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See detailA Secure Data Sharing Scheme in Community Segmented Vehicular Social Networks for 6G
Khowaja, Sunder Ali; Khuwaja, Parus; Dev, Kapal et al

in IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics (2022)

The use of aerial base stations, AI cloud, and satellite storage can help manage location, traffic, and specific application-based services for vehicular social networks. However, sharing of such data ... [more ▼]

The use of aerial base stations, AI cloud, and satellite storage can help manage location, traffic, and specific application-based services for vehicular social networks. However, sharing of such data makes the vehicular network vulnerable to data and privacy leakage. In this regard, this article proposes an efficient and secure data sharing scheme using community segmentation and a blockchain-based framework for vehicular social networks. The proposed work considers similarity matrices that employ the dynamics of structural similarity, modularity matrix, and data compatibility. These similarity matrices are then passed through stacked autoencoders that are trained to extract encoded embedding. A density-based clustering approach is then employed to find the community segments from the information distances between the encoded embeddings. A blockchain network based on the Hyperledger Fabric platform is also adopted to ensure data sharing security. Extensive experiments have been carried out to evaluate the proposed data-sharing framework in terms of the sum of squared error, sharing degree, time cost, computational complexity, throughput, and CPU utilization for proving its efficacy and applicability. The results show that the CSB framework achieves a higher degree of SD, lower computational complexity, and higher throughput. [less ▲]

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See detailLSTM-Based Distributed Conditional Generative Adversarial Network for Data-Driven 5G-Enabled Maritime UAV Communications
Rasheed, Iftikhar; Asif, Muhammad; Ihsan, Asim et al

in IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems (2022)

5G enabled maritime unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) communication is one of the important applications of 5G wireless network which requires minimum latency and higher reliability to support mission ... [more ▼]

5G enabled maritime unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) communication is one of the important applications of 5G wireless network which requires minimum latency and higher reliability to support mission-critical applications. Therefore, lossless reliable communication with a high data rate is the key requirement in modern wireless communication systems. These all factors highly depend upon channel conditions. In this work, a channel model is proposed for air-to-surface link exploiting millimeter wave (mmWave) for 5G enabled maritime unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) communication. Firstly, we will present the formulated channel estimation method which directly aims to adopt channel state information (CSI) of mmWave from the channel model inculcated by UAV operating within the Long Short Term Memory (LSTM)-Distributed Conditional generative adversarial network (DCGAN) i.e. (LSTM-DCGAN) for each beamforming direction. Secondly, to enhance the applications for the proposed trained channel model for the spatial domain, we have designed an LSTM-DCGAN based UAV network, where each one will learn mmWave CSI for all the distributions. Lastly, we have categorized the most favorable LSTM-DCGAN training method and emanated certain conditions for our UAV network to increase the channel model learning rate. Simulation results have shown that the proposed LSTM-DCGAN based network is vigorous to the error generated through local training. A detailed comparison has been done with the other available state-of-the-art CGAN network architectures i.e. stand-alone CGAN (without CSI sharing), Simple CGAN (with CSI sharing), multi-discriminator CGAN, federated learning CGAN and DCGAN. Simulation results have shown that the proposed LSTM-DCGAN structure demonstrates higher accuracy during the learning process and attained more data rate for downlink transmission as compared to the previous state of artworks. [less ▲]

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See detailA Survey on Vehicular Task Offloading: Classification, Issues, and Challenges
Ahmed, Manzoor; Raza, Salman; Mirza, Muhammad Ayzed et al

in Journal of King Saud University - Computer and Information Sciences (2022)

Emerging vehicular applications with strict latency and reliability requirements pose high computing requirements, and current vehicles’ computational resources are not adequate to meet these demands. In ... [more ▼]

Emerging vehicular applications with strict latency and reliability requirements pose high computing requirements, and current vehicles’ computational resources are not adequate to meet these demands. In this scenario, vehicles can get help to process tasks from other resource-rich computing platforms, including nearby vehicles, fixed edge servers, and remote cloud servers. Nonetheless, different vehicular communication network (VCN) modes need to be utilized to access these computing resources, improving applications and networks’ performance and quality of service (QoS). In this paper, we present a comprehensive survey on the vehicular task offloading techniques under a communication perspective, i.e., vehicle to vehicle (V2V), vehicle to roadside infrastructure (V2I), and vehicle to everything (V2X). For the task/computation offloading, we present the classification of methods under the V2V, V2I, and V2X communication domains. Besides, the task/computation offloading categories are each sub-categorized according to their schemes’ objectives. Furthermore, the literature on vehicular task offloading is elaborated, compared, and analyzed from the perspectives of approaches, objectives, merits, demerits, etc. Finally, we highlight the open research challenges in this field and predict future research trends. [less ▲]

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See detailPerformance Evaluation of Spectral Efficiency for Uplink and Downlink Multi-Cell Massive MIMO Systems
Asif, Rao Muhammad; Shakir, Mustafa; Rehman, Ateeq Ur et al

in Journal of Sensors (2022)

Massive multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) systems have become the most persuasive technology for 5G as it increased the energy efficiency gigantically as compared to other wireless communication ... [more ▼]

Massive multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) systems have become the most persuasive technology for 5G as it increased the energy efficiency gigantically as compared to other wireless communication systems. Being the most vibrant research technology in the communication sector, this research work is based on the optimal model development of energy-efficient massive MIMO systems. The proposed model is a realistic model that augmented the spectral efficiency (SE) of massive MIMO systems where a multi-cell model scenario is considered. Channel estimation is carried out at the base stations (BSs) based on uplink (UL) transmission while the minimum mean-squared error (MMSE), Element-wise MMSE, and Least-square (LS) estimators are used for the estimation. We analyze the achievable SE of the UL based on the MMSE channel estimator with different receive combining schemes. Moreover, the downlink (DL) transmission model is also modelled with different precoding schemes by taking the same vectors used in combining schemes. The simulation results show a significant improvement in spectral efficiency by developing UL and DL transmission models and also realized that the average sum of SE per cell can be improved by optimized MMSE channel estimation, installing multiple BS antennas, and serving multiple UEs per cell. The findings of this work specify that the massive MIMO system can be developed by optimizing the channel estimation for the augmentation of SE in UL and DL transmissions. Conclusively, it can be summarized that some complex computations of MMSE channel estimators can enhance the average sum of SE per cell as per the results verified in this model. [less ▲]

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See detailOutage and capacity analysis of NOMA systems over dual-hop mixed powerline-wireless channels
ElHalawany, Basem M.; Samir, Ahmed; Elsayed, Mohamed et al

in ICT Express (2022)

Non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) has emerged as a promising technology for 5G networks and beyond. In order to fully reap the benefits of NOMA, it is essential to characterize its performance under ... [more ▼]

Non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) has emerged as a promising technology for 5G networks and beyond. In order to fully reap the benefits of NOMA, it is essential to characterize its performance under different channel fading. In this paper, we carry out a performance analysis of the downlink NOMA-based dual-hop mixed powerline/wireless communication (PLC/WLC) system. Specifically, we investigate the system reliability and spectrum efficiency in terms of the outage probability and the ergodic capacity, respectively, where the PLC link undergoes lognormal fading while the WLC link undergoes block Rayleigh fading. The accuracy of the analytical results has been validated, the effect of different system controlling parameters is tested; and the optimal values of power allocation factors are obtained. Also, the system performance is compared to a benchmark system through representative extensive simulations. [less ▲]

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See detailA Cost-Effective Identity-Based Signature Scheme for Vehicular Ad Hoc Network Using Hyperelliptic Curve Cryptography
Iqbal, Asad; Ullah, Insaf; AlSanad, Abeer Abdulaziz et al

in Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing (2022)

A Vehicular Ad Hoc Network (VANET) is a subset of the Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) that allows vehicles to communicate with each other and with roadside stations to offer efficient and safe ... [more ▼]

A Vehicular Ad Hoc Network (VANET) is a subset of the Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) that allows vehicles to communicate with each other and with roadside stations to offer efficient and safe transportation. Furthermore, when VANET is used in connection with the Internet of Things (IoT) devices and sensors, it can help with traffic management and road safety by allowing vehicles to interact with one another at any time and from any location. Since VANET’s event-driven communications are carried out via an open wireless channel, there are significant security concerns. In this paper, we use Hyperelliptic Curve Cryptography (HECC) to offer a cost-effective identity-based signature for secure communication over VANET. The proposed scheme does not need certificate management, and we found that it is more secure against a variety of cryptographic threats after conducting a thorough security analysis. In addition, comparisons of communication and computational costs are made, demonstrating that the proposed scheme is more efficient in both respects than existing schemes. [less ▲]

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See detailSecuring Industrial Internet of Things Against Botnet Attacks Using Hybrid Deep Learning Approach
Hasan, Tooba; Malik, Jahanzaib; Bibi, Iram et al

in IEEE Transactions on Network Science and Engineering (2022)

Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) formation of richer ecosystem of intelligent interconnected devices while enabling new levels of digital innovation has essentially transformed and revolutionized ... [more ▼]

Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) formation of richer ecosystem of intelligent interconnected devices while enabling new levels of digital innovation has essentially transformed and revolutionized global manufacturing and industry 4.0. Conversely, the prevalent distributed nature of IIoT, Industrial 5G, underlying IoT sensing devices, IT/OT convergence, Edge Computing, and Time Sensitive Networking makes it an impressive and potential target for cyber-attackers. Multi-variant persistent and sophisticated bot attacks are considered catastrophic for connects IIoTs. Besides, botnet attack detection is extremely complex and decisive. Thus, efficient and timely detection of IIoT botnets is a dire need of the day. We propose a hybrid intelligent Deep Learning (DL)-enabled mechanism to secure IIoT infrastructure from lethal and sophisticated multi-variant botnet attacks. The proposed mechanism has been rigorously evaluated with latest available dataset, standard and extended performance evaluation metrics, and current DL benchmark algorithms. Besides,cross validation of our results are also performed to clearly show overall performance. The proposed mechanisms outperforms in identifying accurately multi-variant sophisticated bot attacks. Besides, our proposed technique also show promising results in terms of speed efficiency. [less ▲]

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See detailJoint optimization for secure ambient backscatter communication in NOMA-enabled IoT networks
Khan, Wali Ullah UL; Jameel, Furqan; Ihsan, Asim et al

in Digital Communications and Networks (2022)

Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access (NOMA) has emerged as a novel air interface technology for massive connectivity in sixth-generation (6G) era. The recent integration of NOMA in Backscatter Communication (BC ... [more ▼]

Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access (NOMA) has emerged as a novel air interface technology for massive connectivity in sixth-generation (6G) era. The recent integration of NOMA in Backscatter Communication (BC) has triggered significant research interest due to its applications in low-powered Internet of Things (IoT) networks. However, the link security aspect of these networks has not been well investigated. This article provides a new optimization framework for improving the physical layer security of the NOMA ambient BC system. Our system model takes into account the simultaneous operation of NOMA IoT users and the Backscatter Node (BN) in the presence of multiple EavesDroppers (EDs). The EDs in the surrounding area can overhear the communication of Base Station (BS) and BN due to the wireless broadcast transmission. Thus, the chief aim is to enhance link security by optimizing the BN reflection coefficient and BS transmit power. To gauge the performance of the proposed scheme, we also present the suboptimal NOMA and conventional orthogonal multiple access as benchmark schemes. Monte Carlo simulation results demonstrate the superiority of the NOMA BC scheme over the pure NOMA scheme without the BC and conventional orthogonal multiple access schemes in terms of system secrecy rate. [less ▲]

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See detailNOMA-Enabled Backscatter Communications for Green Transportation in Automotive-Industry 5.0
Khan, Wali Ullah UL; Ihsan, Asim; Nguyen, Tu N. et al

in IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics (2022)

Automotive-Industry 5.0 will use emerging 6G communications to provide robust, computationally intelligent, and energy-efficient data sharing among various onboard sensors, vehicles, and other intelligent ... [more ▼]

Automotive-Industry 5.0 will use emerging 6G communications to provide robust, computationally intelligent, and energy-efficient data sharing among various onboard sensors, vehicles, and other intelligent transportation system entities. Nonorthogonal multiple access (NOMA) and backscatter communications are two key techniques of 6G communications for enhanced spectrum and energy efficiency. In this article, we provide an introduction to green transportation and also discuss the advantages of using backscatter communications and NOMA in Automotive Industry 5.0. We also briefly review the recent work in the area of NOMA empowered backscatter communications. We discuss different use cases of backscatter communications in NOMA-enabled 6G vehicular networks. We also propose a multicell optimization framework to maximize the energy efficiency of the backscatter-enabled NOMA vehicular network. In particular, we jointly optimize the transmit power of the roadside unit and the reflection coefficient of the backscatter device in each cell, where several practical constraints are also taken into account. The problem of energy efficiency is formulated as nonconvex, which is hard to solve directly. Thus, first, we adopt the Dinkelbach method to transform the objective function into a subtractive one, then we decouple the problem into two subproblems. Second, we employ dual theory and KKT conditions to obtain efficient solutions. Finally, we highlight some open issues and future research opportunities related to NOMA-enabled backscatter communications in 6G vehicular networks. [less ▲]

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See detailRL/DRL Meets Vehicular Task Offloading Using Edge and Vehicular Cloudlet: A Survey
Liu, Jinshi; Ahmed, Manzoor; Mirza, Muhammad Ayzed et al

in IEEE Internet of Things Journal (2022)

The last two decades have seen a clear trend toward crafting intelligent vehicles based on the significant advances in communication and computing paradigms, which provide a safer, stress-free, and more ... [more ▼]

The last two decades have seen a clear trend toward crafting intelligent vehicles based on the significant advances in communication and computing paradigms, which provide a safer, stress-free, and more enjoyable driving experience. Moreover, emerging applications and services necessitate massive volumes of data, real-time data processing, and ultrareliable and low-latency communication (URLLC). However, the computing capability of current intelligent vehicles is minimal, making it challenging to meet the delay-sensitive and computation-intensive demand of such applications. In this situation, vehicular task/computation offloading toward the edge cloud (EC) and vehicular cloudlet (VC) seems to be a promising solution to improve the network’s performance and applications’ Quality of Service (QoS). At the same time, artificial intelligence (AI) has dramatically changed people’s lives. Especially for vehicular task offloading applications, AI achieves state-of-the-art performance in various vehicular environments. Motivated by the outstanding performance of integrating reinforcement learning (RL)/deep RL (DRL) to the vehicular task offloading systems, we present a survey on various RL/DRL techniques applied to vehicular task offloading. Precisely, we classify the vehicular task offloading works into two main categories: 1) RL/ DRL solutions leveraging EC and 2) RL/DRL solutions using VC computing. Moreover, the EC section-based RL/DRL solutions are further subcategorized into multiaccess edge computing (MEC) server, nearby vehicles, and hybrid MEC (HMEC). To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to cover RL/DRL-based vehicular task offloading. Also, we provide lessons learned and open research challenges in this field and discuss the possible trend for future research. [less ▲]

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See detailOn Reliable Key Performance Indicators in Cognitive Radio Networks
Khan, Abd Ullah; Abbas, Ghulam; Abbas, Ziaul Haq et al

in IEEE Networking Letters (2022)

Network serveability (NS), which considers both channel availability (CA) and service retainability (SR), is a key indicator to concisely express the performance of cognitive radio networks (CRNs ... [more ▼]

Network serveability (NS), which considers both channel availability (CA) and service retainability (SR), is a key indicator to concisely express the performance of cognitive radio networks (CRNs). However, CA cannot guarantee connection setup if receiver’s accessibility ( RxA ) is neglected. Likewise, SR yields imperfect results if RxA is ignored. As such, the two rather incomplete performance indicators misrepresent NS and lead to an overestimated satisfaction level of users. Aiming at reliable and concise analysis of CRNs’ performance, this letter introduces the concept of connection availability (CoA), which encompasses both CA and RxA for a user. Besides, it introduces service maintainability (SM), which incorporates the impact of RxA into SR. Consequently, the performance is represented more concisely through network serviceability (NeS), a concept we introduce to consider both CA and SM. We show that CoA, SM, and NeS diverge with various proportions from CA, SR, and NS, respectively, under variable traffic loads and channel failure rates. This indicates the degree of performance difference RxA introduces, and provides network designers the basis for dependable CRN budgeting. [less ▲]

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See detailFair power allocation in cooperative cognitive systems under NOMA transmission for future IoT networks
Ali, Zain; Khan, Wali Ullah UL; Sardar Sidhu, Guftaar Ahmad et al

in Alexandria Engineering Journal (2022)

To support the massive connectivity in Internet of Things (IoT), several promising techniques like cognitive radio (CR) and non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) enables the user to share spectrum ... [more ▼]

To support the massive connectivity in Internet of Things (IoT), several promising techniques like cognitive radio (CR) and non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) enables the user to share spectrum resources. This work aims to achieve fairness among secondary users (SUs) in IoT cooperative NOMA-based CR transmission. We design a power allocation algorithm, an independent battery constraint at each node is considered, and power gap among transmissions of two NOMA users is applied for successive interference cancellation. The simulation results show that the proposed framework provides excellent performance and for sufficient available transmission power perfect fairness is achieved. [less ▲]

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See detailCNS Superficial Siderosis Mimicking a Motor Neuron Disease.
Castro-Gomez, Sergio; Binder, Julius; Schievelkamp, Arndt-Hendrik et al

in Brain sciences (2022), 12(11),

Superficial siderosis of the central nervous system (SS-CNS) is a rare condition characterized by a hemosiderin accumulation along the subpial surfaces and arises from an intermittent chronic bleeding in ... [more ▼]

Superficial siderosis of the central nervous system (SS-CNS) is a rare condition characterized by a hemosiderin accumulation along the subpial surfaces and arises from an intermittent chronic bleeding in the subarachnoid space usually as a result of a chronic subarachnoid hemorrhage by trauma, vascular malformations, CNS tumors, or cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). We present a 61-year-old male with a 12-year history of limb weakness, muscle wasting, cramps, clumsiness, progressive unsteady gait, and fine motor impairments. His medical history included the resection of a left parietal meningioma and a myxopapillary ependymoma near the conus terminalis (L3/4) at the age of 51 years. The clinical examination revealed a motor neuron syndrome with a clear bilateral wasting of the hand muscles, a diffuse atrophy of the shoulder and calf muscles, and a weakness of the arms, fingers, hips, and feet. Deep tendon reflexes were symmetrically briskly hyperactive. Standing and walking were only possible with a support. Magnetic resonance imaging of the entire neuroaxis showed progressive severe cerebral, brainstem, and spinal superficial siderosis in form of extensive hypointensities on T2-weighted gradient-echo images and susceptibility-weighted sequences. Despite a successful neurosurgical removal of the tumors and delaed medical treatment with an iron chelator for one year, we observed no clinical recovery or stability in our patient, making this case unique, and suggesting an irreversible neurodegenerative process. This case reinforces the need of including SS-CNS in the list of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-mimics and demonstrates the fundamental use of a complete neuraxial MRI investigation on evaluating possible ALS cases. [less ▲]

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See detailA NEW CONCEPT AND ALGORITHM TO TRANSFER BRITTLE AND ARBITRARY LOAD-SLIP CURVES INTO AN EFFECTIVE SHEAR RESISTANCE SUITABLE FOR EUROCODE 4
Kozma, Andras UL; Girao Coelho, Ana M.; Yang, Jie UL et al

in JOURNAL OF THEORETICAL AND APPLIED MECHANICS (2022), 60(4), 705-718

This paper proposes a new concept and algorithm to transfer brittle and arbitrary load-slip curves into an effective shear resistance suitable for Eurocode 4. This algorithm is specifically for ... [more ▼]

This paper proposes a new concept and algorithm to transfer brittle and arbitrary load-slip curves into an effective shear resistance suitable for Eurocode 4. This algorithm is specifically for demountable shear connections of composite beams which do not exhibit ductile behaviour as required in EC4. The algorithm is validated with numerical finite element models which have been calibrated against experimental results. The algorithm extends the scope of the code to cover demountable shear connections: it allows the EC4 (EN 1994-1-1) rules remain applicable for the evaluation of the plastic bending resistance of composite beams with partial shear connection. [less ▲]