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See detailTrace-Checking CPS Properties: Bridging the Cyber-Physical Gap
Menghi, Claudio UL; Vigano, Enrico UL; Bianculli, Domenico UL et al

in Proceedings of the 43rd International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE 2021) (in press)

Cyber-physical systems combine software and physical components. Specification-driven trace-checking tools for CPS usually provide users with a specification language to express the requirements of ... [more ▼]

Cyber-physical systems combine software and physical components. Specification-driven trace-checking tools for CPS usually provide users with a specification language to express the requirements of interest, and an automatic procedure to check whether these requirements hold on the execution traces of a CPS. Although there exist several specification languages for CPS, they are often not sufficiently expressive to allow the specification of complex CPS properties related to the software and the physical components and their interactions. In this paper, we propose (i) the Hybrid Logic of Signals (HLS), a logic-based language that allows the specification of complex CPS requirements, and (ii) ThEodorE, an efficient SMT-based trace-checking procedure. This procedure reduces the problem of checking a CPS requirement over an execution trace, to checking the satisfiability of an SMT formula. We evaluated our contributions by using a representative industrial case study in the satellite domain. We assessed the expressiveness of HLS by considering 212 requirements of our case study. HLS could express all the 212 requirements. We also assessed the applicability of ThEodorE by running the trace-checking procedure for 747 trace-requirement combinations. ThEodorE was able to produce a verdict in 74.5% of the cases. Finally, we compared HLS and ThEodorE with other specification languages and trace-checking tools from the literature. Our results show that, from a practical standpoint, our approach offers a better trade-off between expressiveness and performance. [less ▲]

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See detailConservazione e ricezione dei documenti pontifici in Italia settentrionale: il caso del monastero cistercense di Chiaravalle Milanese (secoli XII-XVI)
Salemme, Timothy UL

in Salemme, Timothy; Renault, Jean-Baptiste (Eds.) Conservation et réception des documents pontificaux par les Ordres religieux (XIe-XVe siècles). Actes du colloque international. Nancy, 12-13 décembre 2013 (in press)

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See detailA New Perspective on the Luxembourgish Genitive
Döhmer, Caroline UL

in Germanic Genitives (in press)

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See detailUpdate Internationales und Europäisches Steuerrecht
Sinnig, Julia UL

in Taeger, Jürgen (Ed.) Tagungsband DSRI-Herbstakademie 2020 (in press)

Im Berichtszeitraum dieses Updates rief die OECD zu einem zweiten Öffentlichkeitsbetei-ligungsverfahren auf und erarbeitete einen präziseren Lösungsansatz zur Besteuerung digitalisierter Geschäftsmodelle ... [more ▼]

Im Berichtszeitraum dieses Updates rief die OECD zu einem zweiten Öffentlichkeitsbetei-ligungsverfahren auf und erarbeitete einen präziseren Lösungsansatz zur Besteuerung digitalisierter Geschäftsmodelle, der in einer Veröffentlichung im Januar 2020 vorgestellt wurde. Auf Ebene der Europäischen Union gab es im Berichtszeitraum keine Weiterent-wicklung der Richtlinienvorschläge zu einer Digitalsteuer und dem Konzept der „signifi-kanten digitalen Präsenz“. Der EuGH urteilte am 3. März 2020 in Hinblick auf die unions-rechtliche Vereinbarkeit zweier ungarischer Umsatzsteuern. Dieses Urteil erlaubt erste Rückschlüsse bezüglich der Europarechtskonformität umsatzbasierter Steuern, wie bspw. auch im Berichtszeitraum eingeführte Digitalsteuern einzelner Mitgliedstaaten. Dieser Beitrag knüpft an die Vorträge von Prof. Dr. Jens M. Schmittmann und der Verfasserin anlässlich der Herbstakademien 2018 in Bochum und 2019 in Oldenburg, sowie dem Vortrag der Verfasserin anlässlich der Herbstakademie 2017 in Heidelberg an. [less ▲]

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See detailLes archevêques de Milan face aux premières expériences seigneuriales: stratégies et positionnements (milieu XIIIe-début XIVe s.)
Salemme, Timothy UL

in Barralis, Christine (Ed.) L’évêque face à son métier. Actes du colloque international, Metz. 15-17 novembre 2017 (in press)

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See detailExternalisation de la politique migratoire et identité de l'Union européenne
Neframi, Eleftheria UL; Gatti, Mauro UL

in Benlolo, Myriam (Ed.) L'Union européenne et les migrations (in press)

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See detailWhich Properties has an Icon? A Critical Discussion on Evaluation Methods for Standardised Data Protection Iconography
Rossi, Arianna UL; Lenzini, Gabriele UL

in Proceedings of the 8th Workshop on Socio-Technical Aspects in Security and Trust (STAST) (in press)

Following GDPR's Article12.7's proposal to use standardized icons to inform data subject in "an easily visible, intelligible and clearly legible manner," several icon sets have been developed. In this ... [more ▼]

Following GDPR's Article12.7's proposal to use standardized icons to inform data subject in "an easily visible, intelligible and clearly legible manner," several icon sets have been developed. In this paper, we firstly critically review some of those proposals. We then examine the properties that icons and icon sets should arguably fulfill according to Art.12's transparency provisions. Lastly, we discuss metrics and evaluation procedures to measure compliance with the Article. [less ▲]

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See detailA Methodology for Handling Data Movements by Anticipation: Position Paper
Bleuse, Raphaël UL; Lucarelli, Giorgio; Trystram, Denis

in Euro-Par 2018 Workshops (in press)

The enhanced capabilities of large scale parallel and distributed platforms produce a continuously increasing amount of data which have to be stored, exchanged and used by various tasks allocated on ... [more ▼]

The enhanced capabilities of large scale parallel and distributed platforms produce a continuously increasing amount of data which have to be stored, exchanged and used by various tasks allocated on different nodes of the system. The management of such a huge communication demand is crucial for reaching the best possible performance of the system. Meanwhile, we have to deal with more interferences as the trend is to use a single all-purpose interconnection network whatever the interconnect (tree-based hierarchies or topology-based heterarchies). There are two different types of communications, namely, the flows induced by data exchanges during the computations, and the flows related to Input/Output operations. We propose in this paper a general model for interference-aware scheduling, where explicit communications are replaced by external topological constraints. Specifically, the interferences of both communication types are reduced by adding geometric constraints on the allocation of tasks into machines. The proposed constraints reduce implicitly the data movements by restricting the set of possible allocations for each task. This methodology has been proved to be efficient in a recent study for a restricted interconnection network (a line/ring of processors which is an intermediate between a tree and higher dimensions grids/torus). The obtained results illustrated well the difficulty of the problem even on simple topologies, but also provided a pragmatic greedy solution, which was assessed to be efficient by simulations. We are currently extending this solution for more complex topologies. This work is a position paper which describes the methodology, it does not focus on the solving part. [less ▲]

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See detailProcess analysis in thermal process engineering with high-performance computing using the example of grate firing
Peters, Bernhard UL; Rousset, Alban UL; Besseron, Xavier UL et al

in 12th European Conference on Industrial Furnaces and Boilers (in press)

Biomass as a renewable energy source continues to grow in popularity to reduce fossil fuel consumption for environmental and economic benefits. In the present contribution, the combustion chamber of a 16 ... [more ▼]

Biomass as a renewable energy source continues to grow in popularity to reduce fossil fuel consumption for environmental and economic benefits. In the present contribution, the combustion chamber of a 16 MW geothermal steam super-heater, which is part of the Enel Green Power "Cornia 2" power plant, is being investigated with high-performance computing methods. For this purpose, the extended discrete element method (XDEM) developed at the University of Luxembourg is used in a high-performance computing environment, which includes both the moving wooden bed and the combustion chamber above it. The XDEM simulation platform is based on a hybrid four-way coupling between the Discrete Element Method (DEM) and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). In this approach, particles are treated as discrete elements that are coupled by heat, mass, and momentum transfer to the surrounding gas as a continuous phase. For individual wood particles, besides the equations of motion, the differential conservation equations for mass, heat, and momentum are solved, which describe the thermodynamic state during thermal conversion. The consistency of the numerical results with the actual system performance is discussed in this paper to determine the potentials and limitations of the approach. [less ▲]

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See detailLe dialogue entre les juges en matière de protection des droits de l'homme
Pelin Raducu, Ioana UL

in Menetrey, Séverine; Hess, Burkhard (Eds.) Les dialogues des juges en Europe (in press)

Dans cet article, nous allons mettre en exergue quelques aspects des arrêts récents provenant de la Cour de justice de l’UE (Akerberg Frasson, Melloni, Kamberaj)qui démontrent l’émergence d’un standard ... [more ▼]

Dans cet article, nous allons mettre en exergue quelques aspects des arrêts récents provenant de la Cour de justice de l’UE (Akerberg Frasson, Melloni, Kamberaj)qui démontrent l’émergence d’un standard propre de l’UE en matière des droits de l’homme. Cette tendance de la C.J.U.E. contredira le prescrit normatif découlant du « dialogue des juges » d’interprétation conforme à la jurisprudence de la C.E.D.H. avant que l’adhésion de l’UE à la Convention E.D.H. ne soit formellement acquise. [less ▲]

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See detailAutomatic Test Suite Generation for Key-Points Detection DNNs using Many-Objective Search (Experience Paper)
Ul Haq, Fitash UL; Shin, Donghwan UL; Briand, Lionel UL et al

in 2021 ACM SIGSOFT International Symposium on Software Testing and Analysis (ISSTA) (in press)

Automatically detecting the positions of key-points (e.g., facial key-points or finger key-points) in an image is an essential problem in many applications, such as driver's gaze detection and drowsiness ... [more ▼]

Automatically detecting the positions of key-points (e.g., facial key-points or finger key-points) in an image is an essential problem in many applications, such as driver's gaze detection and drowsiness detection in automated driving systems. With the recent advances of Deep Neural Networks (DNNs), Key-Points detection DNNs (KP-DNNs) have been increasingly employed for that purpose. Nevertheless, KP-DNN testing and validation have remained a challenging problem because KP-DNNs predict many independent key-points at the same time---where each individual key-point may be critical in the targeted application---and images can vary a great deal according to many factors. In this paper, we present an approach to automatically generate test data for KP-DNNs using many-objective search. In our experiments, focused on facial key-points detection DNNs developed for an industrial automotive application, we show that our approach can generate test suites to severely mispredict, on average, more than 93% of all key-points. In comparison, random search-based test data generation can only severely mispredict 41% of them. Many of these mispredictions, however, are not avoidable and should not therefore be considered failures. We also empirically compare state-of-the-art, many-objective search algorithms and their variants, tailored for test suite generation. Furthermore, we investigate and demonstrate how to learn specific conditions, based on image characteristics (e.g., head posture and skin color), that lead to severe mispredictions. Such conditions serve as a basis for risk analysis or DNN retraining. [less ▲]

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See detailL’exposition d’objets ou de collections de « marque » : cobranding, réécriture, réénonciation
Schall, Céline UL

in Laval, Sylvie (Ed.) Marques muséales : un espace public revisité ? (in press)

Le cobranding est une pratique habituelle du secteur marchand. Mais lorsque deux musées réalisent ensemble une exposition, peut-on parler de cobranding muséal ? Quelles en seraient les spécificités  ... [more ▼]

Le cobranding est une pratique habituelle du secteur marchand. Mais lorsque deux musées réalisent ensemble une exposition, peut-on parler de cobranding muséal ? Quelles en seraient les spécificités ? Quels effets peut avoir cette démarche sur la communication ou sur l’exposition ? Notamment, le musée d’accueil s’approprie-t-il simplement l’imaginaire et les valeurs de la marque invitée par un phénomène de « transfert » ? Pour répondre à ces questions, nous étudions trois expositions qui reprennent des objets ou collections de musées dont la marque est internationalement reconnue. L’analyse sémiotique des images de marque du musée d’accueil et du musée invité ainsi que l’analyse sémiopragmatique des expositions montrent l’impact de la présence d’une grande marque internationale sur l’exposition et réciproquement, l’impact de l’exposition sur l’image de marque du musée d’accueil. Plus qu’un simple cobranding, c’est une réécriture impliquant une réénonciation du discours et des valeurs portés par les marques qui est proposée à travers ces expositions. Le processus aboutit à la création de nouveaux espaces symboliques et d’expositions réflexives, avec plusieurs niveaux de lecture. [less ▲]

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See detailLe quotidien d’un poilu de la première guerre mondiale sur Facebook : nouvelle forme de médiation, nouvelle expérience ?
Schall, Céline UL; Vilatte, Jean-Christophe

in Les mondes de la médiation culturelle (in press)

« En 2013, le Musée de la Grande Guerre du Pays de Meaux et l’agence de communication DDB ont élaboré une page Facebook d’un genre nouveau. Facebook 1914, le quotidien de la première guerre offre une ... [more ▼]

« En 2013, le Musée de la Grande Guerre du Pays de Meaux et l’agence de communication DDB ont élaboré une page Facebook d’un genre nouveau. Facebook 1914, le quotidien de la première guerre offre une forme de médiation a priori inédite pour un musée français. Elle présente l’histoire d’un personnage de fiction, Léon Vivien, qui raconte son quotidien lors de la première guerre mondiale, sur Facebook, comme si ce réseau social avait existé à cette époque. Cette contribution met en évidence certains des effets de sens de la page par une analyse sémiotique du dispositif et une analyse thématique de ses contenus. Nous questionnons ensuite cette « nouvelle » forme de médiation qui se dit « participante » et qui, en réalité, reste assez classique dans son contenu et sous-exploite le potentiel de Facebook. » [less ▲]

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See detail« … Eripuit servus mihi vitam » - Représentations médiatiques de la violence et de la criminalité dans les provinces occidentales de l'Empire romain
Binsfeld, Andrea UL

in Amodio, Mara (Ed.) The imagery of violence in Roman society (I-VI cent.). Persistence, innovations and interrelations from the Roman to the Christian Empire (in press)

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See detailDigital Twins Are Not Monozygotic -- Cross-Replicating ADAS Testing in Two Industry-Grade Automotive Simulators
Borg, Markus; Ben Abdessalem (helali), Raja UL; Nejati, Shiva UL et al

in 2021 IEEE 14th International Conference on Software Testing, Validation and Verification (ICST) (in press)

The increasing levels of software- and data-intensive driving automation call for an evolution of automotive software testing. As a recommended practice of the Verification and Validation (V&V) process of ... [more ▼]

The increasing levels of software- and data-intensive driving automation call for an evolution of automotive software testing. As a recommended practice of the Verification and Validation (V&V) process of ISO/PAS 21448, a candidate standard for safety of the intended functionality for road vehicles, simulation-based testing has the potential to reduce both risks and costs. There is a growing body of research on devising test automation techniques using simulators for Advanced Driver-Assistance Systems (ADAS). However, how similar are the results if the same test scenarios are executed in different simulators? We conduct a replication study of applying a Search-Based Software Testing (SBST) solution to a real-world ADAS (PeVi, a pedestrian vision detection system) using two different commercial simulators, namely, TASS/Siemens PreScan and ESI Pro-SiVIC. Based on a minimalistic scene, we compare critical test scenarios generated using our SBST solution in these two simulators. We show that SBST can be used to effectively and efficiently generate critical test scenarios in both simulators, and the test results obtained from the two simulators can reveal several weaknesses of the ADAS under test. However, executing the same test scenarios in the two simulators leads to notable differences in the details of the test outputs, in particular, related to (1) safety violations revealed by tests, and (2) dynamics of cars and pedestrians. Based on our findings, we recommend future V&V plans to include multiple simulators to support robust simulation-based testing and to base test objectives on measures that are less dependant on the internals of the simulators. [less ▲]

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See detailBlockchain Governance: An Overview and Prediction of Optimal Strategies Using Nash Equilibrium
Khan, Nida UL; Ahmad, Tabrez; Patel, Anass et al

in 3rd AUE International Research Conference (in press)

Blockchain governance is a subject of ongoing research and an interdisciplinary view of blockchain governance is vital to aid in further research for establishing a formal governance framework for this ... [more ▼]

Blockchain governance is a subject of ongoing research and an interdisciplinary view of blockchain governance is vital to aid in further research for establishing a formal governance framework for this nascent technology. In this paper, the position of blockchain governance within the hierarchy of Institutional governance is discussed. Blockchain governance is analyzed from the perspective of IT governance using Nash equilibrium to predict the outcome of different governance decisions. A payoff matrix for blockchain governance is created and simulation of different strategy profiles is accomplished for computation of all Nash equilibria. We also create payoff matrices for different kinds of blockchain governance, which were used to propose novel mathematical formulae usable to predict the best governance strategy that minimizes the occurrence of a hard fork as well as predicts the behavior of the majority during protocol updates. [less ▲]

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See detailDatenbank für Zweisprachige Historische Luxemburgische Bekanntmachungen
Gilles, Peter UL; Ziegler, Evelyn

in Wallmeier, Nadine; Tophinke, Doris (Eds.) Historische Stadtsprachenforschung (in press)

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See detailLog-based Slicing for System-level Test Cases
Messaoudi, Salma UL; Shin, Donghwan UL; Panichella, Annibale et al

in 2021 ACM SIGSOFT International Symposium on Software Testing and Analysis (ISSTA) (in press)

Regression testing is arguably one of the most important activities in software testing. However, its cost-effectiveness and usefulness can be largely impaired by complex system test cases that are poorly ... [more ▼]

Regression testing is arguably one of the most important activities in software testing. However, its cost-effectiveness and usefulness can be largely impaired by complex system test cases that are poorly designed (e.g., test cases containing multiple test scenarios combined into a single test case) and that require a large amount of time and resources to run. One way to mitigate this issue is decomposing such system test cases into smaller, separate test cases---each of them with only one test scenario and with its corresponding assertions---so that the execution time of the decomposed test cases is lower than the original test cases, while the test effectiveness of the original test cases is preserved. This decomposition can be achieved with program slicing techniques, since test cases are software programs too. However, existing static and dynamic slicing techniques exhibit limitations when (1) the test cases use external resources, (2) code instrumentation is not a viable option, and (3) test execution is expensive. In this paper, we propose a novel approach, called DS3 (Decomposing System teSt caSe), which automatically decomposes a complex system test case into separate test case slices. The idea is to use test case execution logs, obtained from past regression testing sessions, to identify "hidden" dependencies in the slices generated by static slicing. Since logs include run-time information about the system under test, we can use them to extract access and usage of global resources and refine the slices generated by static slicing. We evaluated DS3 in terms of slicing effectiveness and compared it with a vanilla static slicing tool. We also compared the slices obtained by DS3 with the corresponding original system test cases, in terms of test efficiency and effectiveness. The evaluation results on one proprietary system and one open-source system show that DS3 is able to accurately identify the dependencies related to the usage of global resources, which vanilla static slicing misses. Moreover, the generated test case slices are, on average, 3.56 times faster than original system test cases and they exhibit no significant loss in terms of fault detection effectiveness. [less ▲]

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See detailRoboMAX: Robotic Mission Adaptation eXemplars
Askarpour, Mehrnoosh; Tsigkanos, Christos; Menghi, Claudio UL et al

in Symposium on Software Engineering for Adaptive and Self-Managing Systems (SEAMS) - Artifact Track (in press)

Emerging and future applications of robotic systems pose unique self-adaptation challenges. To support the research needed to address these challenges, we provide an extensible repository of robotic ... [more ▼]

Emerging and future applications of robotic systems pose unique self-adaptation challenges. To support the research needed to address these challenges, we provide an extensible repository of robotic mission adaptation exemplars. Co-designed with robotic application stakeholders including researchers, developers, operators, and end-users, our repository captures key sources of uncertainty, adaptation concerns, and other distinguishing characteristics of such applications. An online form enables external parties to supply new exemplars for curation and inclusion into the repository. We envisage that our RoboMAX repository will enable the development, evaluation, and comparison of much-needed self-adaptation approaches for the robotic systems domain. [less ▲]

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See detailThe legacy of coal mining – a view on examples in Belgium and France
Helfer, Malte UL

in Deutsches Bergbau-Museum Bochum (Ed.) Boom – Crisis – Heritage. King Coal and Energy Revolutions after 1945; proceedings of the international conference March 14th-16th 2018, Technische Hochschule Georg Agricola, Bochum (in press)

Following the end of coalmining in Belgium (1992) and France (2004), the year 2018 marks the end of hard coal mining in Germany as well. This contribution looks at the legacy of coalmining of Germany’s ... [more ▼]

Following the end of coalmining in Belgium (1992) and France (2004), the year 2018 marks the end of hard coal mining in Germany as well. This contribution looks at the legacy of coalmining of Germany’s French-speaking neighbours and presents the most important remaining coal mining heritage sites as well as some extraordinary converted sites in France and the Belgian province Wallonia. [less ▲]

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See detailLa Charte dans l'action extérieure de l'Union européenne
Neframi, Eleftheria UL

in Iliopoulou Penot, Anastasia; Xenou, Lamprini (Eds.) La Charte des droits fondamentaux de l'UE (in press)

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See detailStudent Response Systems in Remote Teaching
Botev, Jean UL; Grevisse, Christian UL; Rothkugel, Steffen UL

in Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction (HCI International) (in press)

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See detailPrimauté et droits fondamentaux: une question de compétences?
Neframi, Eleftheria UL

in Gaudin, Hélène (Ed.) Primauté et clause la plus protectrice: le renouveau des droits fondamentaux en Europe (in press)

Dans le rapport entre le principe de primauté et la protection des droits fondamentaux la question de la répartition des compétences ne semble pas, à première vue, se poser : la primauté nous place dans ... [more ▼]

Dans le rapport entre le principe de primauté et la protection des droits fondamentaux la question de la répartition des compétences ne semble pas, à première vue, se poser : la primauté nous place dans la sphère de compétence de l’Union, alors que la protection des droits fondamentaux, comme contestation de la primauté, relève de la sphère nationale. Le conflit entre primauté et droits fondamentaux relève ainsi du rapport des ordres juridiques et est résolu par leur interaction, exprimée dans la balance entre le principe de coopération loyale et la prise en compte des intérêts nationaux, sur la base du respect de l’identité nationale ou en invoquant l’article 53 de la Charte . En ce sens, la problématique des compétences n’entre pas en ligne de compte. Cependant, l’élaboration de standards européens de protection des droits fondamentaux, en tant qu’objet direct ou indirect de l’exercice des compétences de l’Union, peut servir le compromis issu du principe d’attribution. Ainsi, primauté et droits fondamentaux peuvent être abordés sous l’angle des compétences. Le rapport entre primauté et droits fondamentaux n’est toutefois pas forcément conflictuel. La Charte est source d’obligations pour les Etats membres au-delà du champ couvert par l’exercice des compétences de l’Union. Il est bien établi que la notion de mise en œuvre du droit de l’Union en tant que condition de l’application de la Charte à l’égard des Etats membres, est entendue dans le sens du domaine couvert par le droit de l’Union. Ainsi, les standards européens de protection sont eux-mêmes couverts par la primauté et interviennent dans l’encadrement de l’autonomie nationale et l’articulation des compétences [less ▲]

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See detailDiscrete-Phase Sequence Design with Stopband and PSL Constraints for Cognitive Radar
Alaeekerahroodi, Mohammad UL; Kumar, Sumit UL; Mysore Rama Rao, Bhavani Shankar UL et al

in Proceedings of EuRAD 2020 (in press)

We present the design of discrete-phase sequences considering simultaneously the peak sidelobe level (PSL) and avoiding reserved frequency bands which are occupied by narrowband interferers or ... [more ▼]

We present the design of discrete-phase sequences considering simultaneously the peak sidelobe level (PSL) and avoiding reserved frequency bands which are occupied by narrowband interferers or communications. We use the coordinate descent framework and propose an algorithm to design discrete-phase sequences with spectral power suppressed in arbitrary bands and with low auto-correlation sidelobes in terms of PSL. Our proposed algorithm exploits fast Fourier transform and is, therefore, computationally efficient. The over-the-air experiments using implementation on software-defined radio show reasonable agreement with numerical simulations and feasibility for field-deployment [less ▲]

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See detailVirtual Agent Representation for Critical Transactions
Sun, Ningyuan UL; Botev, Jean UL

in Proceedings of the 12th ACM Multimedia Systems Conference (MMSys) (in press)

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See detailConFuzzius: A Data Dependency-Aware Hybrid Fuzzer for Smart Contracts
Ferreira Torres, Christof UL; Iannillo, Antonio Ken UL; Gervais, Arthur et al

in European Symposium on Security and Privacy, Vienna 7-11 September 2021 (2021, September)

Smart contracts are Turing-complete programs that are executed across a blockchain. Unlike traditional programs, once deployed, they cannot be modified. As smart contracts carry more value, they become ... [more ▼]

Smart contracts are Turing-complete programs that are executed across a blockchain. Unlike traditional programs, once deployed, they cannot be modified. As smart contracts carry more value, they become more of an exciting target for attackers. Over the last years, they suffered from exploits costing millions of dollars due to simple programming mistakes. As a result, a variety of tools for detecting bugs have been proposed. Most of these tools rely on symbolic execution, which may yield false positives due to over-approximation. Recently, many fuzzers have been proposed to detect bugs in smart contracts. However, these tend to be more effective in finding shallow bugs and less effective in finding bugs that lie deep in the execution, therefore achieving low code coverage and many false negatives. An alternative that has proven to achieve good results in traditional programs is hybrid fuzzing, a combination of symbolic execution and fuzzing. In this work, we study hybrid fuzzing on smart contracts and present ConFuzzius, the first hybrid fuzzer for smart contracts. ConFuzzius uses evolutionary fuzzing to exercise shallow parts of a smart contract and constraint solving to generate inputs that satisfy complex conditions that prevent evolutionary fuzzing from exploring deeper parts. Moreover, ConFuzzius leverages dynamic data dependency analysis to efficiently generate sequences of transactions that are more likely to result in contract states in which bugs may be hidden. We evaluate the effectiveness of ConFuzzius by comparing it with state-of-the-art symbolic execution tools and fuzzers for smart contracts. Our evaluation on a curated dataset of 128 contracts and a dataset of 21K real-world contracts shows that our hybrid approach detects more bugs than state-of-the-art tools (up to 23%) and that it outperforms existing tools in terms of code coverage (up to 69%). We also demonstrate that data dependency analysis can boost bug detection up to 18%. [less ▲]

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See detailAn efficient deep learning approach for ground point filtering in aerial laser scanning point clouds
Nurunnabi, Abdul Awal Md UL

in Nurunnabi, Abdul Awal Md; Teferle, Felix Norman; Li, Jonathan (Eds.) et al An efficient deep learning approach for ground point filtering in aerial laser scanning point clouds (2021, July 02)

Ground surface extraction is one of the classic tasks in airborne laser scanning (ALS) point cloud processing that is used for three-dimensional (3D) city modelling, infrastructure health monitoring, and ... [more ▼]

Ground surface extraction is one of the classic tasks in airborne laser scanning (ALS) point cloud processing that is used for three-dimensional (3D) city modelling, infrastructure health monitoring, and disaster management. Many methods have been developed over the last three decades. Recently, Deep Learning (DL) has become the most dominant technique for 3D point cloud classification. DL methods used for classification can be categorized into end-to-end and non end-to-end approaches. One of the main challenges of using supervised DL approaches is getting a sufficient amount of training data. The main advantage of using a supervised non end-to-end approach is that it requires less training data. This paper introduces a novel local feature-based non end-to-end DL algorithm that generates a binary classifier for ground point filtering. It studies feature relevance, and investigates three models that are different combinations of features. This method is free from the limitations of point clouds’ irregular data structure and varying data density, which is the biggest challenge for using the elegant convolutional neural network. The new algorithm does not require transforming data into regular 3D voxel grids or any rasterization. The performance of the new method has been demonstrated through two ALS datasets covering urban environments. The method successfully labels ground and non-ground points in the presence of steep slopes and height discontinuity in the terrain. Experiments in this paper show that the algorithm achieves around 97% in both F1-score and model accuracy for ground point labelling. [less ▲]

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See detailRESIF 3.0: Toward a Flexible & Automated Management of User Software Environment on HPC facility
Varrette, Sébastien UL; Kieffer, Emmanuel UL; Pinel, Frederic UL et al

in ACM Practice and Experience in Advanced Research Computing (PEARC'21) (2021, July)

High Performance Computing (HPC) is increasingly identified as a strategic asset and enabler to accelerate the research and the business performed in all areas requiring intensive computing and large ... [more ▼]

High Performance Computing (HPC) is increasingly identified as a strategic asset and enabler to accelerate the research and the business performed in all areas requiring intensive computing and large-scale Big Data analytic capabilities. The efficient exploitation of heterogeneous computing resources featuring different processor architectures and generations, coupled with the eventual presence of GPU accelerators, remains a challenge. The University of Luxembourg operates since 2007 a large academic HPC facility which remains one of the reference implementation within the country and offers a cutting-edge research infrastructure to Luxembourg public research. The HPC support team invests a significant amount of time (i.e., several months of effort per year) in providing a software environment optimised for hundreds of users, but the complexity of HPC software was quickly outpacing the capabilities of classical software management tools. Since 2014, our scientific software stack is generated and deployed in an automated and consistent way through the RESIF framework, a wrapper on top of Easybuild and Lmod [5] meant to efficiently handle user software generation. A large code refactoring was performed in 2017 to better handle different software sets and roles across multiple clusters, all piloted through a dedicated control repository. With the advent in 2020 of a new supercomputer featuring a different CPU architecture, and to mitigate the identified limitations of the existing framework, we report in this state-of-practice article RESIF 3.0, the latest iteration of our scientific software management suit now relying on streamline Easybuild. It permitted to reduce by around 90% the number of custom configurations previously enforced by specific Slurm and MPI settings, while sustaining optimised builds coexisting for different dimensions of CPU and GPU architectures. The workflow for contributing back to the Easybuild community was also automated and a current work in progress aims at drastically decrease the building time of a complete software set generation. Overall, most design choices for our wrapper have been motivated by several years of experience in addressing in a flexible and convenient way the heterogeneous needs inherent to an academic environment aiming for research excellence. As the code base is available publicly, and as we wish to transparently report also the pitfalls and difficulties met, this tool may thus help other HPC centres to consolidate their own software management stack. [less ▲]

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See detailAvoiding bias when inferring race using name-based approaches
Kozlowski, Diego UL; Murray, Dakota S.; Bell, Alexis et al

in 18th INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SCIENTOMETRICS & INFORMETRICS, 12–15 July 2021KU Leuven, Belgium (2021, July)

Racial disparity in academia is a widely acknowledged problem. The quantitative understanding of racial-based systemic inequalities is an important step towards a more equitable research system. However ... [more ▼]

Racial disparity in academia is a widely acknowledged problem. The quantitative understanding of racial-based systemic inequalities is an important step towards a more equitable research system. However, few large-scale analyses have been performed on this topic, mostly because of the lack of robust race-disambiguation algorithms. Identifying author information does not generally include the author’s race. Therefore, an algorithm needs to be employed, using known information about authors, i.e., their names, to infer their perceived race. Nevertheless, as any other algorithm, the process of racial inference can generate biases if it is not carefully considered. When the research is focused on the understanding of racial-based inequalities, such biases undermine the objectives of the investigation and may perpetuate inequities. The goal of this article is to assess the biases introduced by the different approaches used name-based racial inference. We use information from US census and mortgage applications to infer the race of US author names in the Web of Science. We estimate the effects of using given and family names, thresholds or continuous distributions, and imputation. Our results demonstrate that the validity of name-based inference varies by race and ethnicity and that threshold approaches underestimate Black authors and overestimate White authors. We conclude with recommendations to avoid potential biases. This article fills an important research gap that will allow more systematic and unbiased studies on racial disparity in science. [less ▲]

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See detailComparing MultiLingual and Multiple MonoLingual Models for Intent Classification and Slot Filling
Lothritz, Cedric UL; Allix, Kevin UL; Lebichot, Bertrand UL et al

in 26th International Conference on Applications of Natural Language to Information Systems (2021, June 25)

With the momentum of conversational AI for enhancing client-to-business interactions, chatbots are sought in various domains, including FinTech where they can automatically handle requests for opening ... [more ▼]

With the momentum of conversational AI for enhancing client-to-business interactions, chatbots are sought in various domains, including FinTech where they can automatically handle requests for opening/closing bank accounts or issuing/terminating credit cards. Since they are expected to replace emails and phone calls, chatbots must be capable to deal with diversities of client populations. In this work, we focus on the variety of languages, in particular in multilingual countries. Specifically, we investigate the strategies for training deep learning models of chatbots with multilingual data. We perform experiments for the specific tasks of Intent Classification and Slot Filling in financial domain chatbots and assess the performance of mBERT multilingual model vs multiple monolingual models. [less ▲]

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See detailIntelligent Misbehavior Detection System for Detecting False Position Attacks in Vehicular Networks
Hawlader, Faisal UL; Boualouache, Abdelwahab UL; Faye, Sébastien UL et al

in Hawlader, Faisal; Boualouache, Abdelwahab; Faye, Sébastien (Eds.) et al The 2021 IEEE International Conference on Communications (the 4th Workshop on 5G and Beyond Wireless Security) (2021, June)

Position falsification attacks are one of the most dangerous internal attacks in vehicular networks. Several Machine Learning-based Misbehavior Detection Systems (ML-based MDSs) have recently been proposed ... [more ▼]

Position falsification attacks are one of the most dangerous internal attacks in vehicular networks. Several Machine Learning-based Misbehavior Detection Systems (ML-based MDSs) have recently been proposed to detect these attacks and mitigate their impact. However, existing ML-based MDSs require numerous features, which increases the computational time needed to detect attacks. In this context, this paper introduces a novel ML-based MDS for the early detection of position falsification attacks. Based only on received positions, our system provides real-time and accurate predictions. Our system is intensively trained and tested using a publicly available data set, while its validation is done by simulation. Six conventional classification algorithms are applied to estimate and construct the best model based on supervised learning. The results show that the proposed system can detect position falsification attacks with almost 100% accuracy. [less ▲]

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See detailProtection of Personal Data in High Performance Computing Platform for Scientific Research Purposes
Paseri, Ludovica; Varrette, Sébastien UL; Bouvry, Pascal UL

in Proc. of the EU Annual Privacy Forum (APF) 2021 (2021, June)

The Open Science projects are also aimed at strongly encouraging the use of Cloud technologies and High Performance Computing (HPC), for the benefit of European researchers and universities. The emerging ... [more ▼]

The Open Science projects are also aimed at strongly encouraging the use of Cloud technologies and High Performance Computing (HPC), for the benefit of European researchers and universities. The emerging paradigm of Open Science enables an easier access to expert knowledge and material; however, it also raises some challenges regarding the protection of personal data, considering that part of the research data are personal data thus subjected to the EU’s General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR). This paper investigates the concept of scientific research in the field of data protection, with regard both to the European (GDPR) and national (Luxembourg Data Protection Law) legal framework for the compliance of the HPC technology. Therefore, it focuses on a case study, the HPC platform of the University of Luxembourg (ULHPC), to pinpoint the major data protection issues arising from the processing activities through HPC from the perspective of the HPC platform operators. Our study illustrates where the most problematic aspects of compliance lie. In this regard, possible solutions are also suggested, which mainly revolve around (1) standardisation of procedures; (2) cooperation at institutional level; (3) identification of guidelines for common challenges. This research is aimed to support legal researchers in the field of data protection, in order to help deepen the understanding of HPC technology’s challenges and universities and research centres holding an HPC platform for research purposes, which have to address the same issues. [less ▲]

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See detailAn Age-Of-Information Perspective on Decentralized Congestion Control in Vehicular Networks
Turcanu, Ion UL; Baiocchi, Andrea; Lyamin, Nikita et al

in 19th Mediterranean Communication and Computer Networking Conference, Online Conference, 15-17 June 2021 (2021, June)

Vehicular networking enables a wide range of emerging Cooperative Intelligent Transportation System (C-ITS) applications, from safety to traffic efficiency and infotainment. Many of these applications ... [more ▼]

Vehicular networking enables a wide range of emerging Cooperative Intelligent Transportation System (C-ITS) applications, from safety to traffic efficiency and infotainment. Many of these applications depend on the reliability and timeliness of status information periodically exchanged among vehicles on the same wireless communication channel. A major effort has been spent, especially by standardization bodies, to define congestion control algorithms for the vehicular networking environment. The picture is, however, more complex than simply controlling the load level on the channel, given the non-trivial interplay of delivery reliability, system throughput, and timeliness of updates. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive performance evaluation of the main state-of- the-art broadcast rate control algorithms from the point of view of channel load, utilization efficiency, and information freshness. We evaluate these algorithms in a realistic simulation environment and describe a centralized approach to define a bound on the performance. We show that controlling the congestion based on either channel load or information freshness only leads to sub-optimal performance. [less ▲]

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See detailHSM-based Key Management Solution for Ethereum Blockchain
Shbair, Wazen UL; Gavrilov, Eugene; State, Radu UL

in IEEE International Conference on Blockchain and Cryptocurrency, 3-6 May 2021 (2021, May 03)

The security of distributed applications backed by blockchain technology relies mainly on keeping the associated cryptographic keys (i.e. private keys) in well-protected storage. Since they are the unique ... [more ▼]

The security of distributed applications backed by blockchain technology relies mainly on keeping the associated cryptographic keys (i.e. private keys) in well-protected storage. Since they are the unique proof of ownership of the underlying digital assets. If the keys are stolen or lost, there is no way to recover the assets. The cold wallet is a good candidate for basic use cases, but it has a substantial challenge for more complex applications as it does not scale. Warm and hot wallets are more convenient options for blockchain-based solutions that aim to transact in a cloud environment. In this work, we focus on Hardware Security Module (HSM) based wallet. The HSM is the de-facto standard device designed to manage high-value cryptographic keys and to protect them against hacks. In this demonstration, we present an HSM-based working prototype that secures the entire life cycle of Ethereum public and private keys. [less ▲]

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See detailUsing Domain-specific Corpora for Improved Handling of Ambiguity in Requirements
Ezzini, Saad UL; Abualhaija, Sallam UL; Arora, Chetan et al

in In Proceedings of the 43rd International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE'21), Madrid 25-28 May 2021 (2021, May)

Ambiguity in natural-language requirements is a pervasive issue that has been studied by the requirements engineering community for more than two decades. A fully manual approach for addressing ambiguity ... [more ▼]

Ambiguity in natural-language requirements is a pervasive issue that has been studied by the requirements engineering community for more than two decades. A fully manual approach for addressing ambiguity in requirements is tedious and time-consuming, and may further overlook unacknowledged ambiguity – the situation where different stakeholders perceive a requirement as unambiguous but, in reality, interpret the requirement differently. In this paper, we propose an automated approach that uses natural language processing for handling ambiguity in requirements. Our approach is based on the automatic generation of a domain-specific corpus from Wikipedia. Integrating domain knowledge, as we show in our evaluation, leads to a significant positive improvement in the accuracy of ambiguity detection and interpretation. We scope our work to coordination ambiguity (CA) and prepositional-phrase attachment ambiguity (PAA) because of the prevalence of these types of ambiguity in natural-language requirements [1]. We evaluate our approach on 20 industrial requirements documents. These documents collectively contain more than 5000 requirements from seven distinct application domains. Over this dataset, our approach detects CA and PAA with an average precision of 80% and an average recall of 89% ( 90% for cases of unacknowledged ambiguity). The automatic interpretations that our approach yields have an average accuracy of 85%. Compared to baselines that use generic corpora, our approach, which uses domain-specific corpora, has 33% better accuracy in ambiguity detection and 16% better accuracy in interpretation. [less ▲]

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See detailA Replication Study on the Usability of Code Vocabulary in Predicting Flaky Tests
Haben, Guillaume UL; Habchi, Sarra UL; Papadakis, Mike UL et al

in 18th International Conference on Mining Software Repositories (2021, May)

Abstract—Industrial reports indicate that flaky tests are one of the primary concerns of software testing mainly due to the false signals they provide. To deal with this issue, researchers have developed ... [more ▼]

Abstract—Industrial reports indicate that flaky tests are one of the primary concerns of software testing mainly due to the false signals they provide. To deal with this issue, researchers have developed tools and techniques aiming at (automatically) identifying flaky tests with encouraging results. However, to reach industrial adoption and practice, these techniques need to be replicated and evaluated extensively on multiple datasets, occasions and settings. In view of this, we perform a replication study of a recently proposed method that predicts flaky tests based on their vocabulary. We thus replicate the original study on three different dimensions. First we replicate the approach on the same subjects as in the original study but using a different evaluation methodology, i.e., we adopt a time-sensitive selection of training and test sets to better reflect the envisioned use case. Second, we consolidate the findings of the initial study by building a new dataset of 837 flaky tests from 9 projects in a different programming language, i.e., Python while the original study was in Java, which comforts the generalisability of the results. Third, we propose an extension to the original approach by experimenting with different features extracted from the Code Under Test. Our results demonstrate that a more robust validation has a consistent negative impact on the reported results of the original study, but, fortunately, these do not invalidate the key conclusions of the study. We also find re-assuring results that the vocabulary-based models can also be used to predict test flakiness in Python and that the information lying in the Code Under Test has a limited impact in the performance of the vocabulary-based models [less ▲]

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See detailThEodorE: a Trace Checker for CPS Properties
Menghi, Claudio UL; Vigano, Enrico UL; Bianculli, Domenico UL et al

in Companion Proceedings of the 43rd International Conference on Software Engineering (2021, May)

ThEodorE is a trace checker for Cyber-Physical systems (CPS). It provides users with (i) a GUI editor for writing CPS requirements; (ii) an automatic procedure to check whether the requirements hold on ... [more ▼]

ThEodorE is a trace checker for Cyber-Physical systems (CPS). It provides users with (i) a GUI editor for writing CPS requirements; (ii) an automatic procedure to check whether the requirements hold on execution traces of a CPS. ThEodorE enables writing requirements using the Hybrid Logic of Signals (HLS), a novel, logic-based specification language to express CPS requirements. The trace checking procedure of ThEodorE reduces the problem of checking if a requirement holds on an execution trace to a satisfiability problem, which can be solved using off-the-shelf Satisfiability Modulo Theories (SMT) solvers. This artifact paper presents the tool support provided by ThEodorE. [less ▲]

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See detailRAICC: Revealing Atypical Inter-Component Communication in Android Apps
Samhi, Jordan UL; Bartel, Alexandre UL; Bissyande, Tegawendé François D Assise UL et al

in Samhi, Jordan; Bartel, Alexandre; Bissyande, Tegawendé François D Assise (Eds.) et al 43rd International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE) (2021, May)

Inter-Component Communication (ICC) is a key mechanism in Android. It enables developers to compose rich functionalities and explore reuse within and across apps. Unfortunately, as reported by a large ... [more ▼]

Inter-Component Communication (ICC) is a key mechanism in Android. It enables developers to compose rich functionalities and explore reuse within and across apps. Unfortunately, as reported by a large body of literature, ICC is rather "complex and largely unconstrained", leaving room to a lack of precision in apps modeling. To address the challenge of tracking ICCs within apps, state of the art static approaches such as Epicc, IccTA and Amandroid have focused on the documented framework ICC methods (e.g., startActivity) to build their approaches. In this work we show that ICC models inferred in these state of the art tools may actually be incomplete: the framework provides other atypical ways of performing ICCs. To address this limitation in the state of the art, we propose RAICC a static approach for modeling new ICC links and thus boosting previous analysis tasks such as ICC vulnerability detection, privacy leaks detection, malware detection, etc. We have evaluated RAICC on 20 benchmark apps, demonstrating that it improves the precision and recall of uncovered leaks in state of the art tools. We have also performed a large empirical investigation showing that Atypical ICC methods are largely used in Android apps, although not necessarily for data transfer. We also show that RAICC increases the number of ICC links found by 61.6% on a dataset of real-world malicious apps, and that RAICC enables the detection of new ICC vulnerabilities. [less ▲]

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See detailAge of Information in IEEE 802.11p
Baiocchi, Andrea; Turcanu, Ion UL; Lyamin, Nikita et al

in 17th IFIP/IEEE International Symposium on Integrated Network Management (IM): ITAVT Workshop (2021, May)

Vehicle-to-Everything (V2X) communication is essential for facilitating connected and automated driving, where vehicles and other road traffic participants share data instantaneously and cooperate to ... [more ▼]

Vehicle-to-Everything (V2X) communication is essential for facilitating connected and automated driving, where vehicles and other road traffic participants share data instantaneously and cooperate to solve tricky traffic situations in milliseconds. This paper proposes two stochastic models for the V2X standard IEEE 802.11p to characterize amongst other things the Age of Information (AoI), a recently-proposed metric that measures the freshness of information. The first model is based on renewal process analysis of a tagged station with mean field approximation, while the second one adopts Markov chain approach with network level view. Analytical results show that IEEE 802.11p, given its adaptability to event-triggered and aperiodic messaging, supports advanced cooperative driving scenarios. [less ▲]

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See detailA Comparison of Pre-Trained Language Models for Multi-Class Text Classification in the Financial Domain
Arslan, Yusuf UL; Allix, Kevin UL; Veiber, Lisa UL et al

in Companion Proceedings of the Web Conference 2021 (WWW '21 Companion), April 19--23, 2021, Ljubljana, Slovenia (2021, April 19)

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See detailDesign model for dry-stacked and demountable masonry blocks
Chewe Ngapeya, Gelen Gael; Waldmann, Daniele UL

in POWERSKIN Conference Proceedings (2021, April 09)

The construction industry around the world produces a large part of inert wastes mainly coming from building demolitions. Facing to this envi-ronmental challenge and considering the new policy initiatives ... [more ▼]

The construction industry around the world produces a large part of inert wastes mainly coming from building demolitions. Facing to this envi-ronmental challenge and considering the new policy initiatives supporting the designing of sustainable buildings, dry-stacked masonry comes forward as a promising solution since components can be dismantled, saved in a component bank and reassembled on new sites. The speedy growth of the construction industry, the increasing importance given to the complete life cycle of buildings and the evolution of construction technics have led to the development of dry-stacked masonry structures. Mortarless masonry structures minimise skilled labour requirements and improve construction productivity. However, despite these advantages, there are no design standards providing guidelines to assess the load-bearing capacity of dry-stacked masonry block, which therefore limits its use in construction. In an attempt to fill this lack, the current paper investigates the load-bearing capacity of dry-stacked masonry and its influencing parameters. The effects of the geometric imperfections such as height imperfections and bed-joint roughness have been analysed as well as a mitigation strategy. Then, based on experimental evidence, a design method has been proposed for dry-stacked masonry solicited by axial compression. The developed design methodology provided promising results, with 93% of accuracy in the prediction of the dry-stacked masonry’s’ load-bearing capacity. [less ▲]

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See detailEco-construction for sustainable development: Concept of a Material and Component Bank
JAYASINGHE, Laddu Bhagya; Waldmann, Daniele UL

in POWERSKIN Conference Proceedings (2021, April 09)

The European Commission has recently promulgated the concept of Circular Economy as a new pathway towards sustainability, in particular through new policy initiatives such as the Circular Economy Action ... [more ▼]

The European Commission has recently promulgated the concept of Circular Economy as a new pathway towards sustainability, in particular through new policy initiatives such as the Circular Economy Action Plan (CEAP). Since the environmental impact of the construction industry with the depletion of natural resources and the raising CO2 emissions will have to be reduced in the future, the need of recycling and even reusing entire building components supporting the principles of circular economy have been identified. The direct reuse of components extracted from old deconstructed buildings presents an energy-efficient and environmental-friendly solution. However, the reuse of components can be hindered by e.g. the lack of information on the availability of decommissioned structural components and uncertainties on the warranty of structural components. To handle this process an additional independent institution acting as Material and Component (M&C) Bank is needed. This entity assures activities such as e.g. the identification of reusable components in buildings which are proposed for selective dismantling; the condition assessment; the data management and the data transfer from a previously deconstructed building to a new building; and finally, an official certification of the components’ conformity for another service life in a new application. In the current paper, a concept for such a M&C bank is presented. This study investigates the potential of a M&C bank in the framework of circular economy concepts for the planning of sustainable and circular buildings with a reduced eco-footprint by focusing on the reuse of decommissioned structural components. The concept, main businesses and work operation of the bank are discussed. Furthermore, a digital representation of the bank as BIM-based M&C bank needed to publicize the availability of the reusable components to the market and to enable circular business models by showing their circular pathways are described. [less ▲]

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See detailImprovements to Deep-Learning-based Feasibility Prediction of Switched Ethernet Network Configurations
Mai, Tieu Long UL; Navet, Nicolas UL

in The 29th International Conference on Real-Time Networks and Systems (RTNS2021) (2021, April 07)

Graph neural network (GNN) is an advanced machine learning model, which has been recently applied to encode Ethernet configurations as graphs and predict their feasibility in terms of meeting deadlines ... [more ▼]

Graph neural network (GNN) is an advanced machine learning model, which has been recently applied to encode Ethernet configurations as graphs and predict their feasibility in terms of meeting deadlines constraints. Ensembles of GNN models have proven to be robust to changes in the topology and traffic patterns with respect to the training set. However, the moderate prediction accuracy of the model, 79.3% at the lowest, hinders the application of GNN to real-world problems. This study proposes improvements to the base GNN model in the construction of the training set and the structure of the model itself. We first introduce new training sets that are more diverse in terms of topologies and traffic patterns and focus on configurations that are difficult to predict. We then enhance the GNN model with more powerful activation functions, multiple channels and implement a technique called global pooling. The prediction accuracy of the ensemble GNN model with a combination of the suggested improvements increases significantly, up to 11.9% on the same 13 testing sets. Importantly, these improvements increase only marginally the time it takes to predict unseen configurations, i.e., the speedup factor is still from 50 to 1125 compared to schedulability analysis, which allows a far more extensive exploration of the design space. [less ▲]

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See detailUn nouvel outil d'évaluation de la créativité dans le milieu publicitaire
Gubenko, Alla UL; Houssemand, Claude UL

in Houssemand, Claude (Ed.) Recherches actuelles en psychologie différentielle (2021, April)

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See detailBLER-based Adaptive Q-learning for Efficient Random Access in NOMA-based mMTC Networks
Tran, Duc Dung UL; Sharma, Shree Krishna UL; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL

in Proceedings of 2021 IEEE 93rd Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC2021-Spring) (2021, April)

The ever-increasing number of machine-type communications (MTC) devices and the limited available radio resources are leading to a crucial issue of radio access network (RAN) congestion in upcoming 5G and ... [more ▼]

The ever-increasing number of machine-type communications (MTC) devices and the limited available radio resources are leading to a crucial issue of radio access network (RAN) congestion in upcoming 5G and beyond wireless networks. Thus, it is crucial to investigate novel techniques to minimize RAN congestion in massive MTC (mMTC) networks while taking the underlying short-packet communications (SPC) into account. In this paper, we propose an adaptive Q-learning (AQL) algorithm based on block error rate (BLER), an important metric in SPC, for a non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) based mMTC system. The proposed method aims to efficiently accommodate MTC devices to the available random access (RA) slots in order to significantly reduce the possible collisions, and subsequently to enhance the system throughput. Furthermore, in order to obtain more practical insights on the system design, the scenario of imperfect successive interference cancellation (ISIC) is considered as compared to the widely-used perfect SIC assumption. The performance of the proposed AQL method is compared with the recent Q-learning solutions in the literature in terms of system throughput over a range of parameters such as the number of devices, blocklength, and residual interference caused by ISIC, along with its convergence evaluation. Our simulation results illustrate the superiority of the proposed method over the existing techniques, in the scenarios where the number of devices is higher than the number of available RA time-slots. [less ▲]

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See detailRoboBus: A Diverse and Cross-Border Public Transport Dataset
Varisteas, Georgios; Frank, Raphaël UL; Robinet, François UL

in Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications (PerCom 2021) (2021, March 22)

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See detailEl duende, quand une technique propre au flamenco s’impose sur la scène de théâtre : Partage de midi de Paul Claudel (mise en scène d’Yves Beaunesne)
Deregnoncourt, Marine UL

in Deregnoncourt, Marine; Rameau, Corinne (Eds.) Le flamenco dans tous ses états : de la scène à la page, du pas à l’image (2021, March 08)

Pour tenter de correspondre au mieux au propos de cette journée d’études intitulée : « Le flamenco dans tous ses états : de la scène à la page, du pas à l’image », nous nous proposons d’analyser comment ... [more ▼]

Pour tenter de correspondre au mieux au propos de cette journée d’études intitulée : « Le flamenco dans tous ses états : de la scène à la page, du pas à l’image », nous nous proposons d’analyser comment le duende, technique propre au flamenco, peut être envisagé comme une clé de lecture opérante pour aborder la mise en scène d’Yves Beaunesne de Partage de midi de Paul Claudel (Comédie – Française, 2007 et Théâtre Marigny, 2009) et plus précisément de la scène d’amour (Acte II, Scène 2). En effet, lors de cette scène, Marina Hands et Éric Ruf, interprètes respectifs d’Ysé et de Mesa (protagonistes phares du drame claudélien) se livrent à une danse contemporaine caractérisée par un tombé au sol et une relève et comparable à une lutte, un break1, une transe et « un véritable cri du corps entier »2. Comment cela se manifeste-t-il sur scène ? C’est précisément à cette problématique que notre communication entend se consacrer. Pour ce faire, notre réflexion se divisera en deux parties. La première sera davantage théorique et tentera de définir ce qu’est le duende. La seconde s’axera, quant à elle, sur le spectacle précité et concernera plus spécifiquement la danse contemporaine exécutée par ces deux acteurs. [less ▲]

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See detailAn MDE Method for Improving Deep Learning Dataset Requirements Engineering using Alloy and UML
Ries, Benoit UL; Guelfi, Nicolas UL; Jahic, Benjamin UL

in Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Model-Driven Engineering and Software Development (2021, February)

Since the emergence of deep learning (DL) a decade ago, only few software engineering development methods have been defined for systems based on this machine learning approach. Moreover, rare are the DL ... [more ▼]

Since the emergence of deep learning (DL) a decade ago, only few software engineering development methods have been defined for systems based on this machine learning approach. Moreover, rare are the DL approaches addressing specifically requirements engineering. In this paper, we define a model-driven engineering (MDE) method based on traditional requirements engineering to improve datasets requirements engineering. Our MDE method is composed of a process supported by tools to aid customers and analysts in eliciting, specifying and validating dataset structural requirements for DL-based systems. Our model driven engineering approach uses the UML semi-formal modeling language for the analysis of datasets structural requirements, and the Alloy formal language for the requirements model execution based on our informal translational semantics. The model executions results are then presented to the customer for improving the dataset validation activity. Our approach aims at validating DL-based dataset structural requirements by modeling and instantiating their datatypes. We illustrate our approach with a case study on the requirements engineering of the structure of a dataset for classification of five-segments digits images. [less ▲]

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See detailVirtual Verification of Cause-Effect Chains in Automotive Cyber-Physical Systems
Gonzalez de Oliveira, Ricardo UL; Raghupatruni, Indrasen; Hamman, Arne et al

in 21. Internationales Stuttgarter Symposium (2021, January 25)

The technical complexity of automotive Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) traditionally demands high development and validation efforts. Due to the new technologies entering the automotive market, such as ... [more ▼]

The technical complexity of automotive Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) traditionally demands high development and validation efforts. Due to the new technologies entering the automotive market, such as Highly Automated Driving (HAD) (>= SAE L3) and connected infotainment, the overall system complexity is currently increasing significantly, challenging traditional system development methods and requiring new approaches for validation and verification (V&V). In parallel, new Electric/Electronic (E/E) architecture patterns are emerging in the automotive industry, distributing the functionalities across several multi-core Electrical Control Units (ECU) connected via Ethernet-based in-vehicle networks. This distributed approach leads to complex inter- and intra-ECU timing relations challenging the concept of freedom from interference according to the ISO 26262, and adding another dimension of effects analysis during V&V. This work enhances a cyber-physical functional simulation tool to include timing effects in distributed cause-effect chains and multi-technology-communication networks (incl. Ethernet and CAN). The resulting simulation allows the system designer to evaluate the impact of timing properties on a given distributed vehicle function, enabling an early validation of the system, avoiding rework during later stages of the development process resulting from wrong design choices. [less ▲]

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See detailEnergy-Efficient Hybrid Symbol-Level Precoding via Phase Shifter Selection in mmWave MU-MIMO Systems
Haqiqatnejad, Alireza UL; Kayhan, Farbod UL; Ottersten, Björn UL

in Energy-Efficient Hybrid Symbol-Level Precoding via Phase Shifter Selection in mmWave MU-MIMO Systems (2021, January 25)

We address the symbol-level precoding design problem for the downlink of a multiuser millimeter wave (mmWave) multiple-input multiple-output wireless system. We consider a hybrid analog-digital ... [more ▼]

We address the symbol-level precoding design problem for the downlink of a multiuser millimeter wave (mmWave) multiple-input multiple-output wireless system. We consider a hybrid analog-digital architecture with phase shifter selection where a small-sized baseband precoder is followed by two successive networks of analog on-off switches and variable phase shifters according to a fully-connected structure. We jointly optimize the digital baseband precoder and the states of the switching network on a symbol-level basis, i.e., by exploiting both the channel state information (CSI) and the instantaneous data symbols, while the phase-shifting network is designed only based on the CSI. Our approach to this joint optimization is to minimize the Euclidean distance between the optimal fully-digital and the hybrid symbol-level precoders. It is shown via numerical results that using the proposed approach, up to 50 percent of the phase shifters can be switched off on average, allowing for reductions in the power consumption of the phase-shifting network. Adopting appropriate power consumption models for the analog precoder, our energy efficiency analysis further shows that this power reduction can substantially improve the energy efficiency of the hybrid precoding compared to the fully-digital and the state-of-the-art schemes. [less ▲]

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See detailDeep Learning-Aided 5G Channel Estimation
Le, Ha An; Trinh, van Chien UL; Nguyen, Tien Hoa et al

in Deep Learning-Aided 5G Channel Estimation (2021, January 06)

Deep learning has demonstrated the important roles in improving the system performance and reducing computational complexity for $5$G-and-beyond networks. In this paper, we propose a new channel ... [more ▼]

Deep learning has demonstrated the important roles in improving the system performance and reducing computational complexity for $5$G-and-beyond networks. In this paper, we propose a new channel estimation method with the assistance of deep learning in order to support the least-squares estimation, which is a low-cost method but having relatively high channel estimation errors. This goal is achieved by utilizing a MIMO (multiple-input multiple-output) system with a multi-path channel profile used for simulations in the 5G networks under the severity of Doppler effects. Numerical results demonstrate the superiority of the proposed deep learning-assisted channel estimation method over the other channel estimation methods in previous works in terms of mean square errors. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Evolution of an Architectural Paradigm - Using Blockchain to Build a Cross-Organizational Enterprise Service Bus
Amend, Julia; Fridgen, Gilbert UL; Rieger, Alexander UL et al

in 54th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Maui, Hawaii (Virtual) (2021, January)

Cross-organizational collaboration and the exchange of process data are indispensable for many processes in federally organized governments. Conventional IT solutions, such as cross-organizational ... [more ▼]

Cross-organizational collaboration and the exchange of process data are indispensable for many processes in federally organized governments. Conventional IT solutions, such as cross-organizational workflow management systems, address these requirements through centralized process management and architectures. However, such centralization is difficult and often undesirable in federal contexts. One alternative solution that emphasizes decentralized process management and a decentralized architecture is the blockchain solution of Germany’s Federal Office for Migration and Refugees. Here, we investigate the architecture of this solution and examine how it addresses the requirements of federal contexts. We find that the solution’s architecture resembles an improvement and cross-organizational adaption of an old architectural paradigm, the enterprise service bus. [less ▲]

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See detailEulerian-Lagrangian momentum coupling between XDEM and OpenFOAM using preCICE
Besseron, Xavier UL; Rousset, Alban UL; Peyraut, Alice et al

in 14th WCCM & ECCOMAS Congress 2020 (2021, January)

Eulerian-Lagrangian couplings consider problems with a discrete phase as a particulate material that is in contact with a fluid phase. These applications are as diverse as engineering, additive ... [more ▼]

Eulerian-Lagrangian couplings consider problems with a discrete phase as a particulate material that is in contact with a fluid phase. These applications are as diverse as engineering, additive manufacturing, biomass conversion, thermal processing or pharmaceutical industry, among many others. A typical approach for this type of simulations is the coupling between Computation Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Discrete Element Method (DEM), which is challenging in many ways. Such CFD--DEM couplings are usually implemented using an ad-hoc coupling layer, specific to the both DEM and CFD software, which considerably reduces the flexibility and applicability of the proposed implementation. In this work, we present the coupling of eXtended Discrete Element Method (XDEM), with the CFD library OpenFOAM, using the preCICE coupling library~\cite{preCICE} on volumetric meshes. Such momentum coupling requires the CFD side to account for the change of porosity due to the particulate phase and the particle momentum, while the particles of the DEM will be affected by the buoyancy and drag force of the fluid. While preCICE significantly simplifies the coupling between standalone libraries, each solver and, its respective adapter, have to be made aware of the new data involved in the physic model. For that, a new adapter has been implemented for XDEM and the existing adapter for OpenFOAM has been extended to include the additional data field exchange required for the momentum coupling, e.g porosity, particle momentum, fluid velocity and density. Our solution is tested and validated using simple benchmarks and advanced testcases such as a dam break, and shows consistent results. [less ▲]

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See detailKant's supposed realism about things-in-themselves
Heidemann, Dietmar UL

in Serck-Hanssen, Camila (Ed.) Proceedings of the 13th International Kant Congress ‘The Court of Reason’ (Oslo, 6-9 August 2019) (2021)

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See detailMuDelta: Delta-Oriented Mutation Testing at Commit Time
Ma, Wei UL; Thierry Titcheu, Chekam; Papadakis, Mike UL et al

in International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE) (2021)

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See detailGoal-Directed Decision Procedures for Input/Output Logics
Steen, Alexander UL

in Marra, Alessandra; Liu, Fenrong; Portner, Paul (Eds.) et al Deontic Logic and Normative Systems: 15th International Conference (DEON 2020/2021) (2021)

Input/Output (I/O) logics address the abstract study of conditional norms. Here, norms are represented as pairs of formulas instead of statements that themselves carry truth-values. I/O logics have been ... [more ▼]

Input/Output (I/O) logics address the abstract study of conditional norms. Here, norms are represented as pairs of formulas instead of statements that themselves carry truth-values. I/O logics have been studied thoroughly in the past, including further applications and refinements. In this paper, a class of automated reasoning procedures is presented that, given a set of norms and a concrete situation, decide whether a specific state of affairs is obligatory according to the output operations of I/O logics. The procedures are parametric in the underlying logical formalism and can be instantiated with different classical objects logics, such as propositional logic or first-order logic. The procedures are shown to be correct, and a proof-of-concept implementation for propositional I/O logics is surveyed. [less ▲]

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See detailHow We Swipe: A Large-scale Shape-writing Dataset and Empirical Findings
Leiva, Luis A. UL; Kim, Sunjun; Cui, Wenzhe et al

in Proceedings of the ACM International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services (MobileHCI) (2021)

Despite the prevalence of shape-writing (gesture typing, swype input, or swiping for short) as a text entry method, there are currently no public datasets available. We report a large-scale dataset that ... [more ▼]

Despite the prevalence of shape-writing (gesture typing, swype input, or swiping for short) as a text entry method, there are currently no public datasets available. We report a large-scale dataset that can support efforts in both empirical study of swiping as well as the development of better intelligent text entry techniques. The dataset was collected via a web-based custom virtual keyboard, involving 1,338 users who submitted 11,318 unique English words. We report aggregate-level indices on typing performance, user-related factors, as well as trajectory-level data, such as the gesture path drawn on top of the keyboard or the time lapsed between consecutively swiped keys. We find some well-known effects reported in previous studies, for example that speed and error are affected by age and language skill. We also find surprising relationships such that, on large screens, swipe trajectories are longer but people swipe faster. [less ▲]

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See detailAdapting User Interfaces with Model-based Reinforcement Learning
Todi, Kashyap; Bailly, Gilles; Leiva, Luis A. UL et al

in Proceedings of the 2021 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI) (2021)

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See detailOn the Asymptotic Performance of One-Bit Co-Array-Based Music
Sedighi, Saeid UL; Mysore Rama Rao, Bhavani Shankar UL; Soltanalian, Mojtaba et al

in IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP) (2021)

Co-array-based Direction of Arrival (DoA) estimation using Sparse Linear Arrays (SLAs) has recently gained considerable attention in array processing thanks to its capability of providing enhanced degrees ... [more ▼]

Co-array-based Direction of Arrival (DoA) estimation using Sparse Linear Arrays (SLAs) has recently gained considerable attention in array processing thanks to its capability of providing enhanced degrees of freedom for DoAs that can be resolved. Additionally, deployment of one-bit Analog-to-Digital Converters (ADCs) has become an important topic in array processing, as it offers both a low-cost and a low-complexity implementation. Although the problem of DoA estimation form one-bit SLA measurements has been studied in some prior works, its analytical performance has not yet been investigated and characterized. In this paper, to provide valuable insights into the performance of DoA estimation from one-bit SLA measurements, we derive an asymptotic closed-form expression for the performance of One-Bit Co-Array-Based MUSIC (OBCAB-MUSIC). Further, numerical simulations are provided to validate the asymptotic closed-form expression for the performance of OBCAB-MUSIC and to show an interesting use case of it in evaluating the resolution of OBCAB-MUSIC. [less ▲]

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See detailWhen Choice Happens: A Systematic Examination of Mouse Movement Length for Decision Making in Web Search
Brückner, Lukas; Arapakis, Ioannis; Leiva, Luis A. UL

in Proceedings of the International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval (SIGIR) (2021)

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See detailKernel Regression on Graphs in Random Fourier Features Space
Elias, Vitor R. M.; Gogenini, Vinay C.; Alves Martins, Wallace UL et al

in IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (ICASSP-2021), Toronto 6-11 June 2021 (2021)

This work proposes an efficient batch-based implementation for kernel regression on graphs (KRG) using random Fourier features (RFF) and a low-complexity online implementation. Kernel regression has ... [more ▼]

This work proposes an efficient batch-based implementation for kernel regression on graphs (KRG) using random Fourier features (RFF) and a low-complexity online implementation. Kernel regression has proven to be an efficient learning tool in the graph signal processing framework. However, it suffers from poor scalability inherent to kernel methods. We employ RFF to overcome this issue and derive a batch-based KRG whose model size is independent of the training sample size. We then combine it with a stochastic gradient-descent approach to propose an online algorithm for KRG, namely the stochastic-gradient KRG (SGKRG). We also derive sufficient conditions for convergence in the mean sense of the online algorithms. We validate the performance of the proposed algorithms through numerical experiments using both synthesized and real data. Results show that the proposed batch-based implementation can match the performance of conventional KRG while having reduced complexity. Moreover, the online implementations effectively learn the target model and achieve competitive performance compared to the batch implementations. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Eye of Horus: Spotting and Analyzing Attacks on Ethereum Smart Contracts
Ferreira Torres, Christof UL; Iannillo, Antonio Ken UL; Gervais, Arthur et al

in International Conference on Financial Cryptography and Data Security, Grenada 1-5 March 2021 (2021)

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See detailHigh-Frequency Trading on Decentralized On-Chain Exchanges
Zhou, Liyi; Qin, Kaihua; Ferreira Torres, Christof UL et al

in IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy, 23-27 May 2021 (2021)

Decentralized exchanges (DEXs) allow parties to participate in financial markets while retaining full custody of their funds. However, the transparency of blockchain-based DEX in combination with the ... [more ▼]

Decentralized exchanges (DEXs) allow parties to participate in financial markets while retaining full custody of their funds. However, the transparency of blockchain-based DEX in combination with the latency for transactions to be processed, makes market-manipulation feasible. For instance, adversaries could perform front-running — the practice of exploiting (typically non-public) information that may change the price of an asset for financial gain. In this work we formalize, analytically exposit and empirically evaluate an augmented variant of front- running: sandwich attacks, which involve front- and back-running victim transactions on a blockchain-based DEX. We quantify the probability of an adversarial trader being able to undertake the attack, based on the relative positioning of a transaction within a blockchain block. We find that a single adversarial trader can earn a daily revenue of over several thousand USD when performing sandwich attacks on one particular DEX — Uniswap, an exchange with over 5M USD daily trading volume by June 2020. In addition to a single-adversary game, we simulate the outcome of sandwich attacks under multiple competing adversaries, to account for the real-world trading environment. [less ▲]

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See detail"I Personally Relate It to the Traffic Light": A User Study on Security & Privacy Indicators in a Secure Email System Committed to Privacy by Default
Stojkovski, Borce UL; Lenzini, Gabriele UL; Koenig, Vincent UL

in Proceedings of the 36th Annual ACM Symposium on Applied Computing (2021)

Improving the usability and adoption of secure (i.e. end-to-end encrypted) email systems has been a notorious challenge for over two decades. One of the open questions concerns the amount and format of ... [more ▼]

Improving the usability and adoption of secure (i.e. end-to-end encrypted) email systems has been a notorious challenge for over two decades. One of the open questions concerns the amount and format of information that should be communicated to users to inform them of the security and privacy properties with respect to different messages or correspondents. Contributing to the ongoing discussion on the usability and effectiveness of security and privacy indicators, particularly in the context of systems targeting non-expert users, this paper sheds light on users' evaluation of traffic light-inspired indicators, as a metaphor to represent different privacy states and guarantees, provided by a new system for email end-to-end encryption called p≡p. Using a mixed-methods approach, based on input gathered from 150 participants in three online studies, we highlight the pros and cons of the traffic light semantic in p≡p's context and beyond, and discuss the potential implications on the perceived security and use of such systems. [less ▲]

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See detailUser Selection based on Inter-channel Interference for Massive MIMO under Line-of-sight Propagation
Chaves, Rafael S.; Cetin, Ediz; Lima, Markus V. S. et al

in URSI GASS 2021, Rome 28 August - 4 September 2021 (2021)

Massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) is seen as a key enabler for next-generation wireless communication systems. Increased throughput afforded by massive MIMO, however, may severely degrade when ... [more ▼]

Massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) is seen as a key enabler for next-generation wireless communication systems. Increased throughput afforded by massive MIMO, however, may severely degrade when the number of users served by a single base station increases, calling for user scheduling algorithms. To deal with this problem, a new user selection algorithm, called inter-channel interference-based selection (ICIBS), is proposed. ICIBS drops those users that induce the highest interference to the remaining users. Simulations show that selecting users with ICIBS significantly improves the throughput, outperforming state-of-the-art user selection algorithms. [less ▲]

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See detail"I am definitely manipulated, even when I am aware of it. It’s ridiculous!" - Dark Patterns from the End-User Perspective
Bongard-Blanchy, Kerstin UL; Rossi, Arianna UL; Rivas, Salvador UL et al

in Proceedings of ACM DIS Conference on Designing Interactive Systems (2021)

Online services pervasively employ manipulative designs (i.e., dark patterns) to influence users to purchase goods and subscriptions, spend more time on-site, or mindlessly accept the harvesting of their ... [more ▼]

Online services pervasively employ manipulative designs (i.e., dark patterns) to influence users to purchase goods and subscriptions, spend more time on-site, or mindlessly accept the harvesting of their personal data. To protect users from the lure of such designs, we asked: are users aware of the presence of dark patterns? If so, are they able to resist them? By surveying 406 individuals, we found that they are generally aware of the influence that manipulative designs can exert on their online behaviour. However, being aware does not equip users with the ability to oppose such influence. We further find that respondents, especially younger ones, often recognise the "darkness" of certain designs, but remain unsure of the actual harm they may suffer. Finally, we discuss a set of interventions (e.g., bright patterns, design frictions, training games, applications to expedite legal enforcement) in the light of our findings. [less ▲]

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See detailThe DLPS: A New Framework for Benchmarking Blockchains
Sedlmeir, Johannes; Ross, Philipp; Luckow, André et al

in Proceedings of the 54th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (2021)

Distributed Ledger Technologies (DLT) promise to revolutionize business ecosystems by permitting secure transactions without intermediaries. A widely recognized challenge that inhibits the uptake of DLT ... [more ▼]

Distributed Ledger Technologies (DLT) promise to revolutionize business ecosystems by permitting secure transactions without intermediaries. A widely recognized challenge that inhibits the uptake of DLT is scalability and performance. Hence, quantifying key metrics such as throughput and latency is crucial for designing DLT-based infrastructures, applications, and ecosystems. However, current benchmarking frameworks for blockchains do not cover the whole benchmarking process; impeding transparent comparisons of different DLT networks. In this paper, we present the Distributed Ledger Performance Scan (DLPS), an open-source framework for end-to-end performance characterizations of blockchains, addressing the need to transparently and automatically evaluate the performance of highly customizable configurations. We describe our new framework and argue that it significantly improves existing DLT benchmarking solutions. To demonstrate the capabilities of the DLPS, we also summarize the main results obtained from a series of experiments that we have conducted with it, giving a first comprehensive comparison of essential scalability properties of several commonly used enterprise blockchains. [less ▲]

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See detailDME Interference Mitigation for GNSS Receivers via Nonnegative Matrix Factorization
Silva, Felipe B.; Cetin, Ediz; Alves Martins, Wallace UL

in URSI GASS 2021, Rome 28 August - 4 September 2021 (2021)

In this work a nonnegative matrix factorization based approach is proposed to mitigate the impact of interference due to distance measurement equipment (DME) signals in global navigation satellite system ... [more ▼]

In this work a nonnegative matrix factorization based approach is proposed to mitigate the impact of interference due to distance measurement equipment (DME) signals in global navigation satellite system (GNSS) receivers. The proposed approach operates by separating the DME and GNSS signals, and the results show that it outperforms the traditional pulse-blanking based techniques in terms of acquisition and carrier-to-noise ratio metrics without discarding any of the received signal samples. [less ▲]

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See detailMy Mouse, My Rules: Privacy Issues of Behavioral User Profiling via Mouse Tracking
Leiva, Luis A. UL; Arapakis, Ioannis; Iordanou, Costas

in Proceedings of ACM SIGIR Conference on Human Information Interaction and Retrieval (CHIIR) (2021)

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See detailAnalog Beamforming with Antenna Selection for Large-Scale Antenna Arrays
Arora, Aakash UL; Tsinos, Christos; Mysore Rama Rao, Bhavani Shankar UL et al

in Proc. 2021 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (ICASSP) (2021)

In large-scale antenna array (LSAA) wireless communication systems employing analog beamforming architectures, the placement or selection of a subset of antennas can significantly reduce the power ... [more ▼]

In large-scale antenna array (LSAA) wireless communication systems employing analog beamforming architectures, the placement or selection of a subset of antennas can significantly reduce the power consumption and hardware complexity. In this work, we propose a joint design of analog beamforming with antenna selection (AS) or antenna placement (AP) for an analog beamforming system. We approach this problem from a beampattern matching perspective and formulate a sparse unit-modulus least-squares (SULS) problem, which is a nonconvex problem due to the unit-modulus and the sparsity constraints. To that end, we propose an efficient and scalable algorithm based on the majorization-minimization (MM) framework for solving the SULS problem. We show that the sequence of iterates generated by the algorithm converges to a stationary point of the problem. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed joint design of analog beamforming with AS outperforms conventional array architectures with fixed inter-antenna element spacing. [less ▲]

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See detailA Novel Learning-based Hard Decoding Scheme and Symbol-Level Precoding Countermeasures
Mayouche, Abderrahmane UL; Alves Martins, Wallace UL; Tsinos, Christos G. et al

in IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC), Najing 29 March to 01 April 2021 (2021)

In this work, we consider an eavesdropping scenario in wireless multi-user (MU) multiple-input single-output (MISO) systems with channel coding in the presence of a multi-antenna eavesdropper (Eve). In ... [more ▼]

In this work, we consider an eavesdropping scenario in wireless multi-user (MU) multiple-input single-output (MISO) systems with channel coding in the presence of a multi-antenna eavesdropper (Eve). In this setting, we exploit machine learning (ML) tools to design a hard decoding scheme by using precoded pilot symbols as training data. Within this, we propose an ML framework for a multi-antenna hard decoder that allows an Eve to decode the transmitted message with decent accuracy. We show that MU-MISO systems are vulnerable to such an attack when conventional block-level precoding is used. To counteract this attack, we propose a novel symbol-level precoding scheme that increases the bit-error rate at Eve by obstructing the learning process. Simulation results validate both the ML-based attack as well as the countermeasure, and show that the gain in security is achieved without affecting the performance at the intended users. [less ▲]

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See detailLes auteurs programmés en milieu scolaire
Raus, Tonia UL

in Bisenius-Penin, Carole; Glesener, Jeanne (Eds.) Narrations auctoriales dans l'espace public. Comment penser et raconter l'auteur? (2021)

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See detailSatellite Broadband Capacity-on-Demand: Dynamic Beam Illumination with Selective Precoding
Chen, Lin UL; Lagunas, Eva UL; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL et al

in European Signal Processing Conference (EUSIPCO), Dublin, Ireland, Aug. 2021 (2021)

Efficient satellite resource utilization is one of the key challenges in next generation high-throughput satellite communication system. In this context, dynamic coverage scheduling based on traffic ... [more ▼]

Efficient satellite resource utilization is one of the key challenges in next generation high-throughput satellite communication system. In this context, dynamic coverage scheduling based on traffic demand has emerged as a promising solution, focusing system capacity into geographical areas where it is needed. Conventional Beam Hopping (BH) satellite system exploit the time-domain flexibility, which provides all available spectrum to a selected set of beams as long as they are not adjacent to each other. However, large geographical areas involving more than one adjacent beam may require full access to the available spectrum during particular instances of time. In this paper, we address this problem by proposing a dynamic beam illumination scheme combined with selective precoding, where only sub-sets of beams that are subject to strong inter-beam interference are precoded. With selective precoding, complexity at the groundsegment is reduced and only considered when needed. Supporting results based on numerical simulations show that the proposed scheme outperforms the relevant benchmarks in terms of demand matching performance. [less ▲]

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See detailUser Scheduling for Precoded Satellite Systems With Individual Quality of Service Constraints
Trinh, van Chien UL; Lagunas, Eva UL; Tung, Ta Hai et al

in Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC), Virtual Conference, Sept. 2021 (2021)

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See detailConcise UC Zero-Knowledge Proofs for Oblivious Updatable Databases
Camenisch, Jan; Dubovitskaya, Maria; Rial, Alfredo UL

in 2021 34th IEEE Computer Security Foundations Symposium (2021)

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See detailConversations with GUIs
Todi, Kashyap; Leiva, Luis A. UL; Buschek, Daniel et al

in Proceedings of the ACM Conference on Designing Interactive Systems (DIS) (2021)

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See detailLa preuve de la loi étrangère par renvoi préjudiciel
Kinsch, Patrick UL

in La connaissance du droit étranger. A la recherche d’instruments de coopération adaptés (2021)

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See detailADS-B Signal Detection via Time-Frequency Analysis for Radio Astronomy Applications
Silva, Felipe B.; Cetin, Ediz; Alves Martins, Wallace UL

in IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS), Daegu 22-28 May 2021 (2021)

This paper proposes a time-frequency (TF) domain technique for detecting the presence of automatic dependent surveillance-broadcast (ADS-B) interference signals in radio astronomy applications. The ... [more ▼]

This paper proposes a time-frequency (TF) domain technique for detecting the presence of automatic dependent surveillance-broadcast (ADS-B) interference signals in radio astronomy applications. The proposed technique uses a priori knowledge about the ADS-B signal’s frequency information and compares it with the received signal’s spectrogram time slices via the cosine similarity function. In the presence of ADS-B signals, the similarity levels are higher, whereas in their absence the levels are lower. Hence, the proposed approach exploits this to detect the presence of such signals. Simulation results using signals from the Parkes radio telescope show the efficacy of the proposed method in detecting the presence of ADS-B signals when compared with other classic detectors. [less ▲]

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See detailAutomated Deep Learning-based Segmentation of Brain, SEEG and DBS Electrodes on CT Images.
Vlasov, Vanja UL; Bofferding, Marie UL; Marx, Loic Marc UL et al

in Bildverarbeitung für die Medizin 2021 (2021)

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See detailSoftware-Defined Location Privacy Protection for Vehicular Networks
Boualouache, Abdelwahab UL; Soua, Ridha UL; Qiang, Tang et al

in Boualouache, Abdelwahab; Soua, Ridha; Qiang, Tang (Eds.) et al Machine Intelligence and Data Analytics for Sustainable Future Smart Cities (2021)

While the adoption of connected vehicles is growing, security and privacy concerns are still the key barriers raised by society. These concerns mandate automakers and standardization groups to propose ... [more ▼]

While the adoption of connected vehicles is growing, security and privacy concerns are still the key barriers raised by society. These concerns mandate automakers and standardization groups to propose convenient solutions for privacy preservation. One of the main proposed solutions is the use of Pseudonym-Changing Strategies (PCSs). However, ETSI has recently published a technical report which highlights the absence of standardized and efficient PCSs [1]. This alarming situation mandates an innovative shift in the way that the privacy of end-users is protected during their journey. Software Defined Networking (SDN) is emerging as a key 5G enabler to manage the network in a dynamic manner. SDN-enabled wireless networks are opening up new programmable and highly-flexible privacy-aware solutions. We exploit this paradigm to propose an innovative software-defined location privacy architecture for vehicular networks. The proposed architecture is context-aware, programmable, extensible, and able to encompass all existing and future pseudonym-changing strategies. To demonstrate the merit of our architecture, we consider a case study that involves four pseudonym-changing strategies, which we deploy over our architecture and compare with their static implementations. We also detail how the SDN controller dynamically switches between the strategies according to the context. [less ▲]

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See detailFindings of the VarDial Evaluation Campaign 2021
Chakravarthi, Bharathi Raja; Găman, Mihaela; Ionescu, Radu Tudor et al

in Proceedings of the Eighth Workshop on NLP for Similar Languages, Varieties and Dialects (2021)

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See detailFrontrunner Jones and the Raiders of the Dark Forest: An Empirical Study of Frontrunning on the Ethereum Blockchain
Ferreira Torres, Christof UL; Camino, Ramiro; State, Radu UL

in USENIX Security Symposium, Virtual 11-13 August 2021 (2021)

Ethereum prospered the inception of a plethora of smart contract applications, ranging from gambling games to decentralized finance. However, Ethereum is also considered a highly adversarial environment ... [more ▼]

Ethereum prospered the inception of a plethora of smart contract applications, ranging from gambling games to decentralized finance. However, Ethereum is also considered a highly adversarial environment, where vulnerable smart contracts will eventually be exploited. Recently, Ethereum's pool of pending transaction has become a far more aggressive environment. In the hope of making some profit, attackers continuously monitor the transaction pool and try to frontrun their victims' transactions by either displacing or suppressing them, or strategically inserting their transactions. This paper aims to shed some light into what is known as a dark forest and uncover these predators' actions. We present a methodology to efficiently measure the three types of frontrunning: displacement, insertion, and suppression. We perform a large-scale analysis on more than 11M blocks and identify almost 200K attacks with an accumulated profit of 18.41M USD for the attackers, providing evidence that frontrunning is both, lucrative and a prevalent issue. [less ▲]

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See detailDemand-based Scheduling for Precoded Multibeam High-Throughput Satellite Systems
Jubba Honnaiah, Puneeth UL; Lagunas, Eva UL; Spano, Danilo et al

in IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC), March 2021 (2021)

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See detailRobust Passive Coherent Location via Nonlinearly Constrained Least Squares
Nicolalde-Rodríguez, Daniel P.; Apolinário Jr., José A.; Alves Martins, Wallace UL

in 12th IEEE Latin America Symposium on Circuits and System (LASCAS), Arequipa 21-24 February 2021 (2021)

This paper addresses the problem of target location by means of a passive radar. Existing approaches based on time difference-of-arrival (TDOA) measurements, namely spherical interpolation and spherical ... [more ▼]

This paper addresses the problem of target location by means of a passive radar. Existing approaches based on time difference-of-arrival (TDOA) measurements, namely spherical interpolation and spherical intersection, are revisited for the case of single transmitter and multiple receivers. The mathematical formulations of these state-of-the-art approaches do not take into account possible TDOA estimation errors, which degrade the target location performance. We extend those formulations by incorporating a nonlinear constraint into the underlying least squares problem, thus conferring robustness to the location technique against TDOA estimation errors, as corroborated by extensive numerical experiments. [less ▲]

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See detailStochastic-Geometry-Based Interference Modeling in Automotive Radars Using Matérn Hard-Core Process
Mishra, K. V.; R., B. Shankar M.; Ottersten, Björn UL

in 2020 IEEE Radar Conference (RadarConf20), Stochastic-Geometry-Based Interference Modeling in Automotive Radars Using Matérn Hard-Core Process (2020, December 04)

As the use of radars in autonomous driving systems becomes more prevalent, these systems are increasingly susceptible to mutual interference. In this paper, we employ stochastic geometry to model the ... [more ▼]

As the use of radars in autonomous driving systems becomes more prevalent, these systems are increasingly susceptible to mutual interference. In this paper, we employ stochastic geometry to model the automotive radar interference in realistic traffic scenarios and then derive trade-offs between the radar design parameters and detection probability. Prior works model the locations of radars in the lane as a homogeneous Poisson point process (PPP). However, the PPP models assume all nodes to be independent, do not account for the lengths of vehicles, and ignore spatial mutual exclusion. In order to provide a more realistic interference effect, we adopt the Matérn hardcore process (MHCP) instead of PPP, in which two vehicles are not closer than an exclusion radius from one another. We show that the MHCP model leads to more practical design trade-offs for adapting the radar parameters than the conventional PPP model. [less ▲]

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See detailState Aggregation for Multiagent Communication over Rate-Limited Channels
Mostaani, Arsham UL; Vu, Thang Xuan UL; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL et al

in State Aggregation for Multiagent Communication over Rate-Limited Channels (2020, December)

A collaborative task is assigned to a multiagent system (MAS) in which agents are allowed to communicate. The MAS runs over an underlying Markov decision process and its task is to maximize the averaged ... [more ▼]

A collaborative task is assigned to a multiagent system (MAS) in which agents are allowed to communicate. The MAS runs over an underlying Markov decision process and its task is to maximize the averaged sum of discounted one-stage rewards. Although knowing the global state of the environment is necessary for the optimal action selection of the MAS, agents are limited to individual observations. The inter-agent communication can tackle the issue of local observability, however, the limited rate of the inter-agent communication prevents the agent from acquiring the precise global state information. To overcome this challenge, agents need to communicate their observations in a compact way such that the MAS compromises the minimum possible sum of rewards. We show that this problem is equivalent to a form of rate-distortion problem which we call the task-based information compression. State Aggregation for Information Compression (SAIC) is introduced here to perform the task-based information compression. The SAIC is shown, conditionally, to be capable of achieving the optimal performance in terms of the attained sum of discounted rewards. The proposed algorithm is applied to a rendezvous problem and its performance is compared with two benchmarks; (i) conventional source coding algorithms and the (ii) centralized multiagent control using reinforcement learning. Numerical experiments confirm the superiority and fast convergence of the proposed SAIC. [less ▲]

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See detail"In ditione et mundiburdio imperrii". Herrscherurkunden für das Kloster Echternach zwischen Tradition und Reform
Margue, Michel UL

in Huschner, Wolfgang; Kölzer, Theo; Jaros, Marie Ulrike (Eds.) Herrscherurkunden für Empfänger in Lotharingien, Oberitalien und Sachsen (9.-12. Jahrhundert). I diplomi dei sovrani per i destinatari in Lotaringia, Italia settentrionale e Sassonia (secoli IX-XII) (2020, December)

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See detailVisions for the future, vocational training and special aspects esp. family violence
Gomez Bravo, Raquel UL

in Book of abstracts (2020, December)

Family violence is a global public health problem, which constitutes a violation of human rights and is considered a hidden epidemic. Family violence (also named domestic violence, domestic abuse or ... [more ▼]

Family violence is a global public health problem, which constitutes a violation of human rights and is considered a hidden epidemic. Family violence (also named domestic violence, domestic abuse or battering) includes intimate partner violence, child abuse/neglect and elder abuse, among others and can take many forms: physicial, emotional, verbal, sexual, physchological, etc. Its consequences involve serious damage to the physical, mental and social well-being of individuals and families. Primary health care professionals may be the first or only point of contact for victims who may be hesitant or unable to seek other sources of assistance. These professionals are in the unique position to offer a safe and confidential environment to facilitate disclosure of violence, and provide appropriate support and referral to other resources and services. Evidence shows that abused women use health care services more than non-abused women, and identify health care professionals as those who they would trust the most with disclosing an abuse. Yet, they tend not to disclose abuse unless specifically asked. Therein lies a problem: most of the practicing physicians have received either no or insufficient education or training in any aspect of family or gender violence. The scope of the problem is alarming: WHO indicates that about 1 in 3 (35%) of women worldwide have experienced either physical and/or sexual violence by intimate partner or non-partner violence in their lifetime. However, experts know that rates of all forms of family violence are underestimated. Why are we not prepared to face an epidemic like this? What are the reasons behind this lack of knowledge and barriers to take action? How can we, health care professionals in the frontline, assume our roles and responsibilities to provide the best care possible to victims, families and perpetrators? [less ▲]

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See detailFrontières liquides : l’eau dans les romans de la terre au Luxembourg
Thiltges, Sébastian UL

in Thiltges, Sébastian; Solte-Gresser, Christiane (Eds.) Ecologie culturelle et cultures écologiques dans la Grande Région (2020, December)

While the earth usually represents the element in which cultural attachment is rooted, water on the contrary reveals what exceeds or interpenetrates the land. The liquid element is as ambiguous as it is ... [more ▼]

While the earth usually represents the element in which cultural attachment is rooted, water on the contrary reveals what exceeds or interpenetrates the land. The liquid element is as ambiguous as it is proteiform: vital and destructive at the same time, it sometimes is a figure of liberation, sometimes of tragic dissolution. In a corpus of Luxembourgish novels from the early 20th century, this paper will analyse the depictions of water, mostly in its opposition with the soil, in order to question the meaning of the liquid element in a context where, corollary to social, economic and political changes, the earth is generally dominant in discourse and imagination. If nature has mostly been confined to the local and cultural landscape, an eco-material reading highlights on the contrary a global and crossborder dimension inherent to nature, but also to culture, disregarding the map-drawn boundaries that define the individual and the collective. Finally, a sensitive, anthropoetical reading also challenges historical, contextual and fictional frames. The materiality of the liquid element is not just a metaphor: it shapes natural, as well as textual environments. [less ▲]

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See detailÖkologie, Kultur, Großregion: Einführende Überlegungen zu einem komplexen und vielschichtigen Verhältnis
Thiltges, Sébastian UL; Solte-Gresser, Christiane

in Thiltges, Sébastian; Solte-Gresser, Christiane (Eds.) Kulturökologie und ökologische Kulturen in der Großregion (2020, December)

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See detailÉcologie, culture, Grande Région : remarques introductives sur une relation plurielle et complexe
Thiltges, Sébastian UL; Solte-Gresser, Christiane

in Thiltges, Sébastian; Solte-Gresser, Christiane (Eds.) Écologie culturelle et cultures écologiques dans la Grande Région (2020, December)

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See detailLow-light image enhancement of permanently shadowed lunar regions with physics-based machine learning
Moseley, Ben; Bickel, Valentin; Lopez-Francos, Ignacio et al

in Low-light image enhancement of permanently shadowed lunar regions with physics-based machine learning (2020, December)

Finding water(-ice) on the Moon is key to enabling a sustainable human presence on the Moon and beyond. There is evidence that water-ice is abundant in and around the Moon’s Permanently Shadowed Regions ... [more ▼]

Finding water(-ice) on the Moon is key to enabling a sustainable human presence on the Moon and beyond. There is evidence that water-ice is abundant in and around the Moon’s Permanently Shadowed Regions (PSRs), however, direct visual detection has not yet been possible. Surface ice or related physical features could potentially be directly detected from high-resolution optical imagery, but, due to the extremely low-light conditions in these areas, high levels of sensor and photon noise make this very challenging. In this work we generate high-resolution, low-noise optical images over lunar PSRs by using two physics-based deep neural networks to model and remove CCD-related and photon noise in existing low-light optical imagery, potentially paving the way for a direct water-ice detection method. [less ▲]

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See detailPrésences et déplacements des souverains de la Francie médiane de 843 à 869: Contribution à l'étude de l'espace politique de Lothaire Ier et Lothaire II
Pettiau, Hérold UL

in Pettinger, Maxime (Ed.) D'un regnum à l'autre. La Lotharingie, un espace de l'entre-deux? Von Regnum hum Imperium. Lotharingien als Zwischenreich? (2020, December)

This contribution is devoted to the analysis of the movements made by Emperor Lothar I and his son, King Lothar II, by proposing to distinguish between three types of movement: movements at the beginning ... [more ▼]

This contribution is devoted to the analysis of the movements made by Emperor Lothar I and his son, King Lothar II, by proposing to distinguish between three types of movement: movements at the beginning of the reign, "usual" movements during the reign and movements that would be described as "punctual", of a pendular type. The importance and nature of multilateral meetings between sovereigns is taken into account. This comparison highlights a certain permanence in the use of a stable palatial zone by the two sovereigns, between the Meuse and Eifel on the one hand and a Moselle axis from Thionville to Remiremont on the other, but also, beyond the variety of contexts, similarities in the more exceptional movements, which remain largely concentrated in the Francia media area, a part that fell to Lothaire after the Treaty of Verdun. [less ▲]

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See detailSimultaneous Diagonalization of Incomplete Matrices and Applications
Coron, Jean-Sébastien UL; Notarnicola, Luca UL; Wiese, Gabor UL

in Proceedings of the Fourteenth Algorithmic Number Theory Symposium (ANTS-XIV), edited by Steven Galbraith, Open Book Series 4, Mathematical Sciences Publishers, Berkeley, 2020 (2020, December)

We consider the problem of recovering the entries of diagonal matrices {U_a}_a for a = 1, . . . , t from multiple “incomplete” samples {W_a}_a of the form W_a = P U_a Q, where P and Q are unknown matrices ... [more ▼]

We consider the problem of recovering the entries of diagonal matrices {U_a}_a for a = 1, . . . , t from multiple “incomplete” samples {W_a}_a of the form W_a = P U_a Q, where P and Q are unknown matrices of low rank. We devise practical algorithms for this problem depending on the ranks of P and Q. This problem finds its motivation in cryptanalysis: we show how to significantly improve previous algorithms for solving the approximate common divisor problem and breaking CLT13 cryptographic multilinear maps. [less ▲]

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See detailAutomating the Design of Efficient Distributed Behaviours for a Swarm of UAVs
Duflo, Gabriel UL; Danoy, Grégoire UL; Talbi, El-Ghazali UL et al

in IEEE Symposium Series on Computational Intelligence, Canberra 1-4 December 2020 (2020, December)

The usage of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) is gradually gaining momentum for commercial applications. The vast majority considers a single UAV, which comes with several constraints such as its range of ... [more ▼]

The usage of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) is gradually gaining momentum for commercial applications. The vast majority considers a single UAV, which comes with several constraints such as its range of operations or the number of sensors it can carry. Using multiple autonomous UAVs simultaneously as a swarm makes it possible to overcome these limitations. However, manually designing complex emerging behaviours like swarming is a difficult and tedious task especially for such distributed systems which performance is hardly predictable. This article therefore proposes to automate the design of UAV swarming behaviours by defining a multi-objective optimisation problem, so called Coverage of a Connected-UAV Swarm (CCUS), and designing a Q-Learning based Hyper-Heuristic (QLHH) for generating distributed CCUS heuristics. Experimental results demonstrate the capacity of QLHH to generate efficient heuristics for any instance from a given class. [less ▲]

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See detailPrivacy-Preserving Logistic Regression as a Cloud Service Based on Residue Number System
Cortés-Mendoza, Jorge; Tchernykh, Andrei; Babenko, Mikhail et al

in Voevodin, Vladimir; Sobolev, Sergey (Eds.) 6th Russian Supercomputing Days, Moscow 21-22 September 2020 (2020, December)

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