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See detailBeyond the pandemic: Shaping of futures in (even more?) diverse educational settings - Critical discussion of contributions of invited symposium SIG 21
Max, Charles

Scientific Conference (2021, August 27)

Looking at SIG 21’s mission statement, the diversity of learning and education (which is / was ?) a granted element in educational research, seems to hail from a post/past century, where not everyone was doing learningonline, remotely via the same tools and devices (i.e. zoom, etc.) Therefore, we wonder ifthe diversity still can be looked at in similar ways, and if so, which other ways of looking at the « new normal » should be developed, both from a practical, empirical research point of view, but also from a theoretical and epistemic perspective, underlying new research (or research into the new normal).Following this first line of thought, which questions could determine future research into education, educational settings and learning as such? This seems of particular interest, as the current ways of looking into education are heavily biased by concerns of technological infrastructure, investment and structural fitness (i.e., teachers as appexperts, networks, online setups, disregarding actual learners). Moreover, other ways of looking into formerly accepted « groups » (i.e., gender, age, background) seem to fall apart and disintegrate, making the issue of heterogeneity even more challenging to grapple with. Finally, when looking at the landscape of educational contexts and their societal anchorage at large (i.e., learning settings, formal/informal settings, mobility, development of professionals …) one aspect seems of particular interest: Is there learning in and from the actual situation ? How sustainable are the developments? Which perspectives can be drawn beyond the short term?

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See detailGeoGebraTAO: Geometry Learning using a Dynamic Adaptive ICT-Enhanced Environment to Promote String Differentiation of Children's Individual Pathways
Dording, Carole; Max, Charles Joseph; Kreis, Yves; Latour, Thibaud

Scientific Conference (2020, November 12)

In our project, we investigate the scientific validity of a specific self-built Adaptive Learning Tool in the field of dynamic geometry with a particular focus on the individual learning pathways of a highly diverse student population. 164 children of Luxembourg elementary schools, aged between 10 and 13 years, acted as test-group and explored elementary geometric concepts in a sequence of learning assignments, created with the dynamic mathematics system GeoGebra integrated into the computer-assisted testing framework TAO. They actively built new knowledge in an autonomous way and at their own pace with only minor support interventions of their teacher. Based on easily exploitable data, collected within a sequence of exploratory learning assignments, the GeoGebraTAO tool analyses the answers provided by the child and performs a diagnostic of the child’s competencies in geometry. With respect to this outcome, the tool manages to identify children struggling with geometry concepts and subsequently proposes a differentiated individual pathway through scaffolding and feedback practices. Short videoclips aim at helping the children to better understand any task in case of need and can be watched voluntarily. Furthermore, a spaced repetition feature is another highly useful component. Pre- and post-test results show that the test-group, working with GeoGebraTAO, and a parallel working control-group, following a traditional paper-and-pencil geometry course, increased their geometry skills and knowledge through the training program; the test-group performed even better in items related to dynamic geometry. In addition, a more precise analysis within clusters, based on similar performances in both pre- and post-tests and the child’s progress within GeoGebraTAO activities, provides evidence of some common ways of working with our dynamic geometry tool, leading to overall improvement at an individualized level.

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See detailThe Gateway Science: a Review of Astronomy in the OECD School Curricula, Including China and South Africa
Salimpoura, Saeed; Bartlett, Sophie; Fitzgerald, Michael T.; McKinnon, David H.; Cutts, Ross K.; James, Renee C.; Miller, Scott; Danaia, Lena; Hollow, Robert P.; Cabezon, Sergio; Faye, Michel; Tomita, Akihito; Max, Charles; de Korte, Michael; Baudouin, Cyrille; Birkenbauma, Diana; Kallery, Maria; Anjos, Sara; Wu, Quixan; Chu, Hye-Eun; Slater, Eileen; Ortiz-Gil, Amelia

in Research in Science Education (2020)

Astronomy is considered by many to be a gateway science owing to its ability to inspire curiosity in everyone irrespective of age, culture or general inclination to science. While the inclusion of astronomy in the school curriculum has waxed and waned over the years, in the current era, where there is a global push to get more students engaged in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM), astronomy provides an invaluable conduit to bring about this shift. This paper highlights the results of a study which has reviewed the presence and extent to which astronomy has been incorporated into the school curriculum of the Organisation for Economic and Cooperative Development (OECD) member countries as well as two non-OECD countries strong in astronomy research, China and South Africa, and one international curriculum, the International Baccalaureate Diploma programme. A total of 52 national curricula from 37 countries were reviewed. The results revealed that overall astronomy and its related topics are prevalent in at least one grade in all curricula across the OECD, China and South Africa. Of the 52 national curricula, 44 of them had astronomy related topics in grade 6. Out of the 52 national curricula, 40 introduced astronomy-related topics in grade 1, while 14 of them had astronomy-related topics explicitly mentioned in all grades. The most common keywords were related to basic astronomy concepts, such as the Earth, the Sun, the Moon, and the stars, all have occurrences of over 100. Relational textual analysis also revealed that all the major concepts could be encompassed across two broad themes of Earth and Physics.

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See detailDie technische Mündigkeit von Schüler/-innen zum Ende der Sek. I im internationalen Vergleich – Entwicklung eines Testwerkinstruments und erste Ergebnisse
Fletcher, Stefan; De Vries, Marc; Max, Charles

in Journal of Technical Education (2018), 6(4),

An international research team jointly conceived an item development model which was used to develop a new test instrument to measure the technology literacy of secondary school students. This tool was used to assess the literacy skills of 270 pupils from Germany, Switzerland, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and England. The results show that 13 to 16 year old students display a poorly developed technology literacy level only. 25 per cent of the items on average were incorrectly answered with a high certainty sentiment, which suggests, that students do not only lack relevant knowledge in the field of technology but in addition also hold a rela-tively high number of strongly built misconceptions. Interestingly, there are no major differences between countries and gender.

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See detailAn activity theoretical research lens on inquiry-based learning
Max, Charles

in de Vries, Marc J.; Fletcher, Stefan; Kruse, Stefan; Labudde, Peter; Lang, Martin; Mammes, Ingelore; Max, Charles; Münk, Dieter; Nicholl, Bill; Strobel, Johannes; Winterbottom, Mark (Eds.) Research in Technology Education: International Approaches. (2018)

Inquiry-based learning and instruction with mobile technologies generate tremendous research interest. To what extent do these tools innovate and transform learning processes, shape individual or collaborative explorations of scientific phenomena, facilitate auto-regulated processes, stimulate creative classroom productions, or support the formation of scientific understanding and critical thinking? That’s exactly where this book chapter gets in. It's purpose is to set up an open, theory-based research framework which allows to empirically study inquiry-based learning and teaching practices in technology education (TE).

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See detailA Model for Regulating of Ethical Preferences in Machine Ethics
Baniasadi, Zohreh; Parent, Xavier; Max, Charles; Creamer, Marcos

in Proceedings of International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction (2018)

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See detailElementary science and education within the Luxembourg educational system
Max, Charles

in De Vries, Marc J.; Fletcher, Stefan; Kruse, Stefan; Labudde, Peter; Lang, Martine; Mammes, Ingelore; Max, Charles; Münk, Dieter; Nicholl, Bill; Strobel, Johannes; Winterbottom, Mark (Eds.) Technology Education Today – International Perspectives (2016)

The article analyses the curricula of elementary technology and science education in fundamental and secondary education, situates its evolution and current implementation in the Luxembourg school context and concludes with opportunities for valorising technology and science education across the education system.

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See detailInteraction Profiles for an Artificial Conversational Companion
Höhn, Sviatlana; Busemann, Stephan; Max, Charles; Schommer, Christoph; Ziegler, Gudrun

Scientific Conference (2015, September)

Using Artificial Companions for tasks requiring long-term interaction like language learning or coaching can be approached by creating local computational models for particular interaction structures, and models reflecting changes in interaction over time. An Artificial Conversational Companion (ACC) that helps to practice conversation in a foreign language is expected to play the role of a language expert in conversation. We apply methods of Conversation Analysis to obtain data- driven models of interaction profiles for language experts and language novices from a corpus of instant messaging based dialogues between native speakers of German and advanced learners of German as a foreign language. We show different ways how the artificial agent can simulate ”doing being expert” in conversation and promote learning.

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See detailICT use at home and at school: A study on 8- to 12-year old students in Luxembourg
Max, Charles; Song, Ju-Youn; Hack, Nathalie

in INTED2015 Proceedings (2015, March)

The proliferation of mobile computing and ubiquitous internet access creates enhanced opportunities for digital activities and interactive engagement in everyday life for adults, youngsters and children. By introducing mobile devices into formal education contexts, the present study is investigating ICT-enhanced learning opportunities of younger students in their life and school contexts. The focus of this paper is to 1) delineate the ICT environment, that 8- to 12-year old students face in their home context, 2) map the ICT-related practices this age group experiences within the family context, e.g. patterns of usage, frequency, 3) identify the kind of ICT-based activities which kids prefer and in which they are actually engaged, 4) trace differences in ICT-enhanced classroom activities between students with a strong and a weak ICT home background. The analysis combines data from an online survey and interviews with 8- to 12-year old students. All data have been gathered in an ongoing national project on “Creative inquiries with tablet-cloud systems in elementary science”. This project aims at exploring the impact of interactive technologies on inquiry-based learning processes in elementary science education (Max & Hack, 2014; Max & Song, 2014). The results show that the students have large use of ICT equipment at home and extended access to the internet. Children access the web through a wide range of ICT devices (e.g. PC, laptop, tablets or mobile phone). A majority of this age group goes online alone so that their internet activities are not necessarily guided and supervised by parents. Most kids use a range of different ICT devices for specific purposes on a regular basis ranging from simply consuming digital resources such as listening to music or playing games to searching information online up to creating digital content such as taking pictures and/or making videos. Considering their young age (8-12), our results show that sharing digital content through social media activities is somewhat limited. As regards the impact of a strong or weak ICT background on the students’ school-based ICT activities, we can say that both groups show a similar attitude towards ICT practices in school. The tablet-enhanced school activities are complementary to the leisure-driven activities at home and therefor beneficial for both groups of children.

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See detailLernen in Bewegung: iPads im naturwissenschaftlichen Unterricht
Max, Charles

in Computer + Unterricht: Lernen und Lehren mit digitalen Medien (2015), 97

Der Artikel beschreibt den Einsatz von iPads im naturwissenschaftlichen Anfangsunterricht. Die Schülerinnen und Schüler nutzen die Geräte zur selbstständigen Aufzeichnung und kreativen Weiterverarbeitung von Daten wie z.B. Dokumentation von gemeinsamen Untersuchungen mittels Fotos und Videos, Informationsrecherche im Internet, sowie Erstellung multimedialer Präsentationen zum Lerngegenstand.

See detail“And? Did we do nice things?”: Children documenting their emerging inquiries in early science learning
Max, Charles; Siry, Christina; Kracheel, Martin

in Milne, Catherine; Tobin, Kenneth (Eds.) Sociocultural studies and implications for science education: the experiential and the virtual (2015)

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See detailPeer Language Learning: Perspectives from Blended, Face-to-Face and Social Media Interactions
Ziegler, Gudrun; Max, Charles; Durus, Natalia; Moreau, Richard

in Open Education Europa (2014)

This publication gives an overview of peer language learning, from its creation and concepts, to its future in today’s world, implying new technologies such as social media. Part I describes the concepts, principles and history of peer language learning (PLL), followed by a discussion around the expansion of PLL through social media, exposing the new dimensions which emerged with the evolution of the Internet and web 2.0. Part II focuses on analysing 14 instances of naturally-occurring PLL adult interactions (corpus PEER). Both the concepts and phenomena discussed in Part I, and the analysis of PLL interactions of Part II feed into the recommendations, which constitute Part III. The current publication is of interest for: PLL pluri-linguals who could use the publication to integrate peer learning into their language learning, drawing from previous PLL experiences; for teachers and coordinators of language learning programs; and also for researchers.

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See detailDeveloping spaces for technology-mediated inquiry in education
Max, Charles

Scientific Conference (2014, August 28)

Interactive communication technologies enter our everyday activities at an impressive pace. The proliferation of mobile computing devices coupled to a ubiquitous connectivity initiates a “historical shift to digital” and profoundly changes the ways we organize our daily life, communicate, interact, learn or gather information. Digital media also shape the life contexts of our children, who keep on using interactive tools from game-playing to explicit learning activities. This issue creates a growing need to investigate the potential of mobile computing devices in educational contexts and analyse its impact on pedagogical, organisational and technological challenges, the school communities are dealing with. The present paper is discussing findings from a research project that studies the use of tablet-cloud systems in fundamental schools. Luxembourg’s schools and homes are well equipped with computers and internet access. However, little is known about promising strategies and existing barriers to integrate mobile devices effectively into educational contexts. Our research supplies schools with tablet-cloud systems in order to study the impact on collaborative and student-centred learning activities. The project’s core research foci put attention on processes of a) student-led inquiries and creative productions and b) the empowerment of teachers. Prior research often reveals a reluctance of teachers to use IC technologies in classroom activities. Often, teachers experience a lack of digital literacy skills to support students in using interactive devices in classroom inquiries and hands-on activities. This contribution analyses how ICT-enhanced learning practices challenge existing notions of educational achievement, learning, student engagement and participation among the involved teachers. Our transformative research approach puts specific emphasis on threads and opportunities that members of four fundamental school communities experience concerning technological, organisational and pedagogical innovation. We ground our developmental work on the concept of ‘expansive learning’, where “learners learn something that is not yet there. In other words, the learners construct a new object and concept for their collective activity, and implement this new object and concept in practice“ (Engeström & Sannino 2010, 2). Cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT) offers a sound theoretical and methodological framework for implementing and investigating innovation in organisations and institutions, especially in order to interrelate individual and collective actions. CHAT considers both as dialectically interrelated, that is to say, they can be understood only historically and in interaction with each other. The research data are gathered by a multi-method approach, which combines video-ethnographic data of students’ classroom tasks, multimodal analysis of students’ multimodal productions and self-recordings (on the cloud), video-taped stimulated recall sessions with students about their own learning. Excerpts from these data sets are discussed with teachers in developmental work sessions to identify current barriers and successful strategies to integrate technology in learning and teaching practices. The outcomes of our analysis allow to identify potential levers for increasing the use of mobile computing devices in educational contexts and expand the object of socio-digital activity systems in the field of education.

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See detailAnalysing tablet-enhanced inquiries in elementary science education
Max, Charles; Song, Ju-Youn

Scientific Conference (2014, August 18)

This paper presents primary findings of a study on inquiry-based learning with tablet-cloud systems in elementary science education. The study is investigating the situated ways in which 8 to 12 year old students (n=240) make sense of science phenomena through ICT-enhanced inquiry processes. In science education, inquiry is emphasised both as a means and an outcome. Student-centred inquiry is a promising way of learning that encourages students to explore the world and engage in critical thinking. Scientific inquiry skills are the core outcome of probably any science education. After proliferating in everyday contexts, high performing mobile devices are entering learning environments right now. But up to date, little is known about how to integrate these devices into inquiry-based science learning. Our study analyses how mobile devices re-shape the learning landscape of the inquiry-based science classroom, i.e., to what extent they facilitate the learner-led exploration and understanding of scientific phenomena and the formation of scientific thinking. Evidence is gathered through data collected by researchers (video recordings from science lessons) and students (uploading multimodal classroom productions on the internal school cloud). The preliminary analysis shows that integrating tablets into the science class is increasing the student-initiated gathering of own data and supporting interactive forms of inquiring. Moreover, technology-enhanced inquiry learning is becoming more learner-centred and open when the use of tablets is guided by a series of well-designed hands-on activities together with multiple interaction opportunities (collective or collaborative). Students quickly acknowledge the potential of these devices for gathering information, (re)-evaluating own explanations, fully documenting their science investigations, communicating targeted inquiry results or reflecting on their learning.

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See detailLearning with tablet-cloud systems in elementary science education
Max, Charles; Song, Ju-Youn

in IATED (Ed.) EDULEARN14 Proceedings (2014, July 06)

Mobile and interactive technologies offer sophisticated learning opportunities in everyday life so that some authors speak about a new era of mobile learning. Especially tablets fascinate people of all age and induce novel ways to interact, create and communicate. After proliferating in everyday contexts, these high performing mobile devices are currently entering formal learning environments. First experiences in classrooms describe tablets as promising means to improve learning in respect of 21st century challenges. A myriad of educational applications is being offered for all kind of classroom use. But up to date, less is known about opportunities how to integrate this flexible and versatile tool into inquiry-based learning approaches thanks to the device’s potential to a) gather own data, b) facilitate multimodal and multimedia productions c) back interactive forms of collaborative learning. Our study analyses how tablet-cloud systems re-shape the learning landscape of inquiry-oriented science classrooms, i.e. to what extent do tablets facilitate student-led explorations and explanations of scientific phenomena, support the formation of scientific thinking and stimulate creative classroom productions. We are particularly focussed on the situated ways which 8-12 year old students (n=240) create to make sense of science topics in tablet-enhanced inquiry activities. In science education, inquiry is emphasised both as a method and an outcome. Student-centred inquiry activities are advocated as a promising way of learning, encouraging students to actively explore the world and engage in critical thinking. Inquiry activities amplify the development of inquiry skills, which are core outcomes of probably any science education curriculum. That’s why we focus on how a series of learner-centred pedagogical choices of the teacher coupled with the use of tablet-cloud systems facilitates creative inquiry processes. Evidence is gathered through different data sets, collected either by researchers (video recordings from science lessons, stimulated recall interviews) and/or students (uploads of own videos and multimodal documents on the internal school cloud). The various kinds of data are triangulated in order to create a multi-perspective understanding of the processes occurring in the tablet-supported practices. The preliminary analysis shows that integrating tablets into the science class increases the gathering of student-initiated data and supports interactive forms of student inquiries. Students quickly acknowledge the potential of these devices for gathering information, documenting their science investigations or hands-on activities, (re)-evaluating own explanations for science phenomena, communicating targeted inquiry results or reflecting on their learning. Technology-enhanced inquiry activities shift easily to a more learner-centred and open form of inquiry, when the use of tablets is encouraged by a series of well-designed hands-on activities together with rich interaction opportunities (collective or collaborative).

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See detailImplementing a culture of creative Inquiry with ipads in elementary science education
Max, Charles; Hack, Nathalie

in Pixel (Ed.) Conference proceedings. New perspectives in science education (2014, March 20)

This paper is discussing first outcomes of an ongoing research (2012-2015) about creative inquiry-based learning with tablet-cloud systems in elementary science education. The study is investigating the situated ways in which 8 to 12 year old students make sense of science phenomena through creative inquiry practices enhanced by tablets and cloud systems. Inquiry can be defined as an active creation of knowledge through the pursuit of open-ended questions, data gathering and related explanations from evidence. Inquiry-based school activities constitute a learner-centred context for students to develop understanding of scientific concepts and basic inquiry abilities as for example posing and refining research questions, planning and managing an investigation or analysing and communicating results. From early childhood onwards, children explore their environments and actively build knowledge through interest-driven inquiry. New media devices may support or even extend this inclination as they offer the potential to extend the domain and range of children’s inquiry. Especially, new tablet-computers include an array of features, which allow to capture, collect, treat and visualize a span of multimodal data related to science phenomena under exploration. Applications enable students to merge data from their own investigations with content they retrieve from digital sources. This student-generated content can be easily shared with teachers and other groups through the school-based cloud system or disseminated as final outcomes to a private or public audience. The paper discusses the potential of tablet-computers to facilitate student-centred exploration of science phenomena and the formation of scientific thinking in school-based science activities. Evidence is based on different kind of data collected either by students on the internal school cloud (multimodal classroom productions, self-recordings about their inquiry approaches) or by researchers (video data from science lessons, video-stimulated recall interviews with students). Outcomes of our analysis reveal that mobile devices create extended opportunities for skill development in science classrooms. We evidence an increase of self-directed, inquiry-oriented and interest-driven learning skills. The tablet-cloud systems stimulate student engagement and self-expression, i.e., explanations from self-collected evidence, evidence-based argumentation and justification of own approaches.

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See detailThe sciPADS project
Max, Charles; Hack, Nathalie

Scientific Conference (2013, November)

The sciPADS project is conducting empirical research with children age 8-12 of Luxembourgish elementary schools using a tablet-cloud system. The study centres on students’ processes mediated by ipads such as inquiry-based learning and multimodal creations. The cloud system enables students, teachers, and researchers to share generated content across multiple platforms and across the school borders. Our data collection, spanning a two-year learning cycle, comprises the students’ multimodal creations and related commentary; recordings of classroom activities performed with Ipads; data from questionnaires, polls and online surveys; audio-visual recordings of recall-interviews with the students and of regular project meetings with teachers. The presentation's driving question concerns the methodological framework for conducting this investigation, i.e., gather a broad spread of data about the project foci, but also gain some profound insights on the learning process of the students.

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See detailThe collective construction of a science unit: Framing curricula as emergent from Kindergarteners’ wonderings
Siry, Christina; Max, Charles

in Science Education (2013), 97(6), 878-902

This ethnographic research examines how children enact developing understandings in science through multiple interactions. Grounded in sociocultural theoretical frameworks, we consider learning to be a social, cultural practice, with understandings as co-constructed between participants through talk and in interactions. With these underpinning frameworks, we have explored water activities in kindergarten and examined how children and teachers collaboratively constructed science investigations to explore questions as they emerged from open-ended activities. The analysis revealed how children's investigations were mediated by their own speculations and explanations. Our primary claim herein is that children's questions, speculations, and insights were used collaboratively by teachers and children, and as such, became a structure in this classroom that supported children in taking agency. In this process, science curricula and working theories on science phenomena were generated. This was facilitated by teachers’ openness to emergent approaches for their science curriculum. Through a discussion of these claims, an emphasis is placed on the value of students being positioned as co-constructors of science curricula. Furthermore, the integral role of the teacher in emergent curricula is introduced and developed as critical for being responsive to students’ interests and insights.

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See detailTalking ideas into being: Reasoning about science phenomena in the elementary classroom.
Max, Charles

Scientific Conference (2013, August 30)

The paper emphasises processes of growing understanding and reasoning about water-related phenomena in open inquiry-based science activities. It highlights the interplay of multiple cultural resources, which 4 to 8 year old children from diverse sociocultural backgrounds draw upon, to create shared meaning and attention when ‘doing science’ as cultural enactment in classroom contexts. The rationale is to deepen our understanding about the nature of learning from a dialectical perspective, i.e. how processes of personal inquiry and collective knowledge creation mutually develop. ‘Doing science’ unfolds through a dynamic, non-linear and creative combination of culturally given tools and children’s specific multimodal repertoires. The research draws close attention on the context-sensitive organization of this interactional achievement, i.e. the quality of the interactionally achieved convergence of multiple repertoires, their context-sensitive use and creative transformations The study is supported by a multi-method framework allowing to embrace multiple perspectives on the children’s inquiry processes. Two excerpts are discussed in detail – one from kindergarten, one from 2d grade – which address the children’s inquiry processes in different ways. The data reveal an astonishing depth of discussion and scientific reasoning of children at this age. Children’s critical conversations display awareness of relevant discourse elements and related explanations from other curriculum areas, which are confronted and actively worked into each other as an active accomplishment done by the children in dialogical interchange. The study is of substantial significance for conceiving sustainable science learning environments in multilingual and -cultural school contexts.

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See detailCreative Inquiry with ipads in elementary science education.
Max, Charles; Hack, Nathalie

Scientific Conference (2013, August 29)

The present paper emphasizes results of an ongoing research project (2012-2015 about creative inquiry with mobile technologies in elementary science education. The analytical lens is directed towards the situated ways in which 8 to 12 year old students (n=300) make sense of science phenomena through creative inquiry practices. The project is supplying classes with ipads and a secure internal cloud service. These devices are equipped with a range of sensors, which allow students to capture, collect, treat and visualize a broad range of data. Applications permit to combine these collaborative inquiry data with content from print or digital media sources. The internal cloud facilitates to comfortably share all kind of data between students and teachers and to disseminate final products to a private or public audience. The study explores how mobile devices facilitate the understanding of scientific phenomena and the formation of scientific thinking. A core concern deals with processes of creativity, critical thinking, communication and collaboration as emphasized by the 21st century skill frameworks. To achieve this goal, classroom activities are recorded through video data once per trimester and for two consecutive school years. The research analyses also how the students’ productions come into being by considering the versions students store on the internal cloud server. Moreover, the ipads allow students to record themselves their learning and comment on their inquiry approaches.

See detailTowards a Proto-Language of Emotions (?) - Response Cries as an Interactional Achievement
Albanese, Claudia; Max, Charles; Ziegler, Gudrun

Scientific Conference (2013, August)

"We provide micro-interactional analysis of a series of motion gaming sessions (Gregersen, 2011) with a focus on response cries (Goffman, 1978, 1981). We use Conversation Analysis (CA) to analyze interactions in their situatedness and moment-by-moment unfolding (Schegloff, Sacks and Jefferson, 1977). We bring evidence that, although speakers sometimes communicate by means of non-lexicalized, subvocalized, interjections and vocalizations, they still manage to understand and coordinate each other. Extracts are taken from two corpora. One is the (2010) SISS-Corpus, consisting of eight hours of video-recordings of groups of teenage students filmed in their school while playing digital games on a Nintendo Wii console. Participants speak their L1 and select different socio-stratic varieties (Tempesta, 1995; 2000; 2005) of Italian. The second corpus (2009-2012) Multi-Wii- consists of eleven hours of video-recordings of groups of multilingual speakers recorded at University of Luxembourg. Participants select English, French and German (L2) as lingua franca. Data show that response cries develop into an ‘intersubjective’ (Schegloff, 1991; Aarsand and Aronsson, 2009) language, and constitute a mutually understandable form of interaction shared by participants. In an evolutionary and developmental perspective, response cries may be thought of as a physiological, vocalized protolanguage of emotions, speakers use socially, for indexical purposes (Heritage and Raymond, 2005); to express stance (Heritage, 2012), and co-construct emotion as an interactional achievement (Schegloff, 1988). The contribution discusses the process by which cognitive –emotional- states are brought to life via embodiment in interaction (Goodwin, 2011) through language and other physiological evolutions like gestures and facial kinetics (Birdwhistell, 1970)."

See detailThe Biosemiotics of Facial Kinetics
Albanese, Claudia; Max, Charles; Ziegler, Gudrun

Scientific Conference (2013, June)

We call ‘languaging’ ( Fell and Russell, 1994) the complex-ecological, dynamic core-interaction of multiple semiotic resources to embody (Streeck, Goodwin and LeBaron, 2011) meaning in communication. We discuss the physiological emergence of intentionality and consciousness through bio-semiotic markers of meaning in the form of facial kinetics (Birdwhistell, 1970), with a specific focus on eyebrow movements. We adopt a discursive-interactional approach to a set of ‘semi-interactional’ data, in order to investigate semantic, syntactic and pragmatic aspects of self-organization, bio-communication and anthropogenetics. A series of thirty-six short, -quasi-monologic- interviews (1.30 minutes each on average) was run on a mixed group of multilingual speakers at University of Luxembourg. Four sets can here be distinguished: twenty participants with different L1s spoke either English or French as L2 (ten and ten respectively). Eight English L1 speakers and eight French L1 speakers spoke English as L1 and French as L1 respectively. Data analysis reveals that, regardless of whether speakers use their L1 or an L2, there is consistency and systematics across languages, as for the placement of eyebrow movements on self-repair (Schegloff, 1977), material following hesitation and discourse markers (Schiffrin, 1986). In line with biogenetic structuralism (Laughlin and d'Aquili 1974), these results suggest that, although each living organism develops own ‘cognized’ Umwelt (von Uexkull, 1973), there are universal operational structures characterizing human language (Wierzbicka, 1992), and cognition. Aspects in the sequential organization of talk (Sacks, Schegloff, Jefferson) and linguistic-kinesic interdependence (Birdwhistell, 1970) may result from complex socio-genetic evolution of interactants’ nervous systems.

See detailLearning 2.0 in Higher Education. What pathways should academia take now?.
Max, Charles

Presentation (2013, February 07)

New media have become an essential part of everyday life and regular users are labeled as ‘(inter)net generation’ (Tapscott, 1998; Buckingham, 2007; Montgomery, 2007; Beetham & Sharpe, 2007) or ‘digital natives’ (Prensky, 2001, 2009, 2010; Benett et al., 2008; Helsper et al., 2010). Interactive new media (Manovich, 2003; Crook, 2008; Redecker et al., 2009) and the social web (Bevan, 2010) are blurring the boundaries between learning and social or leisure activities. By transforming conventional media monologues into social media dialogues, they are expanding opportunities of collaborative authoring and peer exchange within communities of prod-users (Bruns, 2008; Rheingold, 2008). They generate a high growth of social interactions and mutual exchanges among members (Ito et al., 2009; Kirschner & Karpinski, 2010; Eynon & Malmberg, 2011). Participants feel some degree of social connection with one another, mutually value contributions and support less competent members through tutoring practices. On the basis of this “participatory culture” (Jenkins et al., 2007) radical new learning opportunities (Ala-Mutka, 2010) take shape. The participatory and active role, which these tools allow users to take, make them interesting for learner-centred approaches in higher education. The regular use of ICT and web technologies (Anderson, 2007) in educational institutions is far from common and rarely goes beyond rudimentary functions or the use of limited resources (Cox et al., 2003a, 2003b; Cuban, 2003). The present contribution discusses results achieved by students using web 2.0 applications within academic programs such as blogs, video sharing tools and social net working sites. They evidence beneficial effects on processes of learning, socialisation and conviviality (Caire 2010) and skills such as critical thinking, problem solving, communication, and collaboration as emphasised by 21st century frameworks (Voogt & Pareja Roblin, 2012) . Furthermore, the contribution will raise questions about barriers and strategies for integrating learning 2.0 effectively into higher educational contexts. It emphasises the systemic tensions to overcome, pedagogical practices to promote and conviviality potentials (Caire, 2010) to stimulate by fair digital participations, collaborations and interactions in highly multilingual and multicultural contexts.

See detailFacial Physiology of Speech Errors
Albanese, Claudia; Max, Charles; Ziegler, Gudrun

Scientific Conference (2012, November)

We present the preliminary findings of a multilingual study on speech errors (‘lapsus linguae’ Meringer and Mayer 1895; Freud, 1901; Meringer, 1908). For the purpose of this presentation, we compiled and analyzed a corpus of video-recordings of twenty short sequences of talk in French, and twenty short sequences of talk in English; all containing mis-performances in oral delivery on behalf of TV hosts and presenters. While briefly discussing previous work and existing models for the classification of errors (Meringer and Mayer 1895; Freud, 1901; Fromkin, 1971, 1973; Dell, Juliano, and Govindjee, 1993; Dziekońska, 2012); we take a multimodal look at the sequential environment of errors in our corpus and analyze whether and how they are ‘acknowledged’ and are ‘repaired’ (Sacks, 1964; Sacks Schegloff, Jefferson, 1977). A close analysis of speakers’ face work reveals that, although not universally, they consistently place a brow raise on the ‘repaired’ material. At times, the lapsus is ‘acknowledged’ with the production of a response cry (Goffman, 1981), in which case, the brow raise is placed on the cry. Regardless of the response cry occurring synchronically with the brow raise; we discuss that it is possible to think of the brow raise as of a ‘change of state token’, (Heritage, 1984b; Schegloff, 2007); thus embodying the local change in speakers’ “state of knowledge, information, orientation or awareness” (Heritage, 1985: 299). Data also suggest a brow raise following the lapse, may transit from emotional display (i.e. surprise – Ekman, 2002, 2003, 2005, 2006) to face-keeping device. Different gestural and postural configurations may occur depending on whether the error is promptly repaired (i.e. straight positioning of the ‘body torque’- Schegloff, 1998) or whether develops into a laughter (i.e. presence of ‘self-adapters’ - Ekman, 2002, 2003, 2005, 2006).

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See detailCouchsurfing - an empirical investigation into the online community as a platform for information sharing and tangential learning.
Max, Charles; Moreau, Richard

Scientific Conference (2012, October)

Couchsurfing is an online community with approximately 3 million profiles from over 230 countries worldwide (Del Rosso & Gréhan, 2010). Users can create a profile with minimal information about themselves free of charge, and post offers of free accommodation in their own homes for other users if desired. Interaction and exchange typically takes place around the activity of users negotiating accommodation in this manner. Users also avail of the online facilities to exchange and discuss topics of greatly diverse and dynamic nature (Peterson, & Siek, 2009). Communication practices in the Couchsurfing community are hybrid by nature given that interaction takes place not only online, but also between users who meet in physical life while travelling or for other social reasons (Pultar & Raubal, 2009). The present paper investigates processes of learning and knowledge sharing through socializing on the Couchsurfing website. We analyse the interactional features of online exchanges, discuss the key elements of the interaction and look at the outcomes and results. Our quest for prior research on the online activities of the Couchsurfing community yielded only few results (Lauterbach, 2009; Tan, 2010; Chowdhury, 2011), so that this study will hone further the specific interactions within this particular network. Research surrounding the topic of virtual/online communities is a relatively new field in social science (Tirado & Galvez, 2007) and is still busy to find consensual definitions for terms such as online communities, virtual spaces, and social media (Tirado & Galvez, 2007; Wilson et al., 2009; Kaplan & Haenlein 2010). Given this incipient phase of research in this field, the paper starts by defining the concept of virtual community more precisely for the present case. Second we investigate phenomena which were under low consideration so far, i.e. the field of learning and knowledge sharing within the social networking environment. According to Kaplan & Haenlein’s categories of social media (2010), the Couchsurfing online platform can be classified as both a content community and social networking site. The main objective of a content community is to share media content (text, photos, videos etc.) between users without obliging users to create a personal profile page. A social networking site encourages users to create personal profile sites and to invite friends and/or colleagues to follow the exchanges taking place at that page. As a combination of both, the Couchsurfing site is used for sharing a high amount of content between users, which facilitates learning as one of the primary focuses of our interaction analysis. More specifically, we use computer mediated discourse analysis (Herring, 2007) to look at interactions related to a) knowledge sharing b) learning, and c) (online) socializing Knowledge sharing has been defined by Wahlroos (2011) as that which “includes the exchange of information, ideas, opinion and expertise”. By analysing examples of online interactions from the website, we evidence how and to what extent knowledge sharing is of paramount importance and a primary outcome of these social exchanges. Informal and unintentional learning is increasingly emphasized with novel digital technologies, which are blurring the spheres of learning and everyday life. Often learning takes place in activities as a side-effect rather than a direct objective (UNESCO, 2005; Cross, 2007; Ala-Mutka, 2010). But, even failing to learn what is expected in a given situation usually involves learning something else instead (Wenger, 1998). Social networking sites promote engagement in communities (Rogoff, 1990), which are powerful means of creating and sharing new knowledge (Wahlroos, 2011). Forums and other tools through which members interact serve to stir discussion and spur interest. This ‘spidering of ideas’ evokes the contemporary notion of “tangential learning” (Portnow, 2008), which understands the instructor, tool, or learning environment to help familiarize learners with a body of knowledge rather than actively trying to teach them. The idea here is that learners will educate themselves if the tool can facilitate their introduction to topics they might like in a context that they already find engaging (Fischer, 2011). OUTCOMES The Couchsurfing website provides an abundance of resources about a broad number of topics. A thematic analysis of discussion threads revealed topics pertaining to world change, lifestyle improvement, and societal transformations. Our analysis has unveiled here a hosting ground for ‘virilisation’ of messages and ideas influencing movements such as occupy, anti-capitalism, vegetarianism or otherwise. The Couchsurfing website is in a sense a telling reflection of current societal issues, in all its dynamism, change and endless possibilities, generating radical ideas about how to live, where, how and what to be, regardless of age, background or otherwise (Chowdhury, 2011). Our analysis revealed a wealth of evidence of knowledge sharing, and unveiled many instances where we inferred that learning was happening as for example instances where one user acknowledges another user’s provision of information, or admits to have found it of interest. Labelling such interactions as instances of learning has to be done always with prudence as one can never witness learning per se, but only interactions whereby learning would be assumed to have taken place within the norms of social discourse and behaviour. Similar difficulties arose when endeavouring to identify the dynamics of knowledge sharing as an empirical phenomenon. However instances of knowledge sharing are more self-evident than learning, as sharing by definition does not require knowing whether the knowledge gets assimilated or not. Our analysis allows to characterize communities whose members interact in real and digital life more precisely as far as regards relationships between participants, interdependence during exchanges, accumulation of shared experience as grounds for membership. Hence, a qualitative study into the concept of tangential learning as a result of online social interactions is already in progress in order to further investigate to what extent people actually do learn, and acknowledge that they do so when interacting with other users through online platforms such as Couchsurfing.

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See detailPrivacy Awareness on Facebook - Engagement on an International Privacy Policy
Max, Charles; Albanese, Claudia

in Morelli, Pierre; Pignard-Cheynel, Nathalie; Baltazart, Didier (Eds.) Actes du colloque EUTIC 2012 Publics et pratiques médiatiques (2012, October)

This small-scale study aims to raise some critical insights into ‘privacy awareness’, It discusses the need to set up an International Legal Framework for a Privacy Policy, which intends to protect users from disclosing personal information to the larger public, out of their control. A critical discourse analysis of Facebook ‘Data use Policy’ (2011) is targeting what FB declares as information they receive about users and the ways it is used by them and third parties. The analysis informed the drafting of a questionnaire which aimed, among other issues, to investigate the extent to which users know that i) Facebook collects data like time and place from content that users share and ii) users give Facebook permission to distribute information to third parties for developing new products and services or for advertisement by accepting the terms and conditions of ‘Facebook Data Use Policy’. The questionnaire was distributed to forty-nine Facebook users in Luxembourg. The analysis revealed that although 90% of the participants noticed the presence of user-tailored-advertisements, only 25% of them know that by accepting the terms and conditions of ‘Facebook Data Use Policy’, users give Facebook permission to distribute personal information to third parties for business purposes. While discussing some proposals and recommendations for user-based management of privacy settings, we conclude that information leakage in the form of distribution to third parties cannot be easily avoided if not by improving practices for drafting legally bounding policies. We call the attention of the scientific community for a more engaged and informed discussion concerning the setting up of an international legal framework for a privacy policy.

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See detailEducating teachers as experts on learning a CHAT perspective on transforming ITE
Max, Charles

Scientific Conference (2012, April)

The ongoing demographic growth of Luxembourg and the increasing heterogeneity of its population raise considerable educational challenges, especially concerning the management of linguistic/cultural diversity within educational contexts. With more than 45 % of students coming from abroad, teachers struggle to combine the students’ specific demands and diverse cultural resources with curricular requirements. Too often, the students’ heterogeneous backgrounds clash with a normative, teacher-centered instruction relying on prescriptive learning tasks, letting a quarter of a student intake falling behind after the first four years of fundamental school (MENFP, 2011). The professional know-how to develop culture-sensitive pedagogical practices calls for extended expertise about learning processes and reaches far beyond the range of didactical teaching skills. It embodies skills for reflective practice, on-the-job research, and continuous educational reform. Research on teacher professionalization (Hargreaves, 2000; Cochran-Smith & Lytle, 2009) further states that teachers should operate in an investigative or problem-solving stance and found their professional decisions on research-driven, evidence-based argumentations. With respect to these societal, professional and scientific challenges, the University of Luxembourg launched an innovative ITE program in 2005. It is governed by an overall ‘learning-how-to-learn’ approach and aims to train teachers as ‘experts on learning’ (Max, 2010, 2011). This paradigm underpins all the training practices, which strive to interconnect research-driven fieldwork on children’s and students’ learning with academic concerns of knowledge building across conventional boundaries. Starting first semester, participative internships and practitioner-oriented research create meaningful interactions between school interventions and academic work and stimulate the enactment of theory and vice versa. This paper investigates the potential of cultural-historical activity theory and dialectic learning approaches (Engeström & Sannino, 2010) for co-configuring expansive and context-sensitive study practices within (and beyond) the academic context, or for “creating new systems of human social-practical activities” (Yamazumi, 2005, p.14). The dialectical relationship between social acting and cultural appropriation works as a ‘germ cell’ for developing the study culture itself. On the one hand, the ITE program is understood as an activity that comes into existence as it is jointly completed between subjects and artefacts in interaction. On the other hand, the goal-directed acting of participants cannot be understood separately from the system(s) in which they are engaged. Their multiple voices, views and positionings of “how to train teachers” meet or/and collide. They transform the object of the program into a moving, multi-faceted and action-generating target. Drawing on these internal contradictions, a shared object on ITE has to be constructed through processes of dialogical interaction and meaning making in response (1) to fundamental societal and political requests on a general historical-political level and (2) to epistemological and methodological beliefs of various actors on a local genetic-developmental level. The paper explores these complex dynamics around the deployment of the program. By drawing on qualitative data gathered from various participant groups, it depicts zones of emerging contradictions and proximal development. The study’ outcomes inform us about obstacles and opportunities to transform academic cultures in ITE. ?

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See detailPromoting ‘learning for teaching’ across boundaries. Creating innovative spaces for competence development in initial teacher education
Max, Charles

in Hinger, Barbara (Ed.) Sprachen lernen: Kompetenzen entwickeln – Performanzen (über)prüfen. Tagungsband der 5. Tagung der Österreichischen Gesellschaft für Sprachendidaktik (ÖGSD). (2012)

The present paper presents the development and implementation of a collaborative learning culture with the academic context of initial teacher education in Luxembourg. Drawing upon a sociocultural framework and dialectical learning approaches, the program innovates in creating shared zones for learning and development for all participants and across disciplinary, institutional and semiotic boundaries. Furthermore, the paper discusses the range of initiatives to support the context-sensitive ‘learning-for-teaching’ and ‘teaching-for learning’ approach.

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See detail‘Doing science’ through discourse-in-interaction: Young children’s science investigations at the early childhood level.
Siry, Christina; Ziegler, Gudrun; Max, Charles

in Science Education (2012), 96(2), 311-326

This research investigates the interconnectedness of scientific inquiring at the early childhood level, as we explore the discourse-in-interaction processes occurring within small inquiry groups of 5- and 6-year-old children. The rationale behind this research is to explore the nature of science-related discourse, and to that end, this work focuses on student-to-student interactions as they collaboratively investigate water. As we document the nature of children's ways of explaining, imagining, and representing the properties of water, we demonstrate the constructions of understandings as displayed and emergent from these interactions. The study has generated outcomes about the discursive ways of young children's enacting of knowledge about science, as the analysis reveals that by positioning scientific inquiry as a fluid process children were able to enact science collaboratively and through multimodal means. As such, the study reveals a wide range of indicators to children's understandings about water and to the processes in which students worked together to construct science within discourse-in-interaction

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See detailTracing science in the early childhood classroom: the historicity of multi-resourced discourse practices in multilingual interaction
Max, Charles; Ziegler, Gudrun; Kracheel, Martin

in Mansour, Nasser; Wegerif, Rupert (Eds.) Science Education for Diversity, Theory and Practice (2012)

This chapter presents research conducted in early childhood classrooms in Luxembourg, a European country with a complex multilingual situation. A multi-layered corpus of classroom interactions, consisting of photos, videos and audio recordings, was collected over a period of 6 months and then classified, annotated and partially transcribed. Drawing from this corpus, this study sheds light on the discursive practices of 6-12 year old children and examines the co-construction of the children’s growing understandings of science in collaborative inquiries. Arguing from a context-sensitive perspective, our research approaches the learning of science as an interactional achievement in situ, one that encompasses the enactment of science as shared discourse and therefore as a cultural accomplishment.

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See detailThe development of initial teacher education focusing on multilingualisms: the innovative approach of Luxembourg
Max, Charles

in ForumSprache (2011), 5(Ausgabe 05 / 2011), 59-78

This paper provides an overview of the innovative initial teacher education program ‘Bachelor en Sciences de l’Education’, which was launched in 2005 at the University of Luxembourg. Facing the challenges of a traditional multilingual curriculum, Luxembourg’s teaching professionals are facing multiple multilingualisms on a daily basis, stemming from diversified media-input, migration, commuting of parents and/or children and the divergent values attributed to languages within the national context. Therefore, teachers (in focus here: pre-primary, primary, lower secondary level) need to develop concepts, skills and tools for dealing with the realities of language and the learning of languages from a language integrated perspective. The paper presents the transdisciplinary architecture of the supportive and challenging initial teacher education (ITE) learning culture, i.e. the cultural-historical and sociocultural frameworks of the collaborative study approach and the innovative spaces for dialogue, meaning making and learning across boundaries. First hand experiences from the implementation of the program will elucidate horizontal forms of learning in a specific multilingual and multimodal ‘learning-for-teaching’ activity.

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See detailLearning-for-teaching across educational boundaries: An activity-theoretical analysis of collaborative internship projects in initial teacher education
Max, Charles

in Ellis, Viv; Edwards, Anne; Smagorinsky, Peter (Eds.) Cultural historical perspectives on teacher education and development: learning teaching. Learning teaching (2010)

The innovative Initial Teacher Education (ITE) programme at the University of Luxembourg strives to interrelate academic concerns with school activities through joint learning spaces where students, academic tutor and internship teacher collaborate and create shared practices with regard to the core learning object of the semester. Conceived as a boundary crossing research assignment, the “Collaborative Classroom Inquiry” (CCI) mediates learning and development within and beyond this boundary zone. As an educational tool, the CCI crosses institutional boundaries and generates contradictions among the collaborating partners, which may be seen as a promising starting point for creating mutually relevant practices within and beyond this joint learning space, but also bearing considerable potential for breakdowns of further collaborations. The present paper scrutinises the innovative potential of the CCI for generating change and development among the interacting partners through

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See detailIntegrating ICT in Pre-service Teacher Training
Höppner, Kristina D. C.; Busana, Gilbert; Max, Charles; Reuter, Robert

in Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications 2009 (2009)

The Bachelor in Educational Sciences at the University of Luxembourg is a four-year study program for students training to become nursery and elementary school teachers in Luxembourg. The program has subscribed to an ICT-enriched study approach, meaning that students and teachers use a variety of (social) media tools for learning as well as for organizational planning. This best practice presentation will show how the tools used are intertwined. Furthermore, the presenters discuss the program's strategy of acquainting students with media tools, the support measures that are in place as well as the students' use and acceptance of ICT. The winter semester 2008/09 was important as the switch was made to a new ePortfolio system and increased inclusion of social media tools, especially with first-year students. The presentation will provide insight into first impressions of this change, touch upon pitfalls, and look at the plans for the coming semesters.

See detailIntegrating Mahara as an e-portfolio system and social network in the BScE (slideshow)
Hoeppner, K.D.C.; Max, Charles; Reuter, Robert

Presentation (2009)

See detailPlurilingualism and Multilingual Literacy among Young Learners in Luxembourg
Portante, Dominique; Max, Charles

in Kenner, Charmian; Hickey, Tina (Eds.) Multilingual Europe: Diversity and Learning (2008)

See detailBIMUZINE – Multilingual visual communication
Lensink, Wilco; Max, Charles; Ziegler, Gudrun

Book published by Bozen-Bolzano University Press (2007)

„bimuzine“ ist das Ergebnis einer engen Zusammenarbeit zwischen den mehrsprachigen Universitäten Bozen und Luxemburg. This project has been conducted by students from both universities. Pendant leurs rencontres ils ont discuté les différents aspects du plurilinguisme non seulement d'un point de vue linguistique. Ma hanno tentato di esplorare e di sperimentare altri approcci a questo tema riunendo riflessioni teoriche e momenti di gioco. Das Projekt wird im Rahmen der Tagung "BiMU" vorgestellt, die vom 20. bis 22. September 2007 stattfindet. Gli organizzatori sostengono "bimuzine" in tutti i modi e sperano che possa dare uno spunto per ulteriori riflessioni e anche per divertirsi con le lingue.

See detailL’évaluation de la qualité de l’enseignement face à la dynamique et à la dialectique des pratiques pédagogiques.
Max, Charles

in PAQUAY, Léopold (Ed.) L'évaluation des enseignants - Tensions et enjeux. (2004)

See detailEntwicklung von Kompetenz - ein neues Paradigma für das Lernen in Schule und Arbeitswelt. Ertrag und Perspektiven der französisch-sprachigen Kompetenzforschung und ihre Bedeutung als Gestaltungsprinzip von Bildung
Max, Charles

Book published by Peter Lang. (1999)

In den letzten beiden Jahrzehnten hat sich der Kompetenzbegriff in der Mehrzahl der OECD- Länder in unterschiedlichem Ausmaß und in sehr vielfältigen Formen im erziehungswissen-schaftlichen Feld implementiert. Insbesondere im französischen Sprachraum (Frankreich, Belgien, Schweiz, Québec), auf den sich die vorliegende Studie literarischer Quellen vorwie-gend konzentriert, ist der Kompetenzbegriff innerhalb eines knappen Jahrzehnts zum bestim-menden Gestaltungsprinzip des gesamten Bildungsbereichs aufgestiegen. Mit einer Fokussierung auf den Kompetenzbegriff versucht man in diesen Ländern, der aktu-ellen Sinnkrise des Schule und der drohenden Entwertung schulischer Qualifikationen ange-sichts des raschen und vielfältigen gesellschaftlichen Wandels wirksam entgegenzutreten. Im Hinblick auf eine künftig stärkere Kooperation zwischen den nationalen Bildungssystemen innerhalb der Europäischen Union lag ein erstes Anliegen der vorliegenden Studie in der Be-schreibung der unterschiedlichen schulexternen und -internen Einflußfaktoren, die zu einer entsprechenden Reformentscheidung im französischen Bildungswesen führten, einschließlich der damit verbundenen Ziele, Methoden, Inhalte und Entwicklungsperspektiven. Der spärli-che Forschungsaustausch zwischen den zwei benachbarten Sprachräumen prägte zudem eine weitere wesentliche Absicht unserer Studie: Das Bekanntmachen der diesbezüglichen, in Deutschland kaum veröffentlichten Literatur für die weitere erziehungswissenschaftliche For-schung und Theoriebildung bzw. das Anknüpfen an bestehende deutsche Ansätze. . Auslöser des erziehungswissenschaftlichen Interesses am Kompetenzkonstrukt waren über-greifende Neuorientierungen und Erkenntnisse in schulangrenzenden Domänen, die mit aktu-ellen schulspezifischen Problemen in Beziehung standen. So vollzogen sich einerseits in der Arbeitswelt eine Reihe von Entwicklungen, die unmittelbar auf die schulische Erstausbildung, sei es im technisch-beruflichen, sei es im allgemeinen Bildungsbereich zurückwirkten. Wir denken dabei an präzise Analysen der Arbeitsaktivitäten und das zunehmende Interesse an subjektspezifischem Handlungswissen, an die Evolutionen der Arbeitsstellen und der Qualifi-kationen innerhalb lernender Organisationen, an das Bestreben einer optimalen Nutzung und Organisation der menschlichen Ressourcen unter dem Paradigma einer lebenslangen Lernfä-higkeit... (vgl. Teil 3 der Arbeit). Andererseits gestatten die rezenten Forschungsarbeiten in den Kognitionswissenschaften bes-sere Einsichten in die Genese der Wissens- und Denkstrukturen, in die multiplen Repräsenta-tionsformen des menschlichen Wissens und dessen Übergangs in Handlung unter bestimmten situativen Bedingungen... (vgl. Teil 4 der Arbeit). Der schnelle Aufstieg des Kompetenzbegriffs im französischsprachigen Bildungsbereich be-legt eine bestimmte Evolution der Mentalitäten, die über rein terminologische Veränderungen hinausgehen und die man wie folgt charakterisieren kann (vgl. S.103ff. der Arbeit): – Die Gestaltung der Unterrichtssituationen orientiert sich an den Lernaktivitäten des ein-zelnen Schülers, den man als lernendes Subjekt auffaßt. – Die Konstruktion der Wissensstrukturen konzentriert sich von Anfang an auf die Wieder-verwendung des Gelernten in neuartigen schulischen und außerschulischen Situationen. – Die Organisation und Koordination sämtlicher subjektrelevanter Ressourcen (impliziter und expliziter, allgemeiner und bereichsspezifischer, automatisierter und metakognitiver) erfolgt im Hinblick auf die Steigerung des persönlichen Handlungspotentials innerhalb ei-nes soziokulturellen Rahmens. – Eine Pädagogik der Kompetenzen richtet sich auf den Prozeß des ‚Kompetentwerdens‘, als ‚Resultante‘ vorausgegangener komplexer Lernprozesse. In der vorgelegten Studie hinterfragen wir einerseits kritisch die vorschnelle Übertragung des Kompetenzbegriffs auf den Bereich der Erziehungswissenschaften sowie die aktuelle Ver-wendung des Konzepts in Frankreich. Andererseits versuchen wir sein Potential auszuloten, den veränderten Bildungsanforderungen moderner komplexer Gesellschaften zu genügen. Unsere Methode bestand in einer Querschnittstudie literarischer Quellen aus den arbeits- und sozialwissenschaftlichen Bereichen (vgl. Teil 3 der Arbeit), welche den Kompetenzbegriff intensiver und unter multiplen Perspektiven konzeptualisieren bzw. ihn im Rahmen der Kom-petenz- und Expertiseforschung untersuchen. Im einzelnen waren dies die Bereiche: Ergono-mie, Arbeitssoziologie, Unternehmensentwicklung und -organisation. Auf der Grundlage dieser Analyse schlagen wir einerseits eine eigene Definition des Begriffs (vgl. S.236) vor, die man sowohl auf das Individuum als auch auf ein Kollektiv beziehen kann. Andererseits kristallisieren wir einige aufeinander bezogene Grundorientierungen her-aus, denen ein Kompetenzansatz als wirksames, modernes und zukunftsorientiertes Konzept für eine allgemeine bzw. beruflich-technische Bildung unterliegen muß. Kompetenz verstehen wir wie folgt: Die Kompetenz eines Subjekts oder eines Kollektivs ist die vom soziokulturellen Umfeld ge-schätzte Qualität seines Handelnkönnens, d. h. der dynamischen Artikulierung und Neukom-binierung in der Situation aller verfügbaren Elemente hinsichtlich der Erfordernisse einer un-begrenzten Anzahl verschiedener Situationen des gleichen Typus. Die Entwicklung von Kompetenz als Paradigma für schulisches Lernen in der Gesellschaft der Zukunft muß nach unseren Erkenntnissen auf folgenden Grundorientierungen basieren (vgl. Punkt 3.8): 1. Kompetenz muß aus einem dynamischen Ansatz heraus gedacht werden, bei dem das Sub-jekt als ‚Produzent von Kompetenzen‘ heterogene Komponenten in der Situation aktuali-siert und auf kreative Weise neukombiniert. 2. Kompetenz ist an den Kontext gebunden und erfordert ein absicherndes, unterstützendes Trägerdispositiv mit Freiräumen, Entwicklungsperspektiven, Projekten, Verantwortungs-bereichen..., das sie erst ermöglicht bzw. legitimiert. 3. Kompetenz steht in einer dialektischen Interaktion mit der Handlung, durch die sie sich ausdrückt und mittels derer sie anerkannt wird. Ihrem Herausforderungscharakter fällt da-bei eine zentrale Rolle in der Entwicklung von Kompetenz zu. 4. Die Anerkennung von Kompetenz umfaßt eine kognitive und eine soziale Referenzdimen-sion, die bei der Konstruktion der Identität des Subjekts zusammenwirken. Die Anerken-nung der Kompetenz erfolgt mittels einer kontinuierlichen Aushandlungsarbeit. 5. Eine Pädagogik der Kompetenzentwicklung basiert auf einer Dialektik zwischen der or-ganisationellen (kollektiven) und individuellen Evolution. 6. Ein Entwicklungsansatz von Kompetenzen muß eine domänenübergreifende Praktik darstellen, welche bereits realisierte, in der Entwicklung befindliche sowie potentielle Lern- und Entwicklungsprozesse kontinuierlich aus dem schulischen in den arbeitsweltlichen Kontext überführt, ohne dabei die pädagogische Entwicklungsfunktion der Schule zu ungunsten einer funktionalen Anpassungslogik aufgeben zu müssen. Besonders die im vorletzten Punkt angesprochene Koevolution der individuellen und organi-sationellen Entwicklung unterstreichen wir nachdrücklich mit der Forderung nach einer parti-zipativen Lern- und Entwicklungskultur innerhalb des Schulsystems, bei der die Lernenden ihre persönlichen Entwicklung aktiv mitgestalten und selbst verantworten. Dabei erhalten sie zugleich die Möglichkeit, Erfahrungen aus anderen Erwerbskontexten in offiziell anerkannte Kompetenzen zu überführen. Eine entsprechende Lernkultur basiert zudem auf der Idee, die Autonomie und die Reformbe-strebungen der einzelnen Schulen im Sinne ‚lernender Organisationen‘ als ausdrücklich er-wünschte Systemeigenschaft auszubauen. Die Schulen arbeiten dabei kontinuierlich an der Erneuerung und dem Anwachsen ihrer kollektiven Kompetenz durch Förderung des parallelen Wachsens aller in der Organisation kooperierenden Lernpartner. Dabei stellen sie diese Kom-petenzen immer wieder durch öffentliches Beteiligen an authentischen, gesellschaftlich rele-vanten Sachverhalten und Problematiken unter Beweis. Diese Tragpfeiler unseres Kompetenzansatzes – insbesondere die domänenübergreifenden kognitiven und sozialen Dimensionen – haben wir im 4. Teil der Arbeit mit rezenten, interna-tional veröffentlichten Erkenntnissen der lern- und kognitionspsychologischen Forschung in Beziehung gesetzt, wobei wir auch hier vor allem auf französischsprachige Autoren zurück-gegriffen haben. Aus diesen Ansätzen eröffneten sich präzisere Einblicke in die ontologische Natur der Kompetenz, in die Essenz ihrer Dynamik, in die Genese der einzelnen Struktur-komponenten und ihrer reziproken Interaktionen, welche wir im anliegenden Schema (S.6) ein Stück weit veranschaulichen. Aus der Vielzahl der ausführlich kommentierten lerntheoretischen und -organisatorischen Folgerungen für die Lehr-Lern-Praktiken (vgl. Übersicht S.450 ff.), stellen wir neben den bereits erwähnten grundlegenden Leitideen für einen entsprechenden Ansatz zudem folgende Thesen für die anstehende Disputation zur Diskussion: 1. These: Kompetenz entwickeln heißt einen subjekt- und emanzipationsorientierten Entwicklungsan-satz verfolgen, bei dem der Schüler sich selbst als autonomes reflexives Subjekt wahrnimmt, selbstbestimmt handeln kann und bestrebt ist, sein Lernen und Denken besser zu verstehen bzw. selbständig zu steuern. Die lernorganisatorischen Bedingungen basieren dabei auf der Pluralisierung der Lernwege, der Legitimierung individuell geprägter intellektueller Stile so-wie dem Bewußtmachen der kontextuell ausgeprägten Intelligenzkomponenten und ihrer le-benslangen Entwicklungsfähigkeit. 2. These: Die Entwicklung von Schülerkompetenz vollzieht sich in einem dialektischen Verhältnis zwi-schen kontinuierlich komplexer werdenden sozialen Interaktionen und der Konstruktion kog-nitiver Strukturen. 3. These: Die Ausrichtung schulischer Lehr-Lern-Praktiken an der Ausformung von Kompetenzen för-dert den Aufbau intelligent und flexibel nutzbarer Wissens- und Denkstrukturen, die eine ra-sche Anpassung an neue Situationen erst ermöglichen. Dabei entwickelt sich eine dynamische Reziprozität zwischen der progressiven Konstruktion eines funktional organisierten bereichs-spezifischen Wissensnetzes und der Genese von Formen komplexen (kontextualisierten) Könnens. 4. These: Eine Logik der Kompetenzen initiieren erfordert das Loslösen von primär auf Wissensver-mittlung ausgerichteten Lehr-Lern-Praktiken zugunsten einer Orientierung an gründlichem Verstehen. Hauptschwerpunkte dabei sind das konsequente Einbeziehen der vielfältigen Kon-struktionsprozesse einer situationsadäquaten Repräsentation (Interpretation) sowie die sich daraus ableitende Konstruktion angemessener Handlungsschemata. 5.These: Die Demokratisierung des Kompetenzzugangs erfordert das systematische Explizieren der kontextuell mobilisierten Wissenskomponenten (idiosynkratischen und formalen, intuitiven und bewußten, spezifischen und allgemeinen), deren Integration und Kombination für den Aufbau von flexibler Lern-, Handlungs- und Sachkompetenz erforderlich sind. 6. These: Die Operationalisierung eines solchen Ansatzes erfordert ein evolutives Integrationskonzept von interdisziplinär aufeinander abgestimmten und progressiv umfassender werdenden kom-plexen Kompetenzen für eine bestimmte Bildungsstufe. Ein solches Integrationskonzept ge-stattet eine stärkere Orientierung an bildungsrelevanten Lernzusammenhängen und wirkt ei-nem überwiegend fachspezifischen, parzellierenden Lernen entgegen. Die vielfältigen inter-disziplinären Kooperationsmöglichkeiten fördern zusätzlich eine Dekontextualisierung spezi-fischer Kompetenzen und ermöglichen auf diese Weise, die Realität in ihrer Komplexität und Authentizität kontinuierlich unter multiplen Perspektiven und Logiken anzugehen. 7.These: Kompetenz muß als gemeinsames evolutives Konstrukt für Bildung und Arbeitswelt aufgefaßt werden. Sein domänenübergreifender Charakter gestattet, im Rahmen der Erziehungswissen-schaft die vielschichtigen, multidimensionalen Problematiken (sozialisatorisch-gesellschaftlich, kulturspezifisch, kognitionswissenschaftlich, handlungs- und lerntheoretisch, affektiv-persönlichkeitsbezogen) von Lernen, Bildung und Schulentwicklung angemessen zu artikulieren. Die kontinuierlich evoluierende, domänenspezifische Erforschung und Theoreti-sierung des Konzepts erlaubt zudem, neue Entwicklungen aus angrenzenden Wissensdomä-nen zu reflektieren bzw. progressiv in die Konzeptualisierung des Begriffs zu integrieren.

See detailVerstehen heißt Verändern 'Conceptual Change' als didaktisches Prinzip des Sachunterrichts.
Max, Charles

in FAUST-SIEHL, Gabriele; MEIER, Richard; UNGLAUBE, Henning (Eds.) Sachunterricht in der Grundschule (1997)