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See detailLost in transition – Learning analytics on the transfer from knowledge acquisition to knowledge application in complex problem solving
Nicolay, Björn Fabrice; Krieger, Florian; Stadler, Matthias; Gobert, Janice; Greiff, Samuel

in Computers in Human Behavior (2021), 115

Since Complex Problem Solving (CPS) skills represent a key competence for educational success, they are of great relevance for learning analytics. More specifically, CPS serves as a pertinent showcase for addressing a crucial existing gap contemporary education is facing, the gap between students' ability to acquire and subsequently apply knowledge in uncertain situations, which are increasingly important in the 21st century. While the CPS process incorporates both the acquisition and application of knowledge, many earlier studies have focused on identifying the factors relevant for success in knowledge acquisition. Given the dearth of existing research on factors influencing a successful transition between both CPS phases, we investigated the rates of successful and unsuccessful knowledge transition over the course of nine CPS items in a sample of N = 1151 students in 9th grade. Results showed that many participants were unable to transition their knowledge from the acquisition to the application phase, which was presumably due to an inefficient mental model transfer. Furthermore, the likelihood of students being ‘lost in transition’ was higher in more complex items. Implications are discussed in light of learning analytics, and particularly with regard to the factors to be taken into account by future CPS training programs.

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See detailTeaching the underlying rules of figural matrices in a short video increases test scores
Schneider, Benedikt; Becker, Nicolas; Krieger, Florian; Spinath, Frank M.; Sparfeldt, Jörn

in Intelligence (2020), 82

Scores of commonly administered intelligence tests such as figural matrices are important correlates of external criteria. However, evidence of improving intelligence test scores through practice or coaching has been reported. Moreover, information about intelligence tests is widely and easily accessible (e.g., online tutorial videos). An open research question is whether watching such a video increases figural matrices test scores and affects the correlation with other intelligence tests. In two experiments (experiment 1: N = 112 psychology students; experiment 2: N = 229 teacher-education students), students were randomly assigned to either an experimental group that watched a short video (< 14 min) explaining a set of rules underlying figural matrices or a control group that watched a task irrelevant video of comparable duration. Afterwards, both groups worked on figural matrices. Prior to watching the video, all students completed an intelligence test. Results showed (1) substantially higher figural matrices mean test scores in the experimental groups compared to the control groups (d ≥ 1.19) and (2) substantial correlations between figural matrix test scores and intelligence test scores in both the experimental and the control groups. These correlations were of comparable magnitude and did not differ between the groups (experiment 1: r ≈ .55; experiment 2: r ≈ .40). Implications of these findings are discussed.

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See detailThinking in action: Need for Cognition predicts Self-Control together with Action Orientation
Grass, Julia; Krieger, Florian; Paulus, Philipp; Greiff, Samuel; Strobel, Anja; Strobel, Alexander

in PLoS ONE (2019), 14(8),

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See detailBig-Five personality and political orientation: Results from four panel studies with representative German samples
Krieger, Florian; Becker, Nicolas; Greiff, Samuel; Spinath, Frank M.

in Journal of Research in Personality (2019)

The aim of this brief report was to replicate the meta-analytic findings concerning the relationship between Big-Five personality and political orientation reported in Sibley, Osborne, and Duckitt (2012) in a sample of N = 29,015 participants from four panels involving representative German samples. We replicated the expected significant correlations for Openness to Experience (r = ?0.07; 95% CI [?0.10, ?0.05]) and Conscientiousness (r = 0.06, 95% CI [0.05, 0.08]), but the effect sizes were smaller than in Sibley et al. (2012). We also found significant correlations for Agreeableness (r = ?0.04; 95% CI [?0.05, ?0.03]) and Neuroticism (r = ?0.04; 95% CI [?0.06, ?0.02]), indicating small but significant relations of additional Big-Five dimensions on political orientation.

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See detailWhy are difficult figural matrices hard to solve? The role of selective encoding and working memory capacity
Krieger, Florian; Zimmer, Hubert D.; Greiff, Samuel; Spinath, Frank M.; Becker, Nicolas

in Intelligence (2019), 72

It is well documented that figural matrices tests are harder to solve when multiple rules need to be induced because multiple rules are traditionally associated with a greater demand for dynamically managed sub-goals (goal management), which requires more working memory capacity (WMC). The current research addresses the necessity to apply selective encoding as a requirement that goes beyond the ability to manage goals when solving figural matrices. In the first study (N = 38), we found that selective encoding demands are present in items with multiple rules in addition to goal management demands. Furthermore, eye movement data indicated that rule induction was hampered when selective encoding demands were present. The second study (N = 127) de-monstrated that individuals' ability to filter relevant features in working memory was positively related to figural matrices items with selective encoding demands. Moreover, there was no evidence that other sources of WMC are related to goal management in figural matrices. Hence, this study provides preliminary evidence that fil-tering of relevant information in working memory is critical for solving figural matrices with multiple rules and challenges the view that goal management is the only driver of the relationship between WMC and performance in solving figural matrices with multiple rules.

See detailUsing Log-File Data to Uncover Strategy Use in Complex Problem Solving
Nicolay, Björn Fabrice; Krieger, Florian; Lagou, Charalampia; Johnson, Ashley; Greiff, Samuel

Scientific Conference (2018, September 18)

The aim of the current project is to utilize log-file data to enhance the understanding of strategy use in Complex Problem Solving (CPS). CPS can be defined as the ability to manipulate the existing variables of a particular novel, complex, intransparent, and dynamic environment successfully in order to reach a predefined goal. In order to successfully solve a CPS task, the goal-directed application and variation of certain strategies is necessary. To uncover the systematic use of these strategies, log-files have been deemed a fruitful resource as they contain not only the final results of a computer-based CPS item, but also the individual steps undertaken while solving such a task. Recent studies using log-files have highlighted the importance of some strategies for CPS, like the varying one variable at a time (VOTAT) strategy, or of engaging in noninterfering observations (i.e., idle rounds). In addition, other strategies have also been shown to be relevant in neighboring fields of CPS. However, comprehensive studies investigating a broad repertoire of strategies applied in CPS are scarce. Hence, on the basis of existing large-scale assessment data sets, the present project set out to investigate which strategies hidden in log-files are relevant for solving a CPS task in order to gain a more thorough understanding of how CPS tasks are being approached. Preliminary findings indicate that, in addition to VOTAT and idle rounds, particularly the flexibility of switching between strategies should be taken into account.

See detailDynamisches Problemlösen und figurale Matrizenaufgaben. Das MaFIN Item-Format
Kunze, Thiemo; Stadler, Matthias; Krieger, Florian; Greiff, Samuel

Poster (2018, September)

See detailDer Zusammenhang zwischen Facetten komplexer Problemlösefähigkeit, fluider Intelligenz und Arbeitsgedächtniskapazität. Eine umfassende Überprüfung der „different demands“-Hypothese
Stadler, Matthias; Krieger, Florian; Schwaighofer, M.; Fischer, F.; Bühner, M.; Greiff, Samuel

Scientific Conference (2018, September)

See detailDie Vorhersage von Selbstkontrolle durch Need for Cognition. Generalisierbarkeit und Erklärungsansätze
Grass, Julia; Krieger, Florian; Paulus, P.; Greiff, Samuel; Strobel, A.; Strobel, A.

Scientific Conference (2018, September)

See detailIntroducing MaFIN. A dynamic matrices finite state automata test
Kunze, Thiemo; Krieger, Florian; Stadler, Matthias; Greiff, Samuel

Scientific Conference (2018, July)

See detailDie besten der besten. Der Nutzen von Logdaten zur Differenzierung bei Deckeneffekten
Krieger, Florian; Stadler, Matthias; Greiff, Samuel

Scientific Conference (2018, February)

See detailThe role of metacognition in low vs high road transfer of complex problem solving skills
Johnson, Ashley; Krieger, Florian; Nicolay, Björn Fabrice; Greiff, Samuel

Poster (2018)

See detailSelektives Enkodieren in figuralen Matrizen.
Krieger, Florian; Becker, Nicolas; Greiff, Samuel; Spinath, Frank M.; Zimmer, H. D.

Scientific Conference (2017, September)

See detailIs the Correlation between Storage Capacity and Matrix Reasoning Driven by the Storage of Partial Solutions? A Pilot Study of an Experimental Approach
Krieger, Florian; Zimmer, Hubert D.; Becker, Nicolas; Spinath, Frank M.

in Journal of Intelligence (2017), 5(2), 21

Working memory capacity (WMC) and reasoning abilities—as assessed by figural matrices tests—are substantially correlated. It is controversially discussed whether this correlation is only caused by controlled attention or also by storage capacity. This study aims at investigating storage of partial solutions as a possible mechanism by which storage capacity may contribute to solving figural matrices tests. For this purpose, we analyzed how an experimental manipulation of storage demands changes the pattern of correlations between WMC and performance in a matrix task. We manipulated the storage demands by applying two test formats: one providing the externalization of partial solutions and one without the possibility of externalization. Storage capacity was assessed by different types of change detection tasks. We found substantial correlations between storage capacity and matrices test performance, but they were of comparable size for both test formats. We take this as evidence that the necessity to store partial solutions is not the limiting factor which causes the association between storage capacity and matrices test. It is discussed how this approach can be used to investigate alternative mechanisms by that storage may influence performance in matrices tests.

See detailWorking memory capacity, filter efficiency and matrix reasoning.
Krieger, Florian; Zimmer, Hubert D.; Becker, Nicolas; Spinath, Frank M.

Poster (2016, July)

See detailDas Speichern von Zwischenlösungen. Ein potentieller Moderator für den Zusammenhang zwischen Arbeitsgedächtniskapazität und der Leistung in figuralen Matrizenaufgaben.
Krieger, Florian; Becker, Nicolas; Zimmer, Hubert D.; Spinath, Frank M.

Scientific Conference (2015, May)

Theoretische Ansätze sehen die Anzahl der Regeln in einer Matrizenaufgabe als eine der Determinanten für die Belastung des Arbeitsgedächtnisses. Eine mögliche Ursache könnte das Speichern von Teillösungen bei Matrizenaufgaben mit mehreren Regeln sein. In der vorliegenden Studie wurde untersucht, ob Personen mit einer hohen Arbeitsgedächtniskapazität durch das Speichern von Teillösungen bei der Lösung von Matrizenaufgaben profitieren. Hierzu wurde in einem Innerhalb-Design den Testpersonen (N=84) eine Matrizentestversion präsentiert, bei der das Arbeitsgedächtnis belastet werden sollte, indem die Teillösungen vor der Eingabe mental aufrechterhalten werden mussten. Zudem wurde eine Version präsentiert, in der Teillösungen direkt eingegeben werden konnten, was zu einer Entlastung des Arbeitsgedächtnisses führen sollte. Beide Matrizentestversionen zeigen einen moderaten Zusammenhang mit der Arbeitsgedächtniskapazität. Allerdings zeigen sich keine Unterschiede zwischen den beiden Korrelationen, was als Evidenz gewertet werden kann, dass das Speichern von Teillösungen keinen bedeutsamen Moderator für den Zusammenhang von Arbeitsgedächtniskapazität und der Leistung in einem Matrizentest darstellt.

See detailIntelligence and school grades: A meta-analysis
Roth, Bettina; Becker, Nicolas; Romeyke, Sara; Schäfer, Sarah; Krieger, Florian; Spinath, Frank M.

in Intelligence (2015), 53

Intelligence is considered as the strongest predictor of scholastic achievement. Research as well as educational policy and the society as a whole are deeply interested in its role as a prerequisite for scholastic success. The present study investigated the population correlation between standardized intelligence tests and school grades employing psychometric meta-analysis (Hunter & Schmidt, 2004). The analyses involved 240 independent samples with 105,185 participants overall. After correcting for sampling error, error of measurement, and range restriction in the independent variable, we found a population correlation of ρ = .54. Moderator analyses pointed to a variation of the relationship between g and school grades depending on different school subject domains, grade levels, the type of intelligence test used in the primary study, as well as the year of publication, whereas gender had no effect on the magnitude of the relationship.

See detailBedeutung der Arbeitsgedächtniskapazität bei der Anwendung verschiedener Lösungsstrategien in figuralen Matrizenaufgaben.
Krieger, Florian; Schmitz, F.; Falk, A.; Rechtenwald, D.; Feldbrügge, J.; Preckel, F.; Wilhelm, O.; Spinath, Frank M.; Becker, Nicolas

Scientific Conference (2014, September)

See detailEffizienz gleich Leistung? Analyse des Antwortverhaltens bei einem distraktorfreien Matrizentest.
Krieger, Florian; Kirmße, Alexander; Spinath, Frank M.; Becker, Nicolas

Poster (2013, September)

Anwendung effizienter Bearbeitungsstrategien abhängt. Bisherige Studien zeigen, dass strukturiertes und sequentielles Bearbeiten der Gestaltungsregeln nach aufsteigender Schwierigkeit zu einer besseren Leistung führt. Während Bearbeitungsstrategien bislang durch Blickbewegungsstudien, Computersimulationen und die Methode des lauten Denkens ermittelt wurden, wurde in dieser Studie die Matrizenkonstruktionsaufgabe verwendet, bei der die Lösung in einer computerisierten Testumgebung generiert wird. Dies ermöglicht eine zeitgenaue und objektive Aufzeichnung des Prozesses der Antwortgenerierung. In Antwortprotokollen von 480 Probanden konnte mittels verschiedener Prozessindikatoren (Regelsprünge, Abweichung von erwarteter Bearbeitungsreihenfolge, Zurücksetzen generierter Lösungen, Ausmaß der Verwendung relevanter Gestaltungselemente) in einer multiplen Regression bis zu 28.8 % der Varianz der Testleistung aufgeklärt werden. Insbesondere strukturiertes und sequentielles Bearbeiten von Gestaltungsregeln sowie der Ausschluss irrelevanter Gestaltungselemente sind entscheidend für eine bessere Leistung. Entgegen bisheriger Befunde zeigt sich jedoch, dass die Bearbeitungsreihenfolge der Gestaltungsregeln nicht auf einer allgemeingültigen Schwierigkeit der Gestaltungsregeln beruht.