See detailStudy to investigate the national and institutional policies and approaches to education for environmental sustainability (EES) - EAC/12/2020. Policy and Research Mapping Report for Luxembourg.
Lenz, Thomas; Backes, Susanne

Report (in press)

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See detailWhy flipping the classroom is not enough: Digital curriculum making after the pandemic
Backes, Susanne; Baumann, Isabell Eva; Harion, Dominic; Sattler, Sabrina; Lenz, Thomas

in PROSPECTS Comparative Journal of Curriculum, Learning, and Assessment (2021)

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See detailThe Education Report for Luxembourg
Lenz, Thomas; Backes, Susanne

in Oggenfuss, Chantal; Wolter, Stefan C. (Eds.) National Education Reports in European Countries. CIDREE Yearbook 2020. (2020)

See detailUncommon pathways through Luxembourg’s stratified school system: The findings of a mixed methods study on educational upward mobility
Backes, Susanne

in McElvany; Holtappels; Ohle-Peters (Eds.) Against the Odds – (In)Equity in Education and Educational Systems (2020)

See detailSchule auf Distanz. Die Coronakrise und der Weg zu einem digitalen Curriculum in Luxemburg.
Backes, Susanne; Baumann, Isabell Eva; Harion, Dominic; Lenz, Thomas; Sattler, Sabrina

in Mein, Georg; Pause, Johannes (Eds.) Self and Society in the Corona Crisis (2020)

See detailCommon and uncommon pathways through Luxembourg’s stratified education system: Findings from a mixed-methods study
Backes, Susanne

Scientific Conference (2019, July 11)

See detailLes inégalités scolaires dans le système secondaire luxembourgeois dans une perspective dans les temps
Hadjar, Andreas; Fischbach, Antoine; Backes, Susanne

in University of Luxembourg, LUCET; Ministère de l’Éducation nationale, de l’Enfance et de la Jeunesse, SCRIPT (Eds.) Rapport national sur l'éducation au Luxembourg 2018 (2018)

See detailBildungsungleichheiten im luxemburgischen Sekundarschulsystem aus zeitlicher Perspektive
Hadjar, Andreas; Fischbach, Antoine; Backes, Susanne

in University of Luxembourg, LUCET; Ministère de l’Éducation nationale, de l’Enfance et de la Jeunesse, SCRIPT (Eds.) Nationaler Bildungsbericht Luxemburg 2018 (2018)

See detailHeterogenität im luxemburgischen Schulsystem: Eine Mixed-Method-Studie zu Bildungsverläufen aus ungleichheitstheoretischer Perspektive
Backes, Susanne

Book published by BeltzJuventa (2018)

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See detailEducational Trajectories Through Secondary Education in Luxembourg: How does Permeability Affect Educational Inequalities?
Backes, Susanne; Hadjar, Andreas

in Schweizerische Zeitschrift für Bildungswissenschaften = Rivista Svizzera di Scienze dell' Educazione = Revue Suisse des Sciences de l'Education (2017), 39(3), 437-460

The link between stratification and educational inequality in empirical research is well documented. Some countries – particularly those that do not follow the model of comprehensive schools – discuss the possibility of increasing permeability between school tracks to reduce inequalities. This paper focuses on the occurrence of permeability in the stratified school system of Luxembourg and examines what this permeability entails for certain risk groups, specifically students from lower social background, male students and migrants. Educational pathways were classified (cluster analysis) on the basis of an administrative panel data set (n=5301); mechanisms behind educational decisions were analysed as a second step by estimating logistic regressions (Boudon, 1974). The findings show that reorientations in Luxembourg are often determined by the students’ social group, and that permeability – as blurred educational boundaries – mainly reproduces disparities in track placement. Introduction

Backes, Susanne

Doctoral thesis (2015)

This dissertation provides a detailed discussion of educational pathways through Luxembourg’s stratified school system, addressing educational inequalities in a longitudinal perspective. The link between stratification and educational inequality is well documented (Van de Werfhorst & Mijs, 2010; Pfeffer 2008). However, stratified systems themselves differ in permeability and in the given opportunity structure for intragenerational social mobility through changes of school track. This dissertation focuses on the occurrence of permeability in the stratified educational system of Luxembourg by analysing secondary school students’ pathways. The study attempts to answer the following main research questions: How can the students’ pathways through Luxembourg’s educational system be characterised and systemised? Does the use of track changes rather increase or decrease educational inequalities? The author deals with these questions by carrying out a triangulated design combining secondary data analysis (administrative panel dataset of all 5,301 students born in 1990 and PISA data) and narrative interviews with (former) school students. The conceptual framework is based on Boudon’s structural-individualistic approach (1974), Bourdieu’s capital theory (1983) and concepts of the sociology of youth (e.g. Zinnecker 2003). The cluster analysis reveals different types of complete pathways of secondary school students in Luxembourg. The largest group (37%) of the students follows an immobile academic pathway, and some students in the academic track leave this track early (7%). Within the technical track, which is further subdivided, more students follow a downwardly mobile pathway (21%) than an immobile pathway (17%). A small part of students within the technical track (12%) belongs to upwardly mobile types (only 2% of all the students make the transition from the technical to the academic track). The remaining 6% of the students follow careers that were interrupted at least once. Thus, 46% of all the students experience (multiple) broken secondary school pathways. The 15 qualitative interviews illustrate that the types of educational pathways are not directly linked to particular kinds of biographies in adolescent lives: Both, moratorium-oriented and transition-oriented students can be found in different pathway types. However, different trajectories afford different degrees of agency with respect to shaping the teenage years and creating professional identities. With regard to educational inequalities, results of logistic regression analyses reveal that socioeconomic and gender-specific placement gaps tend to increase during secondary schooling. On the other hand, migrant-specific disparities decrease through upwardly mobile pathways and higher continuity rates of students with migration backgrounds, whereby in case of vulnerable migrant groups this decreasing effect does not concern the transition to the highest tracks that are required for direct university entry. Further analyses show that the mechanisms behind different transition patterns vary between branching points and student groups in terms of achievement-related and decision-related effects. Thus, this study attempts to add to the body of knowledge of the permeability of educational systems and provides useful information to support the work of policy makers and consultants in the field of education.

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See detailSchool Alienation, Patriarchal Gender-Role Orientations and the Lower Educational Success of Boys. A Mixed-method Study
Hadjar, Andreas; Backes, Susanne; Gysin, Stefanie

in Masculinities and Social Change (2015), 4(1), 85-116

This paper is an empirically backed contribution to the current ‘failing boys’ debate in regard to their lower educational success. The cross-sectional analysis focuses on two possible factors behind the lower educational success of boys in secondary school: school alienation and patriarchal gender-role orientations (as an expression of the ‘hegemonic masculinity’). School deviance on the behavioural level is considered as a main mediator between these factors and educational success. Furthermore, teaching style, peer attitudes and social origin are taken into account as important factors of educational success. Analyses are based on a Swiss mixed-method study (questionnaires among 872 eighth-graders, group discussions, class room observations). Results indicate that the gender gap in educational success is caused partly by boys being more alienated from school and preferring patriarchal gender-role orientations. The impacts of these factors on educational success are mediated by school deviance. An authoritative teaching style can largely reduce school alienation.

See detailSexueller Missbrauch in Heimen
Backes, Susanne

in Fegert, Jörg M.; Wolff, Mechthild (Eds.) Kompendium »Sexueller Missbrauch in Institutionen«: Entstehungsbedingungen, Prävention und Intervention (2015)

See detailBildungsungleichheiten im luxemburgischen Bildungssystem
Hadjar, Andreas; Fischbach, Antoine; Martin, Romain; Backes, Susanne

in Ministère de l’Éducation nationale, de l’Enfance et de la Jeunesse, SCRIPT & Université du Luxembourg, FLSHASE (Ed.) Bildungsbericht Luxemburg 2015. Band 2: Analysen und Befunde (2015)

See detailSchulerfolg, Schulentfremdung und das Verhalten der Lehrkräfte
Hadjar, Andreas; Backes, Susanne

Article for general public (2013)

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See detailMigration Background and Subjective Well-Being A Multilevel Analysis Based on the European Social Survey
Hadjar, Andreas; Backes, Susanne

in Comparative Sociology (2013), 12

Contributing to the debate on the integration of migrants in Europe, this study focuses on Subjective Well-Being (SWB) of people with migration backgrounds compared to people without a migration background – specifying SWB in terms of successful integration. The analyses employ a multilevel perspective (data base: European Social Survey). On the macro level, gross domestic product (GDP), welfare regime, xenophobia and the migrant integration policy index (MIPEX) are considered; on the micro level, social origin, education, unemployment, income deprivation, relationship status, health status and controls. Findings indicate a disadvantage in SWB of first-generation migrants that goes beyond deficits regarding well-studied SWB determinants. The SWB gap between migrants and nonmigrants is larger in countries with a high GDP and smaller in countries with a high MIPEX score.

See detailFunktionieren musst du wie eine Maschine Leben und Überleben in deutschen und österreichischen Kinderheimen der 1950er und 1960er Jahre
Backes, Susanne

Book published by Beltz Juventa (2012)

In diesem Buch wird die "Totale Institution Kinderheim" der 1950er und 1960er Jahre anhand soziologischer Bezugstheorien systematisiert und mittels Stimmen ehemaliger Heimkinder lebensweltnah dargestellt. Ein besonderer Schwerpunkt liegt auf der Rekonstruktion selbstgeschaffener Inseln, Fluchten und Seitennischen des Überlebens. Ergänzend wird ein Überblick über die Heimlandschaft und die sie prägenden historischen Erziehungsideologien gegeben.

See detailZwischenbericht - Wissenschaftliche Begleitung des Projekts „Keine/r ohne Abschluss“ im besonderen 10.Schuljahr
Eckert, Roland; Smilek, Natalie; Cremer, Annelie; Wendland, Elwira; Backes, Susanne; Lorenz, Vera; Marx, Andreas

Report (2010)