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See detailDe la naissance de l’État luxembourgeois. Analyse et historique de la problématique
Heuschling, Luc UL

in Actes de la Section des sciences morales et politiques, Institut grand-ducal (in press)

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See detailEuropean Embeddedness and the Founding of Luxembourg’s 21st Century Research University
Braband, Gangolf; Powell, Justin J W UL

in European Journal of Higher Education (in press)

At the heart of Western Europe and culturally embedded in “The Greater Region,” Luxembourg for centuries developed higher education (HE) primarily via international student mobility, not its own national ... [more ▼]

At the heart of Western Europe and culturally embedded in “The Greater Region,” Luxembourg for centuries developed higher education (HE) primarily via international student mobility, not its own national university. Evolving provisions of tertiary education after WWII followed construction of several teaching and research institutes that did not offer full-fledged higher education certification. The critical juncture—the founding of the national flagship University of Luxembourg (uni.lu)—occurred in 2003, since leading to an extraordinary case of university institutional¬ization. Traditions were explicitly maintained, but reshaped, in the new university, with student mobility continuing to bolster the national elite’s pan-European networks and internationalization. Reflecting its hyper-diversity, its multilingual culture, and its porous national borders, Luxembourg’s investments in higher education capacity-building have been thoroughly European. Today, Luxembourg has the highest proportion of HE graduates and of internationally mobile students, testament to its outgoing mobility tradition and national policy change facilitated by Europeanization. [less ▲]

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See detail“Every Student Can Learn, just not on the same Day” -Data Protection and Cybersecurity Challenges for E-Learning Platforms
Schmitz, Sandra UL; Schiffner, Stefan UL

Presentation (2021, April 14)

When George Evans stated that every student can learn, just not on the same day, he had probably not in mind the despair of pupils trying to access an e-learning platform during a national lockdown period ... [more ▼]

When George Evans stated that every student can learn, just not on the same day, he had probably not in mind the despair of pupils trying to access an e-learning platform during a national lockdown period. With the COVID19 crisis, online learning became an everyday commodity almost overnight; however, not all schools were prepared to swiftly switch from in class to remote teaching. Concerns were raised with regard to data protection and cyber security, which in some cases led to the implementation of “home-made” solutions. Taking the example of the federalist state of Germany, where education is within the sole competence of the Länder, this paper will explore the functioning and technical implementation of a variety of e-learning platforms before data protection concerns are addressed. We will then explore whether the NIS Directive, which foresees similar security requirements as the GDPR, is applicable to the diverse models, and outline the consequences. In light of the acceleration of the revision of the NIS Directive due to the COVID-19 crisis, we take the example of learning platforms to outline the flaws of the 2016 Directive before we critically evaluate selected aspects of the NIS 2.0 proposal of December 2020. [less ▲]

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See detailDes formations hybrides à défaut de mobilité
Lejot, Eve UL; Molostoff, Leslie UL

Presentation (2021, April 09)

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See detailNimax, Pierre
Thill, Jean UL

in Anders, Ursula; Nitschke, Alain Roland; Sagrillo, Damien François (Eds.) et al Luxemburger Musiklexikon Band 2 (2021)

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See detailCigrang, Edmond
Thill, Jean UL

in Anders, Ursula; Nitschke, Alain Roland; Sagrillo, Damien François (Eds.) et al Luxemburger Musiklexikon Band 2 (2021)

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See detailHoffmann, Norbert
Thill, Jean UL

in Anders, Ursula; Nitschke, Alain Roland; Sagrillo, Damien François (Eds.) et al Luxemburger Musiklexikon Band 2 (2021)

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See detailZur fairen Bewertung von Lernprodukten
Krämer, Charlotte

in PITT - Programm for innovative Teaching and Training #digitallife (2021)

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See detailCut-and-Mouse and Ghost Control: Exploiting Antivirus Software with Synthesized Inputs
Genç, Ziya Alper UL; Lenzini, Gabriele UL; Sgandurra, Daniele

in Digital Threats: Research and Practice (2021), 2(1),

To protect their digital assets from malware attacks, most users and companies rely on antivirus (AV) software. AVs' protection is a full-time task against malware: This is similar to a game where malware ... [more ▼]

To protect their digital assets from malware attacks, most users and companies rely on antivirus (AV) software. AVs' protection is a full-time task against malware: This is similar to a game where malware, e.g., through obfuscation and polymorphism, denial of service attacks, and malformed packets and parameters, tries to circumvent AV defences or make them crash. However, AVs react by complementing signature-based detection with anomaly or behavioral analysis, and by using OS protection, standard code, and binary protection techniques. Further, malware counter-acts, for instance, by using adversarial inputs to avoid detection, and so on. In this cat-and-mouse game, a winning strategy is trying to anticipate the move of the adversary by looking into one's own weaknesses, seeing how the adversary can penetrate them, and building up appropriate defences or attacks. In this article, we play the role of malware developers and anticipate two novel moves for the malware side to demonstrate the weakness in the AVs and to improve the defences in AVs' side. The first one consists in simulating mouse events to control AVs, namely, to send them mouse "clicks" to deactivate their protection. We prove that many AVs can be disabled in this way, and we call this class of attacks Ghost Control. The second one consists in controlling whitelisted applications, such as Notepad, by sending them keyboard events (such as "copy-and-paste") to perform malicious operations on behalf of the malware. We prove that the anti-ransomware protection feature of AVs can be bypassed if we use Notepad as a "puppet" to rewrite the content of protected files as a ransomware would do. Playing with the words, and recalling the cat-and-mouse game, we call this class of attacks Cut-and-Mouse. We tested these two attacks on 29 AVs, and the results show that 14 AVs are vulnerable to Ghost Control attack while all 29 AV programs tested are found vulnerable to Cut-and-Mouse. Furthermore, we also show some weaknesses in additional protection mechanisms of AVs, such as sandboxing and CAPTCHA verification. We have engaged with the affected AV companies, and we reported the disclosure communication with them and their responses. [less ▲]

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See detail"I am definitely manipulated, even when I am aware of it. It’s ridiculous!" - Dark Patterns from the End-User Perspective
Bongard-Blanchy, Kerstin UL; Rossi, Arianna UL; Rivas, Salvador UL et al

in Proceedings of ACM DIS Conference on Designing Interactive Systems (2021)

Online services pervasively employ manipulative designs (i.e., dark patterns) to influence users to purchase goods and subscriptions, spend more time on-site, or mindlessly accept the harvesting of their ... [more ▼]

Online services pervasively employ manipulative designs (i.e., dark patterns) to influence users to purchase goods and subscriptions, spend more time on-site, or mindlessly accept the harvesting of their personal data. To protect users from the lure of such designs, we asked: are users aware of the presence of dark patterns? If so, are they able to resist them? By surveying 406 individuals, we found that they are generally aware of the influence that manipulative designs can exert on their online behaviour. However, being aware does not equip users with the ability to oppose such influence. We further find that respondents, especially younger ones, often recognise the "darkness" of certain designs, but remain unsure of the actual harm they may suffer. Finally, we discuss a set of interventions (e.g., bright patterns, design frictions, training games, applications to expedite legal enforcement) in the light of our findings. [less ▲]

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See detailDetermining Pretrial Detention by Algorithm: The Lesser of Two Evils?
Blount, Kelly UL

Article for general public (2021)

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See detailSynergies in Cybersecurity Incident Reporting – The NIS Cooperation Group Publication 04/20 in Context
Schmitz, Sandra UL; Anheier, Fabian UL

in European Data Protection Law Review (2021), 7(1), 101-107

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See detailEditorial: Small States and the ‘Corona Crisis’
Högenauer, Anna-Lena UL; Sarapuu, Külli; Trimikliniotis, Nicos

in Small States & Territories, (2021), 4(1), 3-12

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See detailNational isolation or regional cooperation? The media debate on border closures during the Covid-19 crisis in Luxembourg
Högenauer, Anna-Lena UL

in Small States & Territories (2021), 4(1), 61-74

Having been initially confined largely to China, East Asia and Italy, the Covid-19 crisis swept quickly over Europe in March 2020. Luxembourg was among the many small continental European states with high ... [more ▼]

Having been initially confined largely to China, East Asia and Italy, the Covid-19 crisis swept quickly over Europe in March 2020. Luxembourg was among the many small continental European states with high rates of infection. In the absence of a common European Union response, national responses to the crisis varied strongly. Decisions on the closing of borders and the limiting of cross-border movements have become a symbol of a newly found unilateralism. Luxembourg took the rare decision not to close its borders and disapproved of the restriction of cross-border movements by neighbouring states. The paper argues that this is the result of its size and economic policy which, in the context of EU integration, has led to strong interdependencies and social networks within the cross-border region. This argument is based on an analysis of the pre-Covid-19 situation in Luxembourg as a cross-border metropolitan region and how local newspaper articles can open a window to understand how the disruption caused by the pandemic reconfigured Luxembourg’s borders with its neighbouring European states of Belgium, France and Germany. [less ▲]

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See detailSociétés civiles, associations et autres groupements
Hiez, David UL

in Revue Trimestrielle de Droit Commercial et de Droit Economique (2021), 1

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See detailA boundary-enhanced supervoxel method for extraction of road edges in MLS point clouds
Sha, Zhengchuan; Chen, Yiping; Li, Wen et al

in A boundary-enhanced supervoxel method for extraction of road edges in MLS point clouds (2020)

Road extraction plays a significant role in production of high definition maps (HD maps). This paper presents a novel boundary-enhanced supervoxel segmentation method for extracting road edge contours ... [more ▼]

Road extraction plays a significant role in production of high definition maps (HD maps). This paper presents a novel boundary-enhanced supervoxel segmentation method for extracting road edge contours from MLS point clouds. The proposed method first leverages normal feature judgment to obtain 3D point clouds global geometric information, then clusters points according to an existing method with global geometric information to enhance the boundaries. Finally, it utilizes the neighbor spatial distance metric to extract the contours and drop out existing outliers. The proposed method is tested on two datasets acquired by a RIEGL VMX-450 MLS system that contain the major point cloud scenes with different types of road boundaries. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method provides a promising solution for extracting contours efficiently and completely. Results show that the precision values are 1.5 times higher and approximately equal than the other two existing methods when the recall value is 0 for both tested two road datasets. [less ▲]

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See detailPenser l’impensable. Le droit de vote des étrangers aux élections nationales dans le contexte multinational du Luxembourg et dans le contexte fédéral de l’Union européenne
Heuschling, Luc UL

in XIIème séminaire franco-japonais de droit public, Université d'Hiroshima 15-17 mars 2018 (2020)

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