedings of IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC) (2022, April 10)

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See detailAbstract: The Importance of Dataset Choice Lessons Learned from COVID-19 X-ray Imaging Models
Garcia Santa Cruz, Beatriz UL; Bossa, Matias Nicolas UL; Soelter, Jan et al

in Bildverarbeitung für die Medizin 2022. Informatik aktuell. Springer Vieweg, Wiesbaden. (2022, April 05)

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See detailEduCHI 2022 - 4th Annual Symposium on HCI Education
McDonald, Craig; St-Cyr, Olivier; Gray, Colin M. et al

in Proceedings of the CHI 2022 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (2022, April)

EduCHI 2022 will bring together an international community of scholars, practitioners, and researchers to shape the future of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) education. Held as part of the CHI 2022 ... [more ▼]

EduCHI 2022 will bring together an international community of scholars, practitioners, and researchers to shape the future of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) education. Held as part of the CHI 2022 conference, the two-day symposium will feature in- teractive discussions about trends, curricula, pedagogies, teaching practices, and current and future challenges facing HCI educators. In addition to providing a platform to share curriculum plans and teaching materials, EduCHI 2022 will also provide opportunities for HCI educators to learn new instructional strategies and deepen their pedagogical knowledge. [less ▲]

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See detailHabilyzer: A User-Driven Open-Ended Sensor Kit for Office Workers
van den Heuvel, Roy; van Bussel, Tjeu; Lallemand, Carine UL

in Proceedings of the Extended Abstracts of the 2022 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (2022, April)

Office work presents health and wellbeing challenges, triggered by working habits or environmental factors. While technological interventions gain popularity in the workplace, they often fall short of ... [more ▼]

Office work presents health and wellbeing challenges, triggered by working habits or environmental factors. While technological interventions gain popularity in the workplace, they often fall short of acknowledging personal needs. Building on approaches from personal informatics, we present our vision on the use of user-driven, situated sensor probes in an office context and how the community might deal with complex yet timely questions around the use of data to empower people in becoming explorers of their own habits and experiences. We demonstrate Habilyzer, an open-ended sensor toolkit for office workers, which enables user-driven explorations in self-tracking their work routines. This research contributes an alternative approach to improving working habits and vitality in the workplace, moving from solution-oriented technologies to inquiry-enabling tools. Through this demonstration, we also aim to trigger discussions on the use of sensors and data in the office context, in the light of privacy, consent and data ownership. [less ▲]

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See detailHabilyzer: Empowering Office Workers to Investigate their Working Habits using an Open-Ended Sensor Kit
van Bussel, Tjeu; van den Heuvel, Roy; Lallemand, Carine UL

in Proceedings of the Extended Abstracts of the 2022 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (2022, April)

Office work presents health and wellbeing challenges, triggered by unhealthy working habits or environmental factors. While technologies for vitality in the office context gain popularity, they are often ... [more ▼]

Office work presents health and wellbeing challenges, triggered by unhealthy working habits or environmental factors. While technologies for vitality in the office context gain popularity, they are often solution-focused and fall short in acknowledging personal needs. Building on approaches from personal informatics, we see value in opening up the design space of tracking and sensing technologies for office workers. We designed and deployed an open-ended sensor kit and conducted two complementary studies to investigate the value of empowering office workers to investigate their own working habits. Findings show that Habilyzer triggers curiosity about working habits, and wireless sensors contribute to inquire into those habits, possibly supported by additional tools. We contribute new insights into how an open-ended sensor kit can be designed to support self-tracking practices and underlying reflections in the underexplored context of office work. It is an alternative approach to workplace vitality, moving from solution-oriented technologies to inquiry-enabling tools. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimizing the Use of the Sentence Completion Survey Technique in User Research – A Case Study on the Experience of E-Reading
Lallemand, Carine UL; Mercier, Emeline

in Proceeding of the CHI 2022 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (2022, April)

Sentence completion, originally a semi-projective psychological technique, has been used as an effective and lightweight user research method in user experience (UX) design. More information is yet still ... [more ▼]

Sentence completion, originally a semi-projective psychological technique, has been used as an effective and lightweight user research method in user experience (UX) design. More information is yet still needed to understand how different sentence stems probe users’ insights, thereby providing recommendations for effective sentence completion surveys. We used the completion method on a large-scale sample to explore (e-)readers’ experiences and needs. Depending on their reading habits, participants (N=1880) were asked to complete a set of sentences, as part of a web survey. With 14143 user ideas collected in two weeks, our results confirm that remote online sentence completion is a cost-effective data collection method able to uncover feelings, attitudes, motivations, needs, or frustrations. Variation in sentence stems affected collected data in terms of item response rate, idea quantity as well as variety and originality. Building on previous research, this paper delivers actionable insights to optimize the richness of sentence completion outputs. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Candy Workshop: Supporting Rich Sensory Modalities in Constructive Data Physicalization
Lallemand, Carine UL; Oomen, Maud

in Proceedings of the Extended Abstracts of the 2022 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (2022, April)

Constructive data physicalization (i.e. the creation of visualizations by non-experts using physical elements) is a promising research area in a context of rapid democratization of data collection and ... [more ▼]

Constructive data physicalization (i.e. the creation of visualizations by non-experts using physical elements) is a promising research area in a context of rapid democratization of data collection and visualization, driven notably by the quantified-self movement. Despite a prolific body of work developed to explore physicalization as a mean to communicate data to individuals, little is known about how people transform data into physical artefacts. Current research also falls short in studying constructive physicalizations using other sensory modalities than sight or touch. Building on the principles of data edibilization, we propose to use candies as a medium to study constructive data physicalization processes, due to their ability to leverage multiple sensory channels. We conducted a preliminary study (candy workshop) to gain insights into how people make use of various sensory modalities in the construction of data physicalizations. We hope to inspire new research using candies as accessible research material. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of various outdoor conditions on Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) of bridges using data from Luxembourg
Dakhili, Khatereh UL; Kebig, Tanja; Maas, Stefan UL

in VDI-Berichte 2379, 7. VDI-Fachtagung Baudynamik 27. und 28. April 2022, Würzburg (2022, April)

An increasing number of bridges are approaching the end of their service life due to corrosion and fatigue. Damages can be detected by performing regular measurements of characteristic values and ... [more ▼]

An increasing number of bridges are approaching the end of their service life due to corrosion and fatigue. Damages can be detected by performing regular measurements of characteristic values and comparing them with reference state data when there is no damage in the bridge. Unfortunately, environmental factors such as temperature variations have a considerable impact on the measurements and structural properties, such as stiffness. Since these environmental effects can be in the same order as damage, it is important to quantify them and reduce their effect before damage assessment. This paper aims to establish a correct reference model by investigating the parameters that affect structural responses. Doing so enables discrimination between structural property changes caused by damage and parameters such as temperature variations, load uncertainties, and various bearings. In this regard, several static and dynamic experiments are performed on a full scale undamaged prestressed concrete beam from a demolished bridge, and the results are reported. [less ▲]

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See detailFontana: Triggering Physical Activity and Social Connectedness through an Interactive Water Installation
van Renswouw, Loes; van Hamersveld, Yvonne; Huibers, Hugo et al

in Proceedings of the Extended Abstracts of the 2022 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (2022, April)

Promoting healthy and active lifestyles is an important objective for many governing agencies. The design of active urban environments can be an effective tool to encourage more active behaviors and water ... [more ▼]

Promoting healthy and active lifestyles is an important objective for many governing agencies. The design of active urban environments can be an effective tool to encourage more active behaviors and water features can attract people, improving their experience of the urban space. To explore the potential of these concepts, we designed Fontana; an interactive public installation that aims to stimulate physical activity and social connectedness in the urban outdoor space, using the multidimensional attractiveness of water. We focus on the use of embedded interactive technology to promote physical activity, using water as a linking element between users. Adopting a research-through-design approach, we explored how such installations can nudge people into an active behavior while additionally strengthening social connectedness, using inclusive design principles. We report on insights gathered through this case study and findings of a preliminary user test, discussing the implications of this work for design researchers and practitioners. [less ▲]

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See detailConceptualising the Legal Notion of ‘State of the Art’ in the Context of IT Security
Schmitz, Sandra UL

in Friedewald, Michael; Krenn, Stephan; Schiffner, Stefan (Eds.) et al Privacy and Identity Management. Between Data Protection and Security (2022, March 31)

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See detailA TWO-STEP FEATURE EXTRACTION ALGORITHM: APPLICATION TO DEEP LEARNING FOR POINT CLOUD CLASSIFICATION
Nurunnabi, Abdul Awal Md UL; Teferle, Felix Norman UL; Laefer, Debra et al

in A TWO-STEP FEATURE EXTRACTION ALGORITHM: APPLICATION TO DEEP LEARNING FOR POINT CLOUD CLASSIFICATION (2022, March)

Most deep learning (DL) methods that are not end-to-end use several multi-scale and multi-type hand-crafted features that make the network challenging, more computationally intensive and vulnerable to ... [more ▼]

Most deep learning (DL) methods that are not end-to-end use several multi-scale and multi-type hand-crafted features that make the network challenging, more computationally intensive and vulnerable to overfitting. Furthermore, reliance on empirically-based feature dimensionality reduction may lead to misclassification. In contrast, efficient feature management can reduce storage and computational complexities, builds better classifiers, and improves overall performance. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is a well-known dimension reduction technique that has been used for feature extraction. This paper presents a two-step PCA based feature extraction algorithm that employs a variant of feature-based PointNet (Qi et al., 2017a) for point cloud classification. This paper extends the PointNet framework for use on large-scale aerial LiDAR data, and contributes by (i) developing a new feature extraction algorithm, (ii) exploring the impact of dimensionality reduction in feature extraction, and (iii) introducing a non-end-to-end PointNet variant for per point classification in point clouds. This is demonstrated on aerial laser scanning (ALS) point clouds. The algorithm successfully reduces the dimension of the feature space without sacrificing performance, as benchmarked against the original PointNet algorithm. When tested on the well-known Vaihingen data set, the proposed algorithm achieves an Overall Accuracy (OA) of 74.64% by using 9 input vectors and 14 shape features, whereas with the same 9 input vectors and only 5PCs (principal components built by the 14 shape features) it actually achieves a higher OA of 75.36% which demonstrates the effect of efficient dimensionality reduction. [less ▲]

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See detailMaking History Together: Participation in Museums
Cauvin, Thomas UL

in Sonnabend, Gaby; Guy, Thewes (Eds.) Narratives in History Museums – Reflections and Perspectives (2022, March)

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See detailPost-quantum Security of Plain OAEP Transform
Ebrahimi, Ehsan UL

in The International Conference on Practice and Theory of Public-Key Cryptography (PKC), Japan 8-11 March 2022. (2022, March)

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See detailDiscussion of an algorithm to transfer arbitrary shear connector load-slip curves into an effective shear resistance
Odenbreit, Christoph UL; Kozma, Andras UL; Romero, Alfredo UL

in Kolloquiumsband - 23 DASt-Forschungskolloquium (2022, February 22)

The RFCS research project REDUCE (Project No. 710040) investigated dismountable shear connections with preloaded bolts. These connectors have in most cases a slip capacity greater than 6 mm and show a ... [more ▼]

The RFCS research project REDUCE (Project No. 710040) investigated dismountable shear connections with preloaded bolts. These connectors have in most cases a slip capacity greater than 6 mm and show a monotonic increasing nonlinear load-slip behaviour without plastic plateau and failure of the bolt in shear. Current design procedures of steel-concrete composite beams are largely based on the implementation of headed shear studs, which exhibit a rather different load-slip behaviour with a pronounced plastic niveau. Thus, a question turned out, which compression force can be activated by the shear connection in the concrete girder of a composite beam and how can the respective ultimate bending capacity be determined. Hence, this contribution presents an analytical algorithm to estimate the occurring compression force in the concrete girder when demountable shear connectors are used. The proposed algorithm bases on the actual measured load-slip curve of the shear connection and the expected slip along the beam, which is estimated for each single connector to later determine the compression force in the concrete girder. In addition to the explanation of the “general algorithm”, assumptions for practical use have been made for the slip distribution to simplify the calculation of the compression force and an effective shear resistance P_Rd,eff. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the Suitability of SHAP Explanations for Refining Classifications
Arslan, Yusuf UL; Lebichot, Bertrand UL; Allix, Kevin UL et al

in In Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Agents and Artificial Intelligence (ICAART 2022) (2022, February)

In industrial contexts, when an ML model classifies a sample as positive, it raises an alarm, which is subsequently sent to human analysts for verification. Reducing the number of false alarms upstream in ... [more ▼]

In industrial contexts, when an ML model classifies a sample as positive, it raises an alarm, which is subsequently sent to human analysts for verification. Reducing the number of false alarms upstream in an ML pipeline is paramount to reduce the workload of experts while increasing customers’ trust. Increasingly, SHAP Explanations are leveraged to facilitate manual analysis. Because they have been shown to be useful to human analysts in the detection of false positives, we postulate that SHAP Explanations may provide a means to automate false-positive reduction. To confirm our intuition, we evaluate clustering and rules detection metrics with ground truth labels to understand the utility of SHAP Explanations to discriminate false positives from true positives. We show that SHAP Explanations are indeed relevant in discriminating samples and are a relevant candidate to automate ML tasks and help to detect and reduce false-positive results. [less ▲]

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See detailWeakly-Supervised Free Space Estimation through Stochastic Co-Teaching
Robinet, François UL; Parera, Claudia UL; Hundt, Christian UL et al

in Proceedings of the IEEE/CVF Winter Conference on Applications of Computer Vision (WACV) Workshops, 2022 (2022, January 04)

Free space estimation is an important problem for autonomous robot navigation. Traditional camera-based approaches train a segmentation model using an annotated dataset. The training data needs to capture ... [more ▼]

Free space estimation is an important problem for autonomous robot navigation. Traditional camera-based approaches train a segmentation model using an annotated dataset. The training data needs to capture the wide variety of environments and weather conditions encountered at runtime, making the annotation cost prohibitively high. In this work, we propose a novel approach for obtaining free space estimates from images taken with a single road-facing camera. We rely on a technique that generates weak free space labels without any supervision, which are then used as ground truth to train a segmentation model for free space estimation. Our work differs from prior attempts by explicitly taking label noise into account through the use of Co-Teaching. Since Co-Teaching has traditionally been investigated in classification tasks, we adapt it for segmentation and examine how its parameters affect performances in our experiments. In addition, we propose Stochastic Co-Teaching, which is a novel method to select clean samples that leads to enhanced results. We achieve an IoU of 82.6%, a Precision of 90.9%, and a Recall of 90.3%. Our best model reaches 87% of the IoU, 93% of the Precision, and 93% of the Recall of the equivalent fully-supervised baseline while using no human annotations. To the best of our knowledge, this work is the first to use Co-Teaching to train a free space segmentation model under explicit label noise. Our implementation and trained models are freely available online. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Social Construction of Self-Sovereign Identity: An Extended Model of Interpretive Flexibility
Weigl, Linda UL; Barbereau, Tom Josua UL; Rieger, Alexander UL et al

in Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences 2022 (2022, January)

User-centric identity management systems are gaining momentum as concerns about Big Tech and Big Government rise. Many of these systems are framed as offering Self-Sovereign Identity (SSI). Yet, competing ... [more ▼]

User-centric identity management systems are gaining momentum as concerns about Big Tech and Big Government rise. Many of these systems are framed as offering Self-Sovereign Identity (SSI). Yet, competing appropriation and the social embedding of SSI have resulted in diverging interpretations. These vague and value-laden interpretations can damage the public discourse and risk misrepresenting values and affordances that technology offers to users. To unpack the various social and technical understandings of SSI, we adopt an ‘interpretive flexibility’ lens. Based on a qualitative inductive interview study, we find that SSI’s interpretation is strongly mediated by surrounding institutional properties. Our study helps to better navigate these different perceptions and highlights the need for a multidimensional framework that can improve the understanding of complex socio-technical systems for digital government practitioners, researchers, and policy-makers. [less ▲]

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See detailDeFi, Not So Decentralized: The Measured Distribution of Voting Rights
Barbereau, Tom Josua UL; Smethurst, Reilly UL; Papageorgiou, Orestis UL et al

in Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences 2022 (2022, January)

Bitcoin and Ethereum are frequently promoted as decentralized, but developers and academics question their actual decentralization. This motivates further experiments with public permissionless ... [more ▼]

Bitcoin and Ethereum are frequently promoted as decentralized, but developers and academics question their actual decentralization. This motivates further experiments with public permissionless blockchains to achieve decentralization along technical, economic, and political lines. The distribution of tokenized voting rights aims for political decentralization. Tokenized voting rights achieved notoriety within the nascent field of decentralized finance (DeFi) in 2020. As an alternative to centralized crypto-asset exchanges and lending platforms (owned by companies like Coinbase and Celsius), DeFi developers typically create non-custodial projects that are not majority-owned or managed by legal entities. Holders of tokenized voting rights can instead govern DeFi projects. To scrutinize DeFi’s distributed governance strategies, we conducted a multiple-case study of non-custodial, Ethereum-based DeFi projects: Uniswap, Maker, SushiSwap, Yearn Finance, and UMA. Our findings are novel and surprising: quantitative evaluations of DeFi’s distributed governance strategies reveal a failure to achieve political decentralization. [less ▲]

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See detailOn Frame Fingerprinting and Controller Area Networks Security in Connected Vehicles
Buscemi, Alessio UL; Turcanu, Ion; Castignani, German et al

in IEEE Consumer Communications & Networking Conference, Virtual Conference 8-11 January 2022 (2022, January)

Modern connected vehicles are equipped with a large number of sensors, which enable a wide range of services that can improve overall traffic safety and efficiency. However, remote access to connected ... [more ▼]

Modern connected vehicles are equipped with a large number of sensors, which enable a wide range of services that can improve overall traffic safety and efficiency. However, remote access to connected vehicles also introduces new security issues affecting both inter and intra-vehicle communications. In fact, existing intra-vehicle communication systems, such as Controller Area Network (CAN), lack security features, such as encryption and secure authentication for Electronic Control Units (ECUs). Instead, Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) seek security through obscurity by keeping secret the proprietary format with which they encode the information. Recently, it has been shown that the reuse of CAN frame IDs can be exploited to perform CAN bus reverse engineering without physical access to the vehicle, thus raising further security concerns in a connected environment. This work investigates whether anonymizing the frames of each newly released vehicle is sufficient to prevent CAN bus reverse engineering based on frame ID matching. The results show that, by adopting Machine Learning techniques, anonymized CAN frames can still be fingerprinted and identified in an unknown vehicle with an accuracy of up to 80 %. [less ▲]

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See detailEnhancing Trust in Trust Services: Towards an Intelligent Human-input-based Blockchain Oracle (IHiBO)
Yu, Liuwen UL; Zichichi, Mirko; Markovich, Réka UL et al

in Proceedings of the 55th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (2022, January)

As their name suggests, trust is of crucial importance in ‘‘trust service". Nevertheless, in many cases, these services suffer from a lack transparency, documentation, traceability, and inclusive multi ... [more ▼]

As their name suggests, trust is of crucial importance in ‘‘trust service". Nevertheless, in many cases, these services suffer from a lack transparency, documentation, traceability, and inclusive multi-lateral decision-making mechanisms. To overcome these challenges, in this paper we propose an integrated framework which incorporates formal argumentation and negotiation within a blockchain environment to make the decision-making processes of fund management transparent and traceable. We introduce three possible architectures and we evaluate and compare them considering different technical, financial, and legal aspects. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Value of non-formal education form the perspective of young people
Biewers, Sandra UL; Weis, Daniel UL; Latz, Anita UL

in Carmo, Mafalda (Ed.) Education and New Developments 2022 - book of abstracts (2022)

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See detailElysium: Context-Aware Bytecode-Level Patching to Automatically Heal Vulnerable Smart Contracts
Ferreira Torres, Christof UL; Jonker, Hugo; State, Radu UL

in International Symposium on Research in Attacks, Intrusions and Defenses, Limassol, Cyprus 26-28 October 2022 (2022)

Fixing bugs is easiest by patching source code. However, source code is not always available: only 0.3% of the ∼49M smart contracts that are currently deployed on Ethereum have their source code publicly ... [more ▼]

Fixing bugs is easiest by patching source code. However, source code is not always available: only 0.3% of the ∼49M smart contracts that are currently deployed on Ethereum have their source code publicly available. Moreover, since contracts may call functions from other contracts, security flaws in closed-source contracts may affect open-source contracts as well. However, current state-of-the-art approaches that operate on closed-source contracts (i.e., EVM bytecode), such as EVMPatch and SmartShield, make use of purely hard-coded templates that leverage fix patching patterns. As a result, they cannot dynamically adapt to the bytecode that is being patched, which severely limits their flexibility and scalability. For instance, when patching integer overflows using hard-coded templates, a particular patch template needs to be employed as the bounds to be checked are different for each integer size (i.e., one template for uint256, another template for uint64, etc.). In this paper, we propose Elysium, a scalable approach towards automatic smart contract repair at the bytecode level. Elysium combines template-based and semantic-based patching by inferring context information from bytecode. Elysium is currently able to patch 7 different types of vulnerabilities in smart contracts automatically and can easily be extended with new templates and new bug-finding tools. We evaluate its effectiveness and correctness using 3 different datasets by replaying more than 500K transactions on patched contracts. We find that Elysium outperforms existing tools by patching at least 30% more contracts correctly. Finally, we also compare the overhead of Elysium in terms of deployment and transaction cost. In comparison to other tools, we find that generally Elysium minimizes the runtime cost (i.e., transaction cost) up to a factor of 1.7, for only a marginally higher deployment cost, where deployment cost is a one-time cost as compared to the runtime cost. [less ▲]

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See detailFunctional scenario classification for Android applications using GNNs
Li, Guiyin; Zhu, Fengyi; Pang, Jun UL et al

in Proceedings of the 13th Asia-Pacific Symposium on Internetware (2022)

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See detailEspaces (in)sensibles : l'appropriation en didactique comparée
Thiltges, Sébastian UL; Raus, Tonia

in Thiltges, Sébastian; Raus, Tonia (Eds.) spaces (in)sensibles : l'appropriation en didactique comparée (2022)

La nouvelle d'anticipation « Une voix dans le silence » (trad.) de Yorick Schmit sensibilise les lecteurs aux bouleversements environnementaux, psychologiques et affectifs engendrés par une catastrophe ... [more ▼]

La nouvelle d'anticipation « Une voix dans le silence » (trad.) de Yorick Schmit sensibilise les lecteurs aux bouleversements environnementaux, psychologiques et affectifs engendrés par une catastrophe nucléaire. Partant d'une lecture écopoétique, nous imaginons l'étude de ce récit en langue luxembourgeoise en cours de français, afin d'exploiter la tension ainsi créée par le dispositif translinguistique et interculturel. Dans une double perspective de didactique des langues et de la littérature, nous interrogeons dès lors le rôle du sensible dans le développement du plurilinguisme dans l'enseignement-apprentissage de la littérature. Pour ce faire, notre approche de didactique comparée se fonde sur le paradigme de l'appropriation en tant que concept à la fois linguistique et littéraire : le lecteur devient sensible en faisant sien le récit lu, dans un corps à corps avec la matérialité du texte écrit dans une langue familière en tant que langue véhiculaire mais étrangère en tant que langue littéraire, favorisant ainsi une prise de conscience des sens de la langue et du texte. [less ▲]

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See detailIs this Change the Answer to that Problem? Correlating Descriptions of Bug and Code Changes for Evaluating Patch Correctness
Tian, Haoye UL; Tang, Xunzhu UL; Habib, Andrew UL et al

in Is this Change the Answer to that Problem? Correlating Descriptions of Bug and Code Changes for Evaluating Patch Correctness (2022)

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See detailArtificial Intelligence as a Call for Retail Banking : Applying Digital Options Thinking to Artificial Intelligence Adoption
Fridgen, Gilbert UL; Hartwich, Eduard UL; Rägo, Vadim et al

in Proceedings of the Thirtieth European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS 2022), Timisoara, Romania: Artificial Intelligence as a Call for Retail Banking : Applying Digital Options Thinking to Artificial Intelligence Adoption (2022)

Technology-driven challenges, both existing and emerging, require banks to invest in IT capabilities, especially in artificial intelligence (AI). Digital options theory presents a valuable guide rail for ... [more ▼]

Technology-driven challenges, both existing and emerging, require banks to invest in IT capabilities, especially in artificial intelligence (AI). Digital options theory presents a valuable guide rail for these investments. However, the nature of AI as a moving frontier of computing requires certain extensions to established digital option thinking. Based on interviews with 23 experts in the retail banking industry, we highlight the importance of thinking broadly when laying the foundation for AI options and being mindful of the dynamic effects of contextual factors. Drawing from digital options theory and the Technology-Organization-Environment framework as dual lens, our study adds a structured approach to consciously balance resources and AI-related capability investments with a broader consideration of the banking industry’s complex environment. In this way, our study complements recent research on the interplay between incumbents’ resources and digital opportunities. [less ▲]

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See detailAggregating Energy Flexibility for Demand-Side Management in Manufacturing Companies – A Two-Step Method
Lindner, M; Wenninger, Simon; Fridgen, Gilbert UL et al

in Production at the Leading Edge of Technology (2022)

Towards greener production, manufacturing companies face several challenges, for example peak load shaving or flexible production planning as parts of demand-side management (DSM). DSM uses processes that ... [more ▼]

Towards greener production, manufacturing companies face several challenges, for example peak load shaving or flexible production planning as parts of demand-side management (DSM). DSM uses processes that can be shut down, shifted, or controlled. Advances in digitalization in the energy sector and manufacturing systems create transparency which in turn offers new opportunities to commercialize energy flexibility potentials as optimally and automatically as possible. The variety of flexibilities in manufacturing systems and various dependencies of different kinds of complex manufacturing processes complicate the modelling and aggregation of flexibility. To overcome this challenge, we developed a method for the aggregation of energy flexibilities that is based on a generic energy flexibility data model. The method proposes a two-step approach to aggregate flexibilities cost efficiently and considers manufacturing specific limitations. For cost-efficient aggregation, we use in the first step the merit-order model known from the energy industry and in the second step the bin-packing problem originating from combinatorial optimization, adapted according to the generic data model. The two-step approach allows energy flexibilities to be aggregated across industries, facilities, and systems, thus ensuring broad applicability. [less ▲]

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See detailGustav: Cross-device Cross-computer Synchronization of Sensory Signals
Latifzadeh, Kayhan UL; Leiva, Luis A. UL

in Adjunct Proceedings of the 35th Annual ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology (2022)

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See detailTranslational Challenges of Biomedical Machine Learning Solutions in Clinical and Laboratory Settings
Vega Moreno, Carlos Gonzalo UL; Kratochvil, Miroslav UL; Satagopam, Venkata UL et al

in Bioinformatics and Biomedical Engineering (2022)

The ever increasing use of artificial intelligence (AI) methods in biomedical sciences calls for closer inter-disciplinary collaborations that transfer the domain knowledge from life scientists to ... [more ▼]

The ever increasing use of artificial intelligence (AI) methods in biomedical sciences calls for closer inter-disciplinary collaborations that transfer the domain knowledge from life scientists to computer science researchers and vice-versa. We highlight two general areas where the use of AI-based solutions designed for clinical and laboratory settings has proven problematic. These are used to demonstrate common sources of translational challenges that often stem from the differences in data interpretation between the clinical and research view, and the unmatched expectations and requirements on the result quality metrics. We outline how explicit interpretable inference reporting might be used as a guide to overcome such translational challenges. We conclude with several recommendations for safer translation of machine learning solutions into real-world settings. [less ▲]

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See detailConvergence time analysis of Asynchronous Distributed Artificial Neural Networks
Dalle Lucca Tosi, Mauro UL; Ellampallil Venugopal, Vinu; Theobald, Martin UL

in 5th Joint International Conference on Data Science Management of Data (9th ACM IKDD CODS and 27th COMAD) (2022)

Detailed reference viewed: 22 (1 UL)