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See detailAutomated Handling of Anaphoric Ambiguity in Requirements: A Multi-solution Study
Ezzini, Saad UL; Abualhaija, Sallam UL; Arora, Chetan et al

in In Proceedings of the 44th International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE'22), Pittsburgh, PA, USA 22-27 May 2022 (in press)

Ambiguity is a pervasive issue in natural-language requirements. A common source of ambiguity in requirements is when a pronoun is anaphoric. In requirements engineering, anaphoric ambiguity occurs when a ... [more ▼]

Ambiguity is a pervasive issue in natural-language requirements. A common source of ambiguity in requirements is when a pronoun is anaphoric. In requirements engineering, anaphoric ambiguity occurs when a pronoun can plausibly refer to different entities and thus be interpreted differently by different readers. In this paper, we develop an accurate and practical automated approach for handling anaphoric ambiguity in requirements, addressing both ambiguity detection and anaphora interpretation. In view of the multiple competing natural language processing (NLP) and machine learning (ML) technologies that one can utilize, we simultaneously pursue six alternative solutions, empirically assessing each using a collection of ~1,350 industrial requirements. The alternative solution strategies that we consider are natural choices induced by the existing technologies; these choices frequently arise in other automation tasks involving natural-language requirements. A side-by-side empirical examination of these choices helps develop insights about the usefulness of different state-of-the-art NLP and ML technologies for addressing requirements engineering problems. For the ambiguity detection task, we observe that supervised ML outperforms both a large-scale language model, SpanBERT (a variant of BERT), as well as a solution assembled from off-the-shelf NLP coreference resolvers. In contrast, for anaphora interpretation, SpanBERT yields the most accurate solution. In our evaluation, (1) the best solution for anaphoric ambiguity detection has an average precision of ~60% and a recall of 100%, and (2) the best solution for anaphora interpretation (resolution) has an average success rate of ~98%. [less ▲]

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See detailBlockchain Governance: An Overview and Prediction of Optimal Strategies Using Nash Equilibrium
Khan, Nida UL; Ahmad, Tabrez; Patel, Anass et al

in 3rd AUE International Research Conference (in press)

Blockchain governance is a subject of ongoing research and an interdisciplinary view of blockchain governance is vital to aid in further research for establishing a formal governance framework for this ... [more ▼]

Blockchain governance is a subject of ongoing research and an interdisciplinary view of blockchain governance is vital to aid in further research for establishing a formal governance framework for this nascent technology. In this paper, the position of blockchain governance within the hierarchy of Institutional governance is discussed. Blockchain governance is analyzed from the perspective of IT governance using Nash equilibrium to predict the outcome of different governance decisions. A payoff matrix for blockchain governance is created and simulation of different strategy profiles is accomplished for computation of all Nash equilibria. We also create payoff matrices for different kinds of blockchain governance, which were used to propose novel mathematical formulae usable to predict the best governance strategy that minimizes the occurrence of a hard fork as well as predicts the behavior of the majority during protocol updates. [less ▲]

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See detailDatenbank für Zweisprachige Historische Luxemburgische Bekanntmachungen
Gilles, Peter UL; Ziegler, Evelyn

in Wallmeier, Nadine; Tophinke, Doris (Eds.) Historische Stadtsprachenforschung (in press)

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See detailOn the (M)iNTRU assumption in the integer case
Barthel, Jim Jean-Pierre UL; Müller, Volker UL; Rosie, Razvan UL

in Provable and Practical Security, 15th International Conference, ProvSec 2021, Guangzhou, November 5 – November 8, 2021, Proceedings (in press)

In AsiaCrypt 2019, Genise, Gentry, Halevi, Li and Micciancio put forth two novel and intriguing computational hardness hypotheses: The inhomogeneous NTRU (iNTRU) assumption and its matrix version MiNTRU ... [more ▼]

In AsiaCrypt 2019, Genise, Gentry, Halevi, Li and Micciancio put forth two novel and intriguing computational hardness hypotheses: The inhomogeneous NTRU (iNTRU) assumption and its matrix version MiNTRU. In this work, we break the integer case of the iNTRU assumption through elementary lattice reduction, and we describe how the attack might be generalized to polynomial rings and to the low dimensional MiNTRU assumption with small noise. [less ▲]

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See detailUpdate Internationales und Europäisches Steuerrecht
Sinnig, Julia UL

in Taeger, Jürgen (Ed.) Tagungsband DSRI-Herbstakademie 2020 (in press)

Im Berichtszeitraum dieses Updates rief die OECD zu einem zweiten Öffentlichkeitsbetei-ligungsverfahren auf und erarbeitete einen präziseren Lösungsansatz zur Besteuerung digitalisierter Geschäftsmodelle ... [more ▼]

Im Berichtszeitraum dieses Updates rief die OECD zu einem zweiten Öffentlichkeitsbetei-ligungsverfahren auf und erarbeitete einen präziseren Lösungsansatz zur Besteuerung digitalisierter Geschäftsmodelle, der in einer Veröffentlichung im Januar 2020 vorgestellt wurde. Auf Ebene der Europäischen Union gab es im Berichtszeitraum keine Weiterent-wicklung der Richtlinienvorschläge zu einer Digitalsteuer und dem Konzept der „signifi-kanten digitalen Präsenz“. Der EuGH urteilte am 3. März 2020 in Hinblick auf die unions-rechtliche Vereinbarkeit zweier ungarischer Umsatzsteuern. Dieses Urteil erlaubt erste Rückschlüsse bezüglich der Europarechtskonformität umsatzbasierter Steuern, wie bspw. auch im Berichtszeitraum eingeführte Digitalsteuern einzelner Mitgliedstaaten. Dieser Beitrag knüpft an die Vorträge von Prof. Dr. Jens M. Schmittmann und der Verfasserin anlässlich der Herbstakademien 2018 in Bochum und 2019 in Oldenburg, sowie dem Vortrag der Verfasserin anlässlich der Herbstakademie 2017 in Heidelberg an. [less ▲]

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See detail« … Eripuit servus mihi vitam » - Représentations médiatiques de la violence et de la criminalité dans les provinces occidentales de l'Empire romain
Binsfeld, Andrea UL

in Amodio, Mara (Ed.) The imagery of violence in Roman society (I-VI cent.). Persistence, innovations and interrelations from the Roman to the Christian Empire (in press)

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See detailEduCHI 2022 - 4th Annual Symposium on HCI Education
McDonald, Craig; St-Cyr, Olivier; Gray, Colin M. et al

in Proceedings of the CHI 2022 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (in press)

EduCHI 2022 will bring together an international community of scholars, practitioners, and researchers to shape the future of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) education. Held as part of the CHI 2022 ... [more ▼]

EduCHI 2022 will bring together an international community of scholars, practitioners, and researchers to shape the future of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) education. Held as part of the CHI 2022 conference, the two-day symposium will feature in- teractive discussions about trends, curricula, pedagogies, teaching practices, and current and future challenges facing HCI educators. In addition to providing a platform to share curriculum plans and teaching materials, EduCHI 2022 will also provide opportunities for HCI educators to learn new instructional strategies and deepen their pedagogical knowledge. [less ▲]

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See detailEmpathy in Design Scale: Development and Initial Insights
Drouet, Luce UL; Bongard, Kerstin UL; Koenig, Vincent UL et al

in Proceedings of the Extended Abstracts of the 2022 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (in press)

Empathy towards users is crucial to the design of user-centered technologies and services. Previous research focused on defining empathy and its role in the design process for triggering empathy for end ... [more ▼]

Empathy towards users is crucial to the design of user-centered technologies and services. Previous research focused on defining empathy and its role in the design process for triggering empathy for end-users. However, there is a lack of empathy measurement instruments in design. Most previous work focused on designers, overlooking the need for other stakeholders to develop empathy towards the users to break organizational silos and deliver high-quality user-centered services and products. In this contribution, we share the preliminary stages of the development of an empathy scale for service design. We build on empathy literature from psychology and design to define 18 items representing four empathy dimensions. We report on the definition of these dimensions and their underlying items, and present preliminary studies in which we reviewed the first version of the scale with experts and stakeholders. [less ▲]

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See detailDiscrete-Phase Sequence Design with Stopband and PSL Constraints for Cognitive Radar
Alaeekerahroodi, Mohammad UL; Kumar, Sumit UL; Mysore Rama Rao, Bhavani Shankar UL et al

in Proceedings of EuRAD 2020 (in press)

We present the design of discrete-phase sequences considering simultaneously the peak sidelobe level (PSL) and avoiding reserved frequency bands which are occupied by narrowband interferers or ... [more ▼]

We present the design of discrete-phase sequences considering simultaneously the peak sidelobe level (PSL) and avoiding reserved frequency bands which are occupied by narrowband interferers or communications. We use the coordinate descent framework and propose an algorithm to design discrete-phase sequences with spectral power suppressed in arbitrary bands and with low auto-correlation sidelobes in terms of PSL. Our proposed algorithm exploits fast Fourier transform and is, therefore, computationally efficient. The over-the-air experiments using implementation on software-defined radio show reasonable agreement with numerical simulations and feasibility for field-deployment [less ▲]

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See detailLes archevêques de Milan face aux premières expériences seigneuriales: stratégies et positionnements (milieu XIIIe-début XIVe s.)
Salemme, Timothy UL

in Barralis, Christine (Ed.) L’évêque face à son métier. Actes du colloque international, Metz. 15-17 novembre 2017 (in press)

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See detailConservazione e ricezione dei documenti pontifici in Italia settentrionale: il caso del monastero cistercense di Chiaravalle Milanese (secoli XII-XVI)
Salemme, Timothy UL

in Salemme, Timothy; Renault, Jean-Baptiste (Eds.) Conservation et réception des documents pontificaux par les Ordres religieux (XIe-XVe siècles). Actes du colloque international. Nancy, 12-13 décembre 2013 (in press)

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See detailAndorra: eine Einherrschaft? Monarch: ein Einzelorgan? Der Verfall des Begriffsmerkmals „monos“ in Europas sogenannten „Monarchien“
Heuschling, Luc UL

in Gamper, Anna; Bussjäger, Peter (Eds.) 100 Jahre Verfassung des Fürstentums Liechtenstein. Konstitutionalismus im Kleinstaat (in press)

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See detailA New Perspective on the Luxembourgish Genitive
Döhmer, Caroline UL

in Germanic Genitives (in press)

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See detailVon Objekt- und Meta-Ebenen: Analyse der Softwareanforderungen computergestützter juristischer Entscheidungen
Adrian, Axel; Rapp, Max; Steen, Alexander UL

in Recht DIGITAL – 25 Jahre IRIS, Proceedings of the International Legal Informatics Symposium (IRIS 2022) (in press)

Die Interpretation und Anwendung von Gesetzestexten auf einem konkreten Lebenssachverhalt erfordert von menschlichen Experten ein hohes Maß an Wissen, Erfahrung und die Fähigkeit zahlreiche kontextuelle ... [more ▼]

Die Interpretation und Anwendung von Gesetzestexten auf einem konkreten Lebenssachverhalt erfordert von menschlichen Experten ein hohes Maß an Wissen, Erfahrung und die Fähigkeit zahlreiche kontextuelle Überlegungen anzustellen. Die Formalisierung und Automatisierung solch eines Prozesses in einem computergestützten Verfahren muss dies entsprechend reflektieren. Ausgehend von einer Fallstudie werden in dieser Arbeit erforderliche juridische Schritte der Rechtsanwendung identifiziert und verschiedenen Objekt- und Meta-Ebenen zugeordnet. Diese Zuordnung erlaubt eine abstrakte Analyse von Softwareanforderungen, die juristische Assistenzsysteme erfüllen müssen, um bei juristischen Fallentscheidungen unterstützen zu können. [less ▲]

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See detailHabilyzer: Empowering Office Workers to Investigate their Working Habits using an Open-Ended Sensor Kit
van Bussel, Tjeu; van den Heuvel, Roy; Lallemand, Carine UL

in Proceedings of the Extended Abstracts of the 2022 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (in press)

Office work presents health and wellbeing challenges, triggered by unhealthy working habits or environmental factors. While technologies for vitality in the office context gain popularity, they are often ... [more ▼]

Office work presents health and wellbeing challenges, triggered by unhealthy working habits or environmental factors. While technologies for vitality in the office context gain popularity, they are often solution-focused and fall short in acknowledging personal needs. Building on approaches from personal informatics, we see value in opening up the design space of tracking and sensing technologies for office workers. We designed and deployed an open-ended sensor kit and conducted two complementary studies to investigate the value of empowering office workers to investigate their own working habits. Findings show that Habilyzer triggers curiosity about working habits, and wireless sensors contribute to inquire into those habits, possibly supported by additional tools. We contribute new insights into how an open-ended sensor kit can be designed to support self-tracking practices and underlying reflections in the underexplored context of office work. It is an alternative approach to workplace vitality, moving from solution-oriented technologies to inquiry-enabling tools. [less ▲]

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See detailNIKE from Affine Determinant Programs
Barthel, Jim Jean-Pierre UL; Rosie, Razvan UL

in Qiong, Huang; Yu, Yu (Eds.) Provable and Practical Security, 15th International Conference, ProvSec 2021, Guangzhou, November 5 – November 8, 2021, Proceedings (in press)

A multi-party non-interactive key-exchange (NIKE) scheme enables N users to securely exchange a secret key K in a non-interactive manner. It is well-known that NIKE schemes can be obtained assuming the ... [more ▼]

A multi-party non-interactive key-exchange (NIKE) scheme enables N users to securely exchange a secret key K in a non-interactive manner. It is well-known that NIKE schemes can be obtained assuming the existence of indistinguishability obfuscation (iO). In this work, we revisit the original, iO-based, provably-secure NIKE construction by Boneh and Zhandry, aiming to simplify it. The core idea behind our protocol is to replace the functionality of the obfuscator with the one of an affine determinant program (ADP). Although ADPs have been designed with the purpose of attaining indistinguishability obfuscation, such implication is left open for general circuits. The ingredients enabling to prove the security of our scheme stem into a more careful analysis of the branching programs needed to build ADPs. In particular, we show: 1) An intuitive indistinguishability notion defined for ADPs of puncturable pseudorandom functions (PRFs) is sufficient to prove security for NIKE. 2) A set of simple conditions based on ADP's branching program topology that are sufficient for proving indistinguishability of ADPs. We leave open the question of finding ADPs satisfying them. [less ▲]

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See detailSelf-education – Recognition – Well-being. Insights into a mixed-methods-research on the value of non-formal education in the adolescence. Abstract.
Biewers, Sandra UL; Weis, Daniel UL; Latz, Anita UL

in Carmo, Mafalda (Ed.) Education and New Developments - Book of Abstracts (in press)

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See detailA Methodology for Handling Data Movements by Anticipation: Position Paper
Bleuse, Raphaël UL; Lucarelli, Giorgio; Trystram, Denis

in Euro-Par 2018 Workshops (in press)

The enhanced capabilities of large scale parallel and distributed platforms produce a continuously increasing amount of data which have to be stored, exchanged and used by various tasks allocated on ... [more ▼]

The enhanced capabilities of large scale parallel and distributed platforms produce a continuously increasing amount of data which have to be stored, exchanged and used by various tasks allocated on different nodes of the system. The management of such a huge communication demand is crucial for reaching the best possible performance of the system. Meanwhile, we have to deal with more interferences as the trend is to use a single all-purpose interconnection network whatever the interconnect (tree-based hierarchies or topology-based heterarchies). There are two different types of communications, namely, the flows induced by data exchanges during the computations, and the flows related to Input/Output operations. We propose in this paper a general model for interference-aware scheduling, where explicit communications are replaced by external topological constraints. Specifically, the interferences of both communication types are reduced by adding geometric constraints on the allocation of tasks into machines. The proposed constraints reduce implicitly the data movements by restricting the set of possible allocations for each task. This methodology has been proved to be efficient in a recent study for a restricted interconnection network (a line/ring of processors which is an intermediate between a tree and higher dimensions grids/torus). The obtained results illustrated well the difficulty of the problem even on simple topologies, but also provided a pragmatic greedy solution, which was assessed to be efficient by simulations. We are currently extending this solution for more complex topologies. This work is a position paper which describes the methodology, it does not focus on the solving part. [less ▲]

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See detailUX Needs Cards – A Pragmatic Tool to Support Experience Design Through Psychological Needs
Lallemand, Carine UL

in IASDR 2021: 9th Congress of the International Association of Societies of Design Research (in press)

The psychological needs-driven UX approach is a well-explored area in UX research and a powerful framework for the design of optimal experiences with systems and products. However, the transfer from ... [more ▼]

The psychological needs-driven UX approach is a well-explored area in UX research and a powerful framework for the design of optimal experiences with systems and products. However, the transfer from research to practice is slow and this approach is not yet widely used by practitioners. As card- based methods have been shown to support designers in both the generation of ideas and the evaluation of their designs, we created the UX needs cards as a pragmatic tool able to support a needs-driven UX process. We present the iterative development of the card-set and its associated techniques and report on three use cases, demonstrating the effectiveness of this tool for user research, idea generation and UX evaluation. Our empirical findings suggest that the UX needs cards are a valuable tool able to support design practice, being easily understood by lay users and a source of inspiration for designers. Acting as a tangible translation of a research framework, the UX needs cards promote theory-driven design strategies and provide researchers, designers, and educators with a tool to clearly communicate the framework of psychological needs. [less ▲]

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See detailLe dialogue entre les juges en matière de protection des droits de l'homme
Pelin Raducu, Ioana UL

in Menetrey, Séverine; Hess, Burkhard (Eds.) Les dialogues des juges en Europe (in press)

Dans cet article, nous allons mettre en exergue quelques aspects des arrêts récents provenant de la Cour de justice de l’UE (Akerberg Frasson, Melloni, Kamberaj)qui démontrent l’émergence d’un standard ... [more ▼]

Dans cet article, nous allons mettre en exergue quelques aspects des arrêts récents provenant de la Cour de justice de l’UE (Akerberg Frasson, Melloni, Kamberaj)qui démontrent l’émergence d’un standard propre de l’UE en matière des droits de l’homme. Cette tendance de la C.J.U.E. contredira le prescrit normatif découlant du « dialogue des juges » d’interprétation conforme à la jurisprudence de la C.E.D.H. avant que l’adhésion de l’UE à la Convention E.D.H. ne soit formellement acquise. [less ▲]

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See detailHabilyzer: A User-Driven Open-Ended Sensor Kit for Office Workers
van den Heuvel, Roy; van Bussel, Tjeu; Lallemand, Carine UL

in Proceedings of the Extended Abstracts of the 2022 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (in press)

Office work presents health and wellbeing challenges, triggered by working habits or environmental factors. While technological interventions gain popularity in the workplace, they often fall short of ... [more ▼]

Office work presents health and wellbeing challenges, triggered by working habits or environmental factors. While technological interventions gain popularity in the workplace, they often fall short of acknowledging personal needs. Building on approaches from personal informatics, we present our vision on the use of user-driven, situated sensor probes in an office context and how the community might deal with complex yet timely questions around the use of data to empower people in becoming explorers of their own habits and experiences. We demonstrate Habilyzer, an open-ended sensor toolkit for office workers, which enables user-driven explorations in self-tracking their work routines. This research contributes an alternative approach to improving working habits and vitality in the workplace, moving from solution-oriented technologies to inquiry-enabling tools. Through this demonstration, we also aim to trigger discussions on the use of sensors and data in the office context, in the light of privacy, consent and data ownership. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Candy Workshop: Supporting Rich Sensory Modalities in Constructive Data Physicalization
Lallemand, Carine UL; Oomen, Maud

in Proceedings of the Extended Abstracts of the 2022 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (in press)

Constructive data physicalization (i.e. the creation of visualizations by non-experts using physical elements) is a promising research area in a context of rapid democratization of data collection and ... [more ▼]

Constructive data physicalization (i.e. the creation of visualizations by non-experts using physical elements) is a promising research area in a context of rapid democratization of data collection and visualization, driven notably by the quantified-self movement. Despite a prolific body of work developed to explore physicalization as a mean to communicate data to individuals, little is known about how people transform data into physical artefacts. Current research also falls short in studying constructive physicalizations using other sensory modalities than sight or touch. Building on the principles of data edibilization, we propose to use candies as a medium to study constructive data physicalization processes, due to their ability to leverage multiple sensory channels. We conducted a preliminary study (candy workshop) to gain insights into how people make use of various sensory modalities in the construction of data physicalizations. We hope to inspire new research using candies as accessible research material. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimizing the Use of the Sentence Completion Survey Technique in User Research – A Case Study on the Experience of E-Reading
Lallemand, Carine UL; Mercier, Emeline

in Proceeding of the CHI 2022 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (in press)

Sentence completion, originally a semi-projective psychological technique, has been used as an effective and lightweight user research method in user experience (UX) design. More information is yet still ... [more ▼]

Sentence completion, originally a semi-projective psychological technique, has been used as an effective and lightweight user research method in user experience (UX) design. More information is yet still needed to understand how different sentence stems probe users’ insights, thereby providing recommendations for effective sentence completion surveys. We used the completion method on a large-scale sample to explore (e-)readers’ experiences and needs. Depending on their reading habits, participants (N=1880) were asked to complete a set of sentences, as part of a web survey. With 14143 user ideas collected in two weeks, our results confirm that remote online sentence completion is a cost-effective data collection method able to uncover feelings, attitudes, motivations, needs, or frustrations. Variation in sentence stems affected collected data in terms of item response rate, idea quantity as well as variety and originality. Building on previous research, this paper delivers actionable insights to optimize the richness of sentence completion outputs. [less ▲]

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See detailGuidelines for Assessing the Accuracy of Log Message Template Identification Techniques
Khan, Zanis Ali UL; Shin, Donghwan UL; Bianculli, Domenico UL et al

in Proceedings of the 44th International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE ’22) (in press)

Log message template identification aims to convert raw logs containing free-formed log messages into structured logs to be processed by automated log-based analysis, such as anomaly detection and model ... [more ▼]

Log message template identification aims to convert raw logs containing free-formed log messages into structured logs to be processed by automated log-based analysis, such as anomaly detection and model inference. While many techniques have been proposed in the literature, only two recent studies provide a comprehensive evaluation and comparison of the techniques using an established benchmark composed of real-world logs. Nevertheless, we argue that both studies have the following issues: (1) they used different accuracy metrics without comparison between them, (2) some ground-truth (oracle) templates are incorrect, and (3) the accuracy evaluation results do not provide any information regarding incorrectly identified templates. In this paper, we address the above issues by providing three guidelines for assessing the accuracy of log template identification techniques: (1) use appropriate accuracy metrics, (2) perform oracle template correction, and (3) perform analysis of incorrect templates. We then assess the application of such guidelines through a comprehensive evaluation of 14 existing template identification techniques on the established benchmark logs. Results show very different insights than existing studies and in particular a much less optimistic outlook on existing techniques. [less ▲]

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See detailEfficient Online Testing for DNN-Enabled Systems using Surrogate-Assisted and Many-Objective Optimization
Ul Haq, Fitash UL; Shin, Donghwan UL; Briand, Lionel UL

in Proceedings of the 44th International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE ’22) (in press)

With the recent advances of Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) in real-world applications, such as Automated Driving Systems (ADS) for self-driving cars, ensuring the reliability and safety of such DNN- enabled ... [more ▼]

With the recent advances of Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) in real-world applications, such as Automated Driving Systems (ADS) for self-driving cars, ensuring the reliability and safety of such DNN- enabled Systems emerges as a fundamental topic in software testing. One of the essential testing phases of such DNN-enabled systems is online testing, where the system under test is embedded into a specific and often simulated application environment (e.g., a driving environment) and tested in a closed-loop mode in interaction with the environment. However, despite the importance of online testing for detecting safety violations, automatically generating new and diverse test data that lead to safety violations present the following challenges: (1) there can be many safety requirements to be considered at the same time, (2) running a high-fidelity simulator is often very computationally-intensive, and (3) the space of all possible test data that may trigger safety violations is too large to be exhaustively explored. In this paper, we address the challenges by proposing a novel approach, called SAMOTA (Surrogate-Assisted Many-Objective Testing Approach), extending existing many-objective search algorithms for test suite generation to efficiently utilize surrogate models that mimic the simulator, but are much less expensive to run. Empirical evaluation results on Pylot, an advanced ADS composed of multiple DNNs, using CARLA, a high-fidelity driving simulator, show that SAMOTA is significantly more effective and efficient at detecting unknown safety requirement violations than state-of-the-art many-objective test suite generation algorithms and random search. In other words, SAMOTA appears to be a key enabler technology for online testing in practice. [less ▲]

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See detailAsynja: Sensorial Design for Running Motivation
Menheere, Daphne; Hilderink, Myrthe; Vos, Steven et al

in IASDR 2021: 9th Congress of the International Association of Societies of Design Research (in press)

If starting to run is an easy decision, committing to a long-term running routine proves to be a more challenging endeavor for many people. In this pictorial, we unravel the design process of Asynja, an ... [more ▼]

If starting to run is an easy decision, committing to a long-term running routine proves to be a more challenging endeavor for many people. In this pictorial, we unravel the design process of Asynja, an artefact that triggers exercise imagery by using natural scents related to running. Relying on peripheral interaction, this research probe subtly nudges users to go running, thereby supporting them to transform their positive intentions into actions. Exploring sensoriality as a design opportunity for behavior change interventions, we invite the community to expand the design space of exercise-related motivational products and systems. [less ▲]

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See detailPhysical Journey Maps: Staging Users’ Experiences to Increase Stakeholders’ Empathy towards Users
Lallemand, Carine UL; Lauret, Jessie; Drouet, Luce UL

in Proceedings of the Extended Abstracts of the 2022 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (in press)

Customer Journey Mapping is a widespread service design tool that synthesizes and communicates user research insights to stakeholders. In its common form, a journey map is a synthetic (typically non ... [more ▼]

Customer Journey Mapping is a widespread service design tool that synthesizes and communicates user research insights to stakeholders. In its common form, a journey map is a synthetic (typically non-interactive) visualization of the key steps of the users’ experience with a service or product. By decomposing the elements of a journey map and staging them under the form of a physical and interactive installation, we intend to leverage the power of journey mapping to break silos and prompt employees within an organization to discover end-users journeys in a compelling and empathic way. This aims to support the user-centered maturity of the organization by developing employees’ curiosity and empathy towards users. We illustrate this approach through a case study on railway passengers’ experiences. We explore the value of richer transfers of user research insights through physical journey maps and discuss design processes and mediums enabling journey maps to come to life. [less ▲]

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See detailPartitioned Searchable Encryption
Barthel, Jim Jean-Pierre UL; Beunardeau, Marc; Rosie, Razvan et al

in Qiong, Huang; Yu, Yu (Eds.) Provable and Practical Security, 15th International Conference, ProvSec 2021, Guangzhou, November 5 – November 8, 2021, Proceedings (in press)

Symmetric searchable encryption (SSE) allows to outsource encrypted data to an untrusted server and retain searching capabilities. This is done without impacting the privacy of both the data and the ... [more ▼]

Symmetric searchable encryption (SSE) allows to outsource encrypted data to an untrusted server and retain searching capabilities. This is done without impacting the privacy of both the data and the search/update queries. In this work we put forth a new flavour of symmetric searchable encryption (SSE): Partitioned SSE is meant to capture the cases where the search rights must be partitioned among multiple individuals. We motivate through compelling examples the practical need for such a notion and discuss instantiations based on functional encryption and trapdoor permutations. First we leverage the power of functional encryption (FE). Our construction follows the general technique of encrypting the set of keywords and the presumably larger datafiles separately, a keyword acting as a ``pointer'' to datafiles it belongs to. To improve on the constraint factors (large ciphertext, slow encryption/decryption procedures) that are inherent in FE schemes, the keyword check is done with the help of a Bloom filter -- one per datafile: the crux idea is to split the filter into buckets, and encrypt each bucket separately under an FE scheme. Functional keys are given for binary \masks checking if relevant positions are set to 1 inside the underlying bit-vector of the Bloom filter. The second construction we present achieves forward security and stems from the scheme by Bost in CCS'16. We show that a simple tweak of the original construction gives rise to a scheme supporting updates in the partitioned setting. Moreover, the constructions take into account the possibility that some specific users are malicious while declaring their search results. [less ▲]

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See detailLe quotidien d’un poilu de la première guerre mondiale sur Facebook : nouvelle forme de médiation, nouvelle expérience ?
Schall, Céline UL; Vilatte, Jean-Christophe

in Les mondes de la médiation culturelle (in press)

« En 2013, le Musée de la Grande Guerre du Pays de Meaux et l’agence de communication DDB ont élaboré une page Facebook d’un genre nouveau. Facebook 1914, le quotidien de la première guerre offre une ... [more ▼]

« En 2013, le Musée de la Grande Guerre du Pays de Meaux et l’agence de communication DDB ont élaboré une page Facebook d’un genre nouveau. Facebook 1914, le quotidien de la première guerre offre une forme de médiation a priori inédite pour un musée français. Elle présente l’histoire d’un personnage de fiction, Léon Vivien, qui raconte son quotidien lors de la première guerre mondiale, sur Facebook, comme si ce réseau social avait existé à cette époque. Cette contribution met en évidence certains des effets de sens de la page par une analyse sémiotique du dispositif et une analyse thématique de ses contenus. Nous questionnons ensuite cette « nouvelle » forme de médiation qui se dit « participante » et qui, en réalité, reste assez classique dans son contenu et sous-exploite le potentiel de Facebook. » [less ▲]

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See detailDISCOV: Stimulating Physical Activity through an Explorative Interactive Walking Experience
van Renswouw, Loes; Verhoef, Jasmijn; Vos, Steven et al

in IASDR 2021: 9th Congress of the International Association of Societies of Design Research (in press)

Aware of the consequences of their inactive lifestyles, many people still struggle to integrate enough physical activity into their busy lives. Interventions that nudge to reinforce existing active ... [more ▼]

Aware of the consequences of their inactive lifestyles, many people still struggle to integrate enough physical activity into their busy lives. Interventions that nudge to reinforce existing active behavior seem therefore more likely to be effective than those adding an activity to daily routines. To encourage people to increase their physical activity level, we designed Discov, a network of physical waypoints triggering people to lengthen their walks. Placed in a public park, Discov encourages people to explore their surroundings in a fun and challenging way by creating an interactive walking experience. Adopting a Research-through-Design approach, we explore the potential of the design of accessible infrastructures and human-environment interactions to impact public health by nudging citizens into being more physically active. We discuss insights gathered through this process and report on first user tests of this interactive walking experience. [less ▲]

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See detailFontana: Triggering Physical Activity and Social Connectedness through an Interactive Water Installation
van Renswouw, Loes; van Hamersveld, Yvonne; Huibers, Hugo et al

in Proceedings of the Extended Abstracts of the 2022 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (in press)

Promoting healthy and active lifestyles is an important objective for many governing agencies. The design of active urban environments can be an effective tool to encourage more active behaviors and water ... [more ▼]

Promoting healthy and active lifestyles is an important objective for many governing agencies. The design of active urban environments can be an effective tool to encourage more active behaviors and water features can attract people, improving their experience of the urban space. To explore the potential of these concepts, we designed Fontana; an interactive public installation that aims to stimulate physical activity and social connectedness in the urban outdoor space, using the multidimensional attractiveness of water. We focus on the use of embedded interactive technology to promote physical activity, using water as a linking element between users. Adopting a research-through-design approach, we explored how such installations can nudge people into an active behavior while additionally strengthening social connectedness, using inclusive design principles. We report on insights gathered through this case study and findings of a preliminary user test, discussing the implications of this work for design researchers and practitioners. [less ▲]

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See detailL’exposition d’objets ou de collections de « marque » : cobranding, réécriture, réénonciation
Schall, Céline UL

in Laval, Sylvie (Ed.) Marques muséales : un espace public revisité ? (in press)

Le cobranding est une pratique habituelle du secteur marchand. Mais lorsque deux musées réalisent ensemble une exposition, peut-on parler de cobranding muséal ? Quelles en seraient les spécificités  ... [more ▼]

Le cobranding est une pratique habituelle du secteur marchand. Mais lorsque deux musées réalisent ensemble une exposition, peut-on parler de cobranding muséal ? Quelles en seraient les spécificités ? Quels effets peut avoir cette démarche sur la communication ou sur l’exposition ? Notamment, le musée d’accueil s’approprie-t-il simplement l’imaginaire et les valeurs de la marque invitée par un phénomène de « transfert » ? Pour répondre à ces questions, nous étudions trois expositions qui reprennent des objets ou collections de musées dont la marque est internationalement reconnue. L’analyse sémiotique des images de marque du musée d’accueil et du musée invité ainsi que l’analyse sémiopragmatique des expositions montrent l’impact de la présence d’une grande marque internationale sur l’exposition et réciproquement, l’impact de l’exposition sur l’image de marque du musée d’accueil. Plus qu’un simple cobranding, c’est une réécriture impliquant une réénonciation du discours et des valeurs portés par les marques qui est proposée à travers ces expositions. Le processus aboutit à la création de nouveaux espaces symboliques et d’expositions réflexives, avec plusieurs niveaux de lecture. [less ▲]

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See detailParallel Multi-Physics Simulation of Biomass Furnace and Cloud-based Workflow for SMEs
Besseron, Xavier UL; Rusche, Henrik; Peters, Bernhard UL

in Practice and Experience in Advanced Research Computing (PEARC '22) (2022, July)

Biomass combustion is a well-established process to produce energy that offers a credible alternative to reduce the consumption of fossil fuel. To optimize the process of biomass combustion, numerical ... [more ▼]

Biomass combustion is a well-established process to produce energy that offers a credible alternative to reduce the consumption of fossil fuel. To optimize the process of biomass combustion, numerical simulation is a less expensive and time-effective approach than the experimental method. However, biomass combustion involves intricate physical phenomena that must be modeled (and validated) carefully, in the fuel bed and in the surrounding gas. With this level of complexity, these simulations require the use of High-Performance Computing (HPC) platforms and expertise, which are usually not affordable for manufacturing SMEs. In this work, we developed a parallel simulation tool for the simulation of biomass furnaces that relies on a parallel coupling between Computation Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Discrete Element Method (DEM). This approach is computation-intensive but provides accurate and detailed results for biomass combustion with a moving fuel bed. Our implementation combines FOAM-extend (for the gas phase) parallelized with MPI, and XDEM (for the solid particles) parallelized with OpenMP, to take advantage of HPC hardware. We also carry out a thorough performance evaluation of our implementation using an industrial biomass furnace setup. Additionally, we present a fully automated workflow that handles all steps from the user input to the analysis of the results. Hundreds of parameters can be modified, including the furnace geometry and fuel settings. The workflow prepares the simulation input, delegates the computing-intensive simulation to an HPC platform, and collects the results. Our solution is integrated into the Digital Marketplace of the CloudiFacturing EU project and is directly available to SMEs via a Cloud portal. As a result, we provide a cutting-edge simulation of a biomass furnace running on HPC. With this tool, we demonstrate how HPC can benefit engineering and manufacturing SMEs, and empower them to compute and solve problems that cannot be tackled without. [less ▲]

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See detailApproximating WCRT through the aggregation of short simulations with different initial conditions: application to TSN
Keller, Patrick UL; Navet, Nicolas UL

in 30th International Conference on Real-Time Networks and Systems (RTNS ’22) (2022, June)

Assessing traversal times is the main concern in the verification of embedded real-time networks. Schedulability analysis, as it provides firm guarantees, is the preferred technique for the designers of ... [more ▼]

Assessing traversal times is the main concern in the verification of embedded real-time networks. Schedulability analysis, as it provides firm guarantees, is the preferred technique for the designers of critical systems. There are however contexts where it is not economically or technically feasible to develop one, typically when the software and hardware components have not been designed with predictability in mind, e.g. as soon as TCP-based traffic is involved in network communication or when the hardware platform is too complex (e.g. heterogeneous System-on-Chips). In this paper, we study if it is possible to improve the ability of simulation to observe large traversal times, by running many short simulations with appropriately chosen simulation time and varying initial offsets of the stations on the network. The de-facto standard approach to assess maximal traversal times is to run a single long simulation with synchronized node start offsets and to use randomized node clock drifts inside an acceptable range. This approach is known to yield high traversal times but is not parallelizable. We propose an alternative approach consisting in splitting the simulation time over multiple shorter simulations with, optionally, randomized node start offsets. We evaluate the optimization potential of this simple approach on several realistic network configurations by comparing long simulations to aggregated short simulations, with and without synchronized node start offsets. We observe, considering all flows, that this allows a median improvement of up to 21.3% in terms of maximum traversal time observed, for the same simulation time budget. Additional randomization of the node start offsets showed further improvements of up to 4.8% in our experiments. Results from this line of work can be used to estimate the pessimism of schedulability analyses and verify systems for which no analysis is available. [less ▲]

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See detailTriggerZoo: A Dataset of Android Applications Automatically Infected with Logic Bombs
Samhi, Jordan UL; Bissyande, Tegawendé François D Assise UL; Klein, Jacques UL

in 19th International Conference on Mining Software Repositories, Data Showcase, (MSR 2022) (2022, May 23)

Many Android apps analyzers rely, among other techniques, on dynamic analysis to monitor their runtime behavior and detect potential security threats. However, malicious developers use subtle, though ... [more ▼]

Many Android apps analyzers rely, among other techniques, on dynamic analysis to monitor their runtime behavior and detect potential security threats. However, malicious developers use subtle, though efficient, techniques to bypass dynamic analyzers. Logic bombs are examples of popular techniques where the malicious code is triggered only under specific circumstances, challenging comprehensive dynamic analyses. The research community has proposed various approaches and tools to detect logic bombs. Unfortunately, rigorous assessment and fair comparison of state-of-the-art techniques are impossible due to the lack of ground truth. In this paper, we present TriggerZoo, a new dataset of 406 Android apps containing logic bombs and benign trigger-based behavior that we release only to the research community using authenticated API. These apps are real-world apps from Google Play that have been automatically infected by our tool AndroBomb. The injected pieces of code implementing the logic bombs cover a large pallet of realistic logic bomb types that we have manually characterized from a set of real logic bombs. Researchers can exploit this dataset as ground truth to assess their approaches and provide comparisons against other tools. [less ▲]

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See detailDifuzer: Uncovering Suspicious Hidden Sensitive Operations in Android Apps
Samhi, Jordan UL; Li, Li; Bissyande, Tegawendé François D Assise UL et al

in 44th International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE 2022) (2022, May 21)

One prominent tactic used to keep malicious behavior from being detected during dynamic test campaigns is logic bombs, where malicious operations are triggered only when specific conditions are satisfied ... [more ▼]

One prominent tactic used to keep malicious behavior from being detected during dynamic test campaigns is logic bombs, where malicious operations are triggered only when specific conditions are satisfied. Defusing logic bombs remains an unsolved problem in the literature. In this work, we propose to investigate Suspicious Hidden Sensitive Operations (SHSOs) as a step towards triaging logic bombs. To that end, we develop a novel hybrid approach that combines static analysis and anomaly detection techniques to uncover SHSOs, which we predict as likely implementations of logic bombs. Concretely, Difuzer identifies SHSO entry-points using an instrumentation engine and an inter-procedural data-flow analysis. Then, it extracts trigger-specific features to characterize SHSOs and leverages One-Class SVM to implement an unsupervised learning model for detecting abnormal triggers. We evaluate our prototype and show that it yields a precision of 99.02% to detect SHSOs among which 29.7% are logic bombs. Difuzer outperforms the state-of-the-art in revealing more logic bombs while yielding less false positives in about one order of magnitude less time. All our artifacts are released to the community. [less ▲]

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See detailJuCify: A Step Towards Android Code Unification for Enhanced Static Analysis
Samhi, Jordan UL; Gao, Jun UL; Daoudi, Nadia UL et al

in 44th International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE 2022) (2022, May 21)

Native code is now commonplace within Android app packages where it co-exists and interacts with Dex bytecode through the Java Native Interface to deliver rich app functionalities. Yet, state-of-the-art ... [more ▼]

Native code is now commonplace within Android app packages where it co-exists and interacts with Dex bytecode through the Java Native Interface to deliver rich app functionalities. Yet, state-of-the-art static analysis approaches have mostly overlooked the presence of such native code, which, however, may implement some key sensitive, or even malicious, parts of the app behavior. This limitation of the state of the art is a severe threat to validity in a large range of static analyses that do not have a complete view of the executable code in apps. To address this issue, we propose a new advance in the ambitious research direction of building a unified model of all code in Android apps. The JuCify approach presented in this paper is a significant step towards such a model, where we extract and merge call graphs of native code and bytecode to make the final model readily-usable by a common Android analysis framework: in our implementation, JuCify builds on the Soot internal intermediate representation. We performed empirical investigations to highlight how, without the unified model, a significant amount of Java methods called from the native code are ``unreachable'' in apps' call-graphs, both in goodware and malware. Using JuCify, we were able to enable static analyzers to reveal cases where malware relied on native code to hide invocation of payment library code or of other sensitive code in the Android framework. Additionally, JuCify's model enables state-of-the-art tools to achieve better precision and recall in detecting data leaks through native code. Finally, we show that by using JuCify we can find sensitive data leaks that pass through native code. [less ▲]

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See detailHUDD: A tool to debug DNNs for safety analysis
Fahmy, Hazem UL; Pastore, Fabrizio UL; Briand, Lionel UL

in 2022 IEEE/ACM 44st International Conference on Software Engineering (2022, May)

We present HUDD, a tool that supports safety analysis practices for systems enabled by Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) by automatically identifying the root causes for DNN errors and retraining the DNN. HUDD ... [more ▼]

We present HUDD, a tool that supports safety analysis practices for systems enabled by Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) by automatically identifying the root causes for DNN errors and retraining the DNN. HUDD stands for Heatmap-based Unsupervised Debugging of DNNs, it automatically clusters error-inducing images whose results are due to common subsets of DNN neurons. The intent is for the generated clusters to group error-inducing images having common characteristics, that is, having a common root cause. HUDD identifies root causes by applying a clustering algorithm to matrices (i.e., heatmaps) capturing the relevance of every DNN neuron on the DNN outcome. Also, HUDD retrains DNNs with images that are automatically selected based on their relatedness to the identified image clusters. Our empirical evaluation with DNNs from the automotive domain have shown that HUDD automatically identifies all the distinct root causes of DNN errors, thus supporting safety analysis. Also, our retraining approach has shown to be more effective at improving DNN accuracy than existing approaches. A demo video of HUDD is available at https://youtu.be/drjVakP7jdU. [less ▲]

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See detailMASS: A tool for Mutation Analysis of Space CPS
Cornejo Olivares, Oscar Eduardo UL; Pastore, Fabrizio UL; Briand, Lionel UL

in 2022 IEEE/ACM 44st International Conference on Software Engineering (2022, May)

We present MASS, a mutation analysis tool for embedded software in cyber-physical systems (CPS). We target space CPS (e.g., satellites) and other CPS with similar characteristics (e.g., UAV). Mutation ... [more ▼]

We present MASS, a mutation analysis tool for embedded software in cyber-physical systems (CPS). We target space CPS (e.g., satellites) and other CPS with similar characteristics (e.g., UAV). Mutation analysis measures the quality of test suites in terms of the percentage of detected artificial faults. There are many mutation analysis tools available, but they are inapplicable to CPS because of scalability and accuracy challenges. To overcome such limitations, MASS implements a set of optimization techniques that enable the applicability of mutation analysis and address scalability and accuracy in the CPS context. MASS has been successfully evaluated on a large study involving embedded software systems provided by industry partners; the study includes an on-board software system managing a microsatellite currently on-orbit, a set of libraries used in deployed cubesats, and a mathematical library provided by the European Space Agency. A demo video of MASS is available at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gC1x9cU0-tU. [less ▲]

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See detailPreventing Frame Fingerprinting in Controller Area Network Through Traffic Mutation
Buscemi, Alessio UL; Turcanu, Ion; Castignani, German UL et al

in Preventing Frame Fingerprinting in Controller Area Network Through Traffic Mutation (2022, May)

The continuous increase of connectivity in commercial vehicles is leading to a higher number of remote access points to the Controller Area Network (CAN) – the most popular in-vehicle network system. This ... [more ▼]

The continuous increase of connectivity in commercial vehicles is leading to a higher number of remote access points to the Controller Area Network (CAN) – the most popular in-vehicle network system. This factor, coupled with the absence of encryption in the communication protocol, poses serious threats to the security of the CAN bus. Recently, it has been demonstrated that CAN data can be reverse engineered via frame fingerprinting, i.e., identification of frames based on statistical traffic analysis. Such a methodology allows fully remote decoding of in-vehicle data and paves the way for remote pre-compiled vehicle-agnostic attacks. In this work, we propose a first solution against CAN frame fingerprinting based on mutating the traffic without applying modifications to the CAN protocol. The results show that the proposed methodology halves the accuracy of CAN frame fingerprinting. [less ▲]

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See detailEsclavage, servitude, travail forcé : constitution et évolution d’un cadre conceptuel
Erpelding, Michel UL

in Marchadier, Fabien (Ed.) La prohibition de l'esclavage (2022, April 20)

This chapter examines the emergence, definition and evolution of the concepts of slavery, forced labour and servitude in international law.

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See detailThe effect of dataset confounding on predictions of deep neural networks for medical imaging
Garcia Santa Cruz, Beatriz UL; Husch, Andreas UL; Hertel, Frank UL

in Vol. 3 (2022): Proceedings of the Northern Lights Deep Learning Workshop 2022 (2022, April 18)

The use of Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) in medical imaging has often outperformed previous solutions and even specialists, becoming a promising technology for Computer-aided-Diagnosis (CAD) systems ... [more ▼]

The use of Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) in medical imaging has often outperformed previous solutions and even specialists, becoming a promising technology for Computer-aided-Diagnosis (CAD) systems. However, recent works suggested that CNN may have poor generalisation on new data, for instance, generated in different hospitals. Uncontrolled confounders have been proposed as a common reason. In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate the impact of confounding data in unknown scenarios. We assessed the effect of four confounding configurations: total, strong, light and balanced. We found the confounding effect is especially prominent in total confounder scenarios, while the effect on light and strong confounding scenarios may depend on the dataset robustness. Our findings indicate that the confounding effect is independent of the architecture employed. These findings might explain why models can report good metrics during the development stage but fail to translate to real-world settings. We highlight the need for thorough consideration of these commonly unattended aspects, to develop safer CNN-based CAD systems. [less ▲]

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See detailConceptualising the Legal Notion of ‘State of the Art’ in the Context of IT Security
Schmitz, Sandra UL

in Friedewald, Michael; Krenn, Stephan; Schiffner, Stefan (Eds.) et al Privacy and Identity Management. Between Data Protection and Security (2022, March 31)

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See detailMaking History Together: Participation in Museums
Cauvin, Thomas UL

in Sonnabend, Gaby; Guy, Thewes (Eds.) Narratives in History Museums – Reflections and Perspectives (2022, March)

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See detailPost-quantum Security of Plain OAEP Transform
Ebrahimi, Ehsan UL

in The International Conference on Practice and Theory of Public-Key Cryptography (PKC), Japan 8-11 March 2022. (2022, March)

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See detailDiscussion of an algorithm to transfer arbitrary shear connector load-slip curves into an effective shear resistance
Odenbreit, Christoph UL; Kozma, Andras UL; Romero, Alfredo UL

in Kolloquiumsband - 23 DASt-Forschungskolloquium (2022, February 22)

The RFCS research project REDUCE (Project No. 710040) investigated dismountable shear connections with preloaded bolts. These connectors have in most cases a slip capacity greater than 6 mm and show a ... [more ▼]

The RFCS research project REDUCE (Project No. 710040) investigated dismountable shear connections with preloaded bolts. These connectors have in most cases a slip capacity greater than 6 mm and show a monotonic increasing nonlinear load-slip behaviour without plastic plateau and failure of the bolt in shear. Current design procedures of steel-concrete composite beams are largely based on the implementation of headed shear studs, which exhibit a rather different load-slip behaviour with a pronounced plastic niveau. Thus, a question turned out, which compression force can be activated by the shear connection in the concrete girder of a composite beam and how can the respective ultimate bending capacity be determined. Hence, this contribution presents an analytical algorithm to estimate the occurring compression force in the concrete girder when demountable shear connectors are used. The proposed algorithm bases on the actual measured load-slip curve of the shear connection and the expected slip along the beam, which is estimated for each single connector to later determine the compression force in the concrete girder. In addition to the explanation of the “general algorithm”, assumptions for practical use have been made for the slip distribution to simplify the calculation of the compression force and an effective shear resistance P_Rd,eff. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the Suitability of SHAP Explanations for Refining Classifications
Arslan, Yusuf UL; Lebichot, Bertrand UL; Allix, Kevin UL et al

in In Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Agents and Artificial Intelligence (ICAART 2022) (2022, February)

In industrial contexts, when an ML model classifies a sample as positive, it raises an alarm, which is subsequently sent to human analysts for verification. Reducing the number of false alarms upstream in ... [more ▼]

In industrial contexts, when an ML model classifies a sample as positive, it raises an alarm, which is subsequently sent to human analysts for verification. Reducing the number of false alarms upstream in an ML pipeline is paramount to reduce the workload of experts while increasing customers’ trust. Increasingly, SHAP Explanations are leveraged to facilitate manual analysis. Because they have been shown to be useful to human analysts in the detection of false positives, we postulate that SHAP Explanations may provide a means to automate false-positive reduction. To confirm our intuition, we evaluate clustering and rules detection metrics with ground truth labels to understand the utility of SHAP Explanations to discriminate false positives from true positives. We show that SHAP Explanations are indeed relevant in discriminating samples and are a relevant candidate to automate ML tasks and help to detect and reduce false-positive results. [less ▲]

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See detailWeakly-Supervised Free Space Estimation through Stochastic Co-Teaching
Robinet, François UL; Parera, Claudia UL; Hundt, Christian UL et al

in Proceedings of the IEEE/CVF Winter Conference on Applications of Computer Vision (WACV) Workshops, 2022 (2022, January 04)

Free space estimation is an important problem for autonomous robot navigation. Traditional camera-based approaches train a segmentation model using an annotated dataset. The training data needs to capture ... [more ▼]

Free space estimation is an important problem for autonomous robot navigation. Traditional camera-based approaches train a segmentation model using an annotated dataset. The training data needs to capture the wide variety of environments and weather conditions encountered at runtime, making the annotation cost prohibitively high. In this work, we propose a novel approach for obtaining free space estimates from images taken with a single road-facing camera. We rely on a technique that generates weak free space labels without any supervision, which are then used as ground truth to train a segmentation model for free space estimation. Our work differs from prior attempts by explicitly taking label noise into account through the use of Co-Teaching. Since Co-Teaching has traditionally been investigated in classification tasks, we adapt it for segmentation and examine how its parameters affect performances in our experiments. In addition, we propose Stochastic Co-Teaching, which is a novel method to select clean samples that leads to enhanced results. We achieve an IoU of 82.6%, a Precision of 90.9%, and a Recall of 90.3%. Our best model reaches 87% of the IoU, 93% of the Precision, and 93% of the Recall of the equivalent fully-supervised baseline while using no human annotations. To the best of our knowledge, this work is the first to use Co-Teaching to train a free space segmentation model under explicit label noise. Our implementation and trained models are freely available online. [less ▲]

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See detailOn Frame Fingerprinting and Controller Area Networks Security in Connected Vehicles
Buscemi, Alessio UL; Turcanu, Ion; Castignani, German et al

in IEEE Consumer Communications & Networking Conference, Virtual Conference 8-11 January 2022 (2022, January)

Modern connected vehicles are equipped with a large number of sensors, which enable a wide range of services that can improve overall traffic safety and efficiency. However, remote access to connected ... [more ▼]

Modern connected vehicles are equipped with a large number of sensors, which enable a wide range of services that can improve overall traffic safety and efficiency. However, remote access to connected vehicles also introduces new security issues affecting both inter and intra-vehicle communications. In fact, existing intra-vehicle communication systems, such as Controller Area Network (CAN), lack security features, such as encryption and secure authentication for Electronic Control Units (ECUs). Instead, Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) seek security through obscurity by keeping secret the proprietary format with which they encode the information. Recently, it has been shown that the reuse of CAN frame IDs can be exploited to perform CAN bus reverse engineering without physical access to the vehicle, thus raising further security concerns in a connected environment. This work investigates whether anonymizing the frames of each newly released vehicle is sufficient to prevent CAN bus reverse engineering based on frame ID matching. The results show that, by adopting Machine Learning techniques, anonymized CAN frames can still be fingerprinted and identified in an unknown vehicle with an accuracy of up to 80 %. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Social Construction of Self-Sovereign Identity: An Extended Model of Interpretive Flexibility
Weigl, Linda UL; Barbereau, Tom Josua UL; Rieger, Alexander UL et al

in Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences 2022 (2022, January)

User-centric identity management systems are gaining momentum as concerns about Big Tech and Big Government rise. Many of these systems are framed as offering Self-Sovereign Identity (SSI). Yet, competing ... [more ▼]

User-centric identity management systems are gaining momentum as concerns about Big Tech and Big Government rise. Many of these systems are framed as offering Self-Sovereign Identity (SSI). Yet, competing appropriation and the social embedding of SSI have resulted in diverging interpretations. These vague and value-laden interpretations can damage the public discourse and risk misrepresenting values and affordances that technology offers to users. To unpack the various social and technical understandings of SSI, we adopt an ‘interpretive flexibility’ lens. Based on a qualitative inductive interview study, we find that SSI’s interpretation is strongly mediated by surrounding institutional properties. Our study helps to better navigate these different perceptions and highlights the need for a multidimensional framework that can improve the understanding of complex socio-technical systems for digital government practitioners, researchers, and policy-makers. [less ▲]

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See detailEnhancing Trust in Trust Services: Towards an Intelligent Human-input-based Blockchain Oracle (IHiBO)
Yu, Liuwen UL; Zichichi, Mirko; Markovich, Réka UL et al

in Proceedings of the 55th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (2022, January)

As their name suggests, trust is of crucial importance in ‘‘trust service". Nevertheless, in many cases, these services suffer from a lack transparency, documentation, traceability, and inclusive multi ... [more ▼]

As their name suggests, trust is of crucial importance in ‘‘trust service". Nevertheless, in many cases, these services suffer from a lack transparency, documentation, traceability, and inclusive multi-lateral decision-making mechanisms. To overcome these challenges, in this paper we propose an integrated framework which incorporates formal argumentation and negotiation within a blockchain environment to make the decision-making processes of fund management transparent and traceable. We introduce three possible architectures and we evaluate and compare them considering different technical, financial, and legal aspects. [less ▲]

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See detailDeFi, Not So Decentralized: The Measured Distribution of Voting Rights
Barbereau, Tom Josua UL; Smethurst, Reilly UL; Papageorgiou, Orestis UL et al

in Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences 2022 (2022, January)

Bitcoin and Ethereum are frequently promoted as decentralized, but developers and academics question their actual decentralization. This motivates further experiments with public permissionless ... [more ▼]

Bitcoin and Ethereum are frequently promoted as decentralized, but developers and academics question their actual decentralization. This motivates further experiments with public permissionless blockchains to achieve decentralization along technical, economic, and political lines. The distribution of tokenized voting rights aims for political decentralization. Tokenized voting rights achieved notoriety within the nascent field of decentralized finance (DeFi) in 2020. As an alternative to centralized crypto-asset exchanges and lending platforms (owned by companies like Coinbase and Celsius), DeFi developers typically create non-custodial projects that are not majority-owned or managed by legal entities. Holders of tokenized voting rights can instead govern DeFi projects. To scrutinize DeFi’s distributed governance strategies, we conducted a multiple-case study of non-custodial, Ethereum-based DeFi projects: Uniswap, Maker, SushiSwap, Yearn Finance, and UMA. Our findings are novel and surprising: quantitative evaluations of DeFi’s distributed governance strategies reveal a failure to achieve political decentralization. [less ▲]

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See detailMetaheuristics-based Exploration Strategies for Multi-Objective Reinforcement Learning
Felten, Florian UL; Danoy, Grégoire; Talbi, El-Ghazali UL et al

in Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Agents and Artificial Intelligence (2022)

The fields of Reinforcement Learning (RL) and Optimization aim at finding an optimal solution to a problem, characterized by an objective function. The exploration-exploitation dilemma (EED) is a well ... [more ▼]

The fields of Reinforcement Learning (RL) and Optimization aim at finding an optimal solution to a problem, characterized by an objective function. The exploration-exploitation dilemma (EED) is a well known subject in those fields. Indeed, a consequent amount of literature has already been proposed on the subject and shown it is a non-negligible topic to consider to achieve good performances. Yet, many problems in real life involve the optimization of multiple objectives. Multi-Policy Multi-Objective Reinforcement Learning (MPMORL) offers a way to learn various optimised behaviours for the agent in such problems. This work introduces a modular framework for the learning phase of such algorithms, allowing to ease the study of the EED in Inner- Loop MPMORL algorithms. We present three new exploration strategies inspired from the metaheuristics domain. To assess the performance of our methods on various environments, we use a classical benchmark - the Deep Sea Treasure (DST) - as well as propose a harder version of it. Our experiments show all of the proposed strategies outperform the current state-of-the-art ε-greedy based methods on the studied benchmarks. [less ▲]

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See detailAggregating Energy Flexibility for Demand-Side Management in Manufacturing Companies – A Two-Step Method
Lindner, M; Wenninger, Simon; Fridgen, Gilbert UL et al

in Production at the Leading Edge of Technology (2022)

Towards greener production, manufacturing companies face several challenges, for example peak load shaving or flexible production planning as parts of demand-side management (DSM). DSM uses processes that ... [more ▼]

Towards greener production, manufacturing companies face several challenges, for example peak load shaving or flexible production planning as parts of demand-side management (DSM). DSM uses processes that can be shut down, shifted, or controlled. Advances in digitalization in the energy sector and manufacturing systems create transparency which in turn offers new opportunities to commercialize energy flexibility potentials as optimally and automatically as possible. The variety of flexibilities in manufacturing systems and various dependencies of different kinds of complex manufacturing processes complicate the modelling and aggregation of flexibility. To overcome this challenge, we developed a method for the aggregation of energy flexibilities that is based on a generic energy flexibility data model. The method proposes a two-step approach to aggregate flexibilities cost efficiently and considers manufacturing specific limitations. For cost-efficient aggregation, we use in the first step the merit-order model known from the energy industry and in the second step the bin-packing problem originating from combinatorial optimization, adapted according to the generic data model. The two-step approach allows energy flexibilities to be aggregated across industries, facilities, and systems, thus ensuring broad applicability. [less ▲]

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See detailDebiased Label Aggregation for Subjective Crowdsourcing Tasks
Wallace, Shaun; Cai, Tianyuan; Le, Brendan et al

in Extended Abstracts of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI EA) (2022)

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See detailBreaking and Fixing Vote Privacy of the Estonian E-Voting Protocol IVXV
Mueller, Johannes UL

in Workshop on Advances in Secure Electronic Voting 2022 (2022)

We revisit the e-voting protocol IVXV that is used for legally-binding political elections in Estonia from a privacy perspective. We demonstrate that IVXV is vulnerable to attacks against vote privacy in ... [more ▼]

We revisit the e-voting protocol IVXV that is used for legally-binding political elections in Estonia from a privacy perspective. We demonstrate that IVXV is vulnerable to attacks against vote privacy in those threat scenarios that were considered for IVXV originally. We explain how to improve IVXV so that it protects against the privacy issues we discovered. [less ▲]

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See detailThe legacy of coal mining – a view on examples in Belgium and France
Helfer, Malte UL

in Bluma, Lars; Farrenkopf, Michael; Meyer, Torsten (Eds.) Boom – Crisis – Heritage. King Coal and Energy Revolutions after 1945; proceedings of the international conference March 14th-16th 2018, Technische Hochschule Georg Agricola, Bochum (2022)

Following the end of coalmining in Belgium (1992) and France (2004), the year 2018 marks the end of hard coal mining in Germany as well. This contribution looks at the legacy of coalmining of Germany’s ... [more ▼]

Following the end of coalmining in Belgium (1992) and France (2004), the year 2018 marks the end of hard coal mining in Germany as well. This contribution looks at the legacy of coalmining of Germany’s French-speaking neighbours and presents the most important remaining coal mining heritage sites as well as some extraordinary converted sites in France and the Belgian province Wallonia. [less ▲]

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See detailIntegral Attacks on Pyjamask-96 and Round-Reduced Pyjamask-128
Cui, Jiamin; Hu, Kai; Wang, Qingju UL et al

in Topics in Cryptology - CT-RSA 2022 - The Cryptographers' Track at the RSA Conference 2022, San Francisco, CA, USA, February 7-10, 2022, Proceedings (2022)

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See detailPhysics-Based Cognitive Radar Modeling and Parameter Estimation
Sedighi, Saeid UL; Mysore Rama Rao, Bhavani Shankar UL; Mishra, Kumar Vijay et al

in IEEE Radar Conference (2022)

We consider the problem of channel response estimation in cognitive fully adaptive radar (CoFAR). We show that this problem can be expressed as a constrained channel estimation problem exploiting the ... [more ▼]

We consider the problem of channel response estimation in cognitive fully adaptive radar (CoFAR). We show that this problem can be expressed as a constrained channel estimation problem exploiting the similarity between the channel impulse responses (CIRs) of the adjacent channels. We develop a constrained CIR estimation (CCIRE) algorithm enhancing estimation performance compared to the unconstrained CIR estimation where the similarity between the CIRs of the adjacent channels is not employed. Further, we we derive the Cram\'{e}r-Rao bound (CRB) for the CCIRE and show the optimality of the proposed CCIRE through comparing its performance with the derived CRB. [less ▲]

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See detailDie Grenzen aufgezeigt:Technische Innovation und räumliche Abstraktion am Beispiel früher Landkarten der Grenzregion zwischen dem Herzogtum Luxemburg und dem Kurfürstentum Trier
Solchenbach, Karl UL

in Schröder, Lina; Wegewitz, Markus (Eds.) Europäische Grenzregionen. Neue Wege im Umgang mit historischen Raum- und Grenzkonzeptionen in der Geschichtswissenschaft (2022)

Die Ausbildung und Verfestigung der kurtrierischen und luxemburgischen Landesherrschaften war im 14. Jahrhundert weitgehend zum Abschluss gekommen. Die Transformation vom Personenverbands- zum ... [more ▼]

Die Ausbildung und Verfestigung der kurtrierischen und luxemburgischen Landesherrschaften war im 14. Jahrhundert weitgehend zum Abschluss gekommen. Die Transformation vom Personenverbands- zum Flächenstaat frühneuzeitlicher Prägung hatte die Ausbildung einer zunehmend deutlicheren Grenze zwischen beiden Territorien zur Folge. Ebenso formierte sich auch eine Grenze im Grenzraum mit Frankreich und Lothringen. Die vereinfachende Darstellung komplexer teils überlagerter Grenzzonen in Form von abstrahierenden Linien musste von den zeitgenössischen Kartographen jedoch erst noch entwickelt werden. Die älteste regionale Karte mit einer angedeuteten partiellen Grenzmarkierung stammt aus dem Jahr 1555. Eine zunehmende Professionalisierung der Kartographie gelang ab der zweiten Hälfte des 16. Jahrhunderts durch Landesaufnahmen, initiiert von den jeweiligen Landesherren. Die Intention der Auftraggeber war dabei ähnlich: einerseits sollte das jeweilige Territorium durch die Karte möglichst als geschlossen beherrschter Raum dargestellt werden, andererseits galt es, die bisher nur verbal beschriebenen teils strittigen Grenzen als abstrakte Linien deutlich sichtbar zu machen. Die Karten der Landesaufnahmen waren zunächst geheim, dennoch fanden sie bereits nach wenigen Jahren Eingang in die Atlanten von Ortelius, de Jode und Mercator. Diese beeinflussten wiederum die Karten der Region in den späteren Atlanten der niederländischen, französischen und süddeutschen Kartenverleger. Der Beitrag beschreibt, ab wann und in welcher Form Grenzen in frühen Karten (16.-18. Jahrhundert) dargestellt wurden. Besonders in den Blick genommen wird der Prozess der Ausbildung von Linien zur abstrakten Darstellung unklarer, teils strittiger Grenzräume sowie die zunehmende Professionalisierung und Genauigkeit in der kartographischen Darstellung durch Vermessungen im Feld. [less ▲]

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See detailTowards an evaluation of incentives and nudges for smart charging
Marxen, Hanna UL; Chemudupaty, Raviteja UL; Graf-Drasch, Valerie et al

in Proceedings of the 30th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS 2022) (2022)

Electric vehicles (EVs) are an important cornerstone to achieve transport decarbonization. Still, simultaneous charging of EVs when home charging increases peak demand, especially during evenings. Smart ... [more ▼]

Electric vehicles (EVs) are an important cornerstone to achieve transport decarbonization. Still, simultaneous charging of EVs when home charging increases peak demand, especially during evenings. Smart charging allows optimal distribution of load, thus preventing peak loads. Nevertheless, this incorporates certain risks for the EV user, e.g., unavailability of EVs for unplanned events. This might lead to a lack of user acceptance. This paper focuses on specific incentives and nudges, motivating users to adopt smart charging. We conducted an integrative literature review, bringing together literature from different areas. Possible incentives and nudges are monetary incentives, feedback, gamification, or smart charging as a default-setting. We conducted three focus groups with 13 EV users in Luxembourg to get first insights into which of those incentives and nudges they prefer. Preliminary results indicate that incentives and nudges should be individualized. In the future, we would use these first insights to develop a large-scale survey. [less ▲]

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See detailRobust and Deployable Gesture Recognition for Smartwatches
Kunwar, Utkarsh; Borar, Sheetal; Berghofer, Moritz et al

in Proceedings of the ACM Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces (IUI) (2022)

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See detailIs Eve nearby? Analysing protocols under the distant-attacker assumption
Gil Pons, Reynaldo UL; Horne, Ross James UL; Mauw, Sjouke UL et al

in IEEE Computer Security Foundations Symposium, August 7 - 10, 2022, Haifa, Israel (2022)

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See detailWith or Without Blockchain? Towards a Decentralized, SSI-based eRoaming Architecture
Höß, Alexandra UL; Roth, Tamara UL; Sedlmeir, Johannes UL et al

in Proceedings of the 55th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS) (2022)

Fragmentation and limited accessibility of charging infrastructure impede the adoption of electric vehicles. To improve the availability of charging infrastructure independent of providers, eRoaming ... [more ▼]

Fragmentation and limited accessibility of charging infrastructure impede the adoption of electric vehicles. To improve the availability of charging infrastructure independent of providers, eRoaming offers a promising solution. Yet, current eRoaming systems are typically centralized, which raises concerns of market power concentration. While the use of blockchain technology can obviate such concerns, it comes with significant privacy challenges. To address these challenges, we explore a combination of blockchain with self-sovereign identity. Specifically, we apply a design science research approach, which helps us to identify requirements, derive a conceptual architecture, and deduce design principles for decentralized eRoaming and beyond. We find that blockchain may best leverage its benefits when it takes a backseat as a public registry for legal entities. Moreover, we find that the use of self-sovereign identities could improve compliance with privacy regulations, but they should not be overused. [less ▲]

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See detailLove at First Sight? A User Experience Study of Self-Sovereign Identity Wallets
Sartor, Sebastian; Sedlmeir, Johannes UL; Rieger, Alexander UL et al

in 30th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS 2022) (2022)

Today’s systems for digital identity management exhibit critical security, efficiency, and privacy issues. A new paradigm, called Self-Sovereign Identity (SSI), addresses these shortcomings by equipping ... [more ▼]

Today’s systems for digital identity management exhibit critical security, efficiency, and privacy issues. A new paradigm, called Self-Sovereign Identity (SSI), addresses these shortcomings by equipping users with mobile wallets and empowering them to manage their digital identities. Various companies and governments back this paradigm and promote its development and diffusion. User experience often plays a subordinate role in these efforts, even though it is crucial for user satisfaction and adoption. We thus conduct a comprehensive user experience study of four prominent SSI wallets using a mixed-method approach that involves moderated and remote interviews and the User Experience Questionnaire (UEQ). We find that the examined wallets already provide a decent level of user experience, yet further improvements need to be done. In particular, the examined wallets do not make their novelty and benefits sufficiently apparent to users. Our analysis contributes to user experience research and offers guidance for SSI practitioners. [less ▲]

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See detailUser-centricity and Public Values in eGovernment: Friend or Foe?
Weigl, Linda UL; Amard, Alexandre UL; Marxen, Hanna UL et al

in 30th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS 2022) (2022)

In their delivery of services, public administrations seek to develop a ‘citizen-centric’ approach. Concomitantly, user-centricity is emerging as a widely accepted construct for Web 3.0 applications ... [more ▼]

In their delivery of services, public administrations seek to develop a ‘citizen-centric’ approach. Concomitantly, user-centricity is emerging as a widely accepted construct for Web 3.0 applications supporting the digital interaction between service providers and recipients. The digitalization of public services can positively impact important public values, such as efficiency and transparency. However, the digital divide highlights that information and communication technologies can simultaneously neglect public needs. This begs the question of whether user-centricity reflects or conflicts with public values. To answer this question, we present a systematic review of existing literature on user-centricity and public values. The contribution of this paper is an extended taxonomy of public values for user-centricity, as well as recommendations for public policy to address conflicts between public values and user-centricity. [less ▲]

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See detailSharing Big Data in Health Care: Focus on the Role Played by Co-regulatory Instruments in Light of the New European Health Data Space
Vigna, Francesco UL

in Tom, Goffin; Tom, Balthazar (Eds.) Book of Proceedings: Eighth European Conference on Health Law (2022)

Big data and AI are revolutionizing data processing in health care. The new paradigm of data-driven decision making will lead primary activities, such as the provision of care services, as well as ... [more ▼]

Big data and AI are revolutionizing data processing in health care. The new paradigm of data-driven decision making will lead primary activities, such as the provision of care services, as well as secondary health care purposes, like clini-cal research. However, the extraction of knowledge from big data in health care depends on the possibility for stakeholders to share and connect datasets in compliance with data protection law requirements. In this regard, the EU Data Strategy seeks to foster data sharing for public benefit. The EU Commission, in the preparatory works for the European Health Data Space, has stressed that issues related to GDPR compliance could hinder the sharing and the re-use of data in health care. Namely, two order of problems may be highlighted in this perspective: 1) the special regime for health data pro-cessing in GDPR, which allows MS to add even stricter data protection rules; 2) margins of choice for data controllers and processors about how to implement technical and organisational measures for reaching GDPR compliance, according to the risk-based approach. According to the EU Commission, legal uncertainty might be mitigated by adopting co-regulatory measures, such as a Code of Conduct for the sharing of health data. A Code of Conduct (articles 40 and 41 GDPR) could establish common ways to interpret and comply with loose GDPR requirements and prin-ciples, therefore creating harmonization. However, given the legal fragmentation typical of the health domain among MS, the elaboration of an EU-wide Code of Conduct for personal data processing could not bring the desired effects. More-over, some doubts concern the lack of legal effects produced by a Code of Conduct on the burden of proof for data controllers. Finally, also costs and complexities linked to the elaboration of GDPR co-regulatory instruments may hamper the diffusion of these mechanisms. The paper discusses opportunities and limits of GDPR co-regulatory mecha-nisms, considering the forthcoming European Health Data Space. It is argued that despite legal and governance reasoning are theoretically correct about the role of these instruments, their spread is limited once the reasoning is linked to market and economic aspects. [less ▲]

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See detailLearning-Based Multiplexing of Grant-Based and Grant-Free Heterogeneous Services with Short Packets
Tran, Duc Dung UL; Sharma, Shree Krishna; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL et al

in Proceedings of 2021 IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM) (2021, December)

In this paper, we investigate the multiplexing of grant-based (GB) and grant-free (GF) device transmissions in an uplink heterogeneous network (HetNet), namely GB-GF HetNet, where the devices transmit ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we investigate the multiplexing of grant-based (GB) and grant-free (GF) device transmissions in an uplink heterogeneous network (HetNet), namely GB-GF HetNet, where the devices transmit their information using low-rate short data packets. Specifically, GB devices are granted unique time-slots for their transmissions. In contrast, GF devices can randomly select time-slots to transmit their messages utilizing the GF non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA), which has emerged as a promising enabler for massive access and reducing access latency. However, random access (RA) in the GF NOMA can cause collisions and severe interference, leading to system performance degradation. To overcome this issue, we propose a multiple access (MA) protocol based on reinforcement learning for effective RA slots allocation. The proposed learning method aims to guarantee that the GF devices do not cause any collisions to the GB devices and the number of GF devices choosing the same time-slot does not exceed a predetermined threshold to reduce the interference. In addition, based on the results of the RA slots allocation using the proposed method, we derive the approximate closed-form expressions of the average decoding error probability (ADEP) for all devices to characterize the system performance. Our results presented in terms of access efficiency (AE), collision probability (CP), and overall ADEP (OADEP), show that our proposed method can ensure a smooth operation of the GB and GF devices within the same network while significantly minimizing the collision and interference among the device transmissions in the GB-GF HetNet. [less ▲]

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See detailLightweight EdDSA Signature Verification for the Ultra-Low-Power Internet of Things
Groszschädl, Johann UL; Franck, Christian UL; Liu, Zhe

in Deng, Robert; Bao, Feng; Wang, Guilin (Eds.) et al Information Security Practice and Experience, 16th International Conference, ISPEC 2021, Nanjing, China, December 17–19, 2021, Proceedings (2021, December)

EdDSA is a digital signature scheme based on elliptic curves in Edwards form that is supported in the latest incarnation of the TLS protocol (i.e. TLS version 1.3). The straightforward way of verifying an ... [more ▼]

EdDSA is a digital signature scheme based on elliptic curves in Edwards form that is supported in the latest incarnation of the TLS protocol (i.e. TLS version 1.3). The straightforward way of verifying an EdDSA signature involves a costly double-scalar multiplication of the form kP - lQ where P is a "fixed" point (namely the generator of the underlying elliptic-curve group) and Q is only known at run time. This computation makes a verification not only much slower than a signature generation, but also more memory demanding. In the present paper we compare two implementations of EdDSA verification using Ed25519 as case study; the first is speed-optimized, while the other aims to achieve low RAM footprint. The speed-optimized variant performs the double-scalar multiplication in a simultaneous fashion and uses a Joint-Sparse Form (JSF) representation for the two scalars. On the other hand, the memory-optimized variant splits the computation of kP - lQ into two separate parts, namely a fixed-base scalar multiplication that is carried out using a standard comb method with eight pre-computed points, and a variable-base scalar multiplication, which is executed by means of the conventional Montgomery ladder on the birationally-equivalent Montgomery curve. Our experiments with a 16-bit ultra-low-power MSP430 microcontroller show that the separated method is 24% slower than the simultaneous technique, but reduces the RAM footprint by 40%. This makes the separated method attractive for "lightweight" cryptographic libraries, in particular if both Ed25519 signature generation/verification and X25519 key exchange need to be supported. [less ▲]

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See detailASSESSING PROFIT MAXIMIZATION AND FLEET MANAGEMENT IN A MULTIMODAL NETWORK DESIGN PROBLEM
Bandiera, Claudia UL; Connors, Richard UL; Viti, Francesco UL

in Proceedings of the 25th International Conference of Hong Kong Society for Transportation Studies, HKSTS 2021: Sustainable Mobility (2021, December)

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See detailMassive Superpoly Recovery with Nested Monomial Predictions
Hu, Kai; Sun, Siwei; Todo, Yosuke et al

in Advances in Cryptology - ASIACRYPT 2021 - 27th International Conference on the Theory and Application of Cryptology and Information Security Singapore, December 6-10, 2021, Proceedings, Part I (2021, December)

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See detailESTIMATION OF MACROSCOPIC ACTIVITY-TRAVEL DEMAND: A UTILITY MAXIMIZATION APPROACH
Scheffer, Ariane Hélène Marie UL; Connors, Richard UL; Viti, Francesco UL

in Proceedings of the 25th International Conference of Hong Kong Society for Transportation Studies, HKSTS 2021: Sustainable Mobility (2021, December)

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See detailWhat's in a Cyber Threat Intelligence sharing platform?: A mixed-methods user experience investigation of MISP
Stojkovski, Borce UL; Lenzini, Gabriele UL; Koenig, Vincent UL et al

in Annual Computer Security Applications Conference (ACSAC ’21) (2021, December)

The ever-increasing scale and complexity of cyber attacks and cyber-criminal activities necessitate secure and effective sharing of cyber threat intelligence (CTI) among a diverse set of stakeholders and ... [more ▼]

The ever-increasing scale and complexity of cyber attacks and cyber-criminal activities necessitate secure and effective sharing of cyber threat intelligence (CTI) among a diverse set of stakeholders and communities. CTI sharing platforms are becoming indispensable tools for cooperative and collaborative cybersecurity. Nevertheless, despite the growing research in this area, the emphasis is often placed on the technical aspects, incentives, or implications associated with CTI sharing, as opposed to investigating challenges encountered by users of such platforms. To date, user experience (UX) aspects remain largely unexplored. This paper offers a unique contribution towards understanding the constraining and enabling factors of security information sharing within one of the leading platforms. MISP is an open source CTI sharing platform used by more than 6,000 organizations worldwide. As a technically-advanced CTI sharing platform it aims to cater for a diverse set of security information workers with distinct needs and objectives. In this respect, MISP has to pay an equal amount of attention to the UX in order to maximize and optimize the quantity and quality of threat information that is contributed and consumed. Using mixed methods we shed light on the strengths and weaknesses of MISP from an end-users’ perspective and discuss the role UX could play in effective CTI sharing. We conclude with an outline of future work and open challenges worth further exploring in this nascent, yet highly important socio-technical context. [less ▲]

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See detailIMPACT OF USERS’ SUPPLY CHARATERISTICS ON MAAS SUBSCRIPTION: A CASE STUDY
Cisterna, Carolina UL; Bigi, Federico UL; Viti, Francesco UL

in Proceedings of the 25th International Conference of Hong Kong Society for Transportation Studies, HKSTS 2021: Sustainable Mobility (2021, December)

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See detailA Reusable Structural System Fit for Geometrical Standardisation and Serial Production
Odenbreit, Christoph UL; Yang, Jie UL; Romero, Alfredo UL et al

in Proceedings of the XII Steel and Composite Construction Conference (2021, November 25)

A series of demountable connections for reusable composite flooring systems and a standardized adjustable steel connection have been developed and tested, to facilitate circular economy as well as the ... [more ▼]

A series of demountable connections for reusable composite flooring systems and a standardized adjustable steel connection have been developed and tested, to facilitate circular economy as well as the serial production of structural elements and the suitability to be added into BIM or other digital tools. Demountable beam and floor elements and adjustable steel connections form the basis of a Lego-liked ‘plug and play’ circular framed structural system. This paper presents the proposed circular system, the results from experiments and finite element analyses and indicates the analysing methods for structural engineers to open a path way for fully implementation of the structures ‘as built’ into digital tools, fabrication and construction. [less ▲]

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See detailNumerical Investigation of Steel-LVL Timber Composite Beams
Romero, Alfredo UL; Yang, Jie UL; Hanus, François et al

in Proceedings of the XII Steel and Composite Construction Conference (2021, November 25)

In the last years, new connectors of steel-concrete composite flooring systems have been developed and investigated to enhance the circularity and standardisation of building components. Recent studies ... [more ▼]

In the last years, new connectors of steel-concrete composite flooring systems have been developed and investigated to enhance the circularity and standardisation of building components. Recent studies showed that timber can be used as an alternative to the concrete slab in hybrid structures. However, the knowledge in steel-timber composite flooring systems is still very limited. This contribution presents numerical investigations of steel-LVL timber composite beams. The load deformation behaviour was determined through 3D finite element models. The design resistance of the composite beams was estimated analytically through a strain-controlled approach. The results of this study show that the resistances obtained in the numerical models and the strain-controlled approach are in good agreement. Moreover, obtained deflections and slip values were given at ultimate load. [less ▲]

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See detailDeep Learning for Safe Human-Robot Collaboration
Duque, Nicolas; Mejia, Lina; Martinez Luna, Carol UL et al

in Advances in Automation and Robotics Research (2021, November 21)

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See detailAndroid Malware Detection: Looking beyond Dalvik Bytecode
Sun, Tiezhu UL; Daoudi, Nadia UL; Allix, Kevin UL et al

in 2021 36th IEEE/ACM International Conference on Automated Software Engineering Workshops (ASEW) (2021, November 15)

Machine learning has been widely employed in the literature of malware detection because it is adapted to the need for scalability in vetting large scale samples of Android. Feature engineering has ... [more ▼]

Machine learning has been widely employed in the literature of malware detection because it is adapted to the need for scalability in vetting large scale samples of Android. Feature engineering has therefore been the key focus for research advances. Recently, a new research direction that builds on the momentum of Deep Learning for computer vision has produced promising results with image representations of Android byte- code. In this work, we postulate that other artifacts such as the binary (native) code and metadata/configuration files could be looked at to build more exhaustive representations of Android apps. We show that binary code and metadata files can also provide relevant information for Android malware detection, i.e., that they can allow to detect Malware that are not detected by models built only on bytecode. Furthermore, we investigate the potential benefits of combining all these artifacts into a unique representation with a strong signal for reasoning about maliciousness. [less ▲]

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See detailA First Look at Security Risks of Android TV Apps
Liu, Yonhui; Li, Li; Kong, Pingfan UL et al

in A First Look at Security Risks of Android TV Apps (2021, November 15)

In this paper, we present to the community the first preliminary study on the security risks of Android TV apps. To the best of our knowledge, despite the fact that various efforts have been put into ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we present to the community the first preliminary study on the security risks of Android TV apps. To the best of our knowledge, despite the fact that various efforts have been put into analyzing Android apps, our community has not explored TV versions of Android apps. There is hence no publicly available dataset containing Android TV apps. To this end, We start by collecting a large set of Android TV apps from the official Google Play store. We then experimentally look at those apps from four security aspects: VirusTotal scans, requested permissions, security flaws, and privacy leaks. Our experimental results reveal that, similar to that of Android smartphone apps, Android TV apps can also come with different security issues. We hence argue that our community should pay more attention to analyze Android TV apps. [less ▲]

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See detailHeterogeneously-Distributed Joint Radar Communications: Bayesian Resource Allocation
Wu, Linlong; Mishra, Kumar Vijay; Mysore Rama Rao, Bhavani Shankar UL et al

in 2021 IEEE 22nd International Workshop on Signal Processing Advances in Wireless Communications (SPAWC) (2021, November 15)

Due to spectrum scarcity, the coexistence of radar and wireless communication has gained substantial research interest recently. Among many scenarios, the heterogeneously-distributed joint radar ... [more ▼]

Due to spectrum scarcity, the coexistence of radar and wireless communication has gained substantial research interest recently. Among many scenarios, the heterogeneously-distributed joint radar-communication system is promising due to its flexibility and compatibility of existing architectures. In this paper, we focus on a heterogeneous radar and communication network (HRCN), which consists of various generic radars for multiple target tracking (MTT) and wireless communications for multiple users. We aim to improve the MTT performance and maintain good throughput levels for communication users by a well-designed resource allocation. The problem is formulated as a Bayesian Cramér-Rao bound (CRB) based minimization subjecting to resource budgets and throughput constraints. The formulated nonconvex problem is solved based on an alternating descent-ascent approach. Numerical results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed allocation scheme for this heterogeneous network. [less ▲]

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See detailRefining Weakly-Supervised Free Space Estimation through Data Augmentation and Recursive Training
Robinet, François UL; Frank, Raphaël UL

in Proceedings of BNAIC/BeneLearn 2021 (2021, November 12)

Free space estimation is an important problem for autonomous robot navigation. Traditional camera-based approaches rely on pixel-wise ground truth annotations to train a segmentation model. To cover the ... [more ▼]

Free space estimation is an important problem for autonomous robot navigation. Traditional camera-based approaches rely on pixel-wise ground truth annotations to train a segmentation model. To cover the wide variety of environments and lighting conditions encountered on roads, training supervised models requires large datasets. This makes the annotation cost prohibitively high. In this work, we propose a novel approach for obtaining free space estimates from images taken with a single road-facing camera. We rely on a technique that generates weak free space labels without any supervision, which are then used as ground truth to train a segmentation model for free space estimation. We study the impact of different data augmentation techniques on the performances of free space predictions, and propose to use a recursive training strategy. Our results are benchmarked using the Cityscapes dataset and improve over comparable published work across all evaluation metrics. Our best model reaches 83.64% IoU (+2.3%), 91:75% Precision (+2.4%) and 91.29% Recall (+0.4%). These results correspond to 88.8% of the IoU, 94.3% of the Precision and 93.1% of the Recall obtained by an equivalent fully-supervised baseline, while using no ground truth annotation. Our code and models are freely available online. [less ▲]

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See detailWhy Do We Delegate to Intelligent Virtual Agents? Influencing Factors on Delegation Decisions
Sun, Ningyuan UL; Botev, Jean UL

in Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Human-Agent Interaction (HAI) (2021, November)

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See detailOptimized Implementation of SHA-512 for 16-bit MSP430 Microcontrollers
Franck, Christian UL; Groszschädl, Johann UL

in Ryan, Peter Y A; Toma, Cristian (Eds.) Innovative Security Solutions for Information Technology and Communications, 14th International Conference, SecITC 2021, Bucharest, Romania, November 25-26, 2021, Revised Selected Papers (2021, November)

The enormous growth of the Internet of Things (IoT) in the recent past has fueled a strong demand for lightweight implementations of cryptosystems, i.e. implementations that are efficient enough to run on ... [more ▼]

The enormous growth of the Internet of Things (IoT) in the recent past has fueled a strong demand for lightweight implementations of cryptosystems, i.e. implementations that are efficient enough to run on resource-limited devices like sensor nodes. However, most of today's widely-used cryptographic algorithms, including the AES or the SHA2 family of hash functions, were already designed some 20 years ago and did not take efficiency in restricted environments into account. In this paper, we introduce implementation options and software optimization techniques to reduce the execution time of SHA-512 on 16-bit MSP430 microcontrollers. These optimizations include a novel register allocation strategy for the 512-bit hash state, a fast "on-the-fly" message schedule with low RAM footprint, special pointer arithmetic to avoid the need to copy state words, as well as instruction sequences for multi-bit rotation of 64-bit operands. Thanks to the combination of all these optimization techniques, our hand-written MSP430 Assembler code for the SHA-512 compression function reaches an execution time of roughly 40.6k cycles on an MSP430F1611 microcontroller. Hashing a message of 1000 bytes takes slightly below 338k clock cycles, which corresponds to a hash rate of about 338 cycles/byte. This execution time sets a new speed record for hashing with 256 bits of security on a 16-bit platform and improves the time needed by the fastest C implementations by a factor of 2.3. In addition, our implementation is extremely small in terms of code size (roughly 2.1k bytes) and has a RAM footprint of only 390 bytes. [less ▲]

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See detailSDN for Gateway Diversity Implementation in Satellite Networks
Minardi, Mario UL; Politis, Christos; Zimmer, Frank et al

in International Symposium on Networks, Computers and Communications (ISNCC), Dubai 31 Oct.-2 Nov. 2021 (2021, November)

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See detailChronoPilot – Modulating Time Perception
Botev, Jean UL; Drewing, Knut; Hamann, Heiko et al

in Proceedings of the 4th IEEE International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Virtual Reality (AIVR) (2021, November)

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See detailTowards incremental autonomy framework for on-orbit vision-based grasping
Barad, Kuldeep Rambhai UL; Martinez Luna, Carol UL; Dentler, Jan et al

in Proceedings of the International Astronautical Congress, IAC-2021 (2021, October 29)

This work presents a software-oriented autonomy framework that enables the incremental development of high robotic autonomy. The autonomy infrastructure in space applications is often cost-driven and ... [more ▼]

This work presents a software-oriented autonomy framework that enables the incremental development of high robotic autonomy. The autonomy infrastructure in space applications is often cost-driven and built for a narrow time/complexity domain. In domains like On-orbit Servicing Assembly and Manufacturing (OSAM), this prevents scalability and generalizability, motivating a more consistent approach for the incremental development of robotic autonomy. For this purpose, the problem of vision-based grasping is described as a building block for high autonomy of dexterous space robots. Subsequently, the need for a framework is highlighted to enable bottom-up development of general autonomy with vision-based grasping as the starting point. The preliminary framework presented here comprises three components. First, an autonomy level classification provides a clear description of the autonomous behavior of the system. The stack abstraction provides a general classification of the development layers. Finally, the generic execution architecture condenses the flow of translating a high-level task description into real-world sense-planact routines. Overall, this work lays down foundational elements towards development of general robotic autonomy for scalablity in space application domains like OSAM. [less ▲]

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See detailBead Width Prediction in Laser Wire Additive Manufacturing Process
Mbodj, Natago Guilé UL; Plapper, Peter UL

in Mbodj, Natago Guilé; Plapper, Peter (Eds.) Bead Width Prediction in Laser Wire Additive Manufacturing Process (2021, October 22)

In laser wire Additive manufacturing (LWAM), the final geometry is produced using layer-by-layer deposition principle of beads. To achieve good geometrical accuracy of the final product, proper ... [more ▼]

In laser wire Additive manufacturing (LWAM), the final geometry is produced using layer-by-layer deposition principle of beads. To achieve good geometrical accuracy of the final product, proper implementation of the bead geometry is essential. The process parameters have a direct influence on the bead geometry, thus to the printed part. In this paper, we propose a bead width prediction model to improve deposition accuracy. A regression algorithm is applied to the experimental results to predict the bead width dimension. Bead prediction equation relating the bead width growth for each layer is obtained for a given set of process parameters. The prediction equations show similar evolution trends and confirm the influence of deposition process parameters on the bead width. The proposed method demonstrates a prospective insight on a more proper selection of process or physical parameter intervening in laser wire additive manufacturing process. [less ▲]

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See detailDo We Really Need TSN in Next-Generation Helicopters? Insights From a Case-Study
Mauclair, Cédric; Gutiérrez, Marina; Migge, Jörn et al

in 2021 AIAA/IEEE 40th Digital Avionics Systems Conference (DASC) (2021, October)

As Ethernet rapidly replaces legacy networks as the core high-speed network in helicopter’s avionics and mission systems, we ask in this paper the question of the technical benefits of migrating to ... [more ▼]

As Ethernet rapidly replaces legacy networks as the core high-speed network in helicopter’s avionics and mission systems, we ask in this paper the question of the technical benefits of migrating to Ethernet Time-Sensitive-Networking (TSN). Indeed, TSN has become a rich toolbox of mechanisms and protocols to address Quality-of-Service (QoS) requirements pertaining to timing and reliability. TSN is quickly becoming the prominent technology for wired high-speed communications in a variety of application domains like automotive, industry 4.0 and telecom. In this context, this work explores the use of TSN timing QoS mechanisms for helicopter’s avionics and mission systems on a case-study representative of the communication requirements of next-generation systems. This study aims to provide quantified insights into what can be expected from TSN in terms of timing, memory usage and extensibility. [less ▲]

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See detailPakeMail: Authentication and Key Management in Decentralized Secure Email and Messaging via PAKE
Vazquez Sandoval, Itzel UL; Atashpendar, Arash; Lenzini, Gabriele UL et al

in Obaidat, Mohammad S.; Ben-Othman, Jalel (Eds.) E-Business and Telecommunications - 17th International Conference on E-Business and Telecommunications, ICETE 2020, Online Event, July 8-10, 2020, Revised Selected Papers. (2021, October)

We propose the use of password-authenticated key exchange (PAKE) for achieving and enhancing entity authentication (EA) and key management (KM) in the context of decentralized end-to-end encrypted email ... [more ▼]

We propose the use of password-authenticated key exchange (PAKE) for achieving and enhancing entity authentication (EA) and key management (KM) in the context of decentralized end-to-end encrypted email and secure messaging, i.e., without a public key infrastructure or a trusted third party. This not only simplifies the EA process by requiring users to share only a low-entropy secret such as a memorable word, but it also allows us to establish a high-entropy secret key. This approach enables a series of cryptographic enhancements and security properties, which are hard to achieve using out-of-band (OOB) authentication. We first study a few vulnerabilities in voice-based OOB authentication, in particular a combinatorial attack against lazy users, which we analyze in the context of a secure email solution. We then propose tackling public key authentication by solving the problem of secure equality test using PAKE and discuss various protocols and their properties. This method enables the automation of important KM tasks such as key renewal and future key pair authentications, reduces the impact of human errors and lends itself to the asynchronous nature of email and modern messaging. It also provides cryptographic enhancements including multi-device synchronization, and secure secret storage/retrieval, and paves the path for forward secrecy, deniability and post-quantum security.We also discuss the use of auditable PAKEs for mitigating a class of online guess and abort attacks in authentication protocols. We present an implementation of our proposal, called PakeMail, to demonstrate the feasibility of the core idea and discuss some of its cryptographic details, implemented features and efficiency aspects. We conclude with some design and security considerations, followed by future lines of work. [less ▲]

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See detail"Just for the sake of transparency": Exploring Voter Mental Models Of Verifiability
Zollinger, Marie-Laure UL; Estaji, Ehsan UL; Ryan, Peter Y A UL et al

in Electronic Voting, Sixth International Joint Conference, E-Vote-ID 2021, Bregenz, Austria, October 5-8 (2021, October)

Verifiable voting schemes allow voters to verify their individual votes and the election outcome. The voting protocol Selene offers verification of plaintext votes while preserving privacy. Misconceptions ... [more ▼]

Verifiable voting schemes allow voters to verify their individual votes and the election outcome. The voting protocol Selene offers verification of plaintext votes while preserving privacy. Misconceptions of verification mechanisms might result in voters mistrust of the system or abstaining from using it. In this paper, we interviewed 24 participants and invited them to illustrate their mental models of Selene. The drawings demonstrated different levels of sophistication and four mental models: 1) technology understanding, 2) meaning of the verification phase, 3) security concerns, and 4) unnecessary steps. We highlight the misconceptions expressed regarding Internet voting technologies and the system design. Based on our findings, we conclude with recommendations for future implementations of Selene as well as for the design of Internet voting systems in general. [less ▲]

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See detailExperimental Comparison of RF Waveform Designs for Wireless Power Transmission
Gautam, Sumit; Kumar, Sumit UL; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL et al

in Experimental Comparison of RF Waveform Designs for Wireless Power Transmission (2021, October)

The possibility to harvest energy from ambient radio-frequency (RF) sources has intrigued humankind for the past several decades. In this context, there has been a tremendously growing research interest ... [more ▼]

The possibility to harvest energy from ambient radio-frequency (RF) sources has intrigued humankind for the past several decades. In this context, there has been a tremendously growing research interest in the field of wireless power transfer (WPT) using the RF range of the electromagnetic (EM) spectrum. In this paper, we experimentally investigate the aspect of real-time energy harvesting (EH) via different types of waveform designs such as orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM), square, triangular, sinusoidal, and sawtooth. We make use of a Software Defined Radio (SDR) and a Powercast P21XXCSR-EVB EH module to carry out the experiments on the practical device to assess performance. Specifically, we are interested in obtaining insights based on the comparison between the aforementioned waveform designs from the perspectives of the separation distance between the USRP and P21XXCSR-EVB EH module, and power emission via USRP. In this vein, some additional experiments are subsequently performed after a suitable candidate waveform has been reported. The demonstration of the EH is provided in terms of the abovementioned investigation metrics while seeking the best waveform to support WPT. [less ▲]

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See detailSpecifying Properties over Inter-Procedural, Source Code Level Behaviour of Programs
Dawes, Joshua UL; Bianculli, Domenico UL

in Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Runtime Verification (2021, October)

The problem of verifying a program at runtime with respect to some formal specification has led to the development of a rich collection of specification languages. These languages often have a high level ... [more ▼]

The problem of verifying a program at runtime with respect to some formal specification has led to the development of a rich collection of specification languages. These languages often have a high level of abstraction and provide sophisticated modal operators, giving a high level of expressiveness. In particular, this makes it possible to express properties concerning the source code level behaviour of programs. However, for many languages, the correspondence between events generated at the source code level and parts of the specification in question would have to be carefully defined. To enable expressing — using a temporal logic — properties over source code level behaviour without the need for this correspondence, previous work introduced Control-Flow Temporal Logic (CFTL), a specification language with a low level of abstraction with respect to the source code of programs. However, this work focused solely on the intra-procedural setting. In this paper, we address this limitation by introducing Inter-procedural CFTL, a language for expressing source code level, inter-procedural properties of program runs. We evaluate the new language, iCFTL, via application to a real-world case study. [less ▲]

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See detailVision of a Next-Gen Concurrent Design Facility (CDF-LU)
Rana, Loveneesh UL

in International Astronautical Congress, Dubai, 25-29 October 2021 (2021, October)

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See detailStudy into In-orbit Servicing of the Rosetta Mission
Rana, Loveneesh UL; Menzio, Davide UL; Ellwood, John

in International Astronautical Congress, Dubai, 25-29 October 2021 (2021, October)

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See detailProvably Improving Election Verifiability in Belenios
Baloglu, Sevdenur UL; Bursuc, Sergiu UL; Mauw, Sjouke UL et al

in Electronic Voting 6th International Joint Conference, E-Vote-ID 2021 Virtual Event, October 5–8, 2021, Proceedings (2021, October)

Belenios is an online voting system that provides a strong notion of election verifiability, where no single party has to be trusted, and security holds as soon as either the voting registrar or the ... [more ▼]

Belenios is an online voting system that provides a strong notion of election verifiability, where no single party has to be trusted, and security holds as soon as either the voting registrar or the voting server is honest. It was formally proved to be secure, making the assump- tion that no further ballots are cast on the bulletin board after voters verified their ballots. In practice, however, revoting is allowed and voters can verify their ballots anytime. This gap between formal proofs and use in practice leaves open space for attacks, as has been shown recently. In this paper we make two simple additions to Belenios and we formally prove that the new version satisfies the expected verifiability properties. Our proofs are automatically performed with the Tamarin prover, under the assumption that voters are allowed to vote at most four times. [less ▲]

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See detailDichtungsanalyse von Elastomer-O-Ringen unter Hochdruck bei Raum- und Tieftemperatur
Repplinger, Christian UL; Sellen, Stephan UL; Maas, Stefan UL

in Repplinger, Christian (Ed.) 47. VDI-Jahrestagung: Schadensanalyse 2021 - Wasserstoff in metallischen Bauteilen und Mediale und klimatische Beanspruchung von polymeren Produkten (2021, October)

Detailed reference viewed: 38 (3 UL)