See detailDoes Physical Activity Moderate The Influence Of Sedentary Behavior On Health In Young People?
Schembri, Emanuel; Heinz, Andreas; Samuel, Robin

Poster (2021, June)

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See detailTabellenband - Jugendbericht 2020
Residori, Caroline; Schembri, Emanuel; Bulut, Hamid; Samuel, Robin

Report (2021)

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See detailHerausforderungen für Politik und Praxis
Schumacher, Anette; Heinen, Andreas; Willems, Helmut Erich; Samuel, Robin

Report (2021)

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See detailKonzeption des Jugendberichtes
Schumacher, Anette; Heinen, Andreas; Willems, Helmut Erich; Samuel, Robin

in Samuel, Robin; Willems, Helmut Erich (Eds.) Wohlbefinden und Gesundheit von Jugendlichen in Luxemburg (2021)

WICHTIGE ERGEBNISSE AUS KAPITEL 2 - Der luxemburgische Jugendbericht 2020 beinhaltet eine umfassende Beschreibung des Wohlbefindens und der Gesundheit von Jugendlichen. Die Beschreibung basiert auf der Wahrnehmung und Einschätzung der Jugendlichen selbst. - Der Jugendbericht nimmt eine sozialwissenschaftliche Perspektive ein, wonach Wohlbefinden und Gesundheit als Resultat personaler, sozialer und struktureller Ressourcen betrachtet werden. - Er analysiert die unterschiedlichen Sichtweisen und Handlungsweisen (Agency) und identifiziert Unterschiede und Ungleichheiten in Gesundheit und Wohlbefinden der Jugendlichen nach Alter, Geschlecht, sozialem Status und Bildungsstatus sowie Migrationshintergrund. - Die Datengrundlage besteht aus mehreren eigens für diesen Bericht durchgeführten quantitativen und qualitativen Studien und ergänzt diese durch Sekundärdatenanalysen. - Die integrierte Analyse der Datenquellen erlaubt ein facettenreiches Bild des Wohlbefindens und der Gesundheit der Jugendlichen in Luxemburg zu zeichnen.

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See detailHerausforderungen für Politik und Praxis
Schumacher, Anette; Heinen, Andreas; Willems, Helmut Erich; Samuel, Robin

in Samuel, Robin; Willems, Helmut Erich (Eds.) Wohlbefinden und Gesundheit von Jugendlichen in Luxemburg (2021)

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See detailWie Jugendliche ihr Wohlbefinden und ihre Gesundheit einschätzen
Heinz, Andreas; Residori, Caroline; Schulze, Tabea Sophie; Heinen, Andreas; Samuel, Robin

in Samuel, Robin; Willems, Helmut Erich (Eds.) Wohlbefinden und Gesundheit von Jugendlichen in Luxemburg (2021)

WICHTIGE ERGEBNISSE AUS KAPITEL 4 - Wohlbefinden wird von den Jugendlichen komplex definiert und umfasst neben der Gesundheit und einer inneren Zufriedenheit auch ein glückliches Leben mit sozialer Einbindung, artnerschaft und einem erfüllenden Beruf in einer insgesamt sicheren und zuverlässigen Gesellschaft. - Die meisten Jugendlichen verstehen Gesundheit als die Abwesenheit von Krankheit und sie sind insgesamt nur wenig durch Krankheiten betroffen. Mädchen und junge Frauen haben häufiger multiple psychosomatische Beschwerden, diagnostizierte psychische Krankheiten, Stress und moderate depressive Symptome im Vergleich zu Jungen bzw. jungen Männern. - Bei drei Viertel der luxemburgischen Jugendlichen sind das affektive Wohlbefinden und die Lebenszufriedenheit mittel bis hoch. Entsprechend gering ist der Anteil der Jugendlichen, die unzufrieden mit ihrer Lebenssituation sind. - Ein niedriger sozioökonomischer Status geht einher mit einer höheren Wahrscheinlichkeit für Übergewicht, multiple psychosomatische Beschwerden, psychische Erkrankungen, ein niedriges affektives Wohlbefinden sowie eine niedrige Lebenszufriedenheit. - Im Zuge der Covid-19-Pandemie machen Jugendliche sich mehr Gedanken über ihre mentale Gesundheit. Je nach verfügbaren Ressourcen nahm ihre Lebenszufriedenheit ab, nur bei einer Minderheit stieg sie trotz der Pandemie an.

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See detailWas Jugendliche für ihr Wohlbefinden und ihre Gesundheit tun oder nicht tun
Heinen, Andreas; Schobel, Magdalena; Residori, Caroline; Schulze, Tabea Sophie; Samuel, Robin

in Samuel, Robin; Willems, Helmut Erich (Eds.) Wohlbefinden und Gesundheit von Jugendlichen in Luxemburg (2021)

WICHTIGE ERGEBNISSE AUS KAPITEL 5 - Jugendliche entwickeln ein umfangreiches Repertoire an gesundheits- und Wohlbefindensorientierten Verhaltensweisen. Ein großer Teil der Jugendlichen ernährt sich gesund, treibt Sport und verzichtet auf Alkohol und Tabak, um bewusst der eigenen Gesundheit nicht zu schaden bzw. diese zu fördern. - Eine kleine Gruppe von Jugendlichen weist ein höheres Risikoverhalten auf. Diese Jugendlichen rauchen und trinken viel, sind sportlich weniger aktiv, häufiger an Mobbing und Schlägereien beteiligt und bewerten ihre Gesundheit und Lebenszufriedenheit niedriger. - In den wohlbefindensorientierten und gesundheitsrelevanten Verhaltensweisen zeigen sich teilweise große Unterschiede nach Geschlecht, Alter und sozioökonomischem Status. - Wohlbefindensorientiertes Handeln zeigt sich vor allem im Freizeitbereich – je nach Vorliebe unternehmen Jugendliche beispielsweise etwas mit ihren Freunden, gehen Hobbys nach oder entspannen sich zu Hause. - Der Konsum von Alkohol oder Tabak, Medienkonsum oder ungesunde Ernährung werden ambivalent bewertet und können neben gesundheitsschädigenden Folgen auch kurzfristig positive Auswirkungen auf das Wohlbefinden haben (z. B. durch Entspannung, Spaß mit Freunden, sozialen Austausch). - Jugendliche nehmen sich als selbstwirksam wahr, d. h., sie gehen davon aus, dass sie ihr Wohlbefinden und ihre Gesundheit in hohem Maße selbst beeinflussen können und nutzen entsprechende Bewältigungsmechanismen und Verhaltensstrategien zur Stärkung ihrer Resilienz. - Durch die Covid-19-Pandemie hat sich das Freizeitverhalten der Jugendlichen stark verändert. Der Rückgang gesellschaftlicher Aktivitäten belastet sie, sie nehmen jedoch alternative Freizeitbeschäftigungen als Ausgleich auf.

See detailYoung People and COVID-19 (YAC): Project Overview and Some Results
Samuel, Robin; Residori, Caroline; Schomaker, Léa; Procopio, Alessandro; Bulut, Hamid; Sozio, Maria E.

Speeches/Talks (2021)

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See detailWohlbefinden und Gesundheit von Jugendlichen in Luxemburg
Samuel, Robin; Willems, Helmut Erich

Book published by Ministère de l‘Éducation nationale, de l‘Enfance et de la Jeunesse & Université du Luxembourg (2021)

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See detailDiversity, National Identity, and Political Participation among Young People in Luxembourg
Procopio, Alessandro; Schomaker, Léa; Samuel, Robin

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Luxembourg is known for its cultural and national diversity. Approximately 48 of the population is foreigners live in Luxembourg. For 15-29-year-olds, this share was approximately 42 in 2019 and 2020. Furthermore, approximately 185,000 foreign workers commute to Luxembourg daily. Considering this, Luxembourg is an interesting case for investigating national identity and political participation of a diverse society (STATEC 2020a, STATEC 2020b, STATEC 2021). Especially, as the biographies of young people in Luxembourg are becoming increasingly complex (e.g., mixed national parents; highly skilled expatriates), it is worth looking into different aspects and valuations of national identity and political participation of youth in Luxembourg (Amtépé and Hartmann-Hirsch, 2011). In this policy report, we look into the aspects of national identity and how young people living in Luxembourg define a ‘real Luxembourger’ using the Youth Survey Luxembourg (2019) data (Sozio et al., 2020). This will give us the opportunity to investigate what aspects of identity (e.g. Luxembourgish ancestry; the time spent living in Luxembourg) matter for young people to feel part of Luxembourgish society and how these change across different social backgrounds and demographics. The discourse about the interrelations of political participation and youth brings forward the dominant narrative of a disengaging and passive youth. Here, we also investigate these statements in the Luxembourgish context. We analyse the level of interest in politics across young people in Luxembourg and their means of political participation. Finally, we especially investigated the relationship between aspects of national identity, and political interest and engagement of young people in Luxembourg.

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See detailDéfis pour la politique et la pratique
Schumacher, Anette; Heinen, Andreas; Willems, Helmut Erich; Samuel, Robin

in Samuel, Robin; Willems, Helmut Erich (Eds.) Le bien-être et la santé des jeunes au Luxembourg (2021)

Le rapport sur la jeunesse 2020 fournit un état des lieux détaillé sur le bien-être et la santé des jeunes au Luxembourg et un aperçu important sur une population large et hétérogène. Le rapport met également l’accent sur des groupes spécifiques de jeunes en identifiant des groupes à risques parmi les jeunes et en décrivant des problèmes spécifiques. La réflexion finale des résultats de la recherche doit à présent permettre de définir dans ce contexte les enjeux auxquels se verra confronter l’action future des responsables politiques et des acteurs sur le terrain et donner ainsi des suggestions en matière de mesures sociales et politiques.

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See detailDoes Physical Activity Moderate the Influence of Sedentary Behavior on Health in Young People?
Schembri, Emanuel; Heinz, Andreas; Samuel, Robin

in Medicine Science in Sports Exercise (2021), 53(8S), 183--184

PURPOSE: High level of sedentary behavior (SB) may cause a number of health complaints (nHC) and lead to reduced self-rated health (SRH) in young people. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between SB, the magnitude of nHC, SRH, body mass index (BMI), and whether the amount of physical activity (PA) moderates this relationship. METHODS: The data was obtained from Youth Survey Luxembourg 2019 (N = 2802). The population characteristics include sociodemographic data such as age, gender, and socio-economics status (SES) (0 = low to 18 = high). The severity of nHC was the sum score of headaches, stomach aches, back aches, depression, irritableness, nervousness, dizziness, and difficulty falling asleep (0 = low to 32 = high). BMI was calculated by dividing body weight to the square of body height (kg/m2). SRH was measured on a 5-point scale (1 = very good to 5 = very bad). PA and SB were generated from factor analyses of the questionnaire items. SB is separated between leisure and gaming. Multiple regression analysis, adjusted for age, gender, and SES, was used to determine the relationships between SB, nHC, BMI, and SRH, and the moderating effect of PA. RESULTS: Out of the participants, 54% were female and 46% were male with the mean age of 22 ± 4 years (16-29 years). The mean SES was 9.3 ± 2.2 (1-13), BMI was 23 ± 4 kg/m2 (14-47 kg/m2), severity of the nHC was 9 ± 6 (0-32), and SRH was 1.8 ± 0.6 (1-5). The multiple regression analysis shows that high SB through leisure is associated with more severe nHC (unstandardized coefficient b = .49, p < .01). However, PA can decrease nHC (b = .39, p < .01) for participants with high leisure SB. No association has been found between SRH, BMI, and leisure SB. Furthermore, an increase in SB through gaming is associated with higher BMI (b = .35, p < .01) and worse SRH (b = .09, p < .00). A relationship between the severity of nHC and gaming is not found. In all cases, a higher PA shows a significantly better nHC, SRH, and BMI. CONCLUSIONS: The results show that PA has a positive moderating effect of the relationship on leisure SB and nHC in young people in Luxembourg. Increased SB causes higher nHC, worse SRH, and higher BMI and young people who do more PA have lower severity in nHC, and better BMI and SRH. Therefore, it is important for young people to reduce SB and implement a sufficient amount of PA to improve overall health.

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See detailThe application of factorial surveys to study recruiters’ hiring intentions: comparing designs based on hypothetical and real vacancies
Gutfleisch, Tamara; Samuel, Robin; Sacchi, Stefan

in Quality & Quantity (2021), 55

Factorial survey experiments have been widely used to study recruiters’ hiring intentions. Respondents are asked to evaluate hypothetical applicant descriptions, which are experimentally manipulated, for hypothetical job descriptions. However, this methodology has been criticized for putting respondents in hypothetical situations that often only partially correspond to real-life hiring situations. It has been proposed that this criticism can be overcome by sampling real-world vacancies and the recruiters responsible for filling them. In such an approach, only the applicants’ descriptions are hypothetical; respondents are asked about a real hiring problem, which might increase internal and external validity. In this study, we test whether using real vacancies triggers more valid judgments compared to designs based on hypothetical vacancies. The growing number of factorial survey experiments conducted in employer studies makes addressing this question relevant, both for methodological and practical reasons. However, despite the potential implications for the validity of data, it has been neglected so far. We conducted a factorial survey experiment in Luxembourg, in which respondents evaluated hypothetical applicants referring either to a currently vacant position in their company or to a hypothetical job. Overall, we found little evidence for differences in responses by the design of the survey experiment. However, the use of real vacancies might prove beneficial depending on the research interest. We hope that our comparison of designs using real and hypothetical vacancies contributes to the emerging methodological inquiry on the possibilities and limits of using factorial survey experiments in research on hiring.

See detailKonzeption des Jugendberichtes
Schumacher, Anette; Heinen, Andreas; Willems, Helmut; Samuel, Robin

in Ministère de l‘Éducation nationale, de l‘Enfance et de la Jeunesse; Université du Luxembourg (Eds.) Nationaler Bericht zur Situation der Jugend in Luxemburg 2020. Gesundheit und Wohlbefinden von Jugendlichen in Luxemburg (2021)

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See detailSynopse der zentralen Ergebnisse
Schumacher, Anette; Heinen, Andreas; Schembri, Emanuel; Willems, Helmut Erich; Samuel, Robin

in Samuel, Robin; Willems, Helmut Erich (Eds.) Wohlbefinden und Gesundheit von Jugendlichen in Luxemburg (2021)

Insgesamt berichtet eine überwiegende Mehrheit der Jugendlichen ein mittleres bis hohes Wohlbefinden und schätzt die eigene Gesundheit als „ausgezeichnet“ ein. Die luxemburgischen Jugendlichen bewegen sich damit im internationalen Vergleich im oberen Mittelfeld. Das hohe Maß an Wohlbefinden in der jungen Bevölkerung ist über die letzten Jahre weitgehend stabil geblieben, während sich das subjektive Gesundheitsempfinden sogar positiv verändert hat. Treiber dieser Entwicklung sind insbesondere die positiven Veränderungen bei Mädchen und jungen Frauen. Obwohl grundsätzlich alle Bevölkerungsgruppen auch von geringem Wohlbefinden oder vermehrten gesundheitlichen Problemen betroffen sein können, zeigt sich hinsichtlich der Verteilung eine deutliche soziale Schieflage: Sozioökonomisch benachteiligte Jugendliche sind deutlich häufiger von gesundheitlichen Problemen betroffen und weisen insgesamt auch ein niedrigeres Wohlbefinden auf als Jugendliche mit höherem Sozialstatus. Während die Experten gesamtgesellschaftliche Hintergründe für die Entwicklung von Gesundheit und Wohlbefinden mitverantwortlich machen, sind viele Jugendliche der Ansicht, dass sie ihre Gesundheit und ihr subjektives Wohlbefinden weitgehend selbst aktiv beeinflussen können. Zudem werden starke soziale Beziehungen zu Eltern, Familie und Freunden als positive Faktoren genannt. Für wenige Jugendliche können solche Beziehungen jedoch auch negative Auswirkungen auf das Wohlbefinden haben. Ein Mangel an Handlungsmöglichkeiten, etwa aufgrund fehlender finanzieller Ressourcen oder familiärer Unterstützung, kann es zudem erschweren, Verwirklichungschancen zu ergreifen und Wohlbefinden positiv zu gestalten. Auch hinsichtlich der Folgen der Covid-19-Pandemie werden Unterschiede nach sozioökonomischen und soziodemografischen Faktoren deutlich. Jugendliche mit niedrigem sozioökonomischem Status haben in der Tendenz eher negative Folgen zu gewärtigen, während Jugendliche mit gutem Zugang zu verschiedenen Ressourcenpools besser mit den Einschränkungen zurechtzukommen scheinen und sogar von positiven Effekten berichten. In den luxemburgischen Fachdiskursen sind Wohlbefinden und insbesondere die psychische Gesundheit zentrale Themen. Zunehmend dominieren Konzepte, die den Jugendlichen als Akteur in den Mittelpunkt stellen und eine bedürfnisorientierte und befähigende Herangehensweise verfolgen. Damit spiegeln sie die von vielen Jugendlichen berichtete Einschätzung, das eigene Leben handlungsmächtig planen und gestalten zu wollen.

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See detailSynopsis des principaux résultats
Schumacher, Anette; Heinen, Andreas; Schembri, Emanuel; Willems, Helmut Erich; Samuel, Robin

in Samuel, Robin; Willems, Helmut Erich (Eds.) Le bien-être et la santé des jeunes au Luxembourg (2021)

Le bien-être des jeunes luxembourgeois n’a guère changé au cours des années passées et est resté relativement stable à un niveau élevé. La perception subjective de la santé par les jeunes s’est même améliorée. Aujourd’hui, plus d’élèves pensent être en « excellente » santé qu’il y a encore 15 ans ; cette hausse concerne notamment les filles. La perception des garçons n’a guère évolué.

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See detailNationaler Bericht zur Situation der Jugend in Luxemburg 2020: Wohlbefinden und Gesundheit von Jugendlichen in Luxemburg
Biewers, Sandra; Heinen, Andreas; Heinz, Andreas; Meyers, Christiane; Residori, Caroline; Samuel, Robin; Schembri, Emanuel; Schobel, Magdalena; Schomaker, Léa; Schulze, Tabea Sophie; Schumacher, Anette; Willems, Helmut Erich; Ministère de l‘Éducation nationale, de l‘Enfance et de la Jeunesse; Université du Luxembourg

Book published by Ministère de l‘Éducation nationale, de l‘Enfance et de la Jeunesse & Université du Luxembourg (2021)

Die Erstellung des nationalen Berichtes zur Situation der Jugend in Luxemburg geht auf den Artikel 15 (1) des Jugendgesetzes vom 4. Juli 2008 zurück, wonach der Minister, zu dessen Zuständigkeitsbereich die Jugendpolitik gehört, der Abgeordnetenkammer alle fünf Jahre einen Bericht vorlegt. Nach dem ersten Bericht im Jahr 2010, der als Gesamtbericht verschiedene Themen behandelte, thematisierte der zweite Bericht im Jahr 2015 die Übergänge vom Jugend- ins Erwachsenenalter. Der thematische Schwerpunkt des vorliegenden dritten Berichtes ist das Wohlbefinden und die Gesundheit von Jugendlichen in Luxemburg. Der Bericht umfasst zwei Teile: eine wissenschaftliche Analyse und Bestandsaufnahme, die von dem Centre for Childhood and Youth Research (CCY) an der Universität Luxemburg erstellt wurde, sowie einen Beitrag des Ministeriums für Bildung, Kinder und Jugend, welche den Kontext erläutert und die zukünftigen Schwerpunkte der luxemburgischen Jugendpolitik reflektiert. Bei der wissenschaftlichen Analyse und Bestandsaufnahme stehen die Jugendlichen und ihre subjektiven Sichtweisen, ihre Bewertungen und Handlungen im Zusammenhang mit ihrem Wohlbefinden und ihrer Gesundheit im Fokus. Der Bericht zeigt auf, (1) wie Jugendliche ihr Wohlbefinden und ihre Gesundheit einschätzen, (2) was Jugendliche für ihr Wohlbefinden und ihre Gesundheit tun oder nicht tun, (3) welche Bedeutung das soziale Umfeld für das Wohlbefinden der Jugendlichen hat, (4) wie Jugendliche die Covid-19-Pandemie und die Maßnahmen wahrnehmen und (5) wie luxemburgische Experten über das Wohlbefinden und die Gesundheit Jugendlicher diskutieren. Die Datengrundlage bilden vor allem die eigens für den Bericht erhobenen Daten aus standardisierten Umfragen und qualitativen Interviews. Um die Veränderung der Situation der Jugendlichen durch die Covid-19-Pandemie zu beschreiben, wurde während der Erarbeitung des Jugendberichtes eine weitere Studie entwickelt und durchgeführt, deren Ergebnisse im Bericht gesondert dargestellt werden. Der Bericht liefert eine umfassende Informationsgrundlage für die zukünftige Ausrichtung und Weiterentwicklung der Jugendpolitik der luxemburgischen Regierung, die in einem nationalen Jugendpakt zusammengefasst wird. Er richtet sich sowohl an Fachleute in den verschiedenen jugendrelevanten Arbeitsfeldern als auch an Studierende und alle Leserinnen und Leser, die an fundierten Informationen zur Jugend in Luxemburg und deren Wohlbefinden und Gesundheit interessiert sind.

See detailObserving Many Researchers Using the Same Data and Hypothesis Reveals a Hidden Universe of Uncertainty
Breznau, Nate; Rinke, Eike Mark; Wuttke, Alexander; Adem, Muna; Adriaans, Jule; Alvarez-Benjumea, Amalia; Andersen, Henrik Kenneth; Auer, Daniel; Azevedo, Flavio; Bahnsen, Oke; Balzer, Dave; Bauer, Gerrit; Bauer, Paul C.; Baumann, Markus; Baute, Sharon; Benoit, Verena; Bernauer, Julian; Berning, Carl; Berthold, Anna; Bethke, Felix; Biegert, Thomas; Blinzler, Katharina; Blumenberg, Johannes; Bobzien, Licia; Bohman, Andrea; Bol, Thijs; Bostic, Amie; Brzozowska, Zuzanna; Burgdorf, Katharina; Burger, Kaspar; Busch, Kathrin; Castillo, Juan Carlos; Chan, Nathan; Christmann, Pablo; Connelly, Roxanne; Czymara, Christian S.; Damian, Elena; Ecker, Alejandro; Edelmann, Achim; Eger, Maureen A.; Ellerbrock, Simon; Forke, Anna; Forster, Andrea; Gaasendam, Chris; Gavras, Konstantin; Gayle, Vernon; Gessler, Theresa; Gnambs, Timo; Godefroidt, Amélie; Grömping, Max; Groß, Martin; Gruber, Stefan; Gummer, Tobias; Hadjar, Andreas; Heisig, Jan Paul; Hellmeier, Sebastian; Heyne, Stefanie; Hirsch, Magdalena; Hjerm, Mikael; Hochman, Oshrat; Hövermann, Andreas; Hunger, Sophia; Hunkler, Christian; Huth, Nora; Ignacz, Zsofia; Jacobs, Laura; Jacobsen, Jannes; Jaeger, Bastian; Jungkunz, Sebastian; Jungmann, Nils; Kauff, Mathias; Kleinert, Manuel; Klinger, Julia; Kolb, Jan-Philipp; Kołczyńska, Marta; Kuk, John Seungmin; Kunißen, Katharina; Sinatra, Dafina Kurti; Greinert, Alexander; Lersch, Philipp M.; Löbel, Lea-Maria; Lutscher, Philipp; Mader, Matthias; Madia, Joan; Malancu, Natalia; Maldonado, Luis; Marahrens, Helge; Martin, Nicole; Martinez, Paul; Mayerl, Jochen; Mayorga, Oscar Jose; McManus, Patricia; Wagner, Kyle; Meeusen, Cecil; Meierrieks, Daniel; Mellon, Jonathan; Merhout, Friedolin; Merk, Samuel; Meyer, Daniel; Micheli, Leticia; Mijs, Jonathan J. B.; Moya, Cristóbal; Neunhoeffer, Marcel; Nüst, Daniel; Nygård, Olav; Ochsenfeld, Fabian; Otte, Gunnar; Pechenkina, Anna; Prosser, Christopher; Raes, Louis; Ralston, Kevin; Ramos, Miguel; Roets, Arne; Rogers, Jonathan; Ropers, Guido; Samuel, Robin; Sand, Gregor; Schachter, Ariela; Schaeffer, Merlin; Schieferdecker, David; Schlueter, Elmar; Schmidt, Katja M.; Schmidt, Regine; Schmidt-Catran, Alexander; Schmiedeberg, Claudia; Schneider, Jürgen; Schoonvelde, Martijn; Schulte-Cloos, Julia; Schumann, Sandy; Schunck, Reinhard; Schupp, Jürgen; Seuring, Julian; Silber, Henning; Sleegers, Willem; Sonntag, Nico; Staudt, Alexander; Steiber, Nadia; Steiner, Nils; Sternberg, Sebastian; Stiers, Dieter; Stojmenovska, Dragana; Storz, Nora; Striessnig, Erich; Stroppe, Anne-Kathrin; Teltemann, Janna; Tibajev, Andrey; Tung, Brian B.; Vagni, Giacomo; Assche, Jasper Van; Linden, Meta Van Der; Noll, Jolanda Van Der; Hootegem, Arno Van; Vogtenhuber, Stefan; Voicu, Bogdan; Wagemans, Fieke; Wehl, Nadja; Werner, Hannah; Wiernik, Brenton M.; Winter, Fabian; Wolf, Christof; Yamada, Yuki; Zhang, Nan; Ziller, Conrad; Zins, Stefan; Żółtak, Tomasz; Nguyen, Hung H. V.

E-print/Working paper (2021)

How does noise generated by researcher decisions undermine the credibility of science? We test this by observing all decisions made among 73 research teams as they independently conduct studies on the same hypothesis with identical starting data. We find excessive variation of outcomes. When combined, the 107 observed research decisions taken across teams explained at most 2.6 of the total variance in effect sizes and 10 of the deviance in subjective conclusions. Expertise, prior beliefs and attitudes of the researchers explain even less. Each model deployed to test the hypothesis was unique, which highlights a vast universe of research design variability that is normally hidden from view and suggests humility when presenting and interpreting scientific findings.

See detailHow Many Replicators Does It Take to Achieve Reliability? Investigating Researcher Variability in a Crowdsourced Replication
Breznau, Nate; Rinke, Eike Mark; Wuttke, Alexander; Nguyen, Hung H. V.; Adem, Muna; Adriaans, Jule; Akdeniz, Esra; Alvarez-Benjumea, Amalia; Andersen, Henrik Kenneth; Auer, Daniel; Azevedo, Flavio; Bahnsen, Oke; Bai, Ling; Balzer, Dave; Bauer, Gerrit; Bauer, Paul C.; Baumann, Markus; Baute, Sharon; Benoit, Verena; Bernauer, Julian; Berning, Carl; Berthold, Anna; Bethke, Felix; Biegert, Thomas; Blinzler, Katharina; Blumenberg, Johannes; Bobzien, Licia; Bohman, Andrea; Bol, Thijs; Bostic, Amie; Brzozowska, Zuzanna; Burgdorf, Katharina; Burger, Kaspar; Busch, Kathrin; Castillo, Juan Carlos; Chan, Nathan; Christmann, Pablo; Connelly, Roxanne; Czymara, Christian S.; Damian, Elena; Rooij, Eline De; Ecker, Alejandro; Edelmann, Achim; Eder, Christina; Eger, Maureen A.; Ellerbrock, Simon; Forke, Anna; Forster, Andrea; Freire, Danilo; Gaasendam, Chris; Gavras, Konstantin; Gayle, Vernon; Gessler, Theresa; Gnambs, Timo; Godefroidt, Amélie; Grömping, Max; Groß, Martin; Gruber, Stefan; Gummer, Tobias; Hadjar, Andreas; Halbherr, Verena; Heisig, Jan Paul; Hellmeier, Sebastian; Heyne, Stefanie; Hirsch, Magdalena; Hjerm, Mikael; Hochman, Oshrat; Höffler, Jan H.; Hövermann, Andreas; Hunger, Sophia; Hunkler, Christian; Huth, Nora; Ignacz, Zsofia; Israel, Sabine; Jacobs, Laura; Jacobsen, Jannes; Jaeger, Bastian; Jungkunz, Sebastian; Jungmann, Nils; Kanjana, Jennifer; Kauff, Mathias; Khan, Salman; Khatua, Sayak; Kleinert, Manuel; Klinger, Julia; Kolb, Jan-Philipp; Kołczyńska, Marta; Kuk, John Seungmin; Kunißen, Katharina; Sinatra, Dafina Kurti; Greinert, Alexander; C. Lee, Robin; Lersch, Philipp M.; Liu, David; Löbel, Lea-Maria; Lutscher, Philipp; Mader, Matthias; Madia, Joan; Malancu, Natalia; Maldonado, Luis; Marahrens, Helge; Martin, Nicole; Martinez, Paul; Mayerl, Jochen; Mayorga, Oscar Jose; McDonnell, Robert Myles; McManus, Patricia; Wagner, Kyle; Meeusen, Cecil; Meierrieks, Daniel; Mellon, Jonathan; Merhout, Friedolin; Merk, Samuel; Meyer, Daniel; Micheli, Leticia; Mijs, Jonathan J. B.; Moya, Cristóbal; Neunhoeffer, Marcel; Nüst, Daniel; Nygård, Olav; Ochsenfeld, Fabian; Otte, Gunnar; Pechenkina, Anna; Pickup, Mark; Prosser, Christopher; Raes, Louis; Ralston, Kevin; Ramos, Miguel; Reichert, Frank; Roets, Arne; Rogers, Jonathan; Ropers, Guido; Samuel, Robin; Sand, Gregor; Petrarca, Constanza Sanhueza; Schachter, Ariela; Schaeffer, Merlin; Schieferdecker, David; Schlueter, Elmar; Schmidt, Katja; Schmidt, Regine; Schmidt-Catran, Alexander; Schmiedeberg, Claudia; Schneider, Jürgen; Schoonvelde, Martijn; Schulte-Cloos, Julia; Schumann, Sandy; Schunck, Reinhard; Schupp, Jürgen; Seuring, Julian; Silber, Henning; Sleegers, Willem; Sonntag, Nico; Staudt, Alexander; Steiber, Nadia; Steiner, Nils; Sternberg, Sebastian; Sternberg, Sebastian; Stojmenovska, Dragana; Storz, Nora; Striessnig, Erich; Stroppe, Anne-Kathrin; Suchow, Jordan W.; Teltemann, Janna; Tibajev, Andrey; Tung, Brian B.; Vagni, Giacomo; Assche, Jasper Van; Linden, Meta Van Der; Noll, Jolanda Van Der; Hootegem, Arno Van; Vogtenhuber, Stefan; Voicu, Bogdan; Wagemans, Fieke; Wehl, Nadja; Werner, Hannah; Wiernik, Brenton M.; Winter, Fabian; Wolf, Christof; Wu, Cary; Yamada, Yuki; Zakula, Björn; Zhang, Nan; Ziller, Conrad; Zins, Stefan; Żółtak, Tomasz

E-print/Working paper (2021)

The paper reports findings from a crowdsourced replication. Eighty-four replicator teams attempted to verify results reported in an original study by running the same models with the same data. The replication involved an experimental condition. A “transparent” group received the original study and code, and an “opaque” group received the same underlying study but with only a methods section and description of the regression coefficients without size or significance, and no code. The transparent group mostly verified the original study (95.5%), while the opaque group had less success (89.4%). Qualitative investigation of the replicators’ workflows reveals many causes of non-verification. Two categories of these causes are hypothesized, routine and non-routine. After correcting non-routine errors in the research process to ensure that the results reflect a level of quality that should be present in ‘real-world’ research, the rate of verification was 96.1 in the transparent group and 92.4 in the opaque group. Two conclusions follow: (1) Although high, the verification rate suggests that it would take a minimum of three replicators per study to achieve replication reliability of at least 95 confidence assuming ecological validity in this controlled setting, and (2) like any type of scientific research, replication is prone to errors that derive from routine and undeliberate actions in the research process. The latter suggests that idiosyncratic researcher variability might provide a key to understanding part of the “reliability crisis” in social and behavioral science and is a reminder of the importance of transparent and well documented workflows.

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See detailThe health, well-being and life satisfaction of young people in Luxembourg before the COVID-19 pandemic and during deconfinement
Residori, Caroline; Schomaker, Léa; Samuel, Robin

Scientific Conference (2020, November 10)

Background: During 2020, most aspects of young people’s lives have been altered by the COVID-19 pandemic and the measures being implemented to contain it. Early studies on the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic suggest that confinement (so-called “lockdowns”) affect health, well-being and life satisfaction. However, the current situation in many countries is not confinement but prolonged deconfinement with less strict but still considerable measures and recommendations. Objectives: The possible effects of this deconfinement on the health, well-being and life satisfaction of young people is the focus of this oral presentation, which is based on the YAC-Young Adults and COVID-19 study (see Residori et al., 2020). Methods: The study relies on data collected from a random sample of residents of Luxembourg for the Youth Survey Luxembourg in Mai-July 2019 (age-range: 16-29, n=2.800) and in July 2020 (age-range: 12-29, n=3768, preliminary data). The data was gathered via online survey and using the same items as the HBSC study (self-rated health, life satisfaction (Cantril ladder) and the WHO-5 Well-being Index) (Sozio et al., 2020). Results: The cross-sectional comparison of this representative data, explores the health, wellbeing and life satisfaction of young people in Luxembourg before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. The results are presented for the overall population and detailed by socio-demographic groups. For the 12-15-year-olds, the observed proportion reporting a low life satisfaction (<6) was, for example, 31.3% in 2020. This proportion has increased from 19.9% in 2019 to 25.5 % in 2020 for the 16-20-year-olds, from 23.9% to 35.3 % for the 21-25-year-olds and from 20.2% to 32.8% for the 26-29-year-olds. Conclusion: The presentation will conclude on a reflection of the links between the observed differences and the measures implemented to during deconfinement as well as the scientific and political relevance of the observed differences for Luxembourg and other countries. Literature: Residori, Caroline; Sozio, Maria E.; Schomaker, Lea; Samuel, Robin (2020): YAC – Young People and COVID-19. Preliminary Results of a Representative Survey of Adolescents and Young Adults in Luxembourg. University of Luxembourg: Esch-sur-Alzette Sozio, M., Procopio, A., & Samuel, R. (2020). Youth Survey Luxembourg – Technical Report 2019. Esch-sur-Alzette: University of Luxembourg.

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See detailYAC – Young People and COVID-19
Residori, Caroline; Schomaker, Léa; Samuel, Robin

Speeches/Talks (2020)

Presentation of the first results from the "Young People and COVID-19 (YAC)" study, combining results from an representative online survey and in-depth interviews

See detailThe application of factorial surveys to study recruiters’ hiring intentions: Comparing designs based on hypothetical and real vacancies
Gutfleisch, Tamara Rebecca; Samuel, Robin; Sacchi, Stefan

Presentation (2020, September 22)

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See detailIs It Origin, Destination or Mobility? A Monte Carlo Simulation of the Diagonal Reference Model
Procopio, Alessandro; Samuel, Robin

Presentation (2020, August 27)

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See detailThe application of factorial surveys to study recruiters’ hiring intentions: comparing designs based on hypothetical and real vacancies
Gutfleisch, Tamara Rebecca; Samuel, Robin; Sacchi, Stefan

in Quality and Quantity (2020)

Factorial survey experiments have been widely used to study recruiters’ hiring intentions. Respondents are asked to evaluate hypothetical applicant descriptions, which are experimentally manipulated, for hypothetical job descriptions. However, this methodology has been criticized for putting respondents in hypothetical situations that often only partially correspond to real-life hiring situations. It has been proposed that this criticism can be overcome by sampling real-world vacancies and the recruiters responsible for filling them. In such an approach, only the applicants’ descriptions are hypothetical; respondents are asked about a real hiring problem, which might increase internal and external validity. In this study, we test whether using real vacancies triggers more valid judgments compared to designs based on hypothetical vacancies. The growing number of factorial survey experiments conducted in employer studies makes addressing this question relevant, both for methodological and practical reasons. However, despite the potential implications for the validity of data, it has been neglected so far.We conducted a factorial survey experiment in Luxembourg, in which respondents evaluated hypothetical applicants referring either to a currently vacant position in their company or to a hypothetical job. Overall, we found little evidence for differences in responses by the design of the survey experiment. However, the use of real vacancies might prove beneficial depending on the research interest.We hope that our comparison of designs using real and hypothetical vacancies contributes to the emerging methodological inquiry on the possibilities and limits of using factorial survey experiments in research on hiring.

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See detailValuing Creativity, Feeling Overworked and Working Hours: Male Workers and the New Spirit of Capitalism
Samuel, Robin; Kanji, Shireen

in Time & Society (2020), 29(1), 51-73

Boltanski and Chiapello argued that creativity is a required attribute of managers emanating from the ideology of the ‘New Spirit of Capitalism’. Ideology provides the justification for work practices and brings material consequences in relation to the experience of time. This article explores both the ideology and the links between the ideological and the experience of time by assessing whether male managers prioritise creativity and whether this is related to their working hours, driving them to work longer hours than other workers and longer hours than they actually want. Men’s dominant position in work organisations puts them at the centre of this exploration. Using multilevel logistic and linear models on 2010 data from the European Social Survey (N = 7049), we show that male managers prioritise creativity more than other workers do. There are consequences for the experience of time as valuing creativity in combination with being a manager increases working hours above the large and significant effect of being a manager. The feeling of overwork is raised independently for those who value creativity and for those who are managers.

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See detailNegative life events, self-efficacy, and social support: Risk and protective factors for school dropout intentions and dropout
Samuel, Robin; Burger, Kaspar

in Journal of Educational Psychology (2020), 112(5), 973-986

Prior studies have noted several risk and protective factors for school dropout; however, only a few have examined longer-term vulnerabilities alongside temporary risk and protective factors. Consequently, we focused on the role that both stable and time-varying psychosocial risk and protective factors play in dropout intentions and actual dropout, using a 4-year longitudinal design. We investigated to what extent dropout intentions and dropout can be predicted by an interplay between negative life events, general self-efficacy, and perceived social support. We distinguished between time-averaged levels of self-efficacy and social support, and within-person change in self-efficacy and social support over time. This enabled us to establish whether dropout intentions and dropout were sensitive to fluctuations in perceived self-efficacy and social support over time when controlling for person-specific levels of these psychosocial resources. Calculating multilevel models with data from a prospective cohort study (N = 4,956, 43% male), we found that negative life events were significantly associated with an increase in dropout intentions and the likelihood of school dropout. Furthermore, time-averaged levels of self-efficacy and social support, and a within-person (situational) increase in these characteristics relative to their time-averaged levels, were related to lower levels of dropout intentions but did not prevent dropout. The positive relationship between negative life events and dropout intentions was attenuated for individuals who perceived higher levels of self-efficacy than usual. Our findings suggest future research should further investigate time-averaged and situational psychosocial drivers of school dropout in combination.

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See detailYouth Survey Luxembourg – Technical Report 2019
Sozio, Maria Eugenia; Procopio, Alessandro; Samuel, Robin

Report (2020)

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See detailYouth Survey Luxembourg – Technical Report 2019
Sozio, Maria Eugenia; Procopio, Alessandro; Samuel, Robin

Report (2020)

See detailCatalogue de mesures en faveur des jeunes confrontés à des transitions difficiles et en faveur des jeunes NEET.
Nell, Josepha; Scheier, Elisabeth; Zuniga, Michaela; Samuel, Robin

Report (2020)

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See detailYAC – Young People and COVID-19. Preliminary Results of a Representative Survey of Adolescents and Young Adults in Luxembourg
Residori, Caroline; Sozio, Maria Eugenia; Schomaker, Léa; Samuel, Robin

Report (2020)

Overall, the preliminary results of the representative survey of adolescents and young adults in Luxembourg paint a complex picture. In general, young people seem to be aware of their responsibility to contain the coronavirus. The majority have the necessary information and opportunities to act in a way that reflects this responsibility. There are suggestions of negative impacts stemming from COVID-19 and measures to combat COVID-19, but these do not appear to be the prevailing dynamic at the time of completing the survey. However, it is likely that negative effects will increase the longer the COVID-19 pandemic lasts and the more individual and social resources are depleted. There are already detectable beginnings of sociodemographic and socioeconomic differences in how people are coping with the COVID-19 pandemic. It is therefore important to continue to provide young people with support for mastering the transition between childhood and adulthood despite COVID-19 and to responsibly provide them with the opportunities and spaces this requires. This process must pay particular attention to inequalities that are developing and being reinforced.

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See detailYAC – Young People and COVID-19: Key data of the Preliminary Results of a Representative Survey of Adolescents and Young Adults in Luxembourg
Schomaker, Léa; Residori, Caroline; Sozio, E. Maria; Samuel, Robin

Report (2020)

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See detailNeurologists, neurosurgeons, and psychiatrists' personality traits: a comparison
Surbeck, Werner; Samuel, Robin; Spieler, Derek; Seifritz, Erich; Scantamburlo, Gabrielle; Stienen, Martin N.; Scholtes, Felix

in Acta Neurochirurgica (2020)

Background: Clinicians in neuroscientific disciplines may present distinct personality profiles. Despite of potential relevance to clinical practice, this has not yet been studied. We therefore aimed to compare personality profiles of physicians working in the three main disciplines of clinical neuroscience, i.e., neurologists, neurosurgeons, and psychiatrists, between each other, across levels of training and to other specialties. Methods:An online survey using the Ten-Item Personality Inventory (TIPI), an internationally validated measure of the five-factor model of personality dimensions, was distributed to board-certified physicians, residents, and medical students in several European countries and Canada. Differences in personality profiles were analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance and canonical linear discriminant analysis on age- and sex-standardized z-scores of personality traits. Single personality traits were analyzed using robust t tests. Results: Of the 5148 respondents who completed the survey, 723 indicated the specialties neurology, neurosurgery, or psychiatry. Compared to all other specialties, personality profiles of training and trained physicians in these three main clinical neuroscience disciplines (“NN&P”) significantly differed, with significantly higher scores in openness to experience. Within NN&P, there were significant differences in personality profiles, driven by lower neuroticism in neurosurgeons, higher conscientiousness in neurosurgeons and neurologists, and higher agreeableness in psychiatrists. Across levels of training, NN&P personality profiles did not differ significantly. Conclusion: The distinct clinical neuroscience personality profile is characterized by higher levels of openness to experience compared to non-neuroscience specialties. Despite high variability within each discipline, moderate, but solid differences in the personality profiles of neurologists, neurosurgeons and psychiatrists exist.

See detailHiring Processes in Male- and Female-Dominated Occupations: Evidence for Gendered Scarring due to Unemployment
Gutfleisch, Tamara Rebecca; Samuel, Robin

Presentation (2019, September 14)

Spells of unemployment have been shown to negatively affect the hiring chances of job applicants. These so-called "scarring effects" might be gender-specific due to gender bias in recruiters' hiring decisions. However, systematic analyses of the conditions under which scarring effects become gender-specific are missing. Against this background, we examine how gender and the duration of unemployment interactively shape recruiters' hiring decisions. We use data from a multinational factorial survey experiment among recruiters conducted in Switzerland and Norway. By focusing on a male-dominated (mechanics) and a female-dominated occupation (nursing), we test the hypothesis that gendered role expectations affect recruiters' hiring decisions towards unemployed men and women. We find, overall, evidence for heterogeneous scarring effects. By constituting new evidence on gender differences in scarring due to unemployment, this study contributes to our understanding of the demand-side barriers to successful and "gender-equal" transitions to employment.

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See detailEmployers’ hiring decisions in relation to young people in Luxembourg (EDYPOLU). Short report
Gutfleisch, Tamara Rebecca; Samuel, Robin

Report (2019)

In this report, we present a selection of preliminary descriptive results from the EDYPOLU research project funded by the University of Luxembourg (2017-2020). The research project examines the labour market for young people in Luxembourg with an interest in operational staffing needs, general human resource requirements and selection processes of recruiters. The main objective of the project is to identify possible obstacles for a successful entry into the labor market for young job seekers in Luxembourg by studying the general mechanisms in recruiters’ evaluation of young job candidates. To this end, we conducted an online survey among recruiters working in different occupational fields in Luxembourg between November 2018 and January 2019. A pilot study was conducted in spring 2018. The EDYPOLU recruiter survey builds on the Horizon 2020 project NEGOTIATE (https://negotiate-research.eu/). In the context of NEGOTIATE, a recruiter survey was conducted in four countries: Bulgaria, Greece, Norway, and Switzerland. EDYPOLU surveys a number of topics that have also been examined in NEGOTIATE. This makes it possible to draw some comparisons between the results of both studies.

See detailUsing Hypothetical Vacancies in Factorial Surveys to Study Employers' Hiring Decisions – A Valid Approach?
Gutfleisch, Tamara Rebecca; Samuel, Robin

Presentation (2019, July 18)

Factorial survey experiments are increasingly employed by scholars interested in understanding the general mechanisms underlying employers' hiring decisions in relation to specific applicant characteristics. Usually, a sample of human resource professionals is asked to rate the hiring chances of hypothetical applicants for a hypothetical job. However, using hypothetical job descriptions for the evaluation of applicants in factorial surveys may reduce the internal and external validity of the results. For example, employers might apply different evaluation standards when assessing the quality of applicant profiles for a hypothetical job (put less/more weight on certain characteristics) because it is difficult to put themselves in the actual hiring situation – affecting the internal validity. In this paper, we contextualize prior factorial survey experiments by examining whether there is a difference in employers' hiring intentions when confronted with real versus hypothetical hiring problems. Despite the growing number of factorial surveys and the potential implications for the validity of these data, this question has been widely neglected so far. We employ a factorial survey experiment among recruiters in different occupational sectors in Luxembourg. Recruiters evaluate the hiring chances of several profiles of hypothetical applicants with varying characteristics either referring to a real vacancy in their company or to a hypothetical (but similar) job type. Preliminary findings suggest no differences in employers hiring decisions based on the type of evaluation used in the factorial survey. The results partly contradict previous findings from pretest data which showed significant differences between the average hiring chances in the two groups. By examining the internal validity of presenting hypothetical vacancies, this study contributes to methodological research on factorial surveys as well as to the literature studying employers' hiring decisions.

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See detailAre Cox Regression Models a Valuable Tool for Social Stratification Research on Health? A Simulation Study.
Procopio, Alessandro; Samuel, Robin

Presentation (2019, July 17)

In our contribution, we assess the possibilities and limits of Cox regression models in social stratification research in the area of health. We are motivated by the need for a structured analytical strategy through which researchers can deal with health inequality. Previous findings suggest considering health as a relevant resource but also one, which is unequally distributed among the members of a population. Along these lines, we focus on the inequality of risks distribution and the social stratification of (non) access to health as a resource. Using the substantive example of health inequality, we perform five Monte Carlo simulations in constructed longitudinal data. Each setting simulates a different source of bias. Specifically: a) Measurement error (misspecification of time measurement); b) Linear dependency between class of origin, destination and mobility effects; c) Omitted variables bias; d) Disentangle of timing/probability effects, namely speed/overall occurrence likelihood of an event; and e) Unobserved heterogeneity among groups. The health-related risks approach in analysing health inequalities has a twofold advantage: a) it splits the health outcome in a true differential and in a stochastic component due to chance and b) it considers only the first – and in most cases more interesting part – as a source of inequality. Moreover, Cox regression models allow for a flexible parameterization conditional to the specific research settings. For instance, addition of frailty parameters to the regression equation can help social scientists to reduce unobserved heterogeneity. This problem is especially encountered in social stratification research when comparing logit transition probabilities. In summary, this study contributes to the current literature by demonstrating the flexibility of Cox regression models in social stratification research in the area of health. It further provides valuable analytic avenues for theory-driven empirical research in social scientific health research as it uncovers how various sources of bias affect estimates.

See detailThe Gendered Consequences of Experiencing Unemployment: A Cross-Country Factorial Survey Among Recruiters
Gutfleisch, Tamara Rebecca; Samuel, Robin

Presentation (2019, March 27)

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See detailUnemployment Scarring and Gendered Occupations: Evidence from a Cross-Country Factorial Survey
Gutfleisch, Tamara Rebecca; Samuel, Robin

Presentation (2019, January 18)

The experience of early unemployment has been linked to a wide range of subsequent outcomes such as lower levels of well-being, lower wages and a host of other disadvantages in the labor market ("unemployment scarring"). As youth unemployment continues to be one of the main challenges of our time, it is important to anlayse the determinants affecting transitions to employment for young individuals. Empirical evidence from recent experimental studies emphasizes the long-neglected role of recruiters in the reintegration of individuals into the labor market. However, these studies rarely address potential gender differences in unemployment scarring by employing experimental designs that do not allow for extensive gender comparisons - potentially leaving important mechanisms behind recruiters' role in the reproduction of gender inequalities widely unexplored. Moreover, these studies differ in the context in which they were conducted making it difficult to draw conclusions regarding the extent to which unemployment might have different consequences for men and women. We extend the previous literature by examining how unemployment and gender interactively shape recruiters' evaluation of young applicants' hiring chances. Speci fically, we aim at addressing the shortcomings of previous research by comparing the hiring chances for young male and female jobseekers between different occupations and national contexts. Drawing on established labor market theories and social psychological theories about gendered role expectations and their impact on the evaluation of behavior ("role congruity theory"), we expect to find differences in unemployment scarring across gender. In particular, we expect that the gendered stereotypes associated with certain occupations affect recruiters' evaluation of unemployment for men and women. Recruiters might use unemployment as justifi cation to discriminate against workers when applying for gender-atypical jobs (e.g. women applying for traditionally and culturally male-typed jobs). On the other hand, recruiters might apply a more lenient standard towards the opposite-sex unemployed worker in order to overcompensate for the low share of e.g. women in male-typed jobs. To test our hypotheses, we use data from a large-scale factorial survey experiment among recruiters in four European countries and different occupational sectors. We focus on a male-typed and a female-typed occupational sector (mechanics and nursing, respectively) to explore the workings of gendered stereotypes. The multifactorial experimental design of the factorial survey allows us to compare different types of unemployment (timing and duration) and to hold unemployment orthogonal to other factors (e.g. education). Employing linear multilevel regression models, we fi nd, overall, heterogeneous scarring effects of unemployment across gender. Especially current unemployment spells seem to negatively affect the hiring chances for men applying for nursing jobs. Our preliminary findings constitute new evidence on gender differences in scarring due to unemployment. Moreover, they demonstrate that ignoring contextual factors in studying heterogeneous scarring effects across gender potentially leaves important mechanisms in recruiters' hiring decisions undetected. This study further contributes to the literature on transitions to employment as well as on gender inequalities in the labor market more generally by studying the demand-side mechanisms leading recruiters to discriminate against men and women in gendered-occupations.

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See detailLebenssituationen und Erfahrungen von lesbischen, schwulen, bisexuellen und trans* Jugendlichen in Luxemburg
Meyers, Christiane; Reiners, Diana; Samuel, Robin

Report (2019)

Diese von der Universität Luxemburg im Auftrag des Ministeriums für Bildung, Kinder und Jugend durchgeführte Studie ist explorativ angelegt. Mit einem Mixed-Methods-Ansatz wurden einerseits internationale Datenerhebungen zu Einstellungen der Gesamtbevölkerung und eine LGBT*-Befragung sekundär für Luxemburg ausgewertet. Zweitens wurde der politische und mediale Diskurs mittels einer qualitativen Dokumentenanalyse untersucht. Den dritten Teil bildet eine Analyse von qualitativen Interviews mit acht Jugendlichen (davon zwei trans* Personen), sowie sieben Expert_innen. Durch die geringe Fallzahl sind die vorgestellten Ergebnisse als Einblick in die Lebenssituationen, jedoch nicht als abschließende Gesamtuntersuchung der Situation von lesbischen, schwulen, bisexuellen und trans* Jugendlichen in Luxemburg einzuordnen.

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See detailNegative life events, self-efficacy, and social support: Risk and protective factors for school dropout intentions and dropout
Samuel, Robin; Burger, Kaspar

in Journal of Educational Psychology (2019)

Prior studies have noted several risk and protective factors for school dropout; however, only a few have examined longer-term vulnerabilities alongside temporary risk and protective factors. Consequently, we focused on the role that both stable and time-varying psychosocial risk and protective factors play in dropout intentions and actual dropout, using a 4-year longitudinal design. We investigated to what extent dropout intentions and dropout can be predicted by an interplay between negative life events, general self-efficacy, and perceived social support. We distinguished between time-averaged levels of self-efficacy and social support, and within-person change in self-efficacy and social support over time. This enabled us to establish whether dropout intentions and dropout were sensitive to fluctuations in perceived self-efficacy and social support over time when controlling for person-specific levels of these psychosocial resources. Calculating multilevel models with data from a prospective cohort study (N = 4,956, 43 male), we found that negative life events were significantly associated with an increase in dropout intentions and the likelihood of school dropout. Furthermore, time-averaged levels of self-efficacy and social support, and a within-person (situational) increase in these characteristics relative to their time-averaged levels, were related to lower levels of dropout intentions but did not prevent dropout. The positive relationship between negative life events and dropout intentions was attenuated for individuals who perceived higher levels of self-efficacy than usual. Our findings suggest future research should further investigate time-averaged and situational psychosocial drivers of school dropout in combination. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved)

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See detailConscious Experience and Psychological Consequences of Awake Craniotomy
Hejrati, N.; Spieler, D.; Samuel, Robin; Regli, L.; Weyerbrock, A.; Surbeck, W.

in World Neurosurgery (2019)

Background Experiencing cranial surgery under awake conditions may expose patients to considerable psychological strain. Methods This study aimed to investigate the occurrence and course of psychological sequelae following awake craniotomy (AC) for brain tumors in a series of 20 patients using a broad, validated psychological assessment pre-, intra-, postoperatively and a standardized follow-up of 3 months. In addition, the association of the preoperative psychological condition (including, but not limited to, anxiety and fear) with perioperative pain perception and interference was assessed. Results AC did not induce any shift in the median levels of anxiety, depression, and stress symptoms already present prior to the procedure. Furthermore, anxiety and depression were all moderately to strongly associated over time (all p<0.05). Stress symptoms also correlated positively over all times of measurement. Stress three days after surgery was strongly associated with stress three months after surgery (p<0.001), while the correlation between pre- and immediate postoperative stress showed a statistical trend (p=0.07). Preoperative fear was not related to intraoperative pain, but to pain and its interference with daily activity on the third postoperative day (p<0.001 and p<0.01, respectively). Conclusion Postoperative psychological symptoms clearly correlated with their corresponding preoperative symptoms. Thus, mental health was not negatively affected by the awake craniotomy experience in our series. Intraoperative fear and pain were not related to the preoperative psychological condition. However, preoperative fear and anxiety were positively related with pain and its interference with daily activity in the immediate postoperative period

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See detailScars of early job insecurity across Europe: Insights from a multi-country employer study
Imdorf, Christian; Shi, Lulu P.; Sacchi, Stefan; Samuel, Robin; Hyggen, Christer; Stoilova, Rumiana; Yordanova, Gabriela; Boyadjieva, Pepka; Ilieva-Trichkova, Petya; Parsanoglou, Dimitris; Yfanti, Aggeliki

in Hvinden, Bjørn; Hyggen, Christer; Schoyen, Mi Ah; Sirovátka, Tomáš (Eds.) Youth Unemployment and Job Insecurity in Europe. Problems, Risk Factors and Policies (2019)

Episodes of unemployment or deskilling work can signal low ability to employers and impede individuals’ employment chances. In this chapter we analyse how the scarring effects of experiences of job insecurity vary across countries. We presented fictitious CVs integrated in an online survey to 1920 respondents recruiting for real jobs in five occupational fields in Bulgaria, Greece, Norway and Switzerland. Our findings show that unemployment scarring is strongest in Norway, followed by Switzerland, and is weaker in Bulgaria and Greece. Work experience in deskilling jobs as well as frequent changes of jobs (job-hopping) are also found to decrease applicants’ chances. We interpret our findings with regard to different national economies (youth unemployment), employment protection legislation and education systems, arguing that these country-specific settings shape recruiters’ perceptions of individuals’ precarious job experience, which in turn influences their hiring decision.

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See detailThe Crowdsourced Replication Initiative: Investigating Immigration and Social Policy Preferences. Executive Report.
Breznau, Nate; Rinke, Eike Mark; Wuttke, Alexander; Adem, Muna; Adriaans, Jule; Alvarez-Benjumea, Amalia; Andersen, Henrik; Auer, Daniel; Azevedo, Flavio; Bahnsen, Oke; Balzer, Dave; Bauer, Gerrit; Bauer, Paul; Baumann, Markus; Baute, Sharon; Benoit, Verena; Berning, Carl; Bernauer, Julian; Berthold, Anna; Bethke, Felix; Biegert, Thomas; Blinzler, Katharina; Blumenberg, Johannes; Bol, Thijs; Bobzien, Licia; Bohman, Andrea; Bostic, Amie; Brzozowska, Zuzanna; Burgdorf, Katharina; Burger, Kaspar; Busch, Kathrin; Castillo, Juan Carlos; Chan, Nathan; Christmann, Pablo; Connelly, Roxanne; Czymara, Christian; Damian, Elena; Edelmann, Achim; Ecker, Alejandro; Eger, Maureen A.; Ellerbrock, Simon; Forke, Anna; Forster, Andrea; Gavras, Konstantin; Gayle, Vernon; Gaasendam, Chris; Gessler, Theresa; Gnambs, Timo; Godefroidt, Amélie; Greinert, Alexander; Groß, Martin; Grömping, Max; Gruber, Stefan; Gummer, Tobias; Hadjar, Andreas; Heisig, Jan Paul; Hellmeier, Sebastian; Heyne, Stefanie; Hirsch, Magdalena; Hjerm, Mikael; Hochman, Oshrat; Hövermann, Andreas; Huth, Nora; Hunger, Sophia; Hunkler, Christian; Ignacz, Zsofia; Jacobs, Laura; Jacobsen, Jannes; Jaeger, Bastian; Jungkunz, Sebastian; Jungmann, Nils; Kauff, Mathias; Kleinert, Manuel; Klinger, Julia; Kolb, Jan-Philipp; Kolczynska, Marta; Kuk, John; Kunißen, Katharina; Kurti, Dafina; Lersch, Philipp M.; Löbel, Lea-Maria; Lutscher, Philipp; Mader, Matthias; Madia, Joan Eliel; Malancu, Natalia Cornelia; Maldonado, Luis; Marahrens, Helge; Martin, Nicole; Martinez, Paul; Mayerl, Jochen; MAYORGA, Oscar Jose; McManus, Patricia; Meeusen, Cecil; Meierrieks, Daniel; Mellon, Jonathan; Merhout, Friedolin; Merk, Samuel; Meyer, Daniel; Micheli, Leticia; Mijs, Jonathan; Moya, Cristóbal; Neunhoeffer, Marcel; Nüst, Daniel; Nygård, Olav; Ochsenfeld, Fabian; Otte, Gunnar; Pechenkina, Anna; Prosser, Christopher; Raes, Louis; Ralston, Kevin; Ramos, Miguel; Roets, Arne; Rogers, Jonathan; Ropers, Guido; Samuel, Robin; Sand, Gergor; Schachter, Ariela; Schaeffer, Merlin; Schieferdecker, David; Schlueter, Elmar; Schmidt, Katja; Schmidt, Regine; Schmidt-Catran, Alexander; Schmiedeberg, Claudia; Schneider, Jürgen; Schoonvelde, Martijn; Schulte-Cloos, Julia; Schumann, Sandy; Schunck, Reinhard; Schupp, Juergen; Seuring, Julian; Silber, Henning; Sleegers, Willem; Sonntag, Nico; Staudt, Alexander; Steiber, Nadia; Steiner, Nils; Sternberg, Sebastian; Stiers, Dieter; Striessnig, Erich; Stojmenovska, Dragana; Storz, Nora; Stroppe, Anne-Kathrin; Teltemann, Janna; Tibajev, Andrey; Tung, Brian B.; Vagni, Giacomo; Van Assche, Jasper; van der Linden, Meta; van der Noll, Jolanda; Van Hootegem, Arno; Vogtenhuber, Stefan; Voicu, Bogdan; Wagemans, Fieke Maria Antoinet; Wagner, Kyle; Wehl, Nadja; Werner, Hannah; Wiernik, Brenton M.; Winter, Fabian; Wolf, Christof; Zakula, Björn; Ziller, Conrad; Zins, Stefan; Zhang, Nan; Żółtak, Tomasz

E-print/Working paper (2019)

In an era of mass migration, social scientists, populist parties and social movements raise concerns over the future of immigration-destination societies. What impacts does this have on policy and social solidarity? Comparative cross-national research, relying mostly on secondary data, has findings in different directions. There is a threat of selective model reporting and lack of replicability. The heterogeneity of countries obscures attempts to clearly define data-generating models. P-hacking and HARKing lurk among standard research practices in this area.This project employs crowdsourcing to address these issues. It draws on replication, deliberation, meta-analysis and harnessing the power of many minds at once. The Crowdsourced Replication Initiative carries two main goals, (a) to better investigate the linkage between immigration and social policy preferences across countries, and (b) to develop crowdsourcing as a social science method. The Executive Report provides short reviews of the area of social policy preferences and immigration, and the methods and impetus behind crowdsourcing plus a description of the entire project. Three main areas of findings will appear in three papers, that are registered as PAPs or in process.

See detailAlles anders? Was Digital Natives vom Arbeitsmarkt erwarten
Samuel, Robin

Speeches/Talks (2018)

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See detailScarring Due to Unemployment: Employers' Hiring Decisions in Relation to Young People
Gutfleisch, Tamara Rebecca; Samuel, Robin

Presentation (2018, November 07)

The long-term consequences of experiencing early unemployment for future labor market outcomes and individual well-being have been widely documented in the literature. As youth unemployment remains one of the main challenges of our time, it is important to understand the mechanisms on both sides of the job matching process. However, the majority of previous research only highlights issues on the supply side of this process by analyzing observational or administrative data. Empirical evidence on the demand side of youth unemployment is still scarce. Against this background, we examine how employers evaluate hiring chances of young job applicants with special emphasis on scarring due to unemployment. Specifically, we aim at addressing the shortcomings of previous research in two ways: (1) We conduct a large-scale factorial survey experiment among recruiters in five occupational sectors in Luxembourg. Recruiters evaluate several hypothetical descriptions of applicants which randomly vary in their combination of attributes. (2) We test whether using hypothetical vs. real vacancies affects employers' evaluation of applicants - a question that has received little attention so far despite the potential implications for research studying employers' hiring decisions by means of factorial surveys. Preliminary findings from our pilot study show some hints for differences in recruiters' hiring decisions when confronted with real vs. hypothetical hiring problems. With our approach, we contribute to the literature on youth employment as well as to the methodological research on factorial surveys.

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See detailScarring Due to Unemployment by Gender: Evidence from a Cross-Country Factorial Survey
Gutfleisch, Tamara Rebecca; Samuel, Robin

Presentation (2018, September 07)

The allocation of individuals to occupations is a main mechanism of social reproduction and social stratification. Many studies elucidated the individual antecedents and consequences of this process. An interest has often been in how social origin moderates the transition from education to employment. However, empirical evidence on the role of recruiters in this fundamental social process is scarce. Against this backdrop, we examine how these gatekeepers evaluate hiring chances of young job applicants. In our contribution, we specifically focus on scarring due to unemployment in the health sector. Drawing on human capital theory and signalling theory, we expect variation in the hiring chances of male vs. female job seekers with respect to the length of previous and current unemployment spells. Using data from a recent large-scale factorial survey of recruiters in four European countries (N ≈ 2,000) and employing multilevel linear regression models, we find, overall, evidence for heterogeneous scarring effects. Young male job applicants who were unemployed received less favourable assessments compared to their female counterparts. Having been unemployed or being currently unemployed was not associated with hiring chances in young females. Our preliminary findings constitute new evidence on gender differences in scarring due to unemployment. They further contribute to the literature on transitions to employment.

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See detailInforming a social practice theory framework with social-psychological factors for analyzing routinized energy consumption: A multivariate analysis of three practices
Hess, Ann-Kathrin; Samuel, Robin; Burger, Paul

in Energy Research & Social Science (2018), 46

A key factor contributing to the non-realization of energy efficiency potentials is the routinized way in which many energy consumption behaviors (ECBs) are performed. To analyze routinized ECBs, we draw on social practice theory and psychological concepts and suggest a framework that considers individual, social, and material factors. Based on our proposed framework and employing multivariate regression analysis, we gain new insights into associated factors of routinized ECBs—particularly for washing and drying clothes and showering. Analyzing data from a survey conducted among Swiss households in 2016 (n=5015), we find that individual values, practice-specific wants, and materials explain variations in routinized ECB performance. Furthermore, socio-demographic predictors shed light on cultural and status differences associated with routinized ECBs. This paper contributes to understanding associated factors of routinized ECBs by bridging practice theory and psychology-based factors.

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See detailHow unemployment scarring affects skilled young workers: evidence from a factorial survey of Swiss recruiters
Shi, Lulu P.; Imdorf, Christian; Samuel, Robin; Sacchi, Stefan

in Journal for Labour Market Research (2018), 52(7),

We ask how employers contribute to unemployment scarring in the recruitment process in the German-speaking part of Switzerland. By drawing on recruitment theories, we aim to better understand how recruiters assess different patterns of unemployment in a job candidate’s CV and how this affects the chances of young applicants being considered for a vacancy. We argue that in contexts with tight school-work linkage and highly standardised Vocational Education and Training (VET) systems, the detrimental effect of early unemployment depends on how well the applicant’s profile matches the requirements of the advertised position. To test this assumption, we surveyed Swiss recruiters who were seeking to fill positions during the time of data collection. We employed a factorial survey experiment that tested how the (un)employment trajectories in hypothetical young job applicants’ CVs affected their chances of being considered for a real vacancy. Our results show that unemployment decreases the perceived suitability of an applicant for a specific job, which implies there is a scarring effect of unemployment that increases with the duration of being unemployed. But we also found that these effects are moderated by how well the applicant’s profile matches the job’s requirements. Overall, the worse the match between applicant’s profile and the job profile, the smaller are the scarring effects of unemployment. In sum, our findings contribute to the literature by revealing considerable heterogeneity in the scarring effects of unemployment. Our findings further suggest that the scarring effects of unemployment need to be studied with regard to country-specific institutional settings, the applicants’ previous education and employment experiences, and the job characteristics.

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See detailAn Introduction to Factorial Designs Using the Example of Hiring Decisions
Samuel, Robin

Presentation (2018, April 24)

In this contribution, we use a factorial design to explore the moderating role of transaction costs on scarring due to previous unemployment and skills underutilization. Furthermore, we investigate the extent to which the perceived difficulty of recruiting moderates these effects. Factorial designs allow studying respondents’ evaluations as a function of multidimensional stimuli. In this application, we create a pool of hypothetical candidates, where we experimentally vary individual characteristics of young job applicants. We then measure how our respondents, actual recruiters, evaluate the hiring chances of these young people. We further use information provided by the respondents to estimate transaction costs. Using data from a recent large-scale factorial survey of recruiters in four European countries and employing multilevel linear regression models, we found, overall, scarring due to skills underutilization to exceed scarring due to unemployment. Skills underutilization was especially penalized when recruiting for a particular position was considered easy. Indirect transaction costs, particularly anticipated time required for organizational socialization, were negatively associated with unemployment scarring, but positively with scarring due to skill underutilization. Unemployment spells only had a negative effect on hiring chances, for jobs where there were monetary expenses for introductory training. Our findings constitute new evidence on the heterogeneity of scarring effects on hiring chances. We further contribute to the literature by highlighting the role of transaction costs and labor market performance.

See detailLe régime d’Etat providence joue un rôle dans le bien-être
Samuel, Robin; Hadjar, Andreas; Brunel, Valentin

E-print/Working paper (2018)

See detailThe Effects of Skills Underutilization and Unemployment on Hiring Decisions
Samuel, Robin; Sacchi, Stefan

Presentation (2018, January 23)

Research suggests negative effects of unemployment and skill underutilization on subsequent labor market outcomes. Among others, signaling theory has been used to explain why recruiters may evaluate competence and commitment of some job applicants less favorably than others. However, various country-, firm-, occupation-, and job-specific context factors may moderate such scarring effects. For example, a high youth unemployment rate may be associated with more scarring of previous unemployment spells and these effects might be different for occupations with different skill requirements. In this contribution, we explore the moderating role of transaction costs, i.e., the direct and indirect costs of recruiting and training new employees for scarring due to previous unemployment and skill underutilization. Furthermore, we investigate the extent to which the perceived difficulty of recruiting moderates these effects. Using data from a recent large-scale factorial survey of recruiters in four European countries (N~=~2,000) and employing multilevel linear regression models, we found, overall, scarring due to skill underutilization to exceed scarring due to unemployment. Skill underutilization was especially penalized when recruiting for a particular position was considered easy. Indirect transaction costs, particularly anticipated time required for organizational socialization, were negatively associated with unemployment scarring, but positively with scarring due to skill underutilization. Unemployment spells only had a negative effect on hiring chances, for jobs where there were monetary expenses for introductory trainings. Our findings constitute new evidence on the heterogeneity of scarring effects on hiring chances. We further contribute to the literature by highlighting the role of transaction costs and labor market performance.

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See detailArbeitslosigkeit mindert Jobchancen
Imdorf, Christian; Sacchi, Stefan; Samuel, Robin; Shi, Lulu P.

in Die Volkswirtschaft = La Vie économique (2018), 10

Angesichts des raschen strukturellen Wandels im Arbeitsmarkt ist ein geradliniger Berufsverlauf nach der Lehre nicht mehr die Norm. Es ist anzunehmen, dass durch Arbeitslosigkeit oder Berufswechsel bedingte Brüche im Berufsverlauf in Zukunft häufiger werden. In diesem Kontext stellt sich die Frage, wie Arbeitgeber bei der Besetzung von offenen Stellen solche Brüche in den Lebensläufen junger Stellensuchender bewerten. Eine Studie, welche die Frage nach einer möglichen Beeinträchtigung der Bewerbungschancen junger Stellensuchender nach einer Phase der Arbeitslosigkeit ins Zentrum stellt, zeigt: Arbeitslosigkeit beeinträchtigt in der Schweiz die Bewerbungschancen von Stellensuchenden. Eine abgeschlossene Berufsausbildung schützt dabei nicht vor den problematischen Folgen.

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See detailLe chômage, ennemi de l’employabilité
Imdorf, Christian; Sacchi, Stefan; Samuel, Robin; Shi, Lulu P.

in Die Volkswirtschaft = La Vie économique (2018), 10

Avec un marché de l’emploi en pleine mutation structurelle, un parcours rectiligne après l’apprentissage ne constitue plus la norme. Tout porte à croire que le nombre d’interruptions de carrière – forcées ou volontaires – ne cessera d’augmenter. Dans ces circonstances, la question est de savoir comment les employeurs désireux de repourvoir un poste perçoivent ces parenthèses dans le curriculum des jeunes à la recherche d’un emploi. Une étude récente menée en Suisse parvient à la conclusion qu’une période de chômage porte atteinte à l’employabilité, et que ce phénomène n’épargne pas les détenteurs d’un certificat fédéral de capacité.

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See detailSexual Dysfunction After Good-Grade Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
Epprecht, Lorenz; Messerli, Michael; Samuel, Robin; Seule, Martin; Weber, Johannes; Fournier, Jean-Yves; Surbeck, Werner

in World Neurosurgery (2018)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the consequences of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) on sexual pleasure in patients with an otherwise favorable neurologic outcome. METHODS: Anonymous, standardized questionnaires concerning sexual function, including the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF), Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), and a statement on subjective change in sexual pleasure after aSAH, were completed by 33 patients treated at the Cantonal Hospital St Gallen between 2005 and 2013. All had favorable neurologic outcomes (Glasgow Outcome Scale score 4 or 5). RESULTS: Ten patients (31.3%) reported a subjective worsening of sexual pleasure after aSAH. Sexual dysfunction according to FSFI criteria affected 9 of the 19 female patients (47.4%). All 19 women had a hypoactive sexual desire disorder. Erectile dysfunction was present in 7 of the 14 male patients (50%). Patients with World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies (WFNS) grade 2 aSAH were significantly more likely to report a subjective worsening of sexual experience after hemorrhage than those with WFNS grade 1. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first known evaluation of sexual health following aSAH with otherwise favorable neurological outcomes, and confirms that sexual dysfunction is common in this population. Sexual health should be explored during follow-up with these patients

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See detailDifferent but Similar: Personality Traits of Surgeons and Internists. Results of a Cross-Sectional Observational Study
Stienen, Martin N.; Scholtes, Felix; Samuel, Robin; Weil, Alexander; Weyerbrock, Astrid; Surbeck, Werner

in BMJ Open (2018), 8(e02131),

Objectives: Medical practice may attract and possibly enhance distinct personality profiles. We set out to describe the personality profiles of surgical and medical specialties focusing on board-certified physicians. Design: Prospective, observational. Setting: Online survey containing the Ten-Item Personality Inventory (TIPI), an internationally validated measure of the Five Factor Model of personality dimensions, distributed to board-certified physicians, residents and medical students in several European countries and Canada. Differences in personality profiles were analyzed using MANOVA and Canonical Linear Discriminant Analysis on age- and sex-standardized z-scores of the personality traits. Single personality traits were analyzed using robust t-tests. Participants: The TIPI was completed by 2345 board-certified physicians, 1453 residents and 1350 medical students, who also provided demographic information. Interventions: None. Results: Normal population and board-certified physicians’ personality profiles differed (P<0.001). The latter scored higher on conscientiousness, extraversion, and agreeableness, but lower on neuroticism (all P<0.001). There was no difference in openness to experience. Board-certified surgical and medical doctors’ personality profiles were also different (P<0.001). Surgeons scored higher on extraversion (P=0.003) and openness to experience (P=0.002), but lower on neuroticism (P<0.001). There was no difference in agreeableness and conscientiousness. These differences in personality profiles were reproduced at other levels of training, i.e., in students and training physicians engaging in surgical versus medical practice. Conclusion: These results indicate the existence of a distinct and consistent average “physician personality”. Despite high variability within disciplines, there are moderate, but solid and reproducible differences between surgical and medical specialties.

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See detailThe Effects of Deskilling and Unemployment on Hiring Decisions
Samuel, Robin; Imdorf, Christian; Sacchi, Stefan; Shi, Lulu. P.

Scientific Conference (2017, November 08)

See detailEidgenössische Jugendbefragungen ch-x: Lebensstile, Konsum und Zukunftsperspektiven junger Erwachsener in der Schweiz
Samuel, Robin

Speeches/Talks (2017)

Welches sind die aktuellen Wert-, Lebens- und Zukunftsvorstellungen von jungen Erwachsenen in der Schweiz? Welche Rolle nehmen die neuen Medien im Leben der ersten Generation der Digital Natives ein? Was sind die Erwartungen der jungen Erwachsenen an Familie, Beruf, Religion und Freizeit? Eine neue Studie der Eidgenössischen Jugendbefragungen ch-x geht diesen Fragen nach. Sie stellt u.a. eine erstaunliche Trendstabilität bei den Grundwerten und bei der Einstufung der Wichtigkeit verschiedener Lebensbereiche fest.

See detailLebenswelten von lesbischen, schwulen, bisexuellen und trans* Jugendlichen in Luxemburg. Erste Ergebnisse einer explorativen Studie
Meyers, Christiane; Reiners, Diana; Samuel, Robin

Conference given outside the academic context (2017)

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See detailFinding a job after precarious labour market experience. A cross-country factorial survey experiment with recruiters in Bulgaria, Greece, Norway and Switzerland
Imdorf, Christian; Shi, Lulu P.; Sacchi, Stefan; Samuel, Robin

Scientific Conference (2017, September 01)

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See detailInstitutional Determinants of Early Job Insecurity in Nine European Countries: Country Report Switzerland
Imdorf, Christian; Shi, Lulu P.; Helbling, Laura; Sacchi, Stefan; Samuel, Robin

E-print/Working paper (2017)

An overview of institutional determinants of early job insecurity in Switzerland.

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See detailThe Role of Perceived Stress and Self-Efficacy in Young People’s Life Satisfaction: A Longitudinal Study
Burger, Kaspar; Samuel, Robin

in Journal of Youth and Adolescence (2017), 46(1), 78-90

Life satisfaction is an important indicator of successful development. However, adolescents’ life satisfaction tends to be relatively unsteady, and environmental influences play a critical role in shaping life satisfaction among adolescents in the transition to young adulthood. Given the paramount importance that education plays in adolescents’ lives, adolescents’ life satisfaction may vary as a function of school-related stress experience. At the same time, coping resources may help reduce adverse effects of stress on life satisfaction. With this in mind, we examined whether, and to what extent, perceived stress in education and general self-efficacy (a resource that facilitates coping) affect the life satisfaction of adolescents in transition to young adulthood. We distinguished between baseline levels of stress and self-efficacy and within-person change in stress and self-efficacy to determine whether life satisfaction is sensitive to fluctuations in stress and self-efficacy when person-specific levels of stress and self-efficacy are taken into account. Estimating growth curve models on data from a panel study on the life trajectories of compulsory-school leavers (n = 5126, 55.3 % female), we found that baseline levels of stress and self-efficacy, as well as within-person change in stress and self-efficacy, affected adolescents’ life satisfaction. Moreover, our results showed that baseline self-efficacy mitigated the negative effect of baseline stress on life satisfaction. These findings improve our understanding of two major psychological determinants of adolescents’ life satisfaction and extend our knowledge of life satisfaction trajectories during the transition to young adulthood.

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See detailMale Breadwinning Revisited: How Specialisation, Gender Role Attitudes and Work Characteristics Affect Overwork and Underwork in Europe
Kanji, Shireen; Samuel, Robin

in Sociology (2017), 51(2), 339-356

We examine how male breadwinning and fatherhood relate to men’s overwork and underwork in western Europe. Male breadwinners should be less likely to experience overwork than other men, particularly when they have children, if specialising in paid work suits them. However, multinomial logistic regression analysis of the European Social Survey data from 2010 (n = 4662) challenges this position: male breadwinners, with and without children, want to work fewer than their actual hours, making visible one of the downsides of specialisation. Male breadwinners wanting to work fewer hours is specifically related to the job interfering with family life, as revealed by a comparison of the average marginal effects of variables across models. Work–life interference has an effect over and beyond the separate effects of work characteristics and family structure, showing the salience of the way work and life articulate.

See detailHow Social Support and Self-Efficacy Moderate Effects of Significant Life Events on School Drop-Out
Burger, Kaspar; Samuel, Robin

Scientific Conference (2017)

See detailHow Social Support and Self-Efficacy Moderate Effects of Significant Life Events on School Drop-Out in Young People
Burger, Kaspar; Samuel, Robin

Scientific Conference (2017)

Drivers of drop-out have been studied extensively over the past years. A number of studies suggest that self-efficacy and social support help reduce adverse effects of significant life events, such as trouble with family and friends, on drop-out intention but also on actual drop- out. However, over-all, evidence as to whether self-efficacy and social support influence drop-out intention and actual drop-out is mixed. We examined whether, and to what extent, perceived social support and general self-efficacy affect drop-out of adolescents in transition to young adulthood. We distinguished between baseline levels of social support and self-efficacy and (within-person) change in social support and self-efficacy in order to determine whether drop-out is sensitive to fluctuations in social support and self-efficacy when person-specific levels of social support and self-efficacy are taken into account. Estimating growth curve models on TREE data, a panel study on the life trajectories of compulsory-school leavers in Switzerland, we found that baseline levels of social support and self-efficacy, as well as within-person change in social support and self-efficacy, affected adolescents’ drop-out intention, but did not prevent actual drop-out. Moreover, our models show effects of a range of significant life events on drop-out intention and actual drop-out. These findings improve our understanding of the role that psychological and social factors play in shaping drop-out intentions and actual drop-out

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See detailAn International Comparative Analysis of Employers’ Hiring Decisions
Imdorf, Christian; Samuel, Robin; Shi, Lulu P.

Presentation (2017)

See detailStyles de vie, consommation et perspectives d’avenir des jeunes adultes en Suisse
Berger, Lena; Samuel, Robin; Bergman, Manfred Max

Article for general public (2017)

See detailLebensstile, Konsum und Zukunftsperspektiven junger Erwachsener in der Schweiz
Berger, Lena; Samuel, Robin; Bergman, Manfred Max

Article for general public (2017)

See detailStili di vita, consumo e aspettative future dei giovani adulti in Svizzera
Berger, Lena; Samuel, Robin; Bergman, Manfred Max

Article for general public (2017)

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See detailLebensstile, Konsum und Zukunftsperspektiven junger Erwachsener in der Schweiz
Samuel, Robin; Berger, Lena; Bergman, Manfred Max

Book published by Somedia (2017)

Bei der Erhebung von 50'000 stellungspflichtigen Männern in den Jahren 2012/13 sowie rund 1’800 gleichaltrigen Schweizerinnen standen zwei Fragen im Vordergrund. Erstens: Was sind die aktuellen Lebens- und Zukunftsvorstellungen der jungen Erwachsenen? Und: Welche Rolle spielen neue Medien im Leben einer der ersten Generationen von Digital Natives? Die Vergleiche mit früheren ch-x-Erhebungen bei den jungen Erwachsenen an der Schwelle von der Jugend- ins Erwachsenenalter belegen eine hohe Trendstabilität bei den Grundwerten, bei der Rangierung der Wichtigkeit von Lebensbereichen sowie bei den Determinanten der Berufswahl und den Familien- und Geschlechterrollenbildern. Werte, Familie und Freizeit Junge Erwachsene streben nach Unabhängigkeit und Selbstverwirklichung, betonen individuelle Bedürfnisse und aspirieren auf einen hohen sozialen Status mittels beruflichem Erfolg. Sie rangieren die Wichtigkeit der Lebensbereiche gleich wie die Befragten früherer ch-x-Erhebungen. Bei der Familiengestaltung sind herkömmliche Familien- und Geschlechtermodelle nach wie vor hoch im Kurs. Man möchte heiraten und Kinder haben. Der Mann wird ungebrochen in der Ernährerrolle gesehen, während die Frau sich um die Familie kümmern sollte. Diesbezüglich unterscheiden sich die Lebensansichten und Zukunftsvorstellungen der Digital Natives nur geringfügig von denjenigen der vorhergehenden Generationen. Wandel prägt indes das Freizeitverhalten insofern, als informationstechnische Unterhaltungsangebote und soziale Netzwerke neben herkömmlichen Medien zu wichtigen Gestaltungsfaktoren für die Freizeit avanciert sind. Die jungen Erwachsenen stehen heute in einem sich akzentuierenden Spannungsfeld zwischen dem Wunsch nach Selbstverwirklichung und dem Festhalten an traditionellen institutionalisierten Strukturen und Rollenbildern. Für erstere bieten die neuen digitalen Medien in Art und Form zahlreiche neue Optionen, die rege genutzt werden. Für letztere steht das Festhalten an klassischen Familienmodellen und hohen Berufszielen. Damit steht diese Generation vor der Herausforderung, viele nur noch schwer zu vereinbarende Wünsche mit gesellschaftlichen Erwartungen in Übereinstimmung zu bringen.

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See detailExplaining employers’ hiring decisions: A comparative study of employers’ risk assessment
Imdorf, Christian; Shi, Lulu P.; Sacchi, Stefan; Samuel, Robin; Hyggen, Christer; Stoilova, Rumiana; Yordanova, Gabriela; Boyadjieva, Pepka; Ilieva-Trichkova, Petya; Parsanoglou, Dimitris; Yfanti, Aggeliki

E-print/Working paper (2017)

In order to investigate the scarring effect of early job insecurity on future employment chances we have implemented a factorial survey experiment with recruiters based on real vacancies in Bulgaria, Greece, Norway and Switzerland. We contribute to recruitment research at least in three ways: First, the multinational design allows us to run comparative analysis across countries, which are carried out along the national dimensions youth unemployment rate, employment protection regulation and type of educational system. Second, we differentiate between two different forms of early job insecurity – unemployment and work experience in deskilling jobs, and we demonstrate that the sole focus on unemployment, as it is the case in the prevalent labour market research, is not sufficient in order to fully understand labour market outcomes caused by different forms of job insecurities. Third, since our sample consists of real recruiters who were hiring for current jobs at the time when the study was carried out, we provide a unique cross-country data set of high external validity. Our findings suggest that scarring effects of early job insecurity vary across countries and across occupational fields, and while scarring caused by work experience in deskilling jobs seems to be enforced by strong employment protection regulations, unemployment scarring seems to stronger where national unemployment is low. Further, the differences in recruiter’s evaluation across occupational fields indicate that signalling value of education may vary depending on specific sectors. Not at least, we contribute to debates around active labour market policies, arguing that measures aiming at quick labour market reintegration without consideration of job quality may not be the most sustainable solution, as work experience in a deskilling job does not lead to better recruiter’s evaluation.

See detailStudying Scarring Effects Using Factorial Designs: Rating or Ranking?
Imdorf, Christian; Sacchi, Stefan; Samuel, Robin; Shi, Lulu P.

Scientific Conference (2016, November 09)

Early job insecurity is a much-discussed topic across European countries. Research overwhelmingly found that being unemployed after graduation affects employment chances and also future wages negatively, other research, however, did not find such scarring effects. Some of this mixed evidence may be due to the different ways in which data were collected. Evaluating the effects of potentially stigmatizing applicant characteristics on hiring chances, such as previous unemployment spells, is known to be prone to social desirability bias. Factorial survey experiments (FSE) and forced choice experiments (FCE) have been suggested to alleviate some of these problems. In this workshop contribution, we gauge the capability of FSE and FCE to estimate effects of early career unemployment spells on recruiters’ hiring decisions. Using data obtained from a survey with sequentially implemented FSE and FCE with 2000 recruiters in Bulgaria, Greece, Norway, and Switzerland we compare FSE and FCE using multilevel linear regression models and multilevel probit models with random effects. Our preliminary results suggest that FCE may be better suited to gather valid data with minimal social desirability bias.

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See detailUnderstanding unemployment scars: A vignette Experiment of employers' decisions in Bulgaria, Greece, Norway and Switzerland
Hyggen, Christer; Imdorf, Christian; Parsanaglou, Dimitris; Sacchi, Stefan; Samuel, Robin; Stoilova, Rumiana; Shi, Lulu P.; Yfanti, Aggeliki; Yordanova, Gabriela

E-print/Working paper (2016)

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See detailIntroduction to Analytical Strategies for Experimental Data
Samuel, Robin

Presentation (2016, September 21)

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See detailUnderstanding employers’ assessment of young job applicants: A comparative vignette experiment
Imdorf, Christian; Samuel, Robin; Shi, Lulu P.

Scientific Conference (2016, September 19)

See detailThe Gendered Interplay between Success and Well-Being during Transitions
Samuel, Robin

in Hadjar, Andreas; Krolak, Sabine; Priem, Karin; Glock, Sabine (Eds.) Gender and Educational Achievement (2016)

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See detailHow Welfare-State Regimes Shape Subjective Well-Being Across Europe
Samuel, Robin; Hadjar, Andreas

in Social Indicators Research (2016), 129(2), 565-587

Welfare-state regimes achieve different outcomes in dealing with social inequalities. For example, the social democratic or Scandinavian welfare-state regime is often considered as the most egalitarian with a high social transfer rate and a comparably low level of income inequality. While most research on welfare-state regimes focuses on objective indicators of quality of life and inequalities, we are interested in how citizens actually evaluate their lives, using subjective well-being (SWB) as an indicator. The paper deals with two research questions: (1) How does the welfare-state regime affect subjective well-being, and (2) does the welfare-state regime influence the effect of status on SWB? Status is an essential first-order goal to produce subjective well-being according to the social production theory of Lindenberg and colleagues (Ormel et al. 1999), but is also linked to many other instrumental goals such as comfort and stimulation. The study carries out a multilevel analysis using pooled European Social Survey data from the years 2002–2012, covering more than 30 European countries. While we first look at how status drives SWB levels in different welfare-state regimes as classified by Esping-Andersen 1990, 1999), our focus is mainly on cross-level interactions between welfare-state regime type and the relationship between status and SWB. Our results provide evidence that social-democratic welfare-state regimes not only provide for living standards that are associated with the highest SWB levels, but also compensate best for status differences in SWB compared to other welfare-state regimes.

See detailDer Einfluss der sozialen Herkunft auf postobligatorische Bildungsverläufe in der Schweiz
Hupka-Brunner, Sandra; Samuel, Robin; Bergman, Manfred Max

in Scharenberg, Katja; Hupka-Brunner, Sandra; Meyer, Thomas; Bergman, Manfred Max (Eds.) Transitionen im Jugend- und jungen Erwachsenenalter: Ergebnisse der Schweizer Längsschnittstudie TREE (2016)

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See detailImpact of Insecure Employment Trajectories on Employers' Hiring Decisions in Switzerland
Shi, Lulu P.; Imdorf, Christian; Samuel, Robin; Sacchi, Stefan

in Baslé, Maurice; Beaupère, Nathalie; Guéguen, Chantal; Issehnane, Sabina (Eds.) Les transitions professionnelles tout au long de la vie. Nouveaux regards, nouveaux sens, nouvelles temporalités ? (2016)

See detailIntroduction to Bayesian Approaches to Data Analysis
Samuel, Robin

Presentation (2015, November 06)

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See detailUpward social mobility and life satisfaction: the cases of United Kingdom and Switzerland
Samuel, Robin; Hadjar, Andreas

in Longitudinal and Life Course Studies (2015), 6(3), 13-14

Status is a major determinant of subjective well-being (SWB). This is one of the primary assumptions of social production function theory. In contrast, the dissociative hypothesis holds that upward social mobility may be linked to identity problems, cognitive distress, and reduced levels of SWB because of lost ties to one’s class of origin. In our paper, we use panel data from the United Kingdom (British Household Panel Survey) and Switzerland (Swiss Household Panel) to test these hypotheses. These two countries are compared because historically, social inequality and upward mobility have played distinct roles in each country’s popular discourse. We conduct longitudinal multilevel analyses to gauge the effects of intragenerational and intergenerational upward mobility on life satisfaction (as a cognitive component of SWB), controlling for previous levels of life satisfaction, dynamic class membership, and well-researched determinants of SWB such as age and health problems. Our results provide some evidence for effects of social class and social mobility on well-being in the UK sample, however, there are no such effects in the Swiss sample. The UK findings support the idea of dissociative effects, that is, intergenerational upward mobility is negatively associated with SWB.

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See detailDoes upward social mobility increase life satisfaction? A longitudinal analysis using British and Swiss panel data
Hadjar, Andreas; Samuel, Robin

in Research in Social Stratification and Mobility (2015), 39

A main assumption of social production function theory is that status is a major determinant of subjective well-being (SWB). From the perspective of the dissociative hypothesis, however, upward social mobility may be linked to identity problems, distress, and reduced levels of SWB because upwardly mobile people lose their ties to their class of origin. In this paper, we examine whether or not one of these arguments holds. We employ the United Kingdom and Switzerland as case studies because both are linked to distinct notions regarding social inequality and upward mobility. Longitudinal multilevel analyses based on panel data (UK: BHPS, Switzerland: SHP) allow us to reconstruct individual trajectories of life satisfaction (as a cognitive component of SWB) along with events of intragenerational and intergenerational upward mobility—taking into account previous levels of life satisfaction, dynamic class membership, and well-studied determinants of SWB. Our results show some evidence for effects of social class and social mobility on well-being in the UK sample, while there are no such effects in the Swiss sample. The UK findings support the idea of dissociative effects in terms of a negative effect of intergenerational upward mobility on SWB.

See detailA quoi les jeunes adultes en Suisse aspirent pour leur avenir?
Samuel, Robin; Bergman, Manfred Max

Article for general public (2015)

See detailA che cosa aspirano i giovani adulti in Svizzera per il loro avvenire?
Samuel, Robin; Bergman, Manfred Max

Article for general public (2015)

See detailZukunftsaspirationen junger Erwachsener in der Schweiz
Samuel, Robin; Bergman, Manfred Max

Article for general public (2015)

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See detailStudying employers’ risk assessment and the role of institutions: An experimental design
Shi, Penghui Lulu; Imdorf, Christian; Samuel, Robin

E-print/Working paper (2015)

Work Package 7 aims at understanding how early job insecurity can affect an individual’s future career from an employer’s perspective. By paying special attention to the educational background and gender of the applicants, we plan to investigate how employers interpret young applicants’ job insecurity, for example in the form of unemployment or job-mismatch experiences, during recruitment. The negative effects of such experiences on an individual’s chances of being recruited successfully – so called scarring effects – may further vary depending on economic and institutional contexts such as country-specific economic or political conditions, educational structures or economic sectors. By surveying employers from different sectors, we will examine if and how these scarring effects vary between four different countries: Bulgaria, Greece, Norway and Switzerland. We will apply an innovative methodology in the form of an employer-sided survey with an integrated multidimensional vignette experiment in order to simulate the impact of multiple factor s on success and failure when young people who experienced job insecurities apply for new jobs. In the present working paper we summarise the major theoretical concepts that have been used to explain the scarring effects that can result from employer behaviour. Moreover, we outline how we plan to collect data in WP 7 in order to analyse scarring through decision-making on behalf of employers during the recruitment process

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See detailAdvances in understanding energy consumption behavior and the governance of its change – outline of an integrated framework
Burger, Paul; Bezençon, Valéry; Bornemann, Basil; Brosch, Tobias; Carabias-Hütter, Vicente; Farsi, Mehdi; Hille, Stefanie Lena; Moser, Corinne; Ramseier, Céline; Samuel, Robin; Sander, David; Schmidt, Stephan; Sohre, Annika; Volland, Benjamin

in Frontiers in Energy Research (2015), 3(29),

Transforming today’s energy systems in industrialized countries requires a substantial reduction of the total energy consumption at the individual level. Selected instruments have been found to be effective in changing people’s behavior in single domains. However, the so far weak success story on reducing overall energy consumption indicates that our understanding of the determining factors of individual energy consumption as well as of its change is far from being conclusive. Among others, the scientific state of the art is dominated by analyzing single domains of consumption and by neglecting embodied energy. It also displays strong disciplinary splits and the literature often fails to distinguish between explaining behavior and explaining change of behavior. Moreover, there are knowledge gaps regarding the legitimacy and effectiveness of the governance of individual consumption behavior and its change. Against this backdrop, the aim of this paper is to establish an integrated interdisciplinary framework that offers a systematic basis for linking the different aspects in research on energy related consumption behavior, thus paving the way for establishing a better evidence base to inform societal actions. The framework connects the three relevant analytical aspects of the topic in question: (1) it systematically and conceptually frames the objects, i.e., the energy consumption behavior and its change (explananda); (2) it structures the factors that potentially explain the energy consumption behavior and its change (explanantia); (3) it provides a differentiated understanding of change inducing interventions in terms of governance. Based on the existing states of the art approaches from different disciplines within the social sciences, the proposed framework is supposed to guide interdisciplinary empirical research.

See detailMale and female routes to success
Samuel, Robin

Article for general public (2014)

See detailLongitudinal Research on the School-to-Work Transition and Social Policy
Samuel, Robin

Scientific Conference (2014)

See detailThe Gendered Interplay between Success and Well-Being during Transitions
Samuel, Robin

Presentation (2014)

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See detailThe Gendered Interplay between Success and Well-Being during Transitions
Samuel, Robin

in Educational Research (2014), 56(2), 202--219

Background: Young females have been found to out-perform males in terms of grades and university degrees in many studies. At the same time, young women seem to exhibit lower levels of well-being compared with men. Interestingly, little work has evaluated the interplay between educational success and well-being. However, antecedents and consequences of educational success will likely affect life chances and further educational and occupational trajectories. Purpose: This paper contributes to this important, but as of yet, underdeveloped topic. The interplay between educational success—conceptualised as successful intergenerational educational mobility—and well-being is analysed as a dynamic, reciprocal, and gendered process. Sample: Panel data from the Transition from Education to Employment Project (TREE) is used to study the gendered interplay between educational success and well-being. TREE focuses on post-compulsory educational and labour market pathways of the PISA 2000 cohort in Switzerland. It is based on a sample of 6343 young people who left compulsory schooling in 2000. Data were collected annually from 2001 to 2007. At the time of the first interview, the age range of the middle fifty percent of the youths was between 16.5 and 17.3 years. Design and methods: As previous research shows, episodes of educational mobility will not be evenly distributed over the observed period (e.g., Mare 1980). Thus, an autoregressive cross-lagged mixture model framework is employed to account for the expected unequal distribution of the variables over time and the multilevel structure of the data (Samuel, Bergman, and Hupka-Brunner 2013). Within this framework, two modelling approaches are combined to test the implied reciprocal relationship between educational success and well-being. In the Latent Transition Analysis part of the model, success is measured as latent classes with fixed outcome categories. In the Autoregressive Structural Equation part of the model, well-being is specified to correlate over time. Models were estimated separately for males and females so as to allow for different error variances. Results: The models reveal that mechanisms of social comparison are gendered and operate differently at various stages of the observed period. Young females seem to be more likely to succeed and to experience positive effects in terms of well-being during successful episodes when compared to males. On the downside, females’ well-being seems to be more strongly affected by failure. Conclusions: This paper shows that well-being is a gendered personal resource during the transition to adulthood. These findings contribute to the literature on gender differences in educational success as they show how gender, as a social process, operates to create different success and well-being outcomes.

See detailEducation and Social Progress in Switzerland
Samuel, Robin; Bergman, Manfred Max

Report (2014)

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See detailLongitudinal effects of social background on educational and occupational pathways within early and strong school tracking
Samuel, Robin; Bergman, Manfred Max; Hupka-Brunner, Sandra

in Longitudinal and Life Course Studies (2014), 5(1), 1-18

Transitions from education to work are subject to person-related factors and institutional opportunity structures. Life course research increasingly focuses on longitudinal effects of social background on educational and occupational pathways within early and strong school tracking. In this context, Switzerland is a paradoxical case because its education system exhibits elements that should both reinforce and weaken social background effects. We draw on data from a PISA 2000 school-leaver cohort. Employing sequence analysis, optimal matching and longitudinal latent class analysis, we find that persistence tendencies are more pronounced in the academic stratum, compared to vocational and precarious strata. Conversely, the education system and labour market allow for a good integration of weak academic performers. Overall, we show that social background and performance determine selection into tracks, after which effects of opportunity structures take over.

See detailThe Meaning and Measurement of Well-Being as an Indicator of Success
Keller, Anita C; Semmer, Norbert K; Samuel, Robin; Bergman, Manfred Max

in Keller, Anita C; Samuel, Robin; Bergman, Manfred Max; Semmer, Norbert K (Eds.) Psychological, Educational, and Sociological Perspectives on Success and Well-Being in Career Development (2014)

This chapter discusses the conceptualization and measurement of well-being and success, and the relationships between the two. Many scholars in well-being research agree that well-being consists of satisfaction, positive and negative affect. There are less well established definitions in the area of success. Frequently, success is conceptualized in terms of career success, distinguishing between objective and subjective indicators. These indicators most often include salary, status, and career satisfaction. They are sometimes criticized for being inappropriate in current labor markets and as to their individual meaning. In this chapter, we provide a widening of the understanding of career success. This by incorporating the broader concept of work success in terms of success episodes referring to task performance, pro-social success, appreciation, and feedback

See detailPsychological, Educational and Sociological Perspectives on Success and Well-Being in Career Development
Keller, Anita C.; Samuel, Robin; Semmer, Norbert K.; Bergman, Manfred Max

Book published by Springer (2014)

See detailIntroduction: Psychological, Educational and Sociological Perspectives on Success and Well-Being in Career Development
Samuel, Robin; Bergman, Manfred Max; Keller, Anita C.; Semmer, Norbert K.

in Keller, Anita C.; Samuel, Robin; Semmer, Norbert K.; Bergman, Manfred Max (Eds.) Psychological, Educational and Sociological Perspectives on Success and Well-Being in Career Development (2014)

See detailNoncognitive Skills and Adult Outcomes
Samuel, Robin

Presentation (2013)

See detailHow Cognitive and Noncognitive Characteristics Affect Labor Market Outcomes in Switzerland
Samuel, Robin

Scientific Conference (2013)

See detailHow Cognitive and Different Non-cognitive Characteristics Affect Labor Market Outcomes in the UK and Switzerland
Samuel, Robin

Presentation (2013)

See detailCreativity, Overwork and Hours of Work: Male Managers in Europe and the New Spirit of Capitalism
Samuel, Robin

Presentation (2013)

See detailHow Cognitive and Different Noncognitive Characteristics Affect Labor Market Outcomes in Switzerland
Samuel, Robin

Scientific Conference (2013)

See detailHow Cognitive and Different Noncognitive Characteristics Affect Labor Market Outcomes in Switzerland
Samuel, Robin

Scientific Conference (2013)

See detailOverworked Managers in Europe: Creativity and Performance Pay
Samuel, Robin; Kanji, Shireen

Scientific Conference (2013)

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See detailThe Interplay between Educational Achievement, Occupational Success, and Well-Being
Samuel, Robin; Bergman, Manfred Max; Hupka-Brunner, Sandra

in Social Indicators Research (2013), 111(1), 75-96

Many studies have examined the effect of life events, education, and income on well-being. Conversely, research concerning well-being as a predictor of life course outcomes is sparse. Diener’s suggestion “to inquire about the effects of well-being on future behavior and success” has, with some exceptions, not yet come to fruition. This article contributes to this body of research. We conceptualize and analyze the interplay between educational achievement, occupational success, and well-being as a complex process. The relationship between these domains is examined drawing on a structure-agency framework derived from Bourdieu and Social Comparison Theory. Social comparison between adolescents and their parents is suggested to be the mechanism explaining the effects of successful and unsuccessful intergenerational transmission of educational achievement and occupational success on well-being. It is further argued that well-being may serve as an individual resource by fostering educational and occupational outcomes. Panel data from the Transition from Education to Employment (TREE) project, a Swiss PISA 2000 follow-up study, was used. The interplay between well-being and successful and unsuccessful intergenerational transfer of educational attainment was analyzed in an autoregressive cross-lagged mixture model framework. Social comparison was found to be related to well-being, while well-being proved to significantly increase the probability of successful intergenerational transfer of educational attainment.

See detailSuccess and well-being of young persons in Switzerland
Samuel, Robin

Doctoral thesis (2012)

See detailThe Interplay between Educational Success, Well-Being, and Gender
Samuel, Robin

Presentation (2012)

See detailThe Dynamics of Youth and Young Adults Transitions in Switzerland. Insights from the TREE Panel Survey
Samuel, Robin

Presentation (2012)

See detailEvidence on the Impact of Education on Social Progress
Samuel, Robin

Scientific Conference (2012)

See detailTransitions from Education to Employment in Switzerland
Samuel, Robin

Presentation (2012)

See detailWie beeinflusst Statustransfer zwischen den Generationen das Wohlbefinden junger Erwachsener?
Samuel, Robin; Hupka-Brunner, Sandra; Stalder, Barbara E.; Bergman, Manfred Max

in Bergman, Manfred Max; Hupka-Brunner, Sandra; Meyer, Thomas; Samuel, Robin (Eds.) Bildung – Arbeit – Erwachsenwerden (2012)

Bildungsabschlüsse sind die wichtigsten Faktoren für sozialen Status und beruflichen Erfolg in modernen Gesellschaften. Diese hängen, wie sozialer Status und Beruf, zu einem großen Teil von der sozialen Herkunft ab (Becker und Lauterbach 2004; Blau und Duncan 1967; Bourdieu und Passeron 1971; Breen und Goldthorpe 1997).

See detailEinleitung und Überblick
Meyer, Thomas; Hupka-Brunner, Sandra; Samuel, Robin; Bergman, Manfred Max

in Bildung – Arbeit – Erwachsenwerden (2012)

See detailBildung – Arbeit – Erwachsenwerden
Bergman, Manfred Max; Hupka-Brunner, Sandra; Meyer, Thomas; Samuel, Robin

Book published by Springer VS (2012)

Der Übergang von der Schule ins Erwachsenen- und Erwerbsleben ist eine entscheidende und kritische Lebensphase. Vieles deutet darauf hin, dass diese Transition in modernen Gesellschaften länger, anforderungsreicher, ...

See detailThe Interplay between Educational Achievement, Occupational Success, Well-Being, and Gender
Samuel, Robin

Scientific Conference (2011)

See detailThe Interplay between Educational Success, Well-Being, and Gender
Samuel, Robin

Scientific Conference (2011)

See detailGeschlechterungleichheiten im intergenerationalen Bildungstransfer in der Schweiz
Hupka-Brunner, Sandra; Samuel, Robin; Huber, Evéline; Bergman, Manfred Max

in Hadjar, Andreas (Ed.) Geschlechtsspezifische Bildungsungleichheiten (2011)

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See detailSuccessful and Unsuccessful Intergenerational Transfer of Educational Attainment on Wellbeing in the Swiss Youth Cohort TREE
Samuel, Robin; Hupka-Brunner, Sandra; Stalder, Barbara E.; Bergman, Manfred Max

in Swiss Journal of Sociology (2011), 37(1), 57-78

Educational attainment is considered the most important contributor to status and occupational achievement in modern societies. Largely dependent on socio-economic background, the transfer of educational attainment from parents to their offspring is likely to have various consequences. Some of these consequences may be of an intra-individual nature. In this article, we explore the consequences of (un)successful intergenerational transfer of educational attainment on wellbeing (self-esteem, positive attitude toward life), drawing primarily on the work of Pierre Bourdieu. We use panel data from the Transition from Education to Employment Project (TREE), and employ longitudinal autoregressive structural equation models. The results show a destabilization of wellbeing over time for the group with downward educational mobility.

See detailMacht Bildung glücklich?
Samuel, Robin

Speeches/Talks (2010)

See detailTransfer of Cultural Capital: A Comparative Analysis of the Interconnection of Well-Being, Precariousness, and Insecurity
Samuel, Robin; Hupka-Brunner, Sandra; Bergman, Manfred Max

Scientific Conference (2010)

See detailMultifaceted Educational Pathways: Variation and Impact of Social Background in Switzerland
Hupka-Brunner, Sandra; Samuel, Robin; Bergman, Manfred Max

Scientific Conference (2010)

See detailSuccessful and Unsuccessful Intergenerational Transfer of Educational Attainment on Wellbeing in the Swiss Youth Cohort TREE
Samuel, Robin; Hupka-Brunner, Sandra; Stalder, Barbara E.; Bergman, Manfred Max

Scientific Conference (2009, June 06)