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See detailIntegrating Topological Proofs with Model Checking to Instrument Iterative Design
Menghi, Claudio UL; Rizzi, Alessandro Maria; Bernasconi, Anna

in Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Fundamental Approaches to Software Engineering, FASE 2020 (in press)

System development is not a linear, one-shot process. It proceeds through refinements and revisions. To support assurance that the system satisfies its requirements, it is desirable that continuous ... [more ▼]

System development is not a linear, one-shot process. It proceeds through refinements and revisions. To support assurance that the system satisfies its requirements, it is desirable that continuous verification can be performed after each refinement or revision step. To achieve practical adoption, formal verification must accommodate continuous verification efficiently and effectively. Model checking provides developers with information useful to improve their models only when a property is not satisfied, i.e., when a counterexample is returned. However, it is desirable to have some useful information also when a property is instead satisfied. To address this problem we propose TOrPEDO, an approach that supports verification in two complementary forms: model checking and proofs. While model checking is typically used to pinpoint model behaviors that violate requirements, proofs can instead explain why requirements are satisfied. In our work, we introduce a specific notion of proof, called Topological Proof. A topological proof produces a slice of the original model that justifies the property satisfaction. Because models can be incomplete, TOrPEDO supports reasoning on requirements satisfaction, violation, and possible satisfaction (in the case where satisfaction depends on unknown parts of the model). Evaluation is performed by checking how topological proofs support software development on 12 modeling scenarios and 15 different properties obtained from 3 examples from literature. Results show that: (i) topological proofs are ≈60% smaller than the original models; (ii) after a revision, in ≈78% of cases, the property can be re-verified by relying on a simple syntactic check. [less ▲]

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See detailHybrid Analog-Digital Precoding Design for Satellite Systems
Arora, Aakash UL; Tsinos, Christos UL; Shankar, Bhavani UL et al

in Proc. 37th International Communications Satellite Systems Conference (ICSSC'19) (in press)

The work investigates the feasibility of massive MIMO in SatCom. Towards this, the necessary channel models, system parameters and scenarios are identified and a basic simulator developed. The work then ... [more ▼]

The work investigates the feasibility of massive MIMO in SatCom. Towards this, the necessary channel models, system parameters and scenarios are identified and a basic simulator developed. The work then considers an efficient implementation of the massive MIMO transmission through the use of hybrid analog/digital precoder. Efficient algorithmic solutions are proposed for the partially connected precoder architecture which enables efficiency in power/ hardware complexity and its performance evaluated. [less ▲]

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See detailMM-Based Solution for Partially Connected Hybrid Transceivers with Large Scale Antenna Arrays
Arora, Aakash UL; Tsinos, Christos UL; Shankar, Bhavani UL et al

in Proc. 2019 IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM) (in press)

In a mmWave multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) communication system employing a large-scale antenna array (LSAA), the hybrid transceivers are used to reduce the power consumption and the hardware cost ... [more ▼]

In a mmWave multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) communication system employing a large-scale antenna array (LSAA), the hybrid transceivers are used to reduce the power consumption and the hardware cost. In a hybrid analog-digital (A/D) transceiver, the pre/post-processing operation splits into a lower-dimensional baseband (BB) pre/postcoder, followed by a network of analog phase shifters. Primarily two kinds of hybrid architectures are proposed in the literature to implement hybrid transceivers namely, the fully-connected and the partially-connected. Implementation of fully-connected architecture has higher hardware complexity, cost and power consumption in comparison with partially-connected. In this paper, we focus on partially-connected hybrid architecture and develop a low-complexity algorithm for transceiver design for a single user point-to-point mmWave MIMO system. The proposed algorithm utilizes the variable elimination (projection) and the minorization-maximization (MM) frameworks and has convergence guarantees to a stationary point. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is easily scalable for LSAA systems and achieves significantly improved performance in terms of the spectral efficiency (SE) of the system compared to the state-of-the-art solution. [less ▲]

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See detailLe quotidien d’un poilu de la première guerre mondiale sur Facebook : nouvelle forme de médiation, nouvelle expérience ?
Schall, Céline UL; Vilatte, Jean-Christophe

in Les mondes de la médiation culturelle (in press)

« En 2013, le Musée de la Grande Guerre du Pays de Meaux et l’agence de communication DDB ont élaboré une page Facebook d’un genre nouveau. Facebook 1914, le quotidien de la première guerre offre une ... [more ▼]

« En 2013, le Musée de la Grande Guerre du Pays de Meaux et l’agence de communication DDB ont élaboré une page Facebook d’un genre nouveau. Facebook 1914, le quotidien de la première guerre offre une forme de médiation a priori inédite pour un musée français. Elle présente l’histoire d’un personnage de fiction, Léon Vivien, qui raconte son quotidien lors de la première guerre mondiale, sur Facebook, comme si ce réseau social avait existé à cette époque. Cette contribution met en évidence certains des effets de sens de la page par une analyse sémiotique du dispositif et une analyse thématique de ses contenus. Nous questionnons ensuite cette « nouvelle » forme de médiation qui se dit « participante » et qui, en réalité, reste assez classique dans son contenu et sous-exploite le potentiel de Facebook. » [less ▲]

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See detailTowards an Executable Methodology for the Formalization of Legal Texts
Libal, Tomer UL; Steen, Alexander UL

in Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Logic and Argumentation (in press)

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See detailService Performance Pattern Analysis and Prediction of Commercially Available Cloud Providers
Wagle, Shyam Sharan UL; Guzek, Mateusz UL; Bouvry, Pascal UL

in Service Performance Pattern Analysis and Prediction of Commercially Available Cloud Providers (in press)

The knowledge of service performance of cloud providers is essential for cloud service users to choose the cloud services that meet their requirements. Instantaneous performance readings are accessible ... [more ▼]

The knowledge of service performance of cloud providers is essential for cloud service users to choose the cloud services that meet their requirements. Instantaneous performance readings are accessible, but prolonged observations provide more reliable information. However, due to technical complexities and costs of monitoring services, it may not be possible to access the service performance of cloud provider for longer time durations. The extended observation periods are also a necessity for prediction of future behavior of services. These predictions have very high value for decision making both for private and corporate cloud users, as the uncertainty about the future performance of purchased cloud services is an important risk factor. Predictions can be used by specialized entities, such as cloud service brokers (CSBs) to optimally recommend cloud services to the cloud users. In this paper, we address the challenge of prediction. To achieve this, the current service performance patterns of cloud providers are analyzed and future performance of cloud providers are predicted using to the observed service performance data. It is done using two automatic predicting approaches: ARIMA and ETS. Error measures of entire service performance prediction of cloud providers are evaluated against the actual performance of the cloud providers computed over a period of one month. Results obtained in the performance prediction show that the methodology is applicable for both short- term and long-term performance prediction. [less ▲]

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See detail« … Eripuit servus mihi vitam » - Représentations médiatiques de la violence et de la criminalité dans les provinces occidentales de l'Empire romain
Binsfeld, Andrea UL

in Amodio, Mara (Ed.) The imagery of violence in Roman society (I-VI cent.). Persistence, innovations and interrelations from the Roman to the Christian Empire (in press)

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See detailA Methodology for Handling Data Movements by Anticipation: Position Paper
Bleuse, Raphaël UL; Lucarelli, Giorgio; Trystram, Denis

in Euro-Par 2018 Workshops (in press)

The enhanced capabilities of large scale parallel and distributed platforms produce a continuously increasing amount of data which have to be stored, exchanged and used by various tasks allocated on ... [more ▼]

The enhanced capabilities of large scale parallel and distributed platforms produce a continuously increasing amount of data which have to be stored, exchanged and used by various tasks allocated on different nodes of the system. The management of such a huge communication demand is crucial for reaching the best possible performance of the system. Meanwhile, we have to deal with more interferences as the trend is to use a single all-purpose interconnection network whatever the interconnect (tree-based hierarchies or topology-based heterarchies). There are two different types of communications, namely, the flows induced by data exchanges during the computations, and the flows related to Input/Output operations. We propose in this paper a general model for interference-aware scheduling, where explicit communications are replaced by external topological constraints. Specifically, the interferences of both communication types are reduced by adding geometric constraints on the allocation of tasks into machines. The proposed constraints reduce implicitly the data movements by restricting the set of possible allocations for each task. This methodology has been proved to be efficient in a recent study for a restricted interconnection network (a line/ring of processors which is an intermediate between a tree and higher dimensions grids/torus). The obtained results illustrated well the difficulty of the problem even on simple topologies, but also provided a pragmatic greedy solution, which was assessed to be efficient by simulations. We are currently extending this solution for more complex topologies. This work is a position paper which describes the methodology, it does not focus on the solving part. [less ▲]

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See detailMind the gap: Robotic Mission Planning Meets Software Engineering
Askarpour, Mehrnoosh; Menghi, Claudio UL; Belli, Gabriele et al

in Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Formal Methods in Software Engineering (in press)

In the context of robotic software, the selection of an appropriate planner is one of the most crucial software engineering decisions. Robot planners aim at computing plans (i.e., blueprint of actions) to ... [more ▼]

In the context of robotic software, the selection of an appropriate planner is one of the most crucial software engineering decisions. Robot planners aim at computing plans (i.e., blueprint of actions) to accomplish a complex mission. While many planners have been proposed in the robotics literature, they are usually evaluated on showcase examples, making hard to understand whether they can be effectively (re)used for realising complex missions, with heterogeneous robots, and in real-world scenarios. In this paper we propose ENFORCE, a framework which allows wrapping FM-based planners into comprehensive software engineering tools, and considers complex robotic missions. ENFORCE relies on (i) realistic maps (e.g, fire escape maps) that describe the environment in which the robots are deployed; (ii) temporal logic for mission specification; and (iii) Uppaal model checker to compute plans that satisfy mission specifications. We evaluated ENFORCE by analyzing how it supports computing plans in real case scenarios, and by evaluating the generated plans in simulated and real environments. The results show that while ENFORCE is adequate for handling single-robot applications, the state explosion still represents a major barrier for reusing existing planners in multi-robot applications. [less ▲]

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See detailFlipping Geometric Triangulations on Hyperbolic Surfaces
Despré, vincent; Schlenker, Jean-Marc UL; Teillaud, Monique

in symposium on computational geometry (SoCG) (in press)

We consider geometric triangulations of surfaces, i.e., triangulations whose edges can be realized by disjoint locally geodesic segments. We prove that the flip graph of geometric triangulations with ... [more ▼]

We consider geometric triangulations of surfaces, i.e., triangulations whose edges can be realized by disjoint locally geodesic segments. We prove that the flip graph of geometric triangulations with fixed vertices of a flat torus or a closed hyperbolic surface is connected. We give upper bounds on the number of edge flips that are necessary to transform any geometric triangulation on such a surface into a Delaunay triangulation. [less ▲]

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See detailMajorization-Minimization Algorithms for Analog Beamforming with Large-Scale Antenna Arrays
Arora, Aakash UL; Tsinos, Christos UL; Shankar, Bhavani UL et al

in Proc. 7th IEEE Global Conference on Signal and Information Processing (GlobalSIP) 2019 (in press)

Beamforming with large-scale antenna arrays (LSAA) is one of the predominant operations in designing wireless communication systems. However, the implementation of a fully digital system significantly ... [more ▼]

Beamforming with large-scale antenna arrays (LSAA) is one of the predominant operations in designing wireless communication systems. However, the implementation of a fully digital system significantly increases the number of required radio-frequency (RF) chains, which may be prohibitive. Thus, analog beamforming based on a phase-shifting network driven by a variable gain amplifier (VGA) is a potential alternative technology. In this paper, we cast the beamforming vector design problem as a beampattern matching problem, with an unknown power gain. This is formulated as a unit-modulus least-squares (ULS) problem where the optimal gain of the VGA is also designed in addition to the beamforming vector. We also consider a scenario where the receivers have the additional processing capability to adjust the phases of the incoming signals to mitigate specular multipath components. We propose efficient majorization-minimization (MM) based algorithms with convergence guarantees to a stationary point for solving both variants of the proposed ULS problem. Numerical results verify the effectiveness of the proposed solution in comparison with the existing state-of-the-art techniques. [less ▲]

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See detailDual-Use Research In Ransomware Attacks: A Discussion on Ransomware Defence Intelligence
Genç, Ziya Alper UL; Lenzini, Gabriele UL; Sgandurra, Daniele

in Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Information Systems Security and Privacy (in press)

Previous research has shown that developers rely on public platforms and repositories to produce functional but insecure code. We looked into the matter for ransomware, enquiring whether also ransomware ... [more ▼]

Previous research has shown that developers rely on public platforms and repositories to produce functional but insecure code. We looked into the matter for ransomware, enquiring whether also ransomware engineers re-use the work of others and produce insecure code. By methodically reverse-engineering 128 malware executables, we have found that, out of 21 ransomware samples, 9 contain copy-paste code from public resources. Thanks to this finding, we managed to retrieve the decryption keys with which to nullify the ransomware attacks. From this fact, we recall critical cases of code disclosure in the recent history of ransomware and, arguing that ransomware are components in cyber-weapons, reflect on the dual-use nature of this research. We further discuss benefits and limits of using cyber-intelligence and counter-intelligence strategies that could be used against this threat. [less ▲]

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See detailDatenbank für Zweisprachige Historische Luxemburgische Bekanntmachungen
Gilles, Peter UL; Ziegler, Evelyn

in Wallmeier, Nadine; Tophinke, Doris (Eds.) Historische Stadtsprachenforschung (in press)

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See detailProcess analysis in thermal process engineering with high-performance computing using the example of grate firing
Peters, Bernhard UL; Rousset, Alban UL; Besseron, Xavier UL et al

in Process analysis in thermal process engineering with high- performance computing using the example of grate firing (in press)

Biomass as a renewable energy source continues to grow in popularity to reduce fossil fuel consumption for environmental and economic benefits. In the present contribution, the combustion chamber of a 16 ... [more ▼]

Biomass as a renewable energy source continues to grow in popularity to reduce fossil fuel consumption for environmental and economic benefits. In the present contribution, the combustion chamber of a 16 MW geothermal steam super-heater, which is part of the Enel Green Power "Cornia 2" power plant, is being investigated with high-performance computing methods. For this purpose, the extended discrete element method (XDEM) developed at the University of Luxembourg is used in a high-performance computing environment, which includes both the moving wooden bed and the combustion chamber above it. The XDEM simulation platform is based on a hybrid four-way coupling between the Discrete Element Method (DEM) and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). In this approach, particles are treated as discrete elements that are coupled by heat, mass, and momentum transfer to the surrounding gas as a continuous phase. For individual wood particles, besides the equations of motion, the differential conservation equations for mass, heat, and momentum are solved, which describe the thermodynamic state during thermal conversion. The consistency of the numerical results with the actual system performance is discussed in this paper to determine the potentials and limitations of the approach. [less ▲]

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See detailUML Consistency Rules:a Case Study with Open-Source UML Models
Torre, Damiano UL; Labiche, Yvan; Genero, Marcela et al

in Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Formal Methods in Software Engineering (in press)

UML models are standard artifacts used by software engineers for designing software. As software is designed, different UML diagram types (e.g., class diagrams and sequence diagrams) are produced by ... [more ▼]

UML models are standard artifacts used by software engineers for designing software. As software is designed, different UML diagram types (e.g., class diagrams and sequence diagrams) are produced by software designers. Since the various UML diagram types describe different aspects of a software system, they are not independent but strongly depend on each other, hence they must be consistent. Inconsistencies cause faults in the final software systems. It is, therefore, paramount that they get detected, analyzed, and fixed. Consistency rules are a useful tool proposed in the literature to detect inconsistencies. They categorize constraints that help in identifying inconsistencies when violated. This case study aims at collecting and analyzing UML models with OCL consistency rules proposed in the literature and at promoting the development of a reference benchmark that can be reused by the (FM-)research community. We collected 33 UML consistency rules and 206 different UML diagrams contained in 34 open-source UML models presented in the literature. We propose an FM-based encoding of the consistency rules in OCL. This encoding allows analyzing whether the consistency rules are satisfied or violated within the 34 UML models. To assess the proposed benchmark, we analyzed how the UML models, consistency rules, diagram types contained in the benchmark help in assessing the consistency of UML models, and the consistency of diagrams across the different software development phases. Our results show that the considered UML models and consistency rules allowed identifying 2731 inconsistencies and that those inconsistencies refer to different software development phases. We concluded that the considered UML models and consistency rules could be considered as an initial benchmark that can be further extended by the research community. [less ▲]

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See detailConservazione e ricezione dei documenti pontifici in Italia settentrionale: il caso del monastero cistercense di Chiaravalle Milanese (secoli XII-XVI)
Salemme, Timothy UL

in Salemme, Timothy; Renault, Jean-Baptiste (Eds.) Conservation et réception des documents pontificaux par les Ordres religieux (XIe-XVe siècles). Actes du colloque international. Nancy, 12-13 décembre 2013 (in press)

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See detailThe Higher-Order Prover Leo-III (Highlight paper)
Steen, Alexander UL; Benzmüller, Christoph UL

in Proceedings of the 24th European Conference on Artificial Intelligence (in press)

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See detailImmersive Telepresence Framework for Remote Educational Scenarios
Botev, Jean UL; Rodríguez Lera, Francisco J.

in Proceedings of the 22nd International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction (HCI International) (in press)

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See detailBlockchain Governance: An Overview and Prediction of Optimal Strategies Using Nash Equilibrium
Khan, Nida UL; Ahmad, Tabrez; Patel, Anass et al

in 3rd AUE International Research Conference (in press)

Blockchain governance is a subject of ongoing research and an interdisciplinary view of blockchain governance is vital to aid in further research for establishing a formal governance framework for this ... [more ▼]

Blockchain governance is a subject of ongoing research and an interdisciplinary view of blockchain governance is vital to aid in further research for establishing a formal governance framework for this nascent technology. In this paper, the position of blockchain governance within the hierarchy of Institutional governance is discussed. Blockchain governance is analyzed from the perspective of IT governance using Nash equilibrium to predict the outcome of different governance decisions. A payoff matrix for blockchain governance is created and simulation of different strategy profiles is accomplished for computation of all Nash equilibria. We also create payoff matrices for different kinds of blockchain governance, which were used to propose novel mathematical formulae usable to predict the best governance strategy that minimizes the occurrence of a hard fork as well as predicts the behavior of the majority during protocol updates. [less ▲]

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See detailExternalisation de la politique migratoire et identité de l'Union européenne
Neframi, Eleftheria UL; Gatti, Mauro UL

in Benlolo, Myriam (Ed.) L'Union européenne et les migrations (in press)

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See detailLes archevêques de Milan face aux premières expériences seigneuriales: stratégies et positionnements (milieu XIIIe-début XIVe s.)
Salemme, Timothy UL

in Barralis, Christine (Ed.) L’évêque face à son métier. Actes du colloque international, Metz. 15-17 novembre 2017 (in press)

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See detailThe legacy of coal mining – a view on examples in Belgium and France
Helfer, Malte UL

in Deutsches Bergbau-Museum Bochum (Ed.) Boom – Crisis – Heritage. King Coal and Energy Revolutions after 1945; proceedings of the international conference March 14th-16th 2018, Technische Hochschule Georg Agricola, Bochum (in press)

Following the end of coalmining in Belgium (1992) and France (2004), the year 2018 marks the end of hard coal mining in Germany as well. This contribution looks at the legacy of coalmining of Germany’s ... [more ▼]

Following the end of coalmining in Belgium (1992) and France (2004), the year 2018 marks the end of hard coal mining in Germany as well. This contribution looks at the legacy of coalmining of Germany’s French-speaking neighbours and presents the most important remaining coal mining heritage sites as well as some extraordinary converted sites in France and the Belgian province Wallonia. [less ▲]

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See detailLe dialogue entre les juges en matière de protection des droits de l'homme
Pelin Raducu, Ioana UL

in Menetrey, Séverine; Hess, Burkhard (Eds.) Les dialogues des juges en Europe (in press)

Dans cet article, nous allons mettre en exergue quelques aspects des arrêts récents provenant de la Cour de justice de l’UE (Akerberg Frasson, Melloni, Kamberaj)qui démontrent l’émergence d’un standard ... [more ▼]

Dans cet article, nous allons mettre en exergue quelques aspects des arrêts récents provenant de la Cour de justice de l’UE (Akerberg Frasson, Melloni, Kamberaj)qui démontrent l’émergence d’un standard propre de l’UE en matière des droits de l’homme. Cette tendance de la C.J.U.E. contredira le prescrit normatif découlant du « dialogue des juges » d’interprétation conforme à la jurisprudence de la C.E.D.H. avant que l’adhésion de l’UE à la Convention E.D.H. ne soit formellement acquise. [less ▲]

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See detailA New Perspective on the Luxembourgish Genitive
Döhmer, Caroline UL

in Germanic Genitives (in press)

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See detailHistorical outline and chromatic properties of purpura rubra Tarentina and its potential identification with purple dye extracted from Bolinus brandaris
Meiers, Fabienne UL

in Enegren, Hedvig; Meo, Francesco (Eds.) Treasures from the Sea : Sea-Silk and Shell purple dye in antiquity. Proceedings from the International workshop, 26.-28.05. (in press)

This paper presents a historical overview of the importance of the red dye found in spiny dye-murices (Bolinus brandaris) and its production in Taranto, one of the most industrious Greek colonies founded ... [more ▼]

This paper presents a historical overview of the importance of the red dye found in spiny dye-murices (Bolinus brandaris) and its production in Taranto, one of the most industrious Greek colonies founded in southern Italy in the 8th century BC and renowned for its luxury products. Written evidence as well as numismatic and archaeological sources dating from the 5th century BC to the 5th century AD have been analysed in this context to identify purpura rubra Tarentina. In addition, the results of a series of dye experiments with hypobranchial glands from the same species are treated in order to detect chromatic properties and potential manufacturing processes for Tarentine Red. The methods for vatting the dye glands are discussed in relation to historical validity and chromatic outcome. To conclude, comparisons are drawn between the colour characteristics of Bolinus brandaris and Hexaplex trunculus (banded dye-murex), and the possibility of mixing both dyes is taken into consideration. The synthesis of historical and experimental approach finally shows that purpura rubra Tarentina can potentially be identified with purple dye extracted from Bolinus brandaris. [less ▲]

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See detailL’exposition d’objets ou de collections de « marque » : cobranding, réécriture, réénonciation
Schall, Céline UL

in Laval, Sylvie (Ed.) Marques muséales : un espace public revisité ? (in press)

Le cobranding est une pratique habituelle du secteur marchand. Mais lorsque deux musées réalisent ensemble une exposition, peut-on parler de cobranding muséal ? Quelles en seraient les spécificités  ... [more ▼]

Le cobranding est une pratique habituelle du secteur marchand. Mais lorsque deux musées réalisent ensemble une exposition, peut-on parler de cobranding muséal ? Quelles en seraient les spécificités ? Quels effets peut avoir cette démarche sur la communication ou sur l’exposition ? Notamment, le musée d’accueil s’approprie-t-il simplement l’imaginaire et les valeurs de la marque invitée par un phénomène de « transfert » ? Pour répondre à ces questions, nous étudions trois expositions qui reprennent des objets ou collections de musées dont la marque est internationalement reconnue. L’analyse sémiotique des images de marque du musée d’accueil et du musée invité ainsi que l’analyse sémiopragmatique des expositions montrent l’impact de la présence d’une grande marque internationale sur l’exposition et réciproquement, l’impact de l’exposition sur l’image de marque du musée d’accueil. Plus qu’un simple cobranding, c’est une réécriture impliquant une réénonciation du discours et des valeurs portés par les marques qui est proposée à travers ces expositions. Le processus aboutit à la création de nouveaux espaces symboliques et d’expositions réflexives, avec plusieurs niveaux de lecture. [less ▲]

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See detailWidths of regular and context-free languages
Mestel, David UL

in 39th IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2019) (in press)

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See detailWhich Properties has an Icon? A Critical Discussion on Evaluation Methods for Standardised Data Protection Iconography
Rossi, Arianna UL; Lenzini, Gabriele UL

in Proceedings of the 8th Workshop on Socio-Technical Aspects in Security and Trust (STAST) (in press)

Following GDPR's Article12.7's proposal to use standardized icons to inform data subject in "an easily visible, intelligible and clearly legible manner," several icon sets have been developed. In this ... [more ▼]

Following GDPR's Article12.7's proposal to use standardized icons to inform data subject in "an easily visible, intelligible and clearly legible manner," several icon sets have been developed. In this paper, we firstly critically review some of those proposals. We then examine the properties that icons and icon sets should arguably fulfill according to Art.12's transparency provisions. Lastly, we discuss metrics and evaluation procedures to measure compliance with the Article. [less ▲]

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See detailPolitiques de synchronisation dans les systèmes multi-agents distribués parallèles
Rousset, Alban UL; Breugnot, Paul; Herrmann, Bénédicte et al

in Rousset, Alban (Ed.) Politiques de synchronisation dans les systèmes multi-agents distribués parallèles (2020, June 29)

Among simulation or modelisation methods, multi-agent systems are an interesting candidate to simulate complex systems. As the size of the model's increases, the use of parallel multi-agent systems is ... [more ▼]

Among simulation or modelisation methods, multi-agent systems are an interesting candidate to simulate complex systems. As the size of the model's increases, the use of parallel multi-agent systems is mandatory but comes with many issues. In this article, we are interested in the impact of synchronization on models design and on their execution. We highlight synchronization problems through model instances then we experimentally analyze the impact of synchronization on large scale test cases. [less ▲]

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See detailToward an SDN-based Data Collection Scheme for Vehicular Fog Computing
Boualouache, Abdelwahab UL; Soua, Ridha UL; Engel, Thomas UL

in IEEE International Conference on Communications ICC'2020 (2020, June 07)

With the integration of fog networks and vehicular networks, Vehicular Fog Computing (VFC) is a promising paradigm to efficiently collect data for improving safety, mobility, and driver experience during ... [more ▼]

With the integration of fog networks and vehicular networks, Vehicular Fog Computing (VFC) is a promising paradigm to efficiently collect data for improving safety, mobility, and driver experience during journeys. To this end, we exploit the Software-Defined Networking (SDN) paradigm to propose a fully-programmable, self-configurable, and context-aware data collection scheme for VFC. This scheme leverages a stochastic model to dynamically estimate the number of fog stations to be deployed. Our simulation results demonstrate that our proposed scheme provides lower latency and higher resiliency compared to classical data collection schemes. [less ▲]

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See detailEnhancing CoAP Group Communication to Support mMTC Over Satellite Networks
Soua, Ridha UL; Palattella, Maria Rita UL; Stemper, André UL et al

in IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC) (2020, June)

Massive MTC (mMTC) is one of the application scenarios that upcoming 5G networks are expected to support. Satellites come into play in mMTC to complement and extend terrestrial networks in under-served ... [more ▼]

Massive MTC (mMTC) is one of the application scenarios that upcoming 5G networks are expected to support. Satellites come into play in mMTC to complement and extend terrestrial networks in under-served areas, where several services can benefit from the adoption of a group communication model. The IETF has specifically standardized the usage of CoAP group communication. However, CoAP responses are still sent in unicast from each single CoAP server to the CoAP client, which results in a substantial traffic load. Such problem becomes more severe in integrated IoT-Satellite networks given the limited bandwidth of the satellite return channel and the large number of IoT devices in a mMTC scenario. To reduce network traffic overhead in group communication and improve the network responsiveness, this paper proposes an aggregation scheme for the CoAP group communication in combination with Observer pattern and proxying. Results obtained by using the openSAND emulator and CoAPthon library corroborate the merit of our optimization in terms of overhead reduction and delay. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the Efficiency of Test Suite based Program Repair: A Systematic Assessment of 16 Automated Repair Systems for Java Programs
Liu, Kui UL; Wang, Shangwen; Koyuncu, Anil UL et al

in 42nd ACM/IEEE International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE) (2020, May)

Test-based automated program repair has been a prolific field of research in software engineering in the last decade. Many approaches have indeed been proposed, which leverage test suites as a weak, but ... [more ▼]

Test-based automated program repair has been a prolific field of research in software engineering in the last decade. Many approaches have indeed been proposed, which leverage test suites as a weak, but affordable, approximation to program specifications. Although the literature regularly sets new records on the number of benchmark bugs that can be fixed, several studies increasingly raise concerns about the limitations and biases of state-of-the-art approaches. For example, the correctness of generated patches has been questioned in a number of studies, while other researchers pointed out that evaluation schemes may be misleading with respect to the processing of fault localization results. Nevertheless, there is little work addressing the efficiency of patch generation, with regard to the practicality of program repair. In this paper, we fill this gap in the literature, by providing an extensive review on the efficiency of test suite based program repair. Our objective is to assess the number of generated patch candidates, since this information is correlated to (1) the strategy to traverse the search space efficiently in order to select sensical repair attempts, (2) the strategy to minimize the test effort for identifying a plausible patch, (3) as well as the strategy to prioritize the generation of a correct patch. To that end, we perform a large-scale empirical study on the efficiency, in terms of quantity of generated patch candidates of the 16 open-source repair tools for Java programs. The experiments are carefully conducted under the same fault localization configurations to limit biases. Eventually, among other findings, we note that: (1) many irrelevant patch candidates are generated by changing wrong code locations; (2) however, if the search space is carefully triaged, fault localization noise has little impact on patch generation efficiency; (3) yet, current template-based repair systems, which are known to be most effective in fixing a large number of bugs, are actually least efficient as they tend to generate majoritarily irrelevant patch candidates. [less ▲]

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See detailDynamic Adaptation of Software-defined Networks for IoT Systems: A Search-based Approach
Shin, Seung Yeob UL; Nejati, Shiva UL; Sabetzadeh, Mehrdad UL et al

in Proceedings of the 15th International Symposium on Software Engineering for Adaptive and Self-Managing Systems (SEAMS'20) (2020, May)

The concept of Internet of Things (IoT) has led to the development of many complex and critical systems such as smart emergency management systems. IoT-enabled applications typically depend on a ... [more ▼]

The concept of Internet of Things (IoT) has led to the development of many complex and critical systems such as smart emergency management systems. IoT-enabled applications typically depend on a communication network for transmitting large volumes of data in unpredictable and changing environments. These networks are prone to congestion when there is a burst in demand, e.g., as an emergency situation is unfolding, and therefore rely on configurable software-defined networks (SDN). In this paper, we propose a dynamic adaptive SDN configuration approach for IoT systems. The approach enables resolving congestion in real time while minimizing network utilization, data transmission delays and adaptation costs. Our approach builds on existing work in dynamic adaptive search-based software engineering (SBSE) to reconfigure an SDN while simultaneously ensuring multiple quality of service criteria. We evaluate our approach on an industrial national emergency management system, which is aimed at detecting disasters and emergencies, and facilitating recovery and rescue operations by providing first responders with a reliable communication infrastructure. Our results indicate that (1) our approach is able to efficiently and effectively adapt an SDN to dynamically resolve congestion, and (2) compared to two baseline data forwarding algorithms that are static and non-adaptive, our approach increases data transmission rate by a factor of at least 3 and decreases data loss by at least 70%. [less ▲]

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See detailBacAnalytics: A Tool to Support Secondary School Examination in France
Roussanaly, Azim; Aleksandrova, Marharyta UL; Boyer, Anne

in 25th International Symposium on Intelligent Systems (ISMIS 2020) (2020, May)

Students who failed the final examination in the secondary school in France (known as baccalauréat or baccalaureate) can improve their scores by passing a remedial test. This test consists of two oral ... [more ▼]

Students who failed the final examination in the secondary school in France (known as baccalauréat or baccalaureate) can improve their scores by passing a remedial test. This test consists of two oral examinations in two subjects of the student's choice. Students announce their choice on the day of the remedial test. Additionally, the secondary education system in France is quite complex. There exist several types of baccalaureate consisting of various streams. Depending upon the stream students belong to, they have different subjects allowed to be taken during the remedial test and different coefficients associated with each of them. In this context, it becomes difficult to estimate the number of professors of each subject required for the examination. Thereby, the general practice of remedial test organization is to mobilize a large number of professors. In this paper, we present BacAnalytics - a tool that was developed to assist the rectorate of secondary schools with the organization of remedial tests for the baccalaureate. Given profiles of students and their choices of subjects for previous years, this tool builds a predictive model and estimates the number of required professors for the current year. In the paper, we present the architecture of the tool, analyze its performance, and describe its usage by the rectorate of the Academy of Nancy-Metz in Grand Est region of France in the years 2018 and 2019. BacAnalytics achieves almost 100% of prediction accuracy with approximately 25% of redundancy and was awarded a French national prize Impulsions 2018. [less ▲]

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See detailTransmit Beamforming Design with Received-Interference Power Constraints: The Zero-Forcing Relaxation
Lagunas, Eva UL; Perez-Neira, Ana; Lagunas, Miguel Angel et al

in IEEE Int. Conf. on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (ICASSP), Barcelona, Spain, May 2020 (2020, May)

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See detail'Faster-than-Nyquist Signaling via Spatiotemporal Symbol-Level Precoding for Multi-User MISO Redundant Transmissions
Alves Martins, Wallace UL; Spano, Danilo UL; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL et al

in International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (ICASSP-2020), Barcelona 4-8 May 2020 (2020, May)

This paper tackles the problem of both multi-user and intersymbol interference stemming from co-channel users transmitting at a faster-than-Nyquist (FTN) rate in multi-antenna downlink transmissions. We ... [more ▼]

This paper tackles the problem of both multi-user and intersymbol interference stemming from co-channel users transmitting at a faster-than-Nyquist (FTN) rate in multi-antenna downlink transmissions. We propose a framework for redundant block-based symbol-level precoders enabling the trade-off between constructive and destructive multi-user and interblock interference (IBI) effects at the single-antenna user terminals. Redundant elements are added as guard interval to handle IBI destructive effects. It is shown that, within this framework, accelerating the transmissions via FTN signaling improves the error-free spectral efficiency, up to a certain acceleration factor beyond which the transmitted information cannot be perfectly recovered by linear filtering followed by sampling. Simulation results corroborate that the proposed spatiotemporal symbol-level precoding can change the amount of added redundancy from zero (full IBI) to half (IBI-free) the equivalent channel order, so as to achieve a target balance between spectral and energy efficiencies. [less ▲]

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See detailSDN-based Misbehavior Detection System for Vehicular Networks
Boualouache, Abdelwahab UL; Soua, Ridha UL; Engel, Thomas UL

in 2020 IEEE 91st Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC2020-Spring) (2020, May)

Vehicular networks are vulnerable to a variety of internal attacks. Misbehavior Detection Systems (MDS) are preferred over the cryptography solutions to detect such attacks. However, the existing ... [more ▼]

Vehicular networks are vulnerable to a variety of internal attacks. Misbehavior Detection Systems (MDS) are preferred over the cryptography solutions to detect such attacks. However, the existing misbehavior detection systems are static and do not adapt to the context of vehicles. To this end, we exploit the Software-Defined Networking (SDN) paradigm to propose a context-aware MDS. Based on the context, our proposed system can tune security parameters to provide accurate detection with low false positives. Our system is Sybil attack-resistant and compliant with vehicular privacy standards. The simulation results show that, under different contexts, our system provides a high detection ratio and low false positives compared to a static MDS. [less ▲]

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See detailSecurity and Performance Implications of BGP Rerouting-resistant Guard Selection Algorithms for Tor
Mitseva, Asya UL; Aleksandrova, Marharyta UL; Engel, Thomas UL et al

in Security and Performance Implications of BGP Rerouting-resistant Guard Selection Algorithms for Tor (2020, May)

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See detailMensch-Roboter-Kollaboration in der Domäne Refabrikation – State-of-the-Art und Ausblick
Groß, Sebastian UL; Gerke, Wolfgang; Plapper, Peter UL

in Jäkel, Jens; Thiel, Robert (Eds.) Tagungsband AALE 2020 Automatisierung und Mensch-Technik-Interaktion (2020, March 05)

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See detailAgentenbasierte, hybride Steuerungsarchitektur für cyberphysische Refabrikationssysteme
Groß, Sebastian UL; Gerke, Wolfgang; Plapper, Peter UL

in Jäkel, Jens; Thiel, Robert (Eds.) Tagungsband AALE 2020 Automatisierung und Mensch-Technik-Interaktion (2020, March 05)

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See detailMetamorphic Security Testing for Web Systems
Mai, Xuan Phu UL; Pastore, Fabrizio UL; Goknil, Arda et al

in IEEE International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation (ICST) 2020 (2020, March)

Security testing verifies that the data and the resources of software systems are protected from attackers. Unfortunately, it suffers from the oracle problem, which refers to the challenge, given an input ... [more ▼]

Security testing verifies that the data and the resources of software systems are protected from attackers. Unfortunately, it suffers from the oracle problem, which refers to the challenge, given an input for a system, of distinguishing correct from incorrect behavior. In many situations where potential vulnerabilities are tested, a test oracle may not exist, or it might be impractical due to the many inputs for which specific oracles have to be defined. In this paper, we propose a metamorphic testing approach that alleviates the oracle problem in security testing. It enables engineers to specify metamorphic relations (MRs) that capture security properties of the system. Such MRs are then used to automate testing and detect vulnerabilities. We provide a catalog of 22 system-agnostic MRs to automate security testing in Web systems. Our approach targets 39% of the OWASP security testing activities not automated by state-of-the-art techniques. It automatically detected 10 out of 12 vulnerabilities affecting two widely used systems, one commercial and the other open source (Jenkins). [less ▲]

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See detailAnalyzing PeerFlow -- A Bandwidth Estimation System for Untrustworthy Environments
Mitseva, Asya UL; Engel, Thomas UL; Panchenko, Andriy

in Analyzing PeerFlow -- A Bandwidth Estimation System for Untrustworthy Environments (2020, March)

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See detailNAI: Towards Transparent and Usable Semi-Automated Legal Analysis
Libal, Tomer UL; Steen, Alexander UL

in Schweighöfer, Erich; Hötzendorfer, Walter; Kummer, Franz (Eds.) et al Verantwortungsbewusste Digitalisierung, Tagungsband des 23. Internationalen Rechtsinformatik Symposions IRIS 2020 (2020, February 27)

A prototype for automated reasoning over legal documents, called NAI, is presented. It uses formalized representations of legal documents that are created using a graphical editor that is also provided as ... [more ▼]

A prototype for automated reasoning over legal documents, called NAI, is presented. It uses formalized representations of legal documents that are created using a graphical editor that is also provided as part of NAI. The prototype supports several automated reasoning procedures over the given formalizations, including the execution of user queries. The application of NAI is studied using a fragment of the Scottish Smoking Prohibition (Children in Motor Vehicles) Act 2016. [less ▲]

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See detailPrivacy and Security of Big Data in AI Systems:A Research and Standards Perspective
Esmaeilzadeh Dilmaghani, Saharnaz UL; Brust, Matthias R. UL; Danoy, Grégoire UL et al

in 2019 IEEE International Conference on Big Data (Big Data), 9-12 December 2019 (2020, February 24)

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See detailPreventing Overloading Incidents on Smart Grids: A Multiobjective Combinatorial Optimization Approach
Antoniadis, Nikolaos UL; Cordy, Maxime UL; Sifaleras, Angelo et al

in Communications in Computer and Information Science (2020, February 15)

Cable overloading is one of the most critical disturbances that may occur in smart grids, as it can cause damage to the distribution power lines. Therefore, the circuits are protected by fuses so that ... [more ▼]

Cable overloading is one of the most critical disturbances that may occur in smart grids, as it can cause damage to the distribution power lines. Therefore, the circuits are protected by fuses so that, the overload could trip the fuse, opening the circuit, and stopping the flow and heating. However, sustained overloads, even if they are below the safety limits, could also damage the wires. To prevent overload, smart grid operators can switch the fuses on or off to protect the circuits, or remotely curtail the over-producing/over-consuming users. Nevertheless, making the most appropriate decision is a daunting decision-making task, notably due to contractual and technical obligations. In this paper, we define and formulate the overloading prevention problem as a Multiobjective Mixed Integer Quadratically Constrained Program. We also suggest a solution method using a combinatorial optimization approach with a state-of-the-art exact solver. We evaluate this approach for this real-world problem together with Creos Luxembourg S.A., the leading grid operator in Luxembourg, and show that our method can suggest optimal countermeasures to operators facing potential overloading incidents. [less ▲]

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See detailIdentifying Unintended Harms of Cybersecurity Measures
Chua, Yi Ting; Parkin, Simon; Edwards, Matthew et al

in Proceedings of ECRIME 2019 (2020, February 01)

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See detailShort paper: Mechanized Proofs of Verifiability and Privacy in a paper-based e-voting Scheme
Zollinger, Marie-Laure UL; Roenne, Peter UL; Ryan, Peter UL

in International Conference on Financial Crypto Workshop on Advances in Secure Electronic Voting (2020, February)

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See detailSystematization of threats and requirements for private messaging with untrusted servers. The case of E-mailing and instant messaging
Symeonidis, Iraklis UL; Lenzini, Gabriele UL

in International Conference on Information Systems Security and Privacy, Malta 25-27 February 2020 (2020, February)

Modern email and instant messaging applications often offer private communications. In doing so, they share common concerns about how security and privacy can be compromised, how they should face similar ... [more ▼]

Modern email and instant messaging applications often offer private communications. In doing so, they share common concerns about how security and privacy can be compromised, how they should face similar threats, and how to comply with comparable system requirements. Assuming a scenario where servers may not be trusted, we review and analyze a list of threats specifically against message delivering, archiving, and contact synchronization. We also describe a list of requirements intended for whom undertakes the task of implementing secure and private messaging. The cryptographic solutions available to mitigate the threats and to comply with the requirements may differ, as the two applications are built on different assumptions and technologies. [less ▲]

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See detailExploring the Monero Peer-to-Peer Network
Cao, Tong UL; Yu, Jiangshan; Decouchant, Jérémie UL et al

in Cao, Tong; Yu, Jiangshan; Decouchant, Jérémie (Eds.) et al Financial Cryptography and Data Security 2020, Sabah, 10-14 February 2020 (2020, February)

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See detailTeaching DevOps in Academia and Industry: Reflections and Vision
Bobrov, Evgeny; Bucchiarone, Antonio; Capozucca, Alfredo UL et al

in Bruel, Jean-Michel; Mazzara, Manuel; Meyer, Bertrand (Eds.) Software Engineering Aspects of Continuous Development and New Paradigms of Software Production and Deployment (2020, January 19)

The new century brought us a kind of renaissance in software development methods. The advent of the Agile manifesto has led to greater appreciation of methodologies aimed at producing valuable software ... [more ▼]

The new century brought us a kind of renaissance in software development methods. The advent of the Agile manifesto has led to greater appreciation of methodologies aimed at producing valuable software through continuous incremental cycles. More recently, a new set of practices enclosed under the term DevOps has appeared to attain manifesto's objectives in more efficient manner. The software development community has already noticed the benefits brought by DevOps. Thus, the necessity of education in the field becomes more and more important, both from the technical and organisational point of view. This paper describes parallel experiences of teaching both undergraduate and graduate students at the university, and junior professional developers in industry, compares the two approaches and sums up the lessons learnt. A vision driven by the DevOps practices aimed at implementing a shift in the Software Engineering Higher Education curricula to takeover its current limitations is also reported at the end of the paper. [less ▲]

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See detailComprendre l'état du parlementarisme contemporain en Europe
Poirier, Philippe UL

in Le Parlement depuis 2008 : Renforcement, statu quo ou retour au(x) fondement(s) de la Ve République (2020, January 10)

Cet ouvrage reprend les actes du colloque d'Aix-en-Provence de 2018 consacré au bilan de dix ans de mise en oeuvre de la révision constitutionnelle de 2008 dans son volet parlementaire. Faisant intervenir ... [more ▼]

Cet ouvrage reprend les actes du colloque d'Aix-en-Provence de 2018 consacré au bilan de dix ans de mise en oeuvre de la révision constitutionnelle de 2008 dans son volet parlementaire. Faisant intervenir des acteurs de la révision de 2008, des parlementaires, des membres du Conseil constitutionnel, des hauts fonctionnaires des assemblées et des universitaires, ce colloque a été construit autour des trois fonctions essentielles du Parlement : l'élaboration de la loi, le contrôle de l'exécutif et l'évaluation des politiques publiques afin de répondre à cette question : un changement pour quoi faire ? [less ▲]

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See detailCzechoslovak Jewish emigrants in the clutches of Luxembourg pre-war migration bureaucracy
Bronec, Jakub UL

in Malach Center for Visual History on its 10th Anniversary: Compendium of Papers of the Prague Visual History and Digital Humanities Conference 2020 (2020, January)

My contribution attempts to find answers to the following questions, among others: How did Luxembourg officials deal with Jewish refugees from Eastern European countries? Did the Luxembourgish authorities ... [more ▼]

My contribution attempts to find answers to the following questions, among others: How did Luxembourg officials deal with Jewish refugees from Eastern European countries? Did the Luxembourgish authorities distinguish or give priority to citizens of particular nations? Who was involved in the approval process? Who played the most active role and collected the most controversial information about Jewish immigrants? [less ▲]

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See detailL’édition de chartes à Luxembourg: de l’érudition aux nouvelles technologies (et vice-versa?)
Salemme, Timothy UL

in Bendheim, Amelie (Ed.) Tagungsband Mittelalter zwischen Faszination und Fortschritt (2020)

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See detailComparing Offline and Online Testing of Deep Neural Networks: An Autonomous Car Case Study
Ul Haq, Fitash UL; Shin, Donghwan UL; Nejati, Shiva UL et al

in 13th IEEE International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation (ICST) 2020 (2020)

There is a growing body of research on developing testing techniques for Deep Neural Networks (DNN). We distinguish two general modes of testing for DNNs: Offline testing where DNNs are tested as ... [more ▼]

There is a growing body of research on developing testing techniques for Deep Neural Networks (DNN). We distinguish two general modes of testing for DNNs: Offline testing where DNNs are tested as individual units based on test datasets obtained independently from the DNNs under test, and online testing where DNNs are embedded into a specific application and tested in a close-loop mode in interaction with the application environment. In addition, we identify two sources for generating test datasets for DNNs: Datasets obtained from real-life and datasets generated by simulators. While offline testing can be used with datasets obtained from either sources, online testing is largely confined to using simulators since online testing within real-life applications can be time consuming, expensive and dangerous. In this paper, we study the following two important questions aiming to compare test datasets and testing modes for DNNs: First, can we use simulator-generated data as a reliable substitute to real-world data for the purpose of DNN testing? Second, how do online and offline testing results differ and complement each other? Though these questions are generally relevant to all autonomous systems, we study them in the context of automated driving systems where, as study subjects, we use DNNs automating end-to-end control of cars' steering actuators. Our results show that simulator-generated datasets are able to yield DNN prediction errors that are similar to those obtained by testing DNNs with real-life datasets. Further, offline testing is more optimistic than online testing as many safety violations identified by online testing could not be identified by offline testing, while large prediction errors generated by offline testing always led to severe safety violations detectable by online testing. [less ▲]

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See detailCoercion-Resistant Voting in Linear Time via Fully Homomorphic Encryption: Towards a Quantum-Safe Scheme
Roenne, Peter UL; Atashpendar, Arash UL; Kristian, Gjøsteen et al

in Financial Cryptography and Data Security 2019. FC 2019: International Workshops, CIW, VOTING, and WTSC (2020)

We present an approach for performing the tallying work in the coercion-resistant JCJ voting protocol, introduced by Juels, Catalano, and Jakobsson, in linear time using fully homomorphic encryption (FHE ... [more ▼]

We present an approach for performing the tallying work in the coercion-resistant JCJ voting protocol, introduced by Juels, Catalano, and Jakobsson, in linear time using fully homomorphic encryption (FHE). The suggested enhancement also paves the path towards making JCJ quantum-resistant, while leaving the underlying structure of JCJ intact. The pairwise comparison-based approach of JCJ using plaintext equivalence tests leads to a quadratic blow-up in the number of votes, which makes the tallying process rather impractical in realistic settings with a large number of voters. We show how the removal of invalid votes can be done in linear time via a solution based on recent advances in various FHE primitives such as hashing, zero-knowledge proofs of correct decryption, verifiable shuffles and threshold FHE. We conclude by touching upon some of the advantages and challenges of such an approach, followed by a discussion of further security and post-quantum considerations. [less ▲]

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See detailDeepVI: A Novel Framework for Learning Deep View-Invariant Human Action Representations using a Single RGB Camera
Papadopoulos, Konstantinos UL; Ghorbel, Enjie UL; Oyedotun, Oyebade UL et al

in IEEE International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition, Buenos Aires 18-22 May 2020 (2020)

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See detailVisualisierungen des Induktionsprinzips
Perucca, Antonella UL; Todorovic, Milko

in Beiträge zum Mathematikunterricht 2020 (2020)

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See detailAttack-Tree Series: A Case for Dynamic Attack Tree Analysis
Gadyatskaya, Olga UL; Mauw, Sjouke UL

in Proc.\ 6th International Workshop on Graphical Models for Security (GraMSec'19) (2020)

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See detailAutomatic Testing and Improvement of Machine Translation
Sun, Zeyu; Zhang, Jie; Harman, Mark et al

in International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE) (2020)

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See detailApproximation-Refinement Testing of Compute-Intensive Cyber-Physical Models: An Approach Based on System Identification
Menghi, Claudio UL; Nejati, Shiva UL; Briand, Lionel UL et al

in Proceedings of the 42nd International Conference on Software Engineering (2020)

Black-box testing has been extensively applied to test models of Cyber-Physical systems (CPS) since these models are not often amenable to static and symbolic testing and verification. Black-box testing ... [more ▼]

Black-box testing has been extensively applied to test models of Cyber-Physical systems (CPS) since these models are not often amenable to static and symbolic testing and verification. Black-box testing, however, requires to execute the model under test for a large number of candidate test inputs. This poses a challenge for a large and practically-important category of CPS models, known as compute-intensive CPS (CI-CPS) models, where a single simulation may take hours to complete. We propose a novel approach, namely ARIsTEO, to enable effective and efficient testing of CI-CPS models. Our approach embeds black-box testing into an iterative approximation-refinement loop. At the start, some sampled inputs and outputs of the CI-CPS model under test are used to generate a surrogate model that is faster to execute and can be subjected to black-box testing. Any failure-revealing test identified for the surrogate model is checked on the original model. If spurious, the test results are used to refine the surrogate model to be tested again. Otherwise, the test reveals a valid failure. We evaluated ARIsTEO by comparing it with S-Taliro, an open-source and industry-strength tool for testing CPS models. Our results, obtained based on five publicly-available CPS models, show that, on average, ARIsTEO is able to find 24% more requirements violations than S-Taliro and is 31% faster than S-Taliro in finding those violations. We further assessed the effectiveness and efficiency of ARIsTEO on a large industrial case study from the satellite domain. In contrast to S-Taliro, ARIsTEO successfully tested two different versions of this model and could identify three requirements violations, requiring four hours, on average, for each violation. [less ▲]

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See detailAutonomous Flight of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Using Evolutionary Algorithms
Gaudín, Américo; Madruga, Gabriel; Rodríguez, Carlos et al

in High Performance Computing (2020)

This article explores the application of evolutionary algorithms and agent-oriented programming to solve the problem of searching and monitoring objectives through a fleet of unmanned aerial vehicles. The ... [more ▼]

This article explores the application of evolutionary algorithms and agent-oriented programming to solve the problem of searching and monitoring objectives through a fleet of unmanned aerial vehicles. The subproblem of static off-line planning is studied to find initial flight plans for each vehicle in the fleet, using evolutionary algorithms to achieve compromise values between the size of the explored area, the proximity of the vehicles, and the monitoring of points of interest defined in the area. The results obtained in the experimental analysis on representative instances of the surveillance problem indicate that the proposed techniques are capable of computing effective flight plans. [less ▲]

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See detailA Worst-Case Performance Optimization Based Design Approach to Robust Symbol-Level Precoding for Downlink MU-MIMO
Haqiqatnejad, Alireza UL; Shahbazpanahi, Shahram UL; Ottersten, Björn UL

in IEEE Global Conference on Signal and Information Processing (GlobalSIP), Ottawa 11-14 November 2019 (2020)

This paper addresses the optimization problem of symbol-level precoding (SLP) in the downlink of a multiuser multiple-input multiple-output (MU-MIMO) wireless system while the precoder's output is subject ... [more ▼]

This paper addresses the optimization problem of symbol-level precoding (SLP) in the downlink of a multiuser multiple-input multiple-output (MU-MIMO) wireless system while the precoder's output is subject to partially-known distortions. In particular, we assume a linear distortion model with bounded additive noise. The original signal-to-interference- plus-noise ratio (SINR) -constrained SLP problem minimizing the total transmit power is first reformulated as a penalized unconstrained problem, which is referred to as the relaxed robust formulation. We then adopt a worst-case design approach to protect the users' intended symbols and the targeted constructive interference with a desired level of confidence. Due to the non-convexity of the relaxed robust formulation, we propose an iterative algorithm based on the block coordinate ascent-descent method. We show through simulation results that the proposed robust design is flexible in the sense that the CI constraints can be relaxed so as to keep a desirable balance between achievable rate and power consumption. Remarkably, the new formulation yields more energy-efficient solutions for appropriate choices of the relaxation parameter, compared to the original problem. [less ▲]

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See detailMachine Learning to Geographically Enrich Understudied Sources: A Conceptual Approach
Viola, Lorella UL; Verheul, Jaap

in Rocha, Ana; Steels, Luc; van den Herik, Jaap (Eds.) Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Agents and Artificial Intelligence - Volume 1: ARTIDIGH (2020)

This paper discusses the added value of applying machine learning (ML) to contextually enrich digital collections. In this study, we employed ML as a method to geographically enrich historical datasets ... [more ▼]

This paper discusses the added value of applying machine learning (ML) to contextually enrich digital collections. In this study, we employed ML as a method to geographically enrich historical datasets. Specifically, we used a sequence tagging tool (Riedl and Padó 2018) which implements TensorFlow to perform NER on a corpus of historical immigrant newspapers. Afterwards, the entities were extracted and geocoded. The aim was to prepare large quantities of unstructured data for a conceptual historical analysis of geographical references. The intention was to develop a method that would assist researchers working in spatial humanities, a recently emerged interdisciplinary field focused on geographic and conceptual space. Here we describe the ML methodology and the geocoding phase of the project, focussing on the advantages and challenges of this approach, particularly for humanities scholars. We also argue that, by choosing to use largely neglected sources such as immigrant newspapers (a lso known as ethnic newspapers), this study contributes to the debate about diversity representation and archival biases in digital practices. [less ▲]

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See detailTracking Hurricanes using GPS atmospheric precipitable water vapor field
Ejigu, Yohannes Getachew; Teferle, Felix Norman UL; klos, Anna et al

in Beyond 100: The Next Century in Geodesy (2020)

Tropical cyclones are one of the most powerful severe weather events that produce devastating socioeconomic and environmental impacts in the areas they strike. Therefore, monitoring and tracking of the ... [more ▼]

Tropical cyclones are one of the most powerful severe weather events that produce devastating socioeconomic and environmental impacts in the areas they strike. Therefore, monitoring and tracking of the arrival times and path of the tropical cyclones are extremely valuable in providing early warning to the public and governments. Hurricane Florence struck the East cost of USA in 2018 and offers an outstanding case study. We employed Global Positioning System (GPS) derived precipitable water vapor (PWV) data to track and investigate the characteristics of storm occurrences in their spatial and temporal distribution using a dense ground network of permanent GPS stations. Our findings indicate that a rise in GPS-derived PWV occurred several hours before Florence’s manifestation. Also, we compared the temporal distribution of the GPS-derived PWV content with the precipitation value for days when the storm appeared in the area under influence. The study will contribute to quantitative assessment of the complementary GPS tropospheric products in hurricane monitoring and tracking using GPS-derived water vapor evolution from a dense network of permanent GPS stations [less ▲]

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See detailLocalization Performance of 1-Bit Passive Radars in NB-IoT Applications
Sedighi, Saeid UL; Mishra, Kumar Vijay; Shankar, Bhavani UL et al

in Sedighi, Saeid; Mishra, Kumar Vijay; Shankar, Bhavani (Eds.) et al Localization Performance of 1-Bit Passive Radars in NB-IoT Applications (2019, December 14)

Location-based services form an important use-case in emerging narrowband Internet-of-Things (NB-IoT) networks. Critical to this offering is an accurate estimation of the location without overlaying the ... [more ▼]

Location-based services form an important use-case in emerging narrowband Internet-of-Things (NB-IoT) networks. Critical to this offering is an accurate estimation of the location without overlaying the network with additional active sensors. The massive number of devices, low power requirement, and low bandwidths restrict the sampling rates of NB-IoT receivers. In this paper, we propose a novel low-complexity approach for NB-IoT target delay estimation in cases where one-bit analog-to-digital-converters (ADCs) are employed to sample the received radar signal instead of high-resolution ADCs. This problem has potential applications in the design of inexpensive NB-IoT radar and sensing devices. We formulate the target estimation as a multivariate fractional optimization problem and solve it via Lasserre's semi-definite program relaxation. Numerical experiments suggest feasibility of the proposed approach yielding high localization accuracy with a very low number of 1-bit samples. [less ▲]

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See detailCarrier Aggregation in Multi-Beam High Throughput Satellite Systems
Kibria, Mirza UL; Lagunas, Eva UL; Maturo, Nicola UL et al

in Carrier Aggregation in Multi-Beam High Throughput Satellite Systems (2019, December 10)

Carrier Aggregation (CA) is an integral part of current terrestrial networks. Its ability to enhance the peak data rate, to efficiently utilize the limited available spectrum resources and to satisfy the ... [more ▼]

Carrier Aggregation (CA) is an integral part of current terrestrial networks. Its ability to enhance the peak data rate, to efficiently utilize the limited available spectrum resources and to satisfy the demand for data-hungry applications has drawn large attention from different wireless network communities. Given the benefits of CA in the terrestrial wireless environment, it is of great interest to analyze and evaluate the potential impact of CA in the satellite domain. In this paper, we study CA in multi-beam high throughput satellite systems. We consider both inter-transponder and intra-transponder CA at the satellite payload level of the communication stack, and we address the problem of carrier-user assignment assuming that multiple users can be multiplexed in each carrier. The transmission parameters of different carriers are generated considering the transmission characteristics of carriers in different transponders. In particular, we propose a flexible carrier allocation approach for a CA enabled multi-beam satellite system targeting a proportionally fair user demand satisfaction. Simulation results and analysis shed some light on this rather unexplored scenario and demonstrate the feasibility of the CA in satellite communication systems. [less ▲]

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See detailJoint Scheduling and Precoding for Frame-Based Multigroup Multicasting in Satellite Communications
Bandi, Ashok UL; Shankar, Bhavani UL; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL et al

in Bandi, Ashok; Shankar, Bhavani; Chatzinotas, Symeon (Eds.) et al Joint Scheduling and Precoding for Frame-Based Multigroup Multicasting in Satellite Communications (2019, December 09)

Recent satellite standards enforce the coding of multiple users’ data in a frame. This transmission strategy mimics the well-known physical layer multigroup multicasting (MGMC). However, typical beam ... [more ▼]

Recent satellite standards enforce the coding of multiple users’ data in a frame. This transmission strategy mimics the well-known physical layer multigroup multicasting (MGMC). However, typical beam coverage with a large number of users and limited frame length lead to the scheduling of only a few users. Moreover, in emerging aggressive frequency reuse systems, scheduling is coupled with precoding. This is addressed in this work, through the joint design of scheduling and precoding for frame-based MGMC satellite systems. This aim is formulated as the maximization of the sum-rate under per beam power constraint and minimum SINR requirement of scheduled users. Further, a framework is proposed to transform the non-smooth SR objective with integer scheduling and nonconvex SINR constraints as a difference-of-convex problem that facilitates the joint update of scheduling and precoding. Therein, an efficient convex-concave procedure based algorithm is proposed. Finally, the gains (up to 50%) obtained by the jointed design over state-of-the-art methods is shown through Monte-Carlo simulations. [less ▲]

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See detailTemporal 3D Human Pose Estimation for Action Recognition from Arbitrary Viewpoints
Adel Musallam, Mohamed; Baptista, Renato UL; Al Ismaeil, Kassem UL et al

in 6th Annual Conf. on Computational Science & Computational Intelligence, Las Vegas 5-7 December 2019 (2019, December)

This work presents a new view-invariant action recognition system that is able to classify human actions by using a single RGB camera, including challenging camera viewpoints. Understanding actions from ... [more ▼]

This work presents a new view-invariant action recognition system that is able to classify human actions by using a single RGB camera, including challenging camera viewpoints. Understanding actions from different viewpoints remains an extremely challenging problem, due to depth ambiguities, occlusion, and a large variety of appearances and scenes. Moreover, using only the information from the 2D perspective gives different interpretations for the same action seen from different viewpoints. Our system operates in two subsequent stages. The first stage estimates the 2D human pose using a convolution neural network. In the next stage, the 2D human poses are lifted to 3D human poses, using a temporal convolution neural network that enforces the temporal coherence over the estimated 3D poses. The estimated 3D poses from different viewpoints are then aligned to the same camera reference frame. Finally, we propose to use a temporal convolution network-based classifier for cross-view action recognition. Our results show that we can achieve state of art view-invariant action recognition accuracy even for the challenging viewpoints by only using RGB videos, without pre-training on synthetic or motion capture data. [less ▲]

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See detailSafer UAV Piloting: A Robust Sense-and-Avoid Solution for Remotely Piloted Quadrotor UAVs in Complex Environments
Wang, Min UL; Voos, Holger UL

in Safer UAV Piloting: A Robust Sense-and-Avoid Solution for Remotely Piloted Quadrotor UAVs in Complex Environments (2019, December)

Current commercial UAVs are to a large extent remotely piloted by amateur human pilots. Due to lack of teleoperation experience or skills, they often drive the UAVs into collision. Therefore, in order to ... [more ▼]

Current commercial UAVs are to a large extent remotely piloted by amateur human pilots. Due to lack of teleoperation experience or skills, they often drive the UAVs into collision. Therefore, in order to ensure safety of the UAV as well as its surroundings, it is necessary for the UAV to boast the capability of detecting emergency situation and acting on its own when facing imminent threat. However, the majority of UAVs currently available in the market are not equipped with such capability. To fill in the gap, in this paper we present a complete sense-and-avoid solution for assisting unskilled pilots in ensuring a safe flight. Particularly, we propose a novel nonlinear vehicle control system which takes into account of sensor characteristics, an emergency evaluation policy and a novel optimization-based avoidance control strategy. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is demonstrated and validated in simulation with multiple moving objects. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the Formal Structure of Rules in Conflict of Laws
Markovich, Réka UL

in Legal Knowledge and Information Systems 2019 (proceedings) (2019, December)

Law has different methods and principles to resolve conflicts between norms, most of these come from Roman Law, they are well-known and much discussed. There is a whole branch of law, though, which is ... [more ▼]

Law has different methods and principles to resolve conflicts between norms, most of these come from Roman Law, they are well-known and much discussed. There is a whole branch of law, though, which is much less discussed while having been created exactly in order to resolve special conflicts: conflict of laws. This system within Private International Law is dedicated to providing metarules in legal situations where more than one national legal systems’ rules could be applied: CoL rules indirectly settle the situation by declaring which one’s should. The formal representation of how these rules work contributes not only to the modelling of this branch of law but also provides methodologies for concerns arising from other conflicting normative systems, such as ethically sensitive situations where there are multiple stakeholders with different moral backgrounds. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Impact of Human Mobility on Edge Data Center Deployment in Urban Environments
Vitello, Piergiorgio UL; Capponi, Andrea UL; Fiandrino, Claudio UL et al

in IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM), Waikoloa, HI, USA, 2019 (2019, December)

Multi-access Edge Computing (MEC) brings storage and computational capabilities at the edge of the network into so-called Edge Data Centers (EDCs) to better low-latency applications. To this end ... [more ▼]

Multi-access Edge Computing (MEC) brings storage and computational capabilities at the edge of the network into so-called Edge Data Centers (EDCs) to better low-latency applications. To this end, effective placement of EDCs in urban environments is key for proper load balance and to minimize outages. In this paper, we specifically tackle this problem. To fully understand how the computational demand of EDCs varies, it is fundamental to analyze the complex dynamics of cities. Our work takes into account the mobility of citizens and their spatial patterns to estimate the optimal placement of MEC EDCs in urban environments in order to minimize outages. To this end, we propose and compare two heuristics. In particular, we present the mobility-aware deployment algorithm (MDA) that outperforms approaches that do not consider citizens mobility. Simulations are conducted in Luxembourg City by extending the CrowdSenSim simulator and show that efficient EDCs placement significantly reduces outages. [less ▲]

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See detailUC Priced Oblivious Transfer with Purchase Statistics and Dynamic Pricing
Damodaran, Aditya Shyam Shankar UL; Dubovitskaya, Maria; Rial, Alfredo UL

in Progress in Cryptology – INDOCRYPT 2019 (2019, December)

Priced oblivious transfer (POT) is a cryptographic protocol that can be used to protect customer privacy in e-commerce applications. Namely, it allows a buyer to purchase an item from a seller without ... [more ▼]

Priced oblivious transfer (POT) is a cryptographic protocol that can be used to protect customer privacy in e-commerce applications. Namely, it allows a buyer to purchase an item from a seller without disclosing to the latter which item was purchased and at which price. Unfortunately, existing POT schemes have some drawbacks in terms of design and functionality. First, the design of existing POT schemes is not modular. Typically, a POT scheme extends a k-out-of-N oblivious transfer (OT) scheme by adding prices to the items. However, all POT schemes do not use OT as a black-box building block with certain security guarantees. Consequently, security of the OT scheme needs to be reanalyzed while proving security of the POT scheme, and it is not possible to swap the underlying OT scheme with any other OT scheme. Second, existing POT schemes do not allow the seller to obtain any kind of statistics about the buyer's purchases, which hinders customer and sales management. Moreover, the seller is not able to change the prices of items without restarting the protocol from scratch. We propose a POT scheme that addresses the aforementioned drawbacks. We prove the security of our POT in the UC framework. We modify a standard POT functionality to allow the seller to receive aggregate statistics about the buyer's purchases and to change prices dynamically. We present a modular construction for POT that realizes our functionality in the hybrid model. One of the building blocks is an ideal functionality for OT. Therefore, our protocol separates the tasks carried out by the underlying OT scheme from the additional tasks needed by a POT scheme. Thanks to that, our protocol is a good example of modular design and can be instantiated with any secure OT scheme as well as other building blocks without reanalyzing security from scratch. [less ▲]

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See detailCryptanalysis of CLT13 Multilinear Maps with Independent Slots
Coron, Jean-Sébastien UL; Notarnicola, Luca UL

in Advances in Cryptology – ASIACRYPT 2019, 25th International Conference on the Theory and Application of Cryptology and Information Security, Kobe, Japan, December 8–12, 2019, Proceedings, Part II (2019, December)

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See detailAutomatic Software Tuning of Parallel Programs for Energy-Aware Executions
Varrette, Sébastien UL; Pinel, Frédéric UL; Kieffer, Emmanuel UL et al

in Proc. of 13th Intl. Conf. on Parallel Processing and Applied Mathematics (PPAM 2019) (2019, December)

For large scale systems, such as data centers, energy efficiency has proven to be key for reducing capital, operational expenses and environmental impact. Power drainage of a system is closely related to ... [more ▼]

For large scale systems, such as data centers, energy efficiency has proven to be key for reducing capital, operational expenses and environmental impact. Power drainage of a system is closely related to the type and characteristics of workload that the device is running. For this reason, this paper presents an automatic software tuning method for parallel program generation able to adapt and exploit the hardware features available on a target computing system such as an HPC facility or a cloud system in a better way than traditional compiler infrastructures. We propose a search based approach combining both exact methods and approximated heuristics evolving programs in order to find optimized configurations relying on an ever-increasing number of tunable knobs i.e., code transformation and execution options (such as the num- ber of OpenMP threads and/or the CPU frequency settings). The main objective is to outperform the configurations generated by traditional compiling infrastructures for selected KPIs i.e., performance, energy and power usage (for both for the CPU and DRAM), as well as the runtime. First experimental results tied to the local optimization phase of the proposed framework are encouraging, demonstrating between 8% and 41% improvement for all considered metrics on a reference benchmark- ing application (i.e., Linpack). This brings novel perspectives for the global optimization step currently under investigation within the presented framework, with the ambition to pave the way toward automatic tuning of energy-aware applications beyond the performance of the current state-of-the-art compiler infrastructures. [less ▲]

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See detailA case study on the impact of masking moving objects on the camera pose regression with CNNs
Cimarelli, Claudio UL; Cazzato, Dario UL; Olivares Mendez, Miguel Angel UL et al

in 2019 16th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Video and Signal Based Surveillance (AVSS) (2019, November 25)

Robot self-localization is essential for operating autonomously in open environments. When cameras are the main source of information for retrieving the pose, numerous challenges are posed by the presence ... [more ▼]

Robot self-localization is essential for operating autonomously in open environments. When cameras are the main source of information for retrieving the pose, numerous challenges are posed by the presence of dynamic objects, due to occlusion and continuous changes in the appearance. Recent research on global localization methods focused on using a single (or multiple) Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) to estimate the 6 Degrees of Freedom (6-DoF) pose directly from a monocular camera image. In contrast with the classical approaches using engineered feature detector, CNNs are usually more robust to environmental changes in light and to occlusions in outdoor scenarios. This paper contains an attempt to empirically demonstrate the ability of CNNs to ignore dynamic elements, such as pedestrians or cars, through learning. For this purpose, we pre-process a dataset for pose localization with an object segmentation network, masking potentially moving objects. Hence, we compare the pose regression CNN trained and/or tested on the set of masked images and the original one. Experimental results show that the performances of the two training approaches are similar, with a slight reduction of the error when hiding occluding objects from the views. [less ▲]

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See detailAuthenticated Key Distribution: When the Coupon Collector is Your Enemy
Beunardeau, Marc; El Orche, Fatima Ezzahra UL; Maimut, Diana et al

in Innovative Security Solutions for Information Technology and Communications (2019, November 14)

We introduce new authenticated key exchange protocols which on the one hand do not resort to standard public key setups with corresponding assumptions of computationally hard problems, but on the other ... [more ▼]

We introduce new authenticated key exchange protocols which on the one hand do not resort to standard public key setups with corresponding assumptions of computationally hard problems, but on the other hand, are more efficient than distributing symmetric keys among the participants. To this end, we rely on a trusted central authority distributing key material whose size is independent of the total number of users, and which allows the users to obtain shared secret keys. We analyze the security of our construction, taking into account various attack models. Importantly, only symmetric primitives are needed in the protocol making it an alternative to quantum-safe key exchange protocols which rely on hardness assumptions. [less ▲]

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See detailPost-collusion security and distance bounding
Mauw, Sjouke UL; Smith, Zachary Daniel UL; Trujillo Rasua, Rolando UL et al

in Post-collusion security and distance bounding (2019, November 11)

Verification of cryptographic protocols is traditionally built upon the assumption that participants have not revealed their long-term keys. However, in some cases, participants might collude to defeat ... [more ▼]

Verification of cryptographic protocols is traditionally built upon the assumption that participants have not revealed their long-term keys. However, in some cases, participants might collude to defeat some security goals, without revealing their long-term secrets. We develop a model based on multiset rewriting to reason about collusion in security protocols. We introduce the notion of postcollusion security, which verifies security properties claimed in sessions initiated after collusion occurred. We use post-collusion security to analyse terrorist fraud on protocols for securing physical proximity, known as distance-bounding protocols. In a terrorist fraud attack, agents collude to falsely prove proximity, whilst no further false proximity proof can be issued without further collusion. Our definitions and the Tamarin prover are used to develop a modular framework for verification of distance-bounding protocols that accounts for all types of attack from literature. We perform a survey of over 25 protocols, which include industrial protocols such as Mastercard’s contactless payment PayPass and NXP’s MIFARE Plus with proximity check. For the industrial protocols we confirm attacks, propose fixes, and deliver computer-verifiable security proofs of the repaired versions [less ▲]

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See detailOptimum Design for Sparse FDA-MIMO Automotive Radar
Sedighi, Saeid UL; Shankar, Bhavani UL; Mishra, Kumar Vijay et al

in Sedighi, Saeid; Shankar, Bhavani; Mishra, Kumar Vijay (Eds.) et al Optimum Design for Sparse FDA-MIMO Automotive Radar (2019, November 03)

Automotive radars usually employ multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) antenna arrays to achieve high azimuthal resolution with fewer elements than a phased array. Despite this advantage, hardware costs ... [more ▼]

Automotive radars usually employ multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) antenna arrays to achieve high azimuthal resolution with fewer elements than a phased array. Despite this advantage, hardware costs and desired radar size limits the usage of more antennas in the array. Similar trade-off is encountered while attempting to achieve high range resolution which is limited by the signal bandwidth. However, nowadays given the demand for spectrum from communications services, wide bandwidth is not readily available. To address these issues, we propose a sparse variant of Frequency Diverse Array MIMO (FDA-MIMO) radar which enjoys the benefits of both FDA and MIMO techniques, including fewer elements, decoupling, and efficient joint estimation of target parameters. We then employ the Cram\'{e}r-Rao bound for angle and range estimation as a performance metric to design the optimal antenna placement and carrier frequency offsets for the transmit waveforms. Numerical experiments suggest that the performance of sparse FDA-MIMO radar is very close to the conventional FDA-MIMO despite 50\% reduction in the bandwidth and antenna elements. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterization of the MSE Region under a Total Power Budget for Asynchronous Two-Way Relay Networks
Rahimi, Razgar; Shahbazpanahi, Shahram UL; Ottersten, Björn UL

in The Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems, and Computers, Pacific Grove, CA, 3-6 November 2019 (2019, November)

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See detailA New Optimization Tool for Mega-Constellation Design and its Application to Trunking Systems
Kisseleff, Steven UL; Shankar, Bhavani UL; Spano, Danilo UL et al

in 37th International Communications Satellite Systems Conference (ICSSC), Japan, October 2019 (2019, November)

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See detailA Multilayer Low-Altitude Airspace Model for UAV Traffic Management
Samir Labib, Nader UL; Danoy, Grégoire UL; Musial, Jedrzej et al

in Samir Labib, Nader; Danoy, Grégoire; Musial, Jedrzej (Eds.) et al 9th ACM Symposium on Design and Analysis of Intelligent Vehicular Networks and Applications (DIVANet '19) (2019, November)

Over the recent years, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles' (UAVs) technology developed rapidly. In turn shedding light on a wide range of potential civil and commercial applications ranging from mapping and ... [more ▼]

Over the recent years, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles' (UAVs) technology developed rapidly. In turn shedding light on a wide range of potential civil and commercial applications ranging from mapping and surveillance, parcel delivery to more demanding ones that require UAVs to operate in heterogeneous swarms. However, with the great advantages UAVs bring, they are expected to soon dominate the shared, low-altitude airspace over populated cities, introducing multiple new research challenges in safely managing the unprecedented traffic demands. The main contribution of this work is addressing the complex problem of UAV traffic management at an abstract level by proposing a structure for the uncontrolled low-altitude airspace. The paper proposes a model of the airspace as a weighted multilayer network of nodes and airways and presents a set of experimental simulations of UAV traffic for the verification and validation of the model. Finally, the paper outlines our intended future work. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessing the Generalizability of code2vec Token Embeddings
Kang, Hong Jin; Bissyande, Tegawendé François D Assise UL; David, Lo

in Proceedings of the 34th IEEE/ACM International Conference on Automated Software Engineering (2019, November)

Many Natural Language Processing (NLP) tasks, such as sentiment analysis or syntactic parsing, have benefited from the development of word embedding models. In particular, regardless of the training ... [more ▼]

Many Natural Language Processing (NLP) tasks, such as sentiment analysis or syntactic parsing, have benefited from the development of word embedding models. In particular, regardless of the training algorithms, the learned embeddings have often been shown to be generalizable to different NLP tasks. In contrast, despite recent momentum on word embeddings for source code, the literature lacks evidence of their generalizability beyond the example task they have been trained for. In this experience paper, we identify 3 potential downstream tasks, namely code comments generation, code authorship identification, and code clones detection, that source code token embedding models can be applied to. We empirically assess a recently proposed code token embedding model, namely code2vec’s token embeddings. Code2vec was trained on the task of predicting method names, and while there is potential for using the vectors it learns on other tasks, it has not been explored in literature. Therefore, we fill this gap by focusing on its generalizability for the tasks we have identified. Eventually, we show that source code token embeddings cannot be readily leveraged for the downstream tasks. Our experiments even show that our attempts to use them do not result in any improvements over less sophisticated methods. We call for more research into effective and general use of code embeddings. [less ▲]

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See detailUser Terminal Wideband Modem for Very High Throughput Satellites
Kisseleff, Steven UL; Maturo, Nicola UL; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL et al

in 37th International Communications Satellite Systems Conference (ICSSC), Japan, October 2019 (2019, November)

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See detailPrivacy Aspects and Subliminal Channels in Zcash
Biryukov, Alex UL; Feher, Daniel UL; Vitto, Giuseppe UL

in Proceedings of the 2019 ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Securit (2019, November)

In this paper we analyze two privacy and security issues for the privacy-oriented cryptocurrency Zcash. First we study shielded transactions and show ways to fingerprint user transactions, including ... [more ▼]

In this paper we analyze two privacy and security issues for the privacy-oriented cryptocurrency Zcash. First we study shielded transactions and show ways to fingerprint user transactions, including active attacks.We introduce two new attacks which we call Danaan-gift attack and Dust attack. Following the recent Sapling update of Zcash protocol we study the interaction between the new and the old zk-SNARK protocols and the effects of their interaction on transaction privacy. In the second part of the paper we check for the presence of subliminal channels in the zk-SNARK protocol and in Pedersen Commitments. We show presence of efficient 70-bit channels which could be used for tagging of shielded transactions which would allow the attacker (malicious transaction verifier) to link transactions issued by a maliciously modified zk-SNARK prover, while would be indistinguishable from regular transactions for the honest verifier/user. We discuss countermeasures against both of these privacy issues. [less ▲]

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See detailCrowdSenSim 2.0: a Stateful Simulation Platform for Mobile Crowdsensing in Smart Cities
Montori, Federico; Cortesi, Emanuele; Bedogni, Luca et al

in MSWIM '19: Proceedings of the 22nd International ACM Conference on Modeling, Analysis and Simulation of Wireless and Mobile Systems, Miami Beach, FL, USA, 2019. (2019, November)

Mobile crowdsensing (MCS) has become a popular paradigm for data collection in urban environments. In MCS systems, a crowd supplies sensing information for monitoring phenomena through mobile devices ... [more ▼]

Mobile crowdsensing (MCS) has become a popular paradigm for data collection in urban environments. In MCS systems, a crowd supplies sensing information for monitoring phenomena through mobile devices. Typically, a large number of participants is required to make a sensing campaign successful. For such a reason, it is often not practical for researchers to build and deploy large testbeds to assess the performance of frameworks and algorithms for data collection, user recruitment, and evaluating the quality of information. Simulations offer a valid alternative. In this paper, we present CrowdSenSim 2.0, a significant extension of the popular CrowdSenSim simulation platform. CrowdSenSim 2.0 features a stateful approach to support algorithms where the chronological order of events matters, extensions of the architectural modules, including an additional system to model urban environments, code refactoring, and parallel execution of algorithms. All these improvements boost the performances of the simulator and make the runtime execution and memory utilization significantly lower, also enabling the support for larger simulation scenarios. We demonstrate retro-compatibility with the older platform and evaluate as a case study a stateful data collection algorithm. [less ▲]

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See detailA Personalized Sentiment Model with Textual and Contextual Information
Guo, Siwen UL; Höhn, Sviatlana UL; Schommer, Christoph UL

in The SIGNLL Conference on Computational Natural Language Learning, Hong Kong 3-4 November 2019 (2019, November)

In this paper, we look beyond the traditional population-level sentiment modeling and consider the individuality in a person's expressions by discovering both textual and contextual information. In ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we look beyond the traditional population-level sentiment modeling and consider the individuality in a person's expressions by discovering both textual and contextual information. In particular, we construct a hierarchical neural network that leverages valuable information from a person's past expressions, and offer a better understanding of the sentiment from the expresser's perspective. Additionally, we investigate how a person's sentiment changes over time so that recent incidents or opinions may have more effect on the person's current sentiment than the old ones. Psychological studies have also shown that individual variation exists in how easily people change their sentiments. In order to model such traits, we develop a modified attention mechanism with Hawkes process applied on top of a recurrent network for a user-specific design. Implemented with automatically labeled Twitter data, the proposed model has shown positive results employing different input formulations for representing the concerned information. [less ▲]

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See detailFeasibility of Stellar as a Blockchain-based Micropayment System
Khan, Nida UL; Ahmad, Tabrez; State, Radu UL

in Springer SmartBlock 2019 - 2nd International Conference on Smart Blockchain (2019, November)

The advent of Bitcoin was heralded as an innovation in the global monetary system, that could bring down transaction fees by circumventing the need for third parties and conduct transactions in real time ... [more ▼]

The advent of Bitcoin was heralded as an innovation in the global monetary system, that could bring down transaction fees by circumventing the need for third parties and conduct transactions in real time. The divisibility of a blockchain cryptocurrency to even fractions of a cent, caused microtransactions to become feasible to formerly non-existent denominations. These microtransactions have spurred the development of novel ways of monetizing online resources and hold the potential to aid in alleviation of poverty. The paper conducts a feasibility study on Stellar as a blockchain-based micropayment system. It highlights the computational and other issues that impedes its progress and utilizes a characterization model for micropayment systems to evaluate the efficacy of the Stellar platform. The paper conducts a comparison with the micropayment solutions from Bitcoin, Ethereum and PayPal. The paper analyzes a subset of transactions from the Stellar blockchain to aid in drawing a conclusion on the undertaken study and elaborates on the mitigation tools to enable fraud prevention in online monetary transactions. [less ▲]

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See detailEnhanced Sketchnoting through Semantic Integration of Learning Material
Atashpendar, Aryobarzan UL; Grevisse, Christian UL; Rothkugel, Steffen UL

in Applied Informatics (2019, November)

Within the transition from pen-and-paper to digital solutions, many tablet-based note-taking apps have been developed. In addition, sketchnoting, a highly visual form of note-taking, has gained in ... [more ▼]

Within the transition from pen-and-paper to digital solutions, many tablet-based note-taking apps have been developed. In addition, sketchnoting, a highly visual form of note-taking, has gained in popularity, especially in teaching and learning. While current solutions already reduce the burden of organizing and searching through stacks of paper, they provide little support in finding additional information related to the notes, and search capabilities are mostly limited to textual queries and content. In this paper, we present a novel solution for digital sketchnoting aimed at enhancing the learning experience of students. In addition to common capabilities such as handwriting recognition, our note-taking app integrates semantic annotation and drawing recognition. Handwritten notes are recognized and passed through concept recognition and entity linking tools to enable a knowledge graph-based integration of contextually relevant learning resources. We extend traditional search capabilities by including the semantic metadata from the related material as well as enabling visual queries to find recognized sketches. Finally, resembling the exchange of paper notes among students, our app allows to share the semantically enhanced notes with other devices. [less ▲]

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See detailCrafting Conversational Agents' Personality in a User-Centric Context
Mano Ferreira, Cátia; Höhn, Sviatlana UL

in Proceedings of the 31st Benelux Conference on Artificial Intelligence (BNAIC 2019) and the 28th Belgian Dutch Conference on Machine Learning (Benelearn 2019) (2019, November)

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See detailVPGA: an SDN-based Location Privacy Zones Placement Scheme for Vehicular Networks
Boualouache, Abdelwahab UL; Soua, Ridha UL; Engel, Thomas UL

in 38th IEEE International Performance Computing and Communications Conference (IPCCC) (2019, October 29)

Making personal data anonymous is crucial to ensure the adoption of connected vehicles. One of the privacy-sensitive information is location, which once revealed can be used by adversaries to track ... [more ▼]

Making personal data anonymous is crucial to ensure the adoption of connected vehicles. One of the privacy-sensitive information is location, which once revealed can be used by adversaries to track drivers during their journey. Vehicular Location Privacy Zones (VLPZs) is a promising approach to ensure unlinkability. These logical zones can be easily deployed over roadside infrastructures (RIs) such as gas station or electric charging stations. However, the placement optimization problem of VLPZs is NP-hard and thus an efficient allocation of VLPZs to these RIs is needed to avoid their overload and the degradation of the QoS provided within theses RIs. This work considers the optimal placement of the VLPZs and proposes a genetic-based algorithm in a software defined vehicular network to ensure minimized trajectory cost of involved vehicles and hence less consumption of their pseudonyms. The analytical evaluation shows that the proposed approach is cost-efficient and ensures a shorter response time. [less ▲]

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See detailOuter and Anti Joins in Temporal-Probabilistic Databases
Papaioannou, Katerina; Theobald, Martin UL; Böhlen, Michael H.

in 35th IEEE International Conference on Data Engineering, ICDE 2019, Macao, China, April 8-11, 2019 (2019, October 16)

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See detailSoftwarization of SCADA: Lightweight Statistical SDN-Agents for Anomaly Detection
Rinaldi, Giulia UL; Adamsky, Florian UL; Soua, Ridha UL et al

in 10th International Conference on Networks of the Future (NoF) (2019, October 04)

The increasing connectivity of restricted areas suchas Critical Infrastructures (CIs) raises major security concernsfor Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems,which are deployed to ... [more ▼]

The increasing connectivity of restricted areas suchas Critical Infrastructures (CIs) raises major security concernsfor Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems,which are deployed to monitor their operation. Given the impor-tance of an early anomaly detection, Intrusion Detection Systems(IDSs) are introduced in SCADA systems to detect malicious ac-tivities as early as possible. Agents or probes form the cornerstoneof any IDS by capturing network packets and extracting relevantinformation. However, IDSs are facing unprecedented challengesdue to the escalation in the number, scale and diversity of attacks.Software-Defined Network (SDN) then comes into play and canprovide the required flexibility and scalability. Building on that,we introduce Traffic Agent Controllers (TACs) that monitor SDN-enabled switches via OpenFlow. By using lightweight statisticalmetrics such as Kullback-Leibler Divergence (KLD), we are ableto detect the slightest anomalies, such as stealth port scans, evenin the presence of background traffic. The obtained metrics canalso be used to locate the anomalies with precision over 90%inside a hierarchical network topology. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimized and flexible scheduling of AGVs and process machines in Re- manufacturing 4 .0 Systems using multi-agent technology and simultaneous scheduling
Groß, Sebastian UL; Gerke, Wolfgang; Plapper, Peter UL

in Ramírez Fernández, Francisco Javier; Honrubia Escribano, Andrés (Eds.) Abstracts III International Workshop on Autonomous Remanufacturing 2019 (2019, October 02)

In remanufacturing processes the condition of the used products is unknown. This leads to many challenges which are special to the domain of remanufacturing and not known from manufacturing. One of these ... [more ▼]

In remanufacturing processes the condition of the used products is unknown. This leads to many challenges which are special to the domain of remanufacturing and not known from manufacturing. One of these challenges is the stochastic routing of products based on the unknown product conditions. This problem in particular requires a flexible scheduling and control system for the remanufacturing system as well as the intralogistics. The aim of this research is to optimize the scheduling and control of remanufacturing systems considering the flexible material transport by AGVs. Therefore the networking of all resources is organized as an embedded system treating the remanufacturing system as a cyber-physical system in the context of industry 4.0. The scheduling and control of the remanufacturing system will be achieved by a combination of multi-agent technology to deal with unexpected events and the optimization of the schedule by simultaneous scheduling of machines and AGVs. Machine scheduling and transport scheduling have been vastly studied by many researchers, but most of the works address both problems separately. However, these two problems are closely linked and influence each other. By looking at them together, it is possible to achieve an improvement in the overall schedule. In the first step of the research work, the simultaneous scheduling of machines and AGVs has been compared with the currently used sequential scheduling within a simulation study. For this purpose, benchmark instances known in the literature were used. The simulation results show the superiority of the simultaneous scheduling of machines and AGVs. [less ▲]

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See detailTrustworthiness in IoT - A Standards Gap Analysis on Security, Data Protection and Privacy
Samir Labib, Nader UL; Brust, Matthias R. UL; Danoy, Grégoire UL et al

in Samir Labib, Nader; Brust, Matthias R.; Danoy, Grégoire (Eds.) et al Trustworthiness in IoT - A Standards Gap Analysis on Security, Data Protection and Privacy (2019, October)

With the emergence of new digital trends like Internet of Things (IoT), more industry actors and technical committees pursue research in utilising such technologies as they promise a better and optimised ... [more ▼]

With the emergence of new digital trends like Internet of Things (IoT), more industry actors and technical committees pursue research in utilising such technologies as they promise a better and optimised management, improved energy efficiency and a better quality living through a wide array of value-added services. However, as sensing, actuation, communication and control become increasingly more sophisticated, such promising data-driven systems generate, process, and exchange larger amounts of security-critical and privacy-sensitive data, which makes them attractive targets of attacks. In turn this affirms the importance of trustworthiness in IoT and emphasises the need of a solid technical and regulatory foundation. The goal of this paper is to first introduce the concept of trustworthiness in IoT, its main pillars namely, security, privacy and data protection, and then analyse the state-of-the-art in research and standardisation for each of these subareas. Throughout the paper, we develop and refer to Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) as a promising value-added service example of mobile IoT devices. The paper then presents a thorough gap analysis and concludes with recommendations for future work. [less ▲]

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See detailSDN-based Pseudonym-Changing Strategy for Privacy Preservation in Vehicular Networks
Boualouache, Abdelwahab UL; Soua, Ridha UL; Engel, Thomas UL

in 15th International Conference on Wireless and Mobile Computing, Networking and Communications (WiMob'19) (2019, October)

The pseudonym-changing approach is the de-factolocation privacy solution proposed by security standards toensure that drivers are not tracked during their journey. SeveralPseudonym Changing Strategies ... [more ▼]

The pseudonym-changing approach is the de-factolocation privacy solution proposed by security standards toensure that drivers are not tracked during their journey. SeveralPseudonym Changing Strategies (PCSs) have been proposed tosynchronize Pseudonym Changing Processes (PCPs) between con-nected vehicles. However, most of the existing strategies are static,rigid and do not adapt to the vehicles’ context. In this paper, weexploit the Software Defined Network (SDN) paradigm to proposea context-aware pseudonym changing strategy (SDN-PCS) whereSDN controllers orchestrate the dynamic update of the securityparameters of the PCS. Simulation results demonstrate that SDN-PCS strategy outperforms typical static PCSs to perform efficientPCPs and protect the location privacy of vehicular network users [less ▲]

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See detailSimultaneous State and False-Data Injection Attacks Reconstruction for NonLinear Systems: an LPV Approach
Bezzaoucha, Souad UL; Voos, Holger UL

in Bezzaoucha, Souad (Ed.) International Conference on Automation, Control and Robots (2019, October)

The present contribution addresses simultaneous state and actuator/sensor false-data injection attacks reconstruction for nonlinear systems. The considered actuator/sensor attacks are modeled as time ... [more ▼]

The present contribution addresses simultaneous state and actuator/sensor false-data injection attacks reconstruction for nonlinear systems. The considered actuator/sensor attacks are modeled as time-varying parameters with a multiplicative effect on the actuator input signal and the sensor output signal, respectively. Based on the sector non-linearity approach and the convex polytopic transformation, the nonlinear model is written in a Linear Parameter-Varying (LPV) form, then an observer allowing both state and attack reconstruction is designed by solving an LMI optimization problem. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the Event-based Attack-tolerant Control: A Polytopic Representation
Bezzaoucha, Souad UL; Voos, Holger UL

in Bezzaoucha, Souad (Ed.) International Conference on Automation, Control and Robots (2019, October)

In the present contribution, we present a new event-based control representation. Based on the polytopic approach, more specifically the sector nonlinear transformation, an event-based attack-tolerant ... [more ▼]

In the present contribution, we present a new event-based control representation. Based on the polytopic approach, more specifically the sector nonlinear transformation, an event-based attack-tolerant control, and scheduling co-design strategy are proposed. From the event triggering definition (sample-and-hold strategy), polytopic writing of the event-triggered feedback control is first presented and then incorporated into the system dynamics for analysis. Our goal is to present a unique model that is able to deal with the co-design problem simultaneously and that can be handled by classical control synthesis tools. The novel representation, including data deception and attack tolerant control is formulated as a BMI optimization problem ensuring both stability and some level performance requirements (L2 attenuation of the cyber-attack). [less ▲]

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