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See detailReview of Adam Crymble: Technology and the Historian. Transformations in the Digital Age
Zaagsma, Gerben UL

in H-Soz-Kult: Kommunikation und Fachinformation für die Geschichtswissenschaften (2021)

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See detailWeb Archives of the COVID Crisis: Digital Voices, Preservation and Loss
Schafer, Valerie UL

Presentation (2021, September 16)

This roundtable, which is organized by the WARCnet network and chaired by Valérie Schafer (C2DH, University of Luxembourg), aims to shed light on the issues, challenges, values and limits of web archiving ... [more ▼]

This roundtable, which is organized by the WARCnet network and chaired by Valérie Schafer (C2DH, University of Luxembourg), aims to shed light on the issues, challenges, values and limits of web archiving during the COVID crisis. It will combine analysis by web archivists and scholars and entwine analysis of web archiving practices and preserved web content, in order to address several key issues related to the conference, such as the “silences” and “noises” of these archives. The first part of the roundtable will focus on web archives collections that have been created during the COVID-19 crisis by many institutions throughout Europe. Friedel Geeraert (The State Archives of Belgium and the Royal Library of Belgium) will provide a short comparative overview of the strategies of web archiving institutions in Europe, that the team documented through an oral history campaign, while Nicola Bingham (The British Library, UK) will offer more precise overviews of the collections that were gathered respectively by the UK Web Archive and the IIPC (International Internet Preservation Consortium). Claude Mussou (Ina THEQUE, France) will explore the archiving of Twitter at the Institut national de l’audiovisuel (France). Niels Brügger (Aarhus University, Denmark) and Jane Winters (SAS, University of London) will then discuss memories and heritage of the COVID-crisis through the lens of these web archives. Finally the last part will focus on research approaches, notably close and distant reading, and the collective and individual traces, social and political expressions at stake in these web archives: Valérie Schafer will comment on the distant reading approach within these archives. Sophie Gebeil (Aix-Marseille University, France) will underline issues related to “carers” and social struggles. Valérie Schafer will also briefly mention the gendered approach of the COVID crisis that the working group is currently conducting. This roundtable will be followed by a discussion with the audience in order to deepen the topics that are at the core of the conference, whether it be loss, preservation, the political “we”, feelings, etc. [less ▲]

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See detailA conceptual model for understanding vulnerability in the context of migration
Gilodi, Amalia UL

Scientific Conference (2021, August 05)

The notion of ‘vulnerability’ is as popular as it is fuzzy. Its increased prominence in social research and in political and humanitarian discourses on migration has led many scholars and practitioners to ... [more ▼]

The notion of ‘vulnerability’ is as popular as it is fuzzy. Its increased prominence in social research and in political and humanitarian discourses on migration has led many scholars and practitioners to treat the concept as self-explanatory, without problematizing neither its conceptualization nor its use and possible negative societal and psychological consequences. Set within the framework of the EU-funded project MIMY (n°870700), investigating the processes of integration of young migrants in 9 European countries, this paper critically evaluates different conceptualizations and uses of vulnerability and proposes a new multilevel conceptual model for understanding vulnerability in the context of migration. Focusing on different levels of analysis, the model situates individuals and groups in the broader socio-political hierarchies and power dynamics that inevitably affect them (structural vulnerability), acknowledges how these systems are (re)produced in situated interpersonal relationships (situational vulnerability) and accounts for migrants’ biographical and psychological experiences of vulnerability. Focusing on the interrelationships between levels of analysis, the model highlights how macro conditions and definitions of vulnerability may affect individual experiences, through processes such as stigmatization, internalization of stereotypes, disempowerment, but also how individuals can actively negotiate their ascribed ‘vulnerability’ through processes such as resistance, mobilization and collective action. [less ▲]

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See detailA Cubesat-ready Phase Synchronization Digital Payload for Coherent Distributed Remote Sensing Missions
Querol, Jorge UL; Merlano Duncan, Juan Carlos UL; Martinez Marrero, Liz UL et al

in 2021 International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (2021)

Distributed antenna arrays, fractionated payloads and cooperative platforms can provide unprecedented performance in the next generation of spaceborne communications and remote sensing systems. Remote ... [more ▼]

Distributed antenna arrays, fractionated payloads and cooperative platforms can provide unprecedented performance in the next generation of spaceborne communications and remote sensing systems. Remote phase synchronization of physically separated oscillators is the first step towards a coherent operation of distributed systems. This work shows the preliminary results of a TDD remote phase synchronization algorithm with a master-follower architecture. Herein, we describe the implementation and validation of the proposed algorithm. The implementation has been conducted in a Cubesat-ready software defined radio and validated at the end-to-end satellite communications testbed available at the University of Luxembourg. [less ▲]

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See detailVulnerability in the context of migration: a critical assessment of its conceptualizations and uses
Gilodi, Amalia UL; Albert, Isabelle UL; Nienaber, Birte UL

Scientific Conference (2021, July 07)

The notions of ‘vulnerability’ and ‘vulnerable group’ have increasingly gained prominence in academic literature, policymaking, humanitarian debates and everyday discourses on migration and asylum. Its ... [more ▼]

The notions of ‘vulnerability’ and ‘vulnerable group’ have increasingly gained prominence in academic literature, policymaking, humanitarian debates and everyday discourses on migration and asylum. Its popularity, not limited to this field, has often led academics and practitioners to use ‘vulnerability’ as a self-explanatory condition or phenomenon. However, vulnerability is neither conceptually straight-forward nor politically and morally neutral. Multiple definitions and operationalizations of vulnerability exist across and within different fields of research and practice, without a common and systematic understanding of the concept. The notion of vulnerability can also be instrumentilised as a tool for discrimination, stigmatization, control, exclusion or even reduction of humanitarian assistance, when access to protection is restricted to ‘the most vulnerable’. In the context of the H2020 project MIMY (n°870700), this paper examines the multiplicities and hidden pitfalls behind different conceptualizations and uses of vulnerability and critically reflects on their implication for the study and governance of migration. By unpacking this concept, we hope to highlight both limitations and opportunities enclosed in the notion of vulnerability and encourage migration scholars to understand, address and take a stand before its complexities. Based on these considerations, a multilevel conceptual model of vulnerability in the specific context of migration is proposed. The model aims to capture several types and understandings of vulnerability and how these are (re)produced at different levels and by different actors, including migrants themselves. Particular attention is paid to migrants’ biographical and psychological experiences of vulnerability and how policy and political frameworks may affect them. [less ▲]

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See detailTagungsbericht: Rethinking the Histories and Legacies of Industrial Cities
Derian, Maxime UL; van de Maele, Jens UL

in Moderne Stadtgeschichte (2021), (1), 145-150

The history of (Western) European industrial cities is often told as a tragic tale of rise and decline: from rapid industrialisation in the late 19th century and economic prosperity during the Trente ... [more ▼]

The history of (Western) European industrial cities is often told as a tragic tale of rise and decline: from rapid industrialisation in the late 19th century and economic prosperity during the Trente glorieuses to the structural changes of the late 1970s and the subsequent deindustrialisation of the 1980s and 1990s – decades in which most mines and steelworks closed down, unemployment rates went up, new social problems emerged, workers’ identities eroded, and once prosperous urban centres became faced with shrinking populations and empty stores in their shopping streets. Finally, since the 2000s, former industrial towns have tried to reinvent themselves as creative and cultural centres. If we take a closer look, however, we can see that the socio-economic, demographic and cultural transitions were more complex than suggested by a simple rise-and-decline narrative. [less ▲]

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See detailDiagnostics and correction of batch effects in large-scale proteomic studies: a tutorial.
Čuklina, Jelena; Lee, Chloe H.; Williams, Evan UL et al

in Molecular systems biology (2021), 17(8), 10240

Advancements in mass spectrometry-based proteomics have enabled experiments encompassing hundreds of samples. While these large sample sets deliver much-needed statistical power, handling them introduces ... [more ▼]

Advancements in mass spectrometry-based proteomics have enabled experiments encompassing hundreds of samples. While these large sample sets deliver much-needed statistical power, handling them introduces technical variability known as batch effects. Here, we present a step-by-step protocol for the assessment, normalization, and batch correction of proteomic data. We review established methodologies from related fields and describe solutions specific to proteomic challenges, such as ion intensity drift and missing values in quantitative feature matrices. Finally, we compile a set of techniques that enable control of batch effect adjustment quality. We provide an R package, "proBatch", containing functions required for each step of the protocol. We demonstrate the utility of this methodology on five proteomic datasets each encompassing hundreds of samples and consisting of multiple experimental designs. In conclusion, we provide guidelines and tools to make the extraction of true biological signal from large proteomic studies more robust and transparent, ultimately facilitating reliable and reproducible research in clinical proteomics and systems biology. [less ▲]

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See detailMolecular pathways behind acquired obesity: Adipose tissue and skeletal muscle multiomics in monozygotic twin pairs discordant for BMI.
van der Kolk, Birgitta W.; Saari, Sina; Lovric, Alen et al

in Cell reports. Medicine (2021), 2(4), 100226

Tissue-specific mechanisms prompting obesity-related development complications in humans remain unclear. We apply multiomics analyses of subcutaneous adipose tissue and skeletal muscle to examine the ... [more ▼]

Tissue-specific mechanisms prompting obesity-related development complications in humans remain unclear. We apply multiomics analyses of subcutaneous adipose tissue and skeletal muscle to examine the effects of acquired obesity among 49 BMI-discordant monozygotic twin pairs. Overall, adipose tissue appears to be more affected by excess body weight than skeletal muscle. In heavier co-twins, we observe a transcriptional pattern of downregulated mitochondrial pathways in both tissues and upregulated inflammatory pathways in adipose tissue. In adipose tissue, heavier co-twins exhibit lower creatine levels; in skeletal muscle, glycolysis- and redox stress-related protein and metabolite levels remain higher. Furthermore, metabolomics analyses in both tissues reveal that several proinflammatory lipids are higher and six of the same lipid derivatives are lower in acquired obesity. Finally, in adipose tissue, but not in skeletal muscle, mitochondrial downregulation and upregulated inflammation are associated with a fatty liver, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia, suggesting that adipose tissue dominates in acquired obesity. [less ▲]

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See detailA platform for experimental precision medicine: The extended BXD mouse family.
Ashbrook, David G.; Arends, Danny; Prins, Pjotr et al

in Cell systems (2021), 12(3), 235-2479

The challenge of precision medicine is to model complex interactions among DNA variants, phenotypes, development, environments, and treatments. We address this challenge by expanding the BXD family of ... [more ▼]

The challenge of precision medicine is to model complex interactions among DNA variants, phenotypes, development, environments, and treatments. We address this challenge by expanding the BXD family of mice to 140 fully isogenic strains, creating a uniquely powerful model for precision medicine. This family segregates for 6 million common DNA variants-a level that exceeds many human populations. Because each member can be replicated, heritable traits can be mapped with high power and precision. Current BXD phenomes are unsurpassed in coverage and include much omics data and thousands of quantitative traits. BXDs can be extended by a single-generation cross to as many as 19,460 isogenic F1 progeny, and this extended BXD family is an effective platform for testing causal modeling and for predictive validation. BXDs are a unique core resource for the field of experimental precision medicine. [less ▲]

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See detailMitochondrial translation and dynamics synergistically extend lifespan in C. elegans through HLH-30.
Liu, Yasmine J.; McIntyre, Rebecca L.; Janssens, Georges E. et al

in The Journal of cell biology (2020), 219(6),

Mitochondrial form and function are closely interlinked in homeostasis and aging. Inhibiting mitochondrial translation is known to increase lifespan in C. elegans, and is accompanied by a fragmented ... [more ▼]

Mitochondrial form and function are closely interlinked in homeostasis and aging. Inhibiting mitochondrial translation is known to increase lifespan in C. elegans, and is accompanied by a fragmented mitochondrial network. However, whether this link between mitochondrial translation and morphology is causal in longevity remains uncharacterized. Here, we show in C. elegans that disrupting mitochondrial network homeostasis by blocking fission or fusion synergizes with reduced mitochondrial translation to prolong lifespan and stimulate stress response such as the mitochondrial unfolded protein response, UPRMT. Conversely, immobilizing the mitochondrial network through a simultaneous disruption of fission and fusion abrogates the lifespan increase induced by mitochondrial translation inhibition. Furthermore, we find that the synergistic effect of inhibiting both mitochondrial translation and dynamics on lifespan, despite stimulating UPRMT, does not require it. Instead, this lifespan-extending synergy is exclusively dependent on the lysosome biogenesis and autophagy transcription factor HLH-30/TFEB. Altogether, our study reveals the mechanistic crosstalk between mitochondrial translation, mitochondrial dynamics, and lysosomal signaling in regulating longevity. [less ▲]

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See detailA holistic view on sector coupling
Fridgen, Gilbert UL; Keller, Robert; Körner, Marc-Fabian et al

in Energy Policy (2020), 147

Sector coupling (SC) describes the concept of a purposeful connection and interaction of energy sectors to increase the flexibility of supply, demand, and storing. While SC is linked to research on smart ... [more ▼]

Sector coupling (SC) describes the concept of a purposeful connection and interaction of energy sectors to increase the flexibility of supply, demand, and storing. While SC is linked to research on smart energy system and locates itself in the research stream of 100% renewable energy systems, it currently focusses on counteracting challenges of temporal energy balancing induced by the intermittent feed-in of renewable energy sources. As regarding the coupling of grids, SC currently remains within classical energy grids. It does not exploit the coupled sectors’ potential to its full extent and, hence, lacks a holistic view. To include this view, we call on the use of all grids from coupled sectors for spatial energy transportation, resulting in an infrastructural system. By using the different loss structures of coupled grids, we illustrate how a holistic view on SC minimizes transportation losses. We argue that SC should include all grids that transport whichever type of energy (e.g., even transportation or communication grids). Ultimately, we derive and discuss implications relevant for policy makers and research: We illustrate why regulation and market design should be aligned in a way that the resulting incentives within and across the different sectors support climate change goals. [less ▲]

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See detailSECAT: Quantifying Protein Complex Dynamics across Cell States by Network-Centric Analysis of SEC-SWATH-MS Profiles.
Rosenberger, George; Heusel, Moritz; Bludau, Isabell et al

in Cell systems (2020), 11(6), 589-6078

Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) play critical functional and regulatory roles in cellular processes. They are essential for macromolecular complex formation, which in turn constitutes the basis for ... [more ▼]

Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) play critical functional and regulatory roles in cellular processes. They are essential for macromolecular complex formation, which in turn constitutes the basis for protein interaction networks that determine the functional state of a cell. We and others have previously shown that chromatographic fractionation of native protein complexes in combination with bottom-up mass spectrometric analysis of consecutive fractions supports the multiplexed characterization and detection of state-specific changes of protein complexes. In this study, we extend co-fractionation and mass spectrometric data analysis to perform quantitative, network-based studies of proteome organization, via the size-exclusion chromatography algorithmic toolkit (SECAT). This framework explicitly accounts for the dynamic nature and rewiring of protein complexes across multiple cell states and samples, thus, elucidating molecular mechanisms that are differentially implemented across different experimental settings. Systematic analysis of multiple datasets shows that SECAT represents a highly scalable and effective methodology to assess condition/state-specific protein-network state. A record of this paper's transparent peer review process is included in the Supplemental Information. [less ▲]

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See detailBody weight and high-fat diet are associated with epigenetic aging in female members of the BXD murine family.
Sandoval-Sierra, Jose Vladimir; Helbing, Alexandra H. B.; Williams, Evan UL et al

in Aging cell (2020), 19(9), 13207

DNA methylation (DNAm) is shaped by genetic and environmental factors and modulated by aging. Here, we examine interrelations between epigenetic aging, body weight (BW), and life span in 12 isogenic ... [more ▼]

DNA methylation (DNAm) is shaped by genetic and environmental factors and modulated by aging. Here, we examine interrelations between epigenetic aging, body weight (BW), and life span in 12 isogenic strains from the BXD family of mice that exhibit over twofold variation in longevity. Genome-wide DNAm was assayed in 70 liver specimens from predominantly female cases, 6-25 months old, that were maintained on normal chow or high-fat diet (HFD). We defined subsets of CpG regions associated with age, BW at young adulthood, and strain-by-diet-dependent life span. These age-associated differentially methylated CpG regions (age-DMRs) featured distinct genomic characteristics, with DNAm gains over time occurring in sites such as promoters and exons that have high CpG density and low average methylation. CpG regions associated with BW were enriched in introns, tended to have lower methylation in mice with higher BW, and were inversely correlated with gene expression (i.e., higher mRNA levels in mice with higher BW). CpG regions associated with life span were linked to genes involved in life span modulation, including the telomerase reverse transcriptase gene, Tert, which had both lower methylation and higher expression in long-lived strains. An epigenetic clock defined from age-DMRs revealed accelerated aging in mice belonging to strains with shorter life spans. Both higher BW and the HFD were associated with accelerated epigenetic aging. Our results highlight the age-accelerating effect of heavier BW. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the measure of epigenetic aging derived from age-DMRs can predict genotype and diet-induced differences in life span among female BXD members. [less ▲]

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See detailTechnical report on data protection and privacy in smart ICT: Internet of Things: Gap analysis between scientific research and technical standardisation: Gap analysis Internet of Things
Samir Labib, Nader UL; Brust, Matthias R. UL; Danoy, Grégoire UL et al

in Technical report on data protection and privacy in smart ICT (2019), 1

With the emergence of new digital trends like the Internet of Things (IoT), more industry actors and technical committees pursue research in utilizing such technologies as they promise better and ... [more ▼]

With the emergence of new digital trends like the Internet of Things (IoT), more industry actors and technical committees pursue research in utilizing such technologies as they promise better and optimized management, improved energy efficiency and better quality living by facilitating a magnitude of value-added services. However, as communication, sensing and actuation become increasingly sophisticated, such promising data-driven IoT systems generate, process, and exchange larger amounts of data, some of which is privacy-sensitive and security-critical. The sustained increase in number of connected devices, catalyzed by IoT, affirms the importance of addressing data protection, privacy and security challenges, as indices of trust, to achieve market acceptance. This consequently, emphasizes the need of a solid technical and regulatory foundation to ensure trustworthiness within the IoT ecosystem. The goal of this study is to first introduce the concept of trustworthiness in IoT with its main pillars, data protection, privacy and security, and then analyze developments in research and standardization for each of these. The study presents a gap analysis on data protection, privacy and security between research and standardization, throughout which the use case of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) is referred to, as a promising value-added service example of mobile IoT devices. The study concludes with suggestions for future research and standardization in order to address the identified gaps. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 36 (4 UL)