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See detailBuilding up Explainability in Multi-layer Perceptrons for Credit Risk Modeling
Sharma, Rudrani; Schommer, Christoph UL; Vivarelli, Nicolas

in Sharma, Rudrani (Ed.) Building up Explainability in Multi-layer Perceptrons for Credit Risk Modeling (2020, October 09)

Granting loans is one of the major concerns of financial institutions due to the risks of default borrowers. Default prediction by the neural networks is a popular technique for credit risk modeling ... [more ▼]

Granting loans is one of the major concerns of financial institutions due to the risks of default borrowers. Default prediction by the neural networks is a popular technique for credit risk modeling. Neural networks generally offer the accurate predictions that help banks to prevent financial losses and grow their business by approving more creditworthy borrowers. Although neural networks are capable of capturing the complex, non-linear relationships between a large number of features and output, these models act as black boxes. This is a graduation project paper that is focused on loan default risk prediction by multi-layer perceptron neural network and building up explainability to some degree in the trained neural networks through sensitivity analysis. The architecture of a multi-layer perceptron neural network with the best result is used to help the credit-risk manager in explaining why an applicant is a defaulter or non-defaulter. The prediction of a trained multi-layer perceptron neural network is explained by mapping input features and target variables directly using a model-agnostic explanation as well as a modelspecific explanation. Lastly, a comparison is performed between two explanation methods. [less ▲]

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See detailKritische oder angewandte Geographie – oder beides? Ein Kommentar
Hesse, Markus UL

in Standort (2020)

The aim of this commentary is threefold. First, it interrogates the specific definition and situatedness of “critical” and “applied” geography; second, it discusses the assumption that there is a ... [more ▼]

The aim of this commentary is threefold. First, it interrogates the specific definition and situatedness of “critical” and “applied” geography; second, it discusses the assumption that there is a disconnect between science and social movements made in the context of critical discourses. Third, this leads to reflection upon what the interface between science and practice in geography is, or what it could or should be like today. [less ▲]

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See detailActive Re-identification Attacks on Periodically Released Dynamic Social Graphs
Chen, Xihui UL; Kepuska, Ema UL; Mauw, Sjouke UL et al

in Chen, Liqun; Li, Ninghui; Liang, Kaitai (Eds.) et al Computer Security - ESORICS 2020 (2020, September 13)

Active re-identification attacks pose a serious threat to privacy-preserving social graph publication. Active attackers create fake accounts to enforce structural patterns that can be used to re-identify ... [more ▼]

Active re-identification attacks pose a serious threat to privacy-preserving social graph publication. Active attackers create fake accounts to enforce structural patterns that can be used to re-identify legitimate users on published anonymised graphs, even without additional background knowledge. So far, this type of attacks has only been studied in the scenario where the inherently dynamic social graph is published once. In this paper, we present the first active re-identification attack in the more realistic scenario where a dynamic social graph is periodically published. Our new attack leverages tempo-structural patterns, created by a dynamic set of sybil nodes, for strengthening the adversary. We evaluate our new attack through a comprehensive set of experiments on real-life and synthetic dynamic social graphs. We show that our new attack substantially outperforms the most effective static active attack in the literature by increasing success probability by at least two times and efficiency by at least 11 times. Moreover, we show that, unlike the static attack, our new attack remains at the same level of efficiency as the publication process advances. Additionally, we conduct a study on the factors that may thwart our new attack, which can help design dynamic graph anonymisation methods displaying a better balance between privacy and utility. [less ▲]

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See detailMultiscale Integration of High-Resolution Spaceborne and Drone-Based Imagery for a High-Accuracy Digital Elevation Model Over Tristan da Cunha
Backes, Dietmar UL; Teferle, Felix Norman UL

in Frontiers in Earth Science - Hydrosphere (2020)

Very high-resolution (VHR) optical Earth observation (EO) satellites as well as low-altitude and easy-to-use unmanned aerial systems (UAS/drones) provide ever-improving data sources for the generation of ... [more ▼]

Very high-resolution (VHR) optical Earth observation (EO) satellites as well as low-altitude and easy-to-use unmanned aerial systems (UAS/drones) provide ever-improving data sources for the generation of detailed 3-dimensional (3D) data using digital photogrammetric methods with dense image matching. Today both data sources represent cost-effective alternatives to dedicated airborne sensors, especially for remote regions. The latest generation of EO satellites can collect VHR imagery up to 0.30 m ground sample distance (GSD) of even the most remote location from different viewing angles many times per year. Consequently, well-chosen scenes from growing image archives enable the generation of high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs). Furthermore, low-cost and easy to use drones can be quickly deployed in remote regions to capture blocks of images of local areas. Dense point clouds derived from these methods provide an invaluable data source to fill the gap between globally available low-resolution DEMs and highly accurate terrestrial surveys. Here we investigate the use of archived VHR satellite imagery with approx. 0.5 m GSD as well as low-altitude drone-based imagery with average GSD of better than 0.03 m to generate high-quality DEMs using photogrammetric tools over Tristan da Cunha, a remote island in the South Atlantic Ocean which lies beyond the reach of current commercial manned airborne mapping platforms. This study explores the potentials and limitations to combine this heterogeneous data sources to generate improved DEMs in terms of accuracy and resolution. A cross-validation between low-altitude airborne and spaceborne data sets describes the fit between both optical data sets. No co-registration error, scale difference or distortions were detected, and a quantitative cloud-to-cloud comparison showed an average distance of 0.26 m between both point clouds. Both point clouds were merged applying a conventional georeferenced approach. The merged DEM preserves the rich detail from the drone-based survey and provides an accurate 3D representation of the entire study area. It provides the most detailed model of the island to date, suitable to support practical and scientific applications. This study demonstrates that combination archived VHR satellite and low-altitude drone-based imagery provide inexpensive alternatives to generate high-quality DEMs. [less ▲]

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See detailDemountable composite beams: Analytical calculation approaches for shear connections with multilinear load-slip behaviour
Kozma, Andras UL

Doctoral thesis (2020)

The work carried out throughout the thesis focused on the behaviour of demountable composite beams in order to facilitate the integration of steel-concrete composite construction into the concept of ... [more ▼]

The work carried out throughout the thesis focused on the behaviour of demountable composite beams in order to facilitate the integration of steel-concrete composite construction into the concept of circular economy. There are several hindrances in the way of reuse when considering traditional composite structures. One of them is the method that the current construction practice applies for connecting the concrete deck to the steel beam. The traditionally applied welded studs are advantageous in the terms of structural performance; however, they do not provide the ability of dismounting. In order to overcome this issue, different demountable shear connection types were investigated that use pretensioned bolted connections. The investigations included laboratory experiments in the means of push-out tests and full-scale beam-tests. The experiments were complemented by numerical simulations and parametric studies. The experiments showed that the developed shear connections have highly a nonlinear load-slip behaviour. When these types of connections are applied in a composite beam, the nonlinearity of the shear connection causes a nonlinear load-deflection response already in the elastic phase. Analytical equations were derived for the description of the elastic properties of composite beams with nonlinear shear connection. For the calculation of the elastic deflections an iterative procedure was developed. This method is capable of capturing the nonlinear load-deflection response. With the developed iterative method, the elastic deflections can be determined with a similar accuracy by using spreadsheet calculations as by using nonlinear finite element simulations. Due to the highly nonlinear behaviour of the tested shear connections the basic assumptions of Eurocode 4 for the determination of the plastic moment resistance of composite beams with partial shear connection are not valid anymore. The code does not enable the use of equidistant shear connector spacing and the design needs to be conducted using fully elastic analysis. This would make the use of demountable shear connections complicated and uneconomic. In the face of these issues, the probability of the practical application of demountable and reusable composite structures would be very low. On the other hand, experiments and numerical simulations show that composite beams can develop plasticity even if a non-ductile shear connection is applied. In order to overcome these issues, a new calculation method was developed for the prediction of the plastic moment resistance of demountable composite beams. A simplified method was proposed based on the developed procedure by defining an effective shear resistance for the demountable shear connections. The effective shear resistance allows the current calculation method to be extended for demountable shear connections. In this way, the benefits of composite construction can be maintained while providing the possibility of reuse. [less ▲]

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See detailInternet histories early career researcher award
Brügger, Niels; Goggin, Gerard; Milligan, Ian et al

in Internet Histories: Digital Technology, Culture and Society (2020)

The five papers of this special issue were candidates for the first Internet Histories Early Career Researcher Award. They represent the next generation of scholarship and show creative, original ... [more ▼]

The five papers of this special issue were candidates for the first Internet Histories Early Career Researcher Award. They represent the next generation of scholarship and show creative, original approaches to the study of internet history. These papers all help enrich our perspectives and broaden them in many ways, from Brazil to China, from Cyberactivitst to Civil Society at large, from Gender Studies to Platform Studies, from Emails to Interfaces, while demonstrating again that there is no unique path to write “Internet Histories.” [less ▲]

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See detailEnhanced Lightning Network (off-chain)-based micropayment in IoT ecosystems
Robert, Jérémy UL; Kubler, Sylvain; Ghatpande, Sankalp UL

in Future Generation Computer Systems (2020)

Information is being seen as the new “oil” for companies. Trading and negotiating personal data, which includes data generated by owned smart devices, is gaining attention and acceptance in the Internet ... [more ▼]

Information is being seen as the new “oil” for companies. Trading and negotiating personal data, which includes data generated by owned smart devices, is gaining attention and acceptance in the Internet of Things (IoT) era. There is a global trend to move towards open innovation ecosystems that allow data owners to have better control over their data and privacy, choosing if/what and with whom to share/trade specific data streams. Nonetheless, this requires the design of IoT ecosystems that integrate automatic enforcing mechanisms to guarantee the delivery of the negotiated data, or still the capability of making near-instantaneous payments for the data (in the form of micro-units). This paper discusses the requirements that need to be fulfilled to properly support (micro)-payment in IoT, and further the extent to which different blockchain technologies can fulfill those requirements. Based on this analysis, our paper progresses the current state-of-the-art in three-respect: (i) by carrying out a benchmark performance analysis between LN and other-like solutions; (ii) by integrating the Lightning Network (LN) off-chain technology within an existing IoT ecosystem, developed as part of the bIoTope H2020 project, and (iii) by designing a novel algorithm for payment channel fee reduction. Experiments carried out in this paper show that LN outperforms traditional blockchain solutions under IoT-specific constraints and objectives, and that an optimal parameter setting of the proposed algorithm can be identified. [less ▲]

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See detailExamining gender differentials in the association of low control work with cognitive performance in older workers
Ford, Katherine Joy UL; Batty, G. David; Leist, Anja UL

in European Journal of Public Health (2020)

Background: Limited workplace control, an important dimension of job strain, can reduce occupational opportunities for problem solving and learning. Women may have fewer professional resources to mitigate ... [more ▼]

Background: Limited workplace control, an important dimension of job strain, can reduce occupational opportunities for problem solving and learning. Women may have fewer professional resources to mitigate effects of low control, while conversely, gender-role norms may moderate the influence of occupational psychosocial risk factors. We therefore examined if the links between control and cognitive function were similarly gendered. Methods: This observational, longitudinal study included respondents of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe who were aged 50-64 years at entry, employed, and provided at least two measurements of control and cognition (n=6,697). Relationships between control and cognition, quantified with standardised scores from verbal fluency, immediate and delayed word recall tests, were explored using linear fixed-effect and random-effect models with gender interactions. Results: Consistent trends of improved verbal fluency performance with high control were evident across analyses, equal to producing around three-quarters of a word more under high control conditions, with an effect size roughly equal to 0.1 standard deviation units (fully adjusted models, range 0.077-0.104 SD), although associations with recall tests were inconsistent. We did not find evidence of clear gender differences in control–cognition relationships for any of the cognitive domains. Conclusions: The cognitive health of older European workers may benefit from improved workplace control irrespective of gender. Possible sources of bias that could explain the lack of gender differences are discussed, particularly gender differences in labour force participation, response behaviour in job control ratings, and implications of gender-role norms on the importance of occupational risk factors. [less ▲]

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See detailImplicit motives and children's salivary cortisol reactivity to an adapted version of the Trier Social Stress Test for Children (TSST-C)
Spengler, Benedikt; Hofer, Jan; Busch, Holger et al

in Personality and Individual Differences (2020), 162

This research addresses the interplay between two implicit motives, that are power (nPow) and affiliation (nAff), and the cortisol reactivity (CR) to a psychosocial stressor (an adaption of the Trier ... [more ▼]

This research addresses the interplay between two implicit motives, that are power (nPow) and affiliation (nAff), and the cortisol reactivity (CR) to a psychosocial stressor (an adaption of the Trier Social Stress Test for Children; TSST-C; Buske-Kirschbaum et al., 1997) in 89 healthy children (45 female; Mage = 7.74, SDAge = 0.46). We assessed implicit motives by a 6-image Picture Story Exercise (PSE) and cortisol by 6 saliva samples. As hypothesized, the procedure triggered a significant cortisol reaction, F(1.44, 127.05Greenhouse-Geisser) = 8.22, p = .002, η²part = 0.09. Contrary to our hypothesis, children high in nPow showed no significant increase in CR (β = 0.06, p = .60). However, our results were in line with the findings of Wegner, Schüler, and Budde (2014) that a high implicit affiliation motive is associated with an attenuated CR (β = −0.21, p = .05). Perspectives for future research on implicit motives and children's CR to psychosocial stress are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailThe coronavirus (COVID‐19) fatality risk perception of US adult residents in March and April 2020
Niepel, Christoph UL; Kranz, Dirk; Borgonovi, Francesca et al

in British Journal of Health Psychology (2020)

The study compares empirical results on the coronavirus SARS‐CoV‐2 (causing COVID‐19) fatality risk perception of US adult residents stratified for age, gender, and race in mid‐March 2020 (N1 = 1,182) and ... [more ▼]

The study compares empirical results on the coronavirus SARS‐CoV‐2 (causing COVID‐19) fatality risk perception of US adult residents stratified for age, gender, and race in mid‐March 2020 (N1 = 1,182) and mid‐April 2020 (N2 = 953). While the fatality risk perception has increased from March 2020 to April 2020, our findings suggest that many US adult residents severely underestimated their absolute and relative fatality risk (i.e., differentiated for subgroups defined by pre‐existing medical conditions and age) at both time points compared to current epidemiological figures. These results are worrying because risk perception, as our study indicates, relates to actual or intended health‐protective behaviour that can reduce SARS‐CoV‐2 transmission rates. [less ▲]

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See detailData driven discovery of cyber physical systems
Yuan, Ye; Tang, Xiuchuan; Zhou, Wei et al

in Nature Communications (2019)

Cyber-physical systems embed software into the physical world. They appear in a wide range of applications such as smart grids, robotics, and intelligent manufacturing. Cyber-physical systems have proved ... [more ▼]

Cyber-physical systems embed software into the physical world. They appear in a wide range of applications such as smart grids, robotics, and intelligent manufacturing. Cyber-physical systems have proved resistant to modeling due to their intrinsic complexity arising from the combination of physical and cyber components and the interaction between them. This study proposes a general framework for discovering cyber-physical systems directly from data. The framework involves the identification of physical systems as well as the inference of transition logics. It has been applied successfully to a number of real-world examples. The novel framework seeks to understand the underlying mechanism of cyber-physical systems as well as make predictions concerning their state trajectories based on the discovered models. Such information has been proven essential for the assessment of the performance of cyber- physical systems; it can potentially help debug in the implementation procedure and guide the redesign to achieve the required performance. [less ▲]

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See detailIncreasing DG Integration Level by Network Configuration Subset Analysis
Torchyan, Khachatur UL; Sachau, Juergen UL

in Proceedings of the International Conference on Smart Energy Systems and Technologies, SEST 2019 (2019, September 26)

With the increasing number of photovoltaic (PV) distributed generations (DG) being installed on the medium-voltage (MV) level and the fluctuations of the generation and loads, the supply security of the ... [more ▼]

With the increasing number of photovoltaic (PV) distributed generations (DG) being installed on the medium-voltage (MV) level and the fluctuations of the generation and loads, the supply security of the grid requires closer attention. Grid-wide voltage profile, overloading of substation transformers and overloading of lines may become bottlenecks for large-scale integration of PV plants. Here, measures to avoid cost-intensive network reinforcement are of interest. In this paper, analysis of grid reconfiguration and its impact on hosting capacity (HC) and grid operation are studied. Additionally, several PV control scenarios are considered according to current grid codes and grid code enhancement suggestions are made. The study is performed on a 43-bus 20 kV MV network model representative of Luxembourg's grid structure. The modeling, reconfiguration, HC calculation and analysis are done using Pandapower software. The results indicate that by proper reconfiguration of the network the HC can be increased approximately four times compared to the worst configuration and the grid code improvement can further increase the HC by another 15%, depending on the configuration. [less ▲]

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See detailQuid pro quo: Führt milde Benotung zu besseren Ergebnissen bei der Lehrveranstaltungsevaluation?
Emslander, Valentin UL

in Ellwart, Thomas; Peiffer, Henrike (Eds.) Forschungspakete aus dem Seminarraum (2019)

See download: https://www.uni-trier.de/fileadmin/fb1/prof/PSY/WIP/Sonstiges/Forschungspakete/1901_Forschungspaket.pdf !!! In Aus-, Fort- und Weiterbildungen in Hochschule und Beruf werden berufsrelevante ... [more ▼]

See download: https://www.uni-trier.de/fileadmin/fb1/prof/PSY/WIP/Sonstiges/Forschungspakete/1901_Forschungspaket.pdf !!! In Aus-, Fort- und Weiterbildungen in Hochschule und Beruf werden berufsrelevante Qualifikationen gelehrt. Um die Qualität entsprechender Lehrveranstaltungen zu sichern, führen Bildungsstätten Lehrveranstaltungsevaluationen (LVE) durch. Positive Ergebnisse bei diesen LVE stellen nicht nur ein Maß für die Qualitätssicherung der Lehre dar, sondern dienen auch als Aushängeschild für die Bildungsstätten und als Feedbackinstrument für die Lehrenden. Es stellt sich jedoch die Frage, ob Lehrende durch die Vergabe zu guter/milder Noten/Bewertungen die Evaluationsergebnisse der eigenen Lehrveranstaltung positiv beeinflussen können und es somit zu einer Verzerrung in den Evaluationsergebnissen kommt. Dies kann die Gültigkeit von LVE und deren Nutzen als aussagekräftiges Feedbackinstrument einschränken. Emslander, V. (2019). Quid pro quo: Führt milde Benotung zu besseren Ergebnissen bei der Lehrveranstaltungsevaluation? [Quid pro quo: Does grading leniency lead to better results in the course evaluation?] In T. Ellwart & H. Peiffer (Hrsg.) Forschungspakete aus dem Seminarraum, (01/2019), Download: https://www.uni-trier.de/index.php?id=64878 [less ▲]

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See detailIntegrating sustainability risks - Implications of the ESMA consultation paper on the integration of sustainability risks and factors
Emrick-Schmitz, Elena Ashley UL; Ammar, Ashraf

E-print/Working paper (2019)

The private equity sector has been increasingly adopting responsible investment practices, with investors being the initial driving force. According to the Global private equity survey conducted by PwC in ... [more ▼]

The private equity sector has been increasingly adopting responsible investment practices, with investors being the initial driving force. According to the Global private equity survey conducted by PwC in 2017, 60% of all private equity firms questioned (111 general partners from 22 countries) stated that they have incorporated ESG (Environmental, Social and Governance) factors within their initial screening process. 44% of them aim to align their sustainability efforts to the UN Sustainable Development Goals. [less ▲]

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See detailSozialpsychologische Mechanismen im AfD-Wahlprogramm erkennen: Ein Workshop gegen den Rechts-Populismus
Emslander, Valentin UL; Leistikow, Helen; Bolli, Swantje

in Walther, Eva; Isemann, Simon D. (Eds.) Die AfD – psychologisch betrachtet (2019)

Seit ihrer Gründung zieht die Partei Alternative für Deutschland eine immer größere Wählerschaft an. Sie stellt sich selbst als Protestpartei dar, die für die wahren Bedürfnisse der Bürger*innen eintrete ... [more ▼]

Seit ihrer Gründung zieht die Partei Alternative für Deutschland eine immer größere Wählerschaft an. Sie stellt sich selbst als Protestpartei dar, die für die wahren Bedürfnisse der Bürger*innen eintrete und diese gegen das Establishment und Minderheiten verteidige. Doch was steht hinter den rechtspopulistischen Inhalten, die die Partei vermittelt? Welche Strategien verwendet die AfD um Bürger*innen anzuziehen? Und wie kann man sich diesen erwehren und auch andere zum reflektierten Umgang mit den Parteiinhalten bewegen? Um diese Fragen zu beantworten, wird in diesem Kapitel nach einer kurzen Einleitung zum Thema Populismus ein Workshop vorgestellt, der Menschen für die sozialpsychologischen Mechanismen, die im Wahlprogramm der Alternative für Deutschland wirken, sensibilisieren soll. [less ▲]

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See detailWhat is ESG and why should businesses care?
Emrick-Schmitz, Elena Ashley UL

Speeches/Talks (2018)

Sustainable or responsible investing, you’ve probably heard of it. If you haven’t yet, you will. Because the numerous cases of data breaches, employee frauds or companies finding themselves in supply ... [more ▼]

Sustainable or responsible investing, you’ve probably heard of it. If you haven’t yet, you will. Because the numerous cases of data breaches, employee frauds or companies finding themselves in supply chain or emission control scandals are all examples of businesses making poor ESG or environmental, social and governance (ESG) decisions. [less ▲]

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See detailRelationship satisfaction: Establishing measurement and structural invariance across men with gay and straight identity
Emslander, Valentin UL; Niepel, Christoph UL; Kranz, Dirk et al

Poster (2017, September)

The Relationship Assessment Scale (RAS; Hendrick, 1988) is a widely employed, seven-item measure of relationship satisfaction. However, research on its measurement invariance across people differing in ... [more ▼]

The Relationship Assessment Scale (RAS; Hendrick, 1988) is a widely employed, seven-item measure of relationship satisfaction. However, research on its measurement invariance across people differing in their sexual orientation identity has yet to be conducted. Consequently, it is still an open question whether the RAS can be used for comparative research across gay and straight people. This study starts filling this gap in examining RAS' measurement invariance across gay and straight men. To this end, we drew on a sample of 644 German men (half gay/straight), who responded to the German-version RAS (Hassebrauck, 1991), which has been extensively validated and found to be equivalent to its English counterpart. A stepwise multigroup confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine configural, metric, and scalar invariance as well as the structural invariance of latent factor variances and means across groups. Configural, metric, and partial scalar measurement invariance (by freeing one item intercept) could be established, indicating that the RAS enables comparative research targeting variances and means. Further, structural invariance testing revealed non-invariant variances but invariant latent means across groups, indicating that gay and straight men's reported relationship satisfaction is equally high albeit differently distributed. [less ▲]

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See detailMicrofinance within the theoretical framework of Sustainable Development – A blessing and a curse
Emrick-Schmitz, Elena Ashley UL

Bachelor/master dissertation (2016)

According to the agenda of the Sustainable Development Goals developed by the United Nations, poverty is one of the most significant issues worldwide. Microfinance has emerged in a phenomenal hype as a ... [more ▼]

According to the agenda of the Sustainable Development Goals developed by the United Nations, poverty is one of the most significant issues worldwide. Microfinance has emerged in a phenomenal hype as a panacea for alleviating poverty and empowering the disempowered. Poor people without access to financial services were offered microcredits in order to lift them out of poverty. This approach has been used for over 30 years now and this extended essay raises the question whether the practices and principles of microfinance as used today have strayed away from the original approach, thus from the framework of Sustainable Development. Consequently, the following question arises: Can an inclusive framework of Sustainable Development provide a sound justification for the practices and principles of microfinance as applied today? With growing commercialization of microfinance and hence, incorporation into the conventional financial sector, a third research question must be asked, namely whether the financial sector itself is inclusive and aligns with the framework of Sustainable Development as outlined. Within this essay, it is revealed that microfinance is on a path of divergence from its initial goals and objectives and thereby focuses more and more on economic benefits, which goes against the concept of Sustainable Development considering the interlinkage of economic, social and environmental aspects. In the same way, the financial system, which microfinance seems to align ever more closely with, features some controversies which essentially detach the financial sector from a Sustainable Development framework. This study comes to the conclusion that microfinance has emerged as an alternative approach, but has been changed by and incorporated into the neoliberal system in the same way as the financial system. Essentially, more research is needed on the effectiveness of microfinance in order to make use of it as one of many interventions to meet the global challenges of Sustainable Development. [less ▲]

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